WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

Pin-Chih Wang

2014-09-01

2

Asteroids prospective energy and material resources  

CERN Document Server

The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

2013-01-01

3

Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

2013-11-01

4

Space resources. Volume 3: Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered.

Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

1992-01-01

5

Material Resources Management at Industrial Enterprise ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the author considered the categorical apparatus of materials management at the industrial enterprise, generalized definition of «material resources», proposed a definition of « materials management », and considered the material management system at the industrial enterprise.?????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????, ????????? ??????????? «???????????? ???????», ?????????? ??????????? «?????????? ????????????? ?????????», ? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????.

Krokhmal Svetlana S.

2012-10-01

6

Moon. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

2012-07-01

7

Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources  

CERN Document Server

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

2012-01-01

8

Study on Insulating Material by Renewable Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Under circumstances such as global warming caused by carbon dioxide and other green house gas and crisis of depletion of fossil resources, recyclable resources such as biomass have captured the world's attention as reproducible resources alternative to petroleum. Therefore the technologies such to manufacture chemicals from recyclable resources have been developed for the achievement of measures for controlling global warming and the low carbon society. Recently, the bioplastic such as polylactic resin is applied to the home appliances and the automobile interior part as substitution of general-purpose plastic Moreover, the insulation oil from the vegetable oil has been put to practical use. The application of recyclable resources is extending in an electric field. In this paper, we introduce the characteristic and the problem of the insulating material made from recyclable resources in the field of the solid insulation.

Kurata, Yasuyuki; Kurosumi, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keita

9

PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

A. Alpatov

2012-02-01

10

Gallium nitride and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first International Symposium on Gallium Nitride and related materials was held on November 27--December 1, 1995, in Boston, Massachusetts, US. The symposium reflected the large amount of work that has taken place since the field exploded about two years ago with the announcement of commercial blue light emitting devices. The topics covered crystal growth, molecular beam growth techniques, chemical vapor deposition, alloys and novel growth techniques, structural properties, electronic properties, optical properties, point defects, hydrogen, etching and other material processes, surfaces and metal contacts, and devices. These proceedings represent the current state of understanding in the field, reflecting about 75 percent of the work presented at the symposium. One hundred and twenty eight papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

11

Today's waste materials are tomorrow's resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy raw materials recoverable in reprocessing and the fission products separated in the process become nuclear waste, if disposed of directly, whose conditioning and disposal creates additional difficulties. Adding value by recycling uranium and plutonium as fuel in light water reactors is an example already demonstrating in international practice how waste can be turned into valuable resources. Of course, the economics of the case must be examined as well, namely the cost difference between fresh fuel and reprocessed fuel. On the other hand, the advantage must be included which arises from the separation of longlived plutonium from the mix to be disposed of as real waste. In a similar way this applies to fission products, whose extraction from spent nuclear fuel can represent a considerable added value. Some of these fission products are stable elements of high value, short-range radiation sources, high-intensity emitters, or monochromatic radiation sources. In many cases, further use does not even require a complete separation of individual nuclides. Among the large number of nuclides there are only three whose separation shortly after the fuel elements have been unloaded would be reasonable. For practical reasons, the utilization of nuclides will hardly be feasible earlier than twenty years after the spent fuel will have been unloaded from the reactor. Numerous examples document the high potential value of fission products. (orig.)oducts. (orig.)

12

INVESTIGATION OF REPRODUCTION OF MATERIAL FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The investigation of  the factors causing a monetary self reproduction of material costs of  an enter-prise is conducted. Differentiated analysis of the components of material resources reproduction is carried out.

?.?. ?????

2011-12-01

13

Resource Materials on the Middle East.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated bibliography is intended for all who want to learn more about the Middle East--the land, the people, and the communities of ancient and modern times. The document is specifically designed to enrich religion and social studies programs in elementary and middle schools. The types of resources listed are: resource directories,…

Catholic Near East Welfare Association, New York, NY.

14

Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996), and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992) was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The result...

Cheng, Kevin H. C.

2009-01-01

15

Exhaustible resources and secondary materials. A macroeconomic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we have developed an endogenous growth model to deal with exhaustible resources and secondary materials together, under the assumptions that these two inputs are, or are not, technologically perfect substitutes of each other, in order to compare the results obtained under both hypotheses. We highlight the implication of these two assumptions on the rate of growth of total output and upon the flow of exhaustible resources extracted. There are also some other interesting findings related to the spill-over on welfare of the waste recycling process, and the dynamics of shadow prices of both inputs considered. Finally, some implications on Hotelling's rule also emerge in our analytical framework. (author)

Di Vita, Giuseppe [Faculty of Law, University of Catania, 95124 Catania (Italy)

2007-06-15

16

Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996, and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992 was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The results show that people who have a high level of neuroticism handle their interpersonal relationships in a reflective manner by concealing their own opinions and focusing on the arguments of other people. The same people prefer to communicate by “mirroring” other people's utterances, irrespective of the role that was given to them in the study. The findings add to the body of knowledge on interpersonal dimensions and their relations with personality.

Kevin H. C. Cheng

2009-02-01

17

Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

Caldwell, Lynton K.

1984-04-01

18

Encyclopedia of smart materials [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart materials, materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions.

19

Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

20

Metallurgy and Materials Case Studies: Teaching and Learning Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This University of Birmingham (U.K.) website provides a wealth of resources for both the college educator and student using a case-based approach to materials science. The site provides background information on the use of case studies in teaching, a series of case studies in materials, broadly defined, information on group learning and how to facilitate group learning, and assessment.

2013-01-03

 
 
 
 
21

Relating Solar Resource Variability to Cloud Type  

Science.gov (United States)

Power production from renewable energy (RE) resources is rapidly increasing. Generation of renewable energy is quite variable since the solar and wind resources that form the inputs are, themselves, inherently variable. There is thus a need to understand the impact of renewable generation on the transmission grid. Such studies require estimates of high temporal and spatial resolution power output under various scenarios, which can be created from corresponding solar resource data. Satellite-based solar resource estimates are the best source of long-term solar irradiance data for the typically large areas covered by transmission studies. As satellite-based resource datasets are generally available at lower temporal and spatial resolution than required, there is, in turn, a need to downscale these resource data. Downscaling in both space and time requires information about solar irradiance variability, which is primarily a function of cloud types and properties. In this study, we analyze the relationship between solar resource variability and satellite-based cloud properties. One-minute resolution surface irradiance data were obtained from a number of stations operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) and Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) networks as well as from NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Individual sites were selected so that a range of meteorological conditions would be represented. Cloud information at a nominal 4 km resolution and half hour intervals was derived from NOAA's Geostationary Operation Environmental Satellite (GOES) series of satellites. Cloud class information from the GOES data set was then used to select and composite irradiance data from the measurement sites. The irradiance variability for each cloud classification was characterized using general statistics of the fluxes themselves and their variability in time, as represented by ramps computed for time scales from 10 s to 0.5 hr. The statistical relationships derived using this method will be presented, comparing and contrasting the statistics computed for the different cloud types. The implications for downscaling irradiances from satellites or forecast models will also be discussed.

Hinkelman, L. M.; Sengupta, M.

2012-12-01

22

Catalysis by ceria and related materials  

CERN Document Server

This book follows the 2002 edition of Catalysis by Ceria and Related Materials, which was the first book entirely devoted to ceria and its catalytic properties. In the ten years since the first edition a massive amount of work has been carried out in the field, and ceria has gained a prominent position in catalysis as one of the most valuable material for several applications. This second edition covers fundamental and applied aspects of the latest advances in ceria-based materials with a special focus on structural, redox and catalytic features. Special emphasis is given to nano-engineered an

Trovarelli, Alessandro

2013-01-01

23

Revisiting Rebound Effects from Material Resource Use. Indications for Germany Considering Social Heterogeneity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the original investigation by William Stanley Jevons, compensations of energy savings due to improved energy efficiency are mostly analyzed by providing energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. In support of a sustainable resource management, this paper analyzes so-called rebound effects based on resource use. Material flows and associated expenditures by households allow for calculating resource intensities and marginal propensities to consume. Marginal propensities to consume are estimated from data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP in order to account for indirect rebound effects for food, housing and mobility. Resource intensities are estimated in terms of total material requirements per household final consumption expenditures along the Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (COICOP. Eventually, rebound effects are indicated on the basis of published saving scenarios in resource and energy demand for Germany. In sum, compensations due to rebound effects are lowest for food while the highest compensations are induced for mobility. This is foremost the result of a relatively high resource intensity of food and a relatively low resource intensity in mobility. Findings are provided by giving various propensity scenarios in order to cope with income differences in Germany. The author concludes that policies on resource conservation need to reconsider rebound effects under the aspect of social heterogeneity.

Johannes Buhl

2014-02-01

24

Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

25

Re-Reading Diotima: Resources for a Relational Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers a range of responses to Plato's "Symposium," paying particular attention to Diotima's speech on eros and philosophy. It argues that Diotima's teachings contain resources for a relational pedagogy, but that these resources come more sharply into focus when Plato's text is read through the lens of…

Jones, Rachel

2014-01-01

26

ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

Judd, M. D.

1994-01-01

27

Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

2013-01-01

28

The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Related to Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work assesses some of the ways in which TK related to genetic resources is protected. The first part addresses the use of patents and their shortcomings in protecting this type of knowledge. To compensate for these weaknesses, the second section of this work argues for the inclusion of sui generis elements into patent law. With regard to TK related to genetic resources, the introduction of procedural safeguards into the patent application procedure would provide an effective model of protection. The final part of this work will address the international dimension of TK protection.

Marko Berglund

2005-06-01

29

Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage). PMID:17826971

Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

2008-01-01

30

Coal: a resource for the production of carbon materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past, as now, the overwhelming use for coal has been for the generation of heat and power. At the same time, coal is an important resource for the production of chemicals and materials. During the Industrial Revolution, coal products and by-products provided the raw materials for the birth and growth of the chemical process industry. Today, this industry has a vastly reduced dependence upon coal due to its displacement by petroleum and natural gas. A contributory factor has been a reduction in the demand for metallurgical coke, due to a decline of the steel industry coupled with improvements in steel-making technology that have reduced the amount of coke required to produce pig iron. This paper is concerned with the use of coal to produce carbon materials. Following some general considerations, the focus is directed to the synthesis of activated carbons, dealing first with the current status of their production and utilization, and then with novel materials that have the potential to meet future needs. (author). refs.

Derbyshire, F; Jagtoyen, M; Kimber, G. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

1997-04-01

31

Decision making model for the recovery of useful material resources from wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States, many of the material resources necessary for energy production are imported. Strategic stockpiling of these resources has been a well-known method for reducing the economic and productivity impact of supply interruption in case of emergency. Another viable option is the recovery of valuable materials and recycle of useful products from wastes generated in energy production and industrial processing. The technical feasibility for recovery and recycle, including decontamination of nuclear-related materials, has been proven and demonstrated. The economic feasibility would depend on both the resale and strategic values of the material, the saving from reusing rather than disposing of the material, the reclamation cost, and other factors that may influence the incentive for recovery and recycle. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to develop a model to identify the economic and other incentives for the reclamation of useful material resources. Using available data to quantify factors such as strategic and resale values, reclamation cost and disposal cost saving, this model calculates the incentive value consisting of the above factors and selects the appropriate reclamation option. Because this model is empirical, there are limitations to its application. However, within the boundary where the model has been tested, it can be a useful tool for the decision maker to evaluate the economic feasibility of reclamationity of reclamation

32

Resource Letter EMAA-1: Educational Materials in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a list of selected articles on astronomy instruction at high school, college, and graduate levels, especially those for college nonscience majors. Besides teaching materials and aids, related societies, organizations, planetariums, and periodicals are incorporated as entries of primary sources. (CC)

Berendzen, Richard; DeVorkin, David

1973-01-01

33

MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

2010-12-13

34

Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

35

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Resources/Materials for Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has created this website to bring together a range of educational materials for teachers. Given their wonderful work in oceanography and related fields, it makes sense that they have dozens of fact sheets, worksheets, classroom modules, and outreach projects to share. The materials are divided into six areas including Information Packets, Ocean Explorer Magazine, Ocean Instruments, and Citizen Science Projects. Within Ocean Instruments visitors can explore how a wide range of specialized ocean research instruments work, including gravity corers, marine magnetometers, and a towed camera system. Moving on, the Ocean Explorer section contains fascinating articles designed for young people. The pieces cover remote-sensing, plate tectonics, and wave motion. Make sure to check out the Citizen Science Projects as well, which covers sites created in partnership with a range of groups, including Zooniverse and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

36

Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

2014-07-01

37

Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

38

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - resources Cleft palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - ...

39

Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

Rosati, A.

2012-12-01

40

[Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].  

Science.gov (United States)

The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization. PMID:24791476

Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Creating e-learning material with optimal utilization of limited resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka is a country with comparatively high standards of healthcare, but a poor distribution of resources. While gaining access to expert trainers is relatively easy in the western province, the same cannot be said of regions like the eastern and north central provinces.With access to broadband crossing all regional and geographic boundaries and an 84% penetration rate for mobile phones, internet access is becoming the one resource that is uniformly distributed across the island. An eLearning solution therefore is the only practical means to ensure that training resources are available to everyone, anytime, anywhere in the island.The paper proposes a hosted eLearning solution incorporating video based lessons supplemented by text, animations and voiceovers to provide postgraduate level training for medical personnel. The process of creating training material will be non intrusive and not require any additional time or expensive resources as it will be primarily based on capturing of actual cases including consultations, surgery and other day to day activities as videos. A simple webcam attached to a laptop or even a relatively high resolution mobile phone with sufficient storage capacity is all that is required to capture the core training content.Assembly of the training course using these videos can be done by eLearning domain specialists, along with instructional design and preparation of rich content such as animations; only the knowledge and information needs to be provided by subject matter experts.The proposed approach ensures that the most valuable resource consumed in this process, the time of the expert practitioner, is used optimally and in a manner that has the least impact on his or her primary responsibility, that of providing care to patients.

Channa Abeyweera Gunawardena

2012-04-01

42

Material Resource Considerations for Ex Situ Carbon Sequestration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions of this report are: (1) There are enough ultramafic resources to sequester all the CO{sub 2} produced by coal-fired powerplants in the US; (2) Sequestering all the CO{sub 2} would require a significant increase in the mining of ultramafic minerals; (3) The increased mining will have an environmental cost; (4) Some man made by product minerals could contribute to CO{sub 2} sequestration although many of these resources are small; and (5) It may be possible in some cases to sequester CO{sub 2} and eliminate hazardous waste in the same ex situ process.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, Gilbert E.

2005-05-01

43

Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources  

Science.gov (United States)

An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

2013-05-01

44

Causality relations for materials with strong artificial optical chirality  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate that the fundamental causality principle being applied to strongly chiral artificial materials yields the generalized Kramers-Kronig relations for the observables -- circular dichroism and optical activity. The relations include the Blaschke terms determined by material-specific features - the zeros of transmission amplitude on the complex frequency plane. By the example of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in silver films we show that the causality relations can be used not only for a precise verification of experimental data but also for resolving the positions of material anomalies and resonances and quantifying the degree of their chiral splitting.

Gorkunov, M V; Ezhov, A A; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y

2014-01-01

45

Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources  

CERN Document Server

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

Bollinghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

46

Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

McLean, Michelle

2001-01-01

47

Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)  

Science.gov (United States)

The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

Kotin, A. D.

1978-01-01

48

Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

Meinzinger, Franziska

2010-07-01

49

Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials  

CERN Document Server

Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

Smallwood, Carol

2012-01-01

50

Permittivity and permeability measurements methods for particle accelerator related materials  

CERN Document Server

For the special requirements related to particle accelerators, knowledge of the different material parameters of dielectrics and other materials are needed in order to carry out simulations during the design process of accelerator components. This includes also properties of magnetically biased ferrites of which usually little information is available about material characteristics, especially in magnetic bias fields. Several methods of measurement are discussed and compared of which some require delicate sample preparation whereas others can work with unmodified material shapes that makes those methods also suited for acceptance checks on incoming materials delivered by industry. Applications include characterization of different materials, as absorbers in which dielectric losses play an increasing role, as well as low frequency measurements on ferrites that are used for tunable cavities. We present results obtained from both broadband and resonant measurements on different materials determined in the same s...

Vollinger, C; Jensen, E

2014-01-01

51

Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.2  

CERN Document Server

Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume Two focuses on devices and nanostructures created from ZnO and similar materials. The book

Feng, Zhe Chuan

2012-01-01

52

Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.1  

CERN Document Server

Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume One presents fundamental knowledge on ZnO-based materials and technologies. It covers the b

Feng, Zhe Chuan

2012-01-01

53

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO2 and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of 10B2O3 processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van dter overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO2 and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

54

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

2012-07-01

55

Raw materials: Heading for a global resource crunch?  

... The minerals industry group IMA Europe says mineral rocks such as calcium carbonates, dolomite, borates, diatomite, kaolin, plastic clays, bentonite, feldspar, silica and talc are 'of fundamental strategic importance' to EU industry. The automobile, aerospace, telecoms and construction sector for example all rely on industrial minerals that have a wide range of applications, including paint, electronics, metal casting and foundry, says IMA Europe.... Industrial minerals are usually transformed into everyday goods, from glass and ceramics (up to 99% of IM) to paper (up to 30% of talc, bentonite, kaolin and calcium carbonate). But, unlike other mining sectors, non-metallic extractive industries and their markets are largely self-sufficient, says IMA Europe. It therefore warns that regulating the use of natural resources may lead to serious unwanted side effects, such ...

56

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

57

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

1993-09-01

58

Analysis of material, social, and moral governance in natural resource management in southern Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In southern Namibia ineffective enforcement contributes to natural resource degradation. We analyse the root causes of ineffective enforcement applying diverse methods. In the first step we develop a conceptual framework distinguishing between moral, social, and material enforcement. In the second step we analyse water and rangeland management regulations through the filter of our conceptual framework. In the third step we conduct economic experiments in order to gain additional insights into the characteristics of selected elements of the framework. We observe that social enforcement has the strongest impact on encouraging cooperative behaviour. Water governance in our cases makes more direct use of social enforcement, which is one factor contributing to its relative success compared to rangeland governance. We draw the general conclusion that existing moral and social norms should be considered as starting points for the establishment of formal rules because norms are more costly to establish but cheaper to apply.

Thomas Falk

2012-08-01

59

Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials Research  

CERN Document Server

This is the first one-volume work to provide a thorough and comprehensive description of the physical background, rigorous theory and applications of Kramers-Kronig relations in the fields of linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Currently, Kramers-Kronig relations have become basic tools in the investigation of the optical properties of materials. A brief presentation of the related data-retrieval technique, the maximum entropy method, is also given. The contents and style potentially make this a standard text for physicists, chemists and engineers interested in optical-materials research and development.

Lucarini, Valerio; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Vartiainen, Erik M

2005-01-01

60

Material relation to assess the crashworthiness of ship structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A ship collision accident can result in severe environmental damage and loss of life. Therefore the non-linear finite element method with shell elements is used to assess the crashworthiness of ship steel structures through collision simulations. However, a non-linear finite element-based benchmark revealed inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results of collision analysis using current material relations and failure criteria. To overcome these problems in this thesis, the steel material's...

Ehlers, So?ren

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials  

CERN Document Server

The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

2014-01-01

62

Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study looks critically at the importance and significance of effective management of the most viable factors of production in the organisation-human resource or human capital as well as their interaction with the entrepreneurials in the capitalist economy. Towards the end, solutions were profered to the incessant distruption of production as a result of strike and or lock out to have a harmonious relationship between the workforce and the employer.

Olatunji Eniola Sule

2013-03-01

63

Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study looks critically at the importance and significance of effective management of the most viable factors of production in the organisation-human resource or human capital as well as their interaction with the entrepreneurials in the capitalist economy. Towards the end, solutions were profered to the incessant distruption of production as a result of strike and or lock out to have a harmonious relationship between the workforce and the employer.

Olatunji Eniola Sule

2013-01-01

64

Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

65

Double trouble at high density: cross-level test of resource-related adaptive plasticity and crowding-related fitness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms behind the regulation of population size. Such understanding is important for assessment, management and the conservation of populations and thereby biodiversity in ecosystems. PMID:24626228

Gergs, André; Preuss, Thomas G; Palmqvist, Annemette

2014-01-01

66

Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

67

CORRE: A Framework for Evaluating and Transforming Teaching Materials into Open Educational Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Open education resources (OER) are taking centre-stage in many higher educational institutions globally, driven by the need to raise institutional profiles, improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning and achieve universal access to education. Many academics attracted to the idea of turning teaching materials into OER have, however, found…

Nikoi, Samuel K.; Rowlett, Tania; Armellini, Alejandro; Witthaus, Gabi

2011-01-01

68

Standard Terminology Relating to Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures  

CERN Document Server

1.1 These definitions cover generic optical terms which appear in one of more standards relating to aerospace transparent materials and enclosures. 1.2 The definitions cover, in most cases, special meanings used in the transparency industry. No attempt has been made to include common meanings of the same terms as used outside of the transparency industry. 1.3 Definitions included have, in general, been approved as standard.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01

69

An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

70

Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4 Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7 from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air and water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 1611 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop – velocity relations for air 13 flow in 36 different Leca® particle size fractions (including the 14 used for water flow). The 14 measurements showed that it is indeed possible to predict the pressure drop – velocity relationship for 15 water flow from the corresponding relationship for air flow not only for a given particle size fraction 16 but also across different particle size fractions.

Andreasen, Rune RØjgaard; Canga, Eriona

2013-01-01

71

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

72

Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a literature review. The results show that buying behavior is much less rational than has been presumed. For example, it is revealed that a consultant’s personal relationships to customers can often compensate for the consultant’s lack of knowledge. This suggests that consultants’ developing long-term personal relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another importantresult that emerged from the study is customers’ specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services.

Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Hollensen, Svend

2013-01-01

73

Geometrical and topological aspects of graphene and related materials  

CERN Document Server

Graphene, a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms, provides a new and unexpected bridge between low and high-energy physics. The field has evolved very fast and very good reviews are already available in the literature. Graphene constitutes a condensed matter realization of lower dimensional quantum field theory models that were proposed to confront important -- still unresolved -- puzzles of the area: Chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The new materials named topological insulators, closely related to graphene, are physical realizations of topological field theory. This article reviews some of these topics with the aim of bridging the gap and making these condensed matter issues accessible to high energy readers. The electronic interactions in the monolayer are analyzed with special emphasis on the recent experimental confirmation of some theoretical predictions. The issue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the model materials is also reviewed. Finally we give an extensive descrip...

Cortijo, Alberto; Vozmediano, Maria A H

2011-01-01

74

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

75

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

76

Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

77

Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

2013-01-01

78

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model Law exists regionally to provide frameworks for how these resources are to be accessed and how the benefits obtained from their utilization should be allocated. As a signatory to the CBD, Ethiopia issued its ABS law in 2006. Ethiopia has signed material transfer agreements on teff (gluten free and nutritious and vernonia (the green chemical plant of the 21st Century with two European-based companies. This article seeks to interpret and discuss the terms of the agreements on teff and vernonia. Furthermore, it analyzes the implications of the terms of the agreement for the realization of the objective of the CBD (e.g. access, benefit sharing and conservation.

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-11-01

79

Evidence-based dentistry as it relates to dental materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is reviewed in depth to underscore the limitations for evidence-based dental materials information that exist at this time. Anecdotal estimates of evidence for dental practice are in the range of 8 percent to 10 percent. While the process of evaluating the literature base for dental evidence began 20 years ago, it was not practical to implement it until high-speed wireless connections, open access to journals, and omnipresent connections via smart phones became a reality. EBD includes five stages of information collection and analysis, starting with a careful definition of a clinical question using the PICO(T) approach. Clinical evidence in randomized control trials is considered the best. Clinical trial perspectives (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) and outcome designs (RCTs, SCTs, CCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies) are quite varied. Aggregation techniques (including meta-analyses) allow meaningful combinations of clinical data from trials with similar designs but with fewer rigors. Appraisals attempt to assess the entire evidence base without bias and answer clinical questions. Varying intensities to these approaches, Cochrane Collaboration, ADA-EBD Library, UTHSCSA CATs Library, are used to answer questions. Dental materials evidence from clinical trials is infrequent, short-term, and often not compliant with current guidelines (registration, CONSORT, PRISMA). Reports in current evidence libraries indicate less than 5 percent of evidence is related to restorative dental materials. PMID:24571523

Bayne, Stephen C; Fitzgerald, Mark

2014-01-01

80

Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  This paper seeks to contribute to the development of socio-aesthetics by analysing the notion of model established in the discourse of relational art--that is of course with special reference to French art critic Nicolas Bourriad's theoretical writings. His seminal book, Relational Aesthetics (RA), is crucial for the understanding of contemporary, socially and politically oriented fine art of the mid-1990 and onwards and its challenge of established aesthetic conceptions within art as well as theory. The concept of model is a reoccurring figure in RA and connects to a widespread "lab" (laboratory) metaphor where social reality is staged and facilitated in order to document and present its development. At the same time however, the notion of model is difficult to dissociate from Bourriaud's materialism which draws on such different figures as the late Althusser, Lucretius, and Deleuze and which is tied up with a principle of immanence which is crucial for the understanding of Bourriaud's and many of his related artists' sense of utopia and avant-garde. Setting off from an analysis of the concept of model in RA, I would like to demonstrate the relationship between relational form, model, and utopia, and how this surprisingly lead to an ideal yet immanent conception of art. To contextualise and exemplify my analysis, I shall draw on my collaboration-based study of art collective Superflex as well as Bourriaud's later writings on post-production and alter-modernism.

Degn Johansson, Troels

 
 
 
 
81

EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

Butler, Graham

2014-01-01

82

Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

Dean Wesley R

2012-05-01

83

Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

John P. Selegue

2011-11-17

84

Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs re

Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

2008-01-31

85

Recent materials problems relating to catastrophic balloon failures  

Science.gov (United States)

Balloons fabricated of thin polyethylene materials have provided relatively inexpensive and reliable scientific research platforms for approximately three decades. Reliability of the modern day balloon, as launched by the U.S.A. National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF), has been approximately 85%. Recent balloon failures, coupled with an increased occurrence of catastrophic failures, created grave concern over the integrity of the present balloon inventory of the U.S.A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). An investigative team was established by NASA to review the circumstances surrounding the catastrophic balloon failures, determine the cause and to make recommendations to correct the problem and to prevent its reoccurrence. The most probable cause of failure as determined by the investigation was the polyethylene balloon film, although the film had passed the established standard quality control measures of the film manufacturer. The approach, findings, and conclusions of the investigation are presented along with planned procedures to assure future quality balloon film for NASA balloons.

Smith, I. S.

86

Resources  

...Resources Institute of Physics This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. To ... IOP Institute of Physics For physics bull; For physicists bull; For all Home News About us Contact us Calendar MyIOP Search ...Careers Policy Resources You are here Education I am new to teaching physics Resources I am new to teaching physics Student teachers ...Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) Established teachers who are new to teaching physics Resources Blogs Events Resources Teaching Supporting Physics Teachers (SPT)A valuable ...

87

Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

2012-10-01

88

Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

Mays, Jimmy W. (Knoxville, TN); Deng, Suxiang (Knoxville, TN); Mauritz, Kenneth A. (Hattiesburg, MS); Hassan, Mohammad K. (Hattiesburg, MS); Gido, Samuel P. (Hadley, MA)

2011-11-22

89

Resource use in European countries: An estimate of materials and waste streams in the community, including imports and exports using the instrument of material flow analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective of this study is to support the development of a Thematic Strategy for Sustainable Use and Management of Resources through the provision of background information, in particular an estimate of materials and waste streams in the Community, including imports and exports (Article 8 a 6th EAP) using the method of material flow accounting. It further presents first ideas on how the resource use pattern of the EU can be assessed with regards to priority setting for possible policy measure...

Moll, Stephan; Bringezu, Stefan; Schu?tz, Helmut

2005-01-01

90

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2013-08-01

91

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica

2013-01-01

92

Relational Resources Management as Source of Company?s Innovativeness and Competitive Advantage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There exist various resources which an enterprise can use in order to become more innovative and achieve competitive advantage on the market. Relational resources are definitely one of them, for instance enabling a company to make its customers more loyal or to attract new purchasers and other stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a study in which 200 Polish enterprises were asked about what relational resources they used and how frequently. Analysing the results, the authors of the study observed various interesting relationships between the use of relational resources and numerous factors such as the company’s development stage, ownership form, turnover, scope of activity and others. The general conclusion drawn is that more and more Polish enterprises tend to use and manage relational resources, but there still exists a visible difference between Poland and West European countries, as far as the extent of this use is concerned. Therefore, the authors of the study recommend a broader approach to the issue, since its development would be profitable from the economic point of view.

Marta Zió?kowska

2014-08-01

93

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

94

Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In parti...

Shi-Xin Wang; Xiao-Shuang Zhang; Hua-Shi Guan; Wei Wang,

2014-01-01

95

An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

Wen-Tien Tsai

2012-08-01

96

Cultura material: a dimensão concreta das relações sociais / Material culture: the concrete dimension of social relations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao investigar a emergência, a manutenção e a transformação de sistemas socioculturais, a arqueologia trabalha basicamente com três dimensões fortemente interrelacionadas: espaço, tempo e forma. A última é a que vem sendo alvo da maior diversidade de olhares ao longo da construção da arqueologia como [...] um campo disciplinar. Neste artigo, são apresentadas as concepções sobre a natureza da cultura material desenvolvidas pelas diferentes vertentes do pensamento arqueológico. Entendida equivocadamente até a década de 1980 como uma dimensão não problemática, um reflexo passivo do comportamento humano, vem sendo demonstrado, desde então, seu caráter ativo e transformador nas estratégias de negociação social, o que faz dela a dimensão concreta das relações no interior da sociedade. Abstract in english By investigating the emergence, maintenance and transformation of sociocultural systems, Archaeology basically works with three closely inter-related dimensions: space, time, and form. The latter has seen the greatest diversity in approaches over the course of Archaeology's construction as a discipl [...] ine. This article presents the conceptions of material culture developed by various schools of archaeological thought. Wrongly understood until the 1980s as an unproblematic dimension, a passive reflection of human behavior, some authors since then have explored its active and transformative role in social negotiations, making it the concrete dimension of relations inside the society.

Tania Andrade, Lima.

97

Improvements in or relating to the drying of gel materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the drying of a gel material, comprising mixing together steam and gas in controlled amounts to form a mixture, feeding the mixture to a gel material to be dried thereby to contact the gel material with an atmosphere containing steam and gas in controlled amounts and thereby dry the gel material. One application of the process is in the production of ceramic particles for nuclear fuels. (author)

98

BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

2006-07-01

99

Comparison of commercial battery cells in relation to material properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Test for cell characterisation on Li-ion and NiMh based on the 6 main international standards. ? Confrontation of the test results with the cathode chemistry and cell shape in a graphical way. ? Large differences are found; the manufacturer's knowhow is often decisive. ? Charge behaviour is underrated by manufacturers and test standards, but decisive. ? Test results mapped in a table to maximise the comparability, making an initial selection possible. - Abstract: This article evaluates the behaviour of lithium-ion cells of several chemistries and one nickel-metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The evaluation is based on an enhanced test methodology that enables the comparison of cell behaviour. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated. The characterisation tests exist of four test methods. The tests make large differences visible between the cell species. The 5 C efficiency for example is between 75 and 90% while the cell temperature varies from 29 to 52 °C. The power density is 80 W/kg for the NiMH cell and lies between 330 and 3100 W/kg for the lithium-ion cells. The cell results have been brought into relation to the material properties, the shape, referring to existing literature. The test plan made it possible to make an initial division in the cells. It appears that the manufacturer's knowhow is more important than the general electrode cnt than the general electrode classification to produce outstanding cells.

100

Research opportunities in new energy-related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The needs and opportunities in basic research on new materials are reviewed with a view to providing a basis for planning future research programs. The review covers polymers, intermetallic compounds, amorphous solids, thin films, solid state ionics, catalysts, and semiconductors. It is concluded that (1) a large number of new materials can be prepared by imaginative application of established techniques, (2) a close coupling of synthesis, characterization, and measurement of properties is essential, and (3) new phases of well-known materials, e.g. amorphous materials and thin films, provide a better understanding of these materials and promise solutions to a number of technical problems.

Warren, J. L.; Geballe, T. H.

1981-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Raw materials: Heading for a global resource crunch? | EurActiv  

... | EurActiv specialreport-rawmaterials,sustainability,Raw materials,resource efficiency,Waste and recycling EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here ... Energy and climate change: Towards an integrated EU policy The EU's economic governance: Rewriting the rulebook Financial regulation: The EU's ...of labour in the EU 27 Global food prices and CAP reform [Archived] Energy Section homepage Who runs EU energy policies? Energy efficiency: ...The EU's new action plan Energy Performance of Buildings Directive Smart meters: Controlling your energy bill? Eco-design requirements for energy-using products (...

102

The Einstein relation for the diffusivity mobility ratio in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and the related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper an attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in nonlinear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron energy spectrum taking into account the combined influences of the anisotropies in the effective electron mass and the spin orbit splitting constant together with the inclusion of crystal field splitting in the Hamiltonian within the framework of k.p formalism. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary types of optoelectronic materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. We have also studied the DMR in II-VI, Bi, IV-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various band models as applicable for such specialized materials. It has been found taking n-Cd 3As 2, n-CdGeAs 2, n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg 1-xCd xTe and n-In 1-xGa xAs yP 1-y lattice matched to InP, CdS, Bi, PbS, PbTe, PbSe and stressed InSb as examples of the aforementioned compounds that the DMR increases with increasing electron concentration in various manners and the rate of increase is greatly influenced by the presence of the different energy band constants of the said materials together with the fact that the rates of variation are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in degenerate samples having arbitrary dispersion laws has been suggested and the present simplified analysis is in agreement with the suggested relationship. In addition, the well-known results for nondegenerate wide gap materials have been obtained as special cases of our generalized theory under certain limiting conditions.

Sinha, A.; Sharma, A. K.; Barui, R.; Ghatak, A. R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghatak, K. P.

2007-03-01

103

Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

Irena SRDANOVI?

2011-05-01

104

IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major interport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve and update the data base for impact velocities resulting from aircraft accidents. (authors)

105

The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes. PMID:25367477

Laugesen, Miriam J

2014-11-01

106

Managing daily life with age-related sensory loss: cognitive resources gain in importance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the role of cognitive resources in everyday functioning, comparing visually impaired, hearing impaired, and sensory unimpaired older adults. According to arguments that cognitive resources are of increased importance and a greater awareness of cognitive restrictions exists among sensory impaired individuals, in particular among visually impaired individuals, we hypothesized differential relationships between resources and outcomes when comparing sensory impaired and sensory unimpaired older adults. Findings are based on samples of 121 visually impaired, 116 hearing impaired, and 150 sensory unimpaired older adults (M = 82 years). Results from a sample of 43 dual sensory impaired older adults are reported for comparison. Assessment relied on established instruments (e.g., WAIS-R, ADL/IADL). Structural equation modeling showed that cognitive resources and behavior-related everyday functioning were more strongly related in the sensory impaired groups as compared to the sensory unimpaired group. Cognitive resources and evaluation of everyday functioning were significantly linked only among the sensory impaired groups. When medical condition was controlled for, these effects persisted. It is concluded that both cognitive training as well as psychosocial support may serve as important additions to classic vision and hearing loss rehabilitation. PMID:22059715

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2012-06-01

107

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

1981-08-01

108

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

109

INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

110

Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

2001-07-01

111

Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

112

Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Methods Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. Results Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. Conclusion The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice.

Landry Michel D

2011-10-01

113

Radiation in houses in relation to radioactivity in building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the investigations into the radiation levels in houses due to natural radioactivity in building materials are summarised. The distribution in various districts of Norway of K40, Ra226 and Th232 in concrete, brick and expanded clay pellet blocks is presented. Calculations of the gamma radiation 3m from walls of various thicknesses are presented on graphs. Values are given for calculated exposure rates in standard rooms in houses of various materials, and are compared with measured values. An expression for calculating radon concentration is given, and values for the exhalation of radon from concrete, brick and expanded clay pellet blocks are given. It is concluded that the models developed give a good picture of radiation levels indoors as a function of the radioactivity in the building materials. Criteria are given for radioactivity levels in building materials. (JIW)

114

GNF - Sustainable raw material exploitation and resource efficiency through sustainable resource consumption in the automobile sector in Germany  

...PUBLICATIONS Business & Biodiversity Biodiversity and Companies Biodiversity in ISO Management Systems Naturwert Environmental management CSR in Tourism Food Industry Conservation of resources Resources Automobile Sector Viticulture Natural Capital Forest Investments Economic value of Lakes and Wetlands Information Brokering Biodiversity Markets EU Business & Biodiversity Campaign Nature Conservation Water &...to inform decision makers and representatives from the automotive sector on environmental and social standards regarding mining projects by means of publications, lectures and conferences and initiate a dialogue on the further development of existing standards and increase in resource efficiency. Our aim is to ... Funding This project is financed through the proceeds from the stamp ldquo;For Environmental Protectionrdquo; (concerning ldquo;Resources Protectionrdquo;) that was created under the banner \\

115

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work continued on heat transfer of particulate materials. In this quarter, we have been continuing with the dry granular shear cell experiments and have extended our previous results to different materials. We are also continuing with the development of a new particle pressure probe, but ran into drift problems in the calibration, which we hope have been resolved. Thermal conductivity measurements are described. 9 figs.

Campbell, C.S.

1990-10-01

116

Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-03-01

117

Annual view (1999) - aeronautic relation/space relation. Aeronautic relation - materials; Nenkan tenbo (1999) koku kankei uchu kankei. Zairyo kanre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation of research papers related to aerospace materials is increasing also in Japan. Jointly with Ube Industries, Ltd. and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., National Aerospace Laboratory, Science and Technology Agency, developed and tested the CMC production method by PIP method for materials which stand the long-term exposure to air and show high strength for the use to Spaceplane/HOPE. National Space Development Agency of Japan made studies on attrition phenomena of C/C composites with SiC coating and on the application of CFRP to the extremely low temperature fuel tank of reusable space transport. The association of study of propulsion system technology for supersonic transport conducted tests on HYPR engine in terms of TIT of 1,700 degrees C, noise, etc. to confirm the validity. For the operation test, the 3rd generation SC wing, powder material disk, etc. were loaded on it. In Japan Aircraft Development Corp., a study of the low-cost head structure has started, and the development has been proceeded with of large precision casting of aluminum alloys, low-cost manufacturing technology of CFRP structure, etc. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-05

118

Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

119

222Rn indoor concentration levels related to construction materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work is dedicated to the procedure of measurements of average 222Rn concentration associated with civil construction materials and its infiltration shielding by masonry walls covering and painting. As a first step the instant measurements of 222Rn concentration associated with construction materials had been performed using ALPHA GUARD Professional Radon Monitor. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min and 222Rn concentration had been registered every 10 minutes. Among analyzed materials were sand, structure concrete blocks, granite and concrete paving stones, cement, etc. The samples were stored in an insulated acrylic chamber connected directly to ALPHA GUARD detector. Measured 222Rn concentrations were 90 ± 11 Bq/m3, 135 ± 20 Bq/m3, 154 ± 10 Bq/m3 and 281 ± 40 Bq/m3. Within the purpose to simulate residential and commercial environment and to associate 222Rn concentration with specific materials, wall size, room volume, etc., at the next step the measurements were performed using constructed cell chambers. During these measurements, different insulation layers, paintings as well as finishing materials have been tested. As it was reported previously, such extended measurements were performed using passive 222Rn detectors. The chemical development of alpha track detectors was made by two - step electrochemical etching technique. The lectrochemical etching technique. The alpha particle track identification and counting have been done using MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. (author)

120

Determination of boron in silicon related nuclear materials by spectrophotometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boron is one of the important specifications in all-nuclear materials. The present paper describes in detail about the determination of boron in U-Al-Si and SILUMIN. The sample is treated with H2O2 and 3 M HCl. Silicon will be left as precipitate. It was removed by centrifugation. Boron was selectively separated by solvent extraction with 10% 2-ethyl hexane 1,3-diol and was quantitatively determined by spectrophotometry using curcumin as complexing agent. Since standard reference materials are not available, standard addition method was employed to confirm the results. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Materials and energy resources. Report of the research committee working party  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Working Party has tried to assess the problems likely to stem from future scarcity of a number of important materials and how these interact with the simultaneous depletion of energy resources. The report examines in detail the likely areas of shortages, and their economic, social and political implications, and suggests the various choices for preventive or corrective action. In its recommendations it has delineated areas not only for research but for action by government and by professional and other bodies. The need is forseen for a nuclear power programme of possibly 35 GW(e) by the end of the century part of which could be from fast breeders. Uranium supplies would appear to be adequate only if fast breeders become available. Nuclear fusion is potentially a very large energy source but only for the distant future. (author)

122

Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

Leschine, Susan (Leverett, MA); Warnick, Thomas A. (Sunderland, MA)

2010-03-23

123

Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

124

Overview on spallation target design concepts and related materials issues  

Science.gov (United States)

From a modest beginning of a few kW of beam power spallation sources have now evolved into systems that must be able to handle several MW, mostly delivered in short pulses of less than microsecond duration. The high radiation field and high instantaneous heat deposition which spallation targets, in particular for the new high power sources, are subject to have led to several different design concepts which aim at circumventing or reducing the deleterious effects on the materials in the targets. Efficient cooling and high neutron source density are competing requirements which can be best reconciled by moving the target material out of the reaction zone and removing the heat elsewhere before returning the material back into the proton beam. One option is the use of a flowing liquid metal, which has been the method of choice in most of the recent spallation source designs, but requires solutions to a variety of new problems, such as liquid metal corrosion, cavitation erosion and e.g. in the case of PbBi, or Pb, high temperature gradients. Using a rotating solid target is an option in certain cases but still has to cope with the instantaneous load levels. While it may help to keep the average heat load and radiation damage in the target material low and thus extend the target life time by more than an order of magnitude, it still has its own design and materials issues. Opportunities to carry out research in this field are rather limited because the effects can hardly be simulated off line and, apart from spallation targets in operation, almost no facilities are available.

Bauer, G. S.

2010-03-01

125

Parental divorce, personal psychological resources, and relational perspectives among college students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the potential associations between personal psychological resources (i.e., insight, hardiness, perceived gains associated with parental divorce) and relational perspectives (i.e., posttraumatic growth, commitment to marriage, attitudes toward divorce) among a group of college-age adults whose parents had divorced. The results indicated positive and significant associations among insight, hardiness, perceived gains, posttraumatic growth, commitment to marriage, and attitud...

Miles, Nathan Jarvis

2011-01-01

126

Relation Between Ultrasonic Backscattering and Microstructure for Polycrystalline Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the framework of the maintenance of its nuclear power stations, EDF uses ultrasonic inspections to make sure of the lack of defects. But in some cases, the structure of polycrystalline materials can produce the scattering of the ultrasonic wave which results in an important attenuation of the signal and the appearance of structural noise. Industrial inspections on various components demonstrated the importance of these physical phenomena which can lead to decrease the performances of the ultrasonic inspections. In a first approach, the polycrystalline material studied is the Inconel 600@ alloy, which has an isotropic and homogeneous microstructure. Some mock-ups with different grain sizes, were experimentally characterized to measure the ultrasonic attenuation and the structural noise. The measurements show the influence of the mean grain size on the values of attenuation and noise. At last, a 2D finite element modeling at a microstructural scale using ATHENA software, gives first coherent results.

Feuilly, N.; Dupond, O.; Chassignole, B.; Moysan, J.; Comeloup, G.

2009-03-01

127

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This quarter has seen the conclusion of the shear cell study. The author has shown that the apparent thermal conductivity of a sheared granular materials increases linearly with the shear rate. Interestingly enough, the apparent viscosity also varies linearly with the shear rate and it may be argued that both vary as the square root of the granular temperature just as kinetic theory predicts that the viscosity and thermal conductivity of a monatonic hard sphere gas varies as the square root of the thermodynamic temperature. He closes by showing that the apparent Prandtl number of the shared material is a function only of the solid fraction, {nu}. As a closing summary, he will devote this quarterly report to the discussion of the conductivity measurements. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Campbell, C.S.

1991-01-01

128

Ecologization of intenational relations in the sphere of marine resources use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of ecologization of international relations, analyses trends and steps of ecologization and environmental law development. Special role of UN in global environmental problems solving is highlighted.Ecologization of international regulation of marine-related activities is considered as an extremely importantdue to marine resources degradation, marine transboundary pollution, human impact in the coastal zones, high level of uncertainty and risk of marine-related activities.Ecologization of international relations in the Black Sea basin is realized by mechanism of conventions, international programs and international projects. Special role of the Black Sea Commission and International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is emphasized. Recommendations for rasing the level of international relations ecologization in the Black Sea basin are made

Kateryna Stepanova

2013-05-01

129

Materials sciences overview. II. Workshop reports. A series of workshops recommending future directions in energy-related basic materials research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compendium of the reports of nine workshops held to ascertain new directions and priorities for energy related basic research in the materials sciences program is presented. Topics covered include: electronic, magnetic, optical and thermal properties; surface science; x-ray, neutron and electron scattering; low temperature research and superconductivity; phase transformations, stability and materials interactions; defects, diffusion and radiation effects; engineering materials science; mechanical properties; and thermodynamics and electrochemistry

130

Simulation of water resource and its relation to urban activity in Dalian City, Northern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was applied to the Biliu River catchment, northern China, to estimate the carrying capacity of the water resource there. The model reproduced well the water and heat budgets after the construction of a reservoir in the middle reach of the river. It also correctly backcasted the degradation of water resources such as river discharge and groundwater after the completion of the reservoir. Calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite data clearly showed vegetation degradation downstream of the reservoir. Statistical analysis of a decoupling indicator based on the simulated water carrying capacity and on the satellite data of vegetation index indicated that water-related stress in Dalian city, where the economy has grown rapidly after the completement of the reservoir, has increased in accordance with the environmental degradation below the reservoir. The results indicate a close relationship between water resource and economic growth, which has greatly affected ecosystem degradation and its serious burden on the environment in the catchment. The simulated results highlight the linkage between urban development in Dalian and sustainable water resource management.

Nakayama, T.; Sun, Y.; Geng, Y.

2010-09-01

131

Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) activities in exploring its uranium resources, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: NMA was initiated as the Geology and Nuclear Raw Materials Department in the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt (established in 1957). However, due to the extended nature of NMA's work and it s increasingly expanded activities in the fields of prospection, exploration and evaluation of nuclear raw materials required for the peaceful uses application of nuclear energy, beside processing of their ores; this Department was converted into a separate authority; namely the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) of Egypt, in 1977. Since several decades, Egypt started prospecting and regional exploration for radioactive raw materials using Airborne and ground surveys, carborne, and field reconnaissance in soft and hard rocks During this work activities, some promising U-occurrences were discovered. Airborne radiometric survey started in Egypt in 1958; The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)cooperated with NMA in 1998 for the construction of 4 sets of calibration pads for standardizing both aerial and ground survey instruments. Application of all these activities resulted in completing aerial radiometric prospection of about 40% of the Egyptian territories, among which some locations were also magnetically surveyed from the air. NMA organized several ground geophysical and geological expeditions to verify the registered anomalies, discover any possible mineralization and identify the promising locations using electric, electromagnetic , self-potential, induced polariomagnetic , self-potential, induced polarization, radon, seismic, gravity, ets In the meantime, the necessary relevant field geologic studies were undertaken, together with site development works, involving percussion and core drilling. Geophysical well logging measurements, beside excavation works of some exploratory mining tunnels were conducted. The before mentioned activities led to the definition of three encouraging uranium occurrences in the granite; and metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and a fourth occurrence in the sedimentary rocks of west Central Sinai these are: Gabal Qattar, occurrences (Northern Eastern Desert). Al-Missikate, and Al-Aradiya occurrences, (Central Eastern Desert). Abu- Russhied, Seila, and Um-Ara occurrences, Southern Eastern Desert. Abu-Zeneima occurrences(west Central Sinai).These represent the main occurrences of Uranium resources which were variably developed by NMA, in addition to some other less-important uranium localities. These occurrences could be classified into conventional uranium resources, and non-conventional uranium resources (uranium production is a by-product). NMA undertaken different ore processing studies for the discovered mineralizations and was actually able to design several technological flow sheets for the preparation of uranium concentrate(yellow cake). NMA erected two experimental units for uranium recovery at Abu-Zeneima, and Qattar respectively; The preparation of yellow cake was executed using acid heap leaching, followed by uranium extraction with anion exchange resin. Kilograms of uranium concentrate(yellow cake) were prepared by such two units. NMA is also undertaking various works for the purification of the uranium concentrate(yellow cake) obtainable from the different experimental units whether from that at Inchass or from the two field experimental units at Gebel Gattar Abu Zeneima sites. Airborne surveys, recently conducted by NMA over the Mediterranean cost, demonstrated their use as a, powerful tool in evaluating mineral of beach mineral sand deposits. The most important economic minerals are: ilmenite, magnetite zircon, garnet, rutile and monazite.NMA started, since the year 2000 a detailed evaluation of the black sands at AL-Burullus - Balteem, Northern coast which could offer more than 200 million tons as reserves. (author)

132

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. [Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major emphasis this quarter has been in two areas. The first is to continue working the bugs out of the new particle pressure transducer. The second was to try and measure the particle pressures generated in a bed of FCC catalyst that is undergoing particulate fluidization. The results indicate that the stabilization of fluidized beds in that regime cannot be explained in terms of particle pressure generation. Instead, consistent with other recent observations,the observations can be explained by a material is that not completely fluidized but, instead, retains much of the properties of a solid and, in particular, can transmit particle pressure like a solid. 2 figs.

Campbell, C.S.

1991-07-01

133

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

134

Dispersion relation for bianisotropic materials and its symmetry properties  

Science.gov (United States)

The dispersion relation for an arbitrary general bianisotropic medium is derived in Cartesian coordinates, in a form well suited to imposing the boundary conditions when dealing with layered media with planar and parallel interfaces. Special cases of practical interest are also considered. Eleven fundamental coefficient families are identified by considering in detail all the symmetries present in the dispersion relation. An ad hoc expression of the determinant of the sum of two 3 x 3 matrices permits the use of a simple procedure to obtain the coefficients of the dispersion equation. The discussed symmetry properties have general validity, and this technique to evaluate the coefficients may be useful in other fields of application where dispersion relations are of importance.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.; Zich, Riccardo E.

1991-01-01

135

Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework

136

High pressure ?SR studies: rare earths and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short introduction to ?SR with respect to the study of magnetic properties, followed by a brief outline of the principle of the high pressure-low temperature ?SR spectrometer installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, we discuss some measurements on rare earth materials employing this instrument. They are concerned with: (1) The pressure dependence of the spin turning process in ferromagnetic Gd. (2) The volume dependence of the internal magnetic field in the heavy rare earth metals Gd, Dy, and Ho in their ordered magnetic states. (3) The response of the (first order) magnetic transition in the frustrated antiferromagnets of type RMn2 (R = Y,Gd) to pressure. (4) The variation of magnetic parameters with pressure in La2CuO4 (powder sample), the antiferromagnetic parent compound of the high TC superconductors of type La2-x(Sr, Ba)xCuO4. In conclusion a short outlook on further developments is given

137

Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.

Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.

Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.

Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.

Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.

Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.

Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

How to cite this article:Ferreira, N., Basson, J., & Coetzee, M. (2010. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1, Art. #284, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.284

Melinde Coetzee

2010-03-01

138

Material flow account and analysis of environmental load from import of resources; Material furo kantei to shigen yunyu no kankyo fuka bunseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material flow account (MFA) for Japan was prepared on a trial basis in accordance with the MFA having been studied at the Wuppertal Institute. The MFA identifies both of flow amount of materials inputted from the Ecosphere into the Technosphere areas and flow amount of emission therefrom in the reverse direction, as well as balance between them. Other than solids flow, gaseous and aqueous flows are also dealt with. With regard to imported raw materials including minerals, an indirect MFA generated during a period from when these materials are taken out from natural environment in the exporting countries until when they are exported are added as an ecological rucksack. The MFA for Japan in fiscal 1990 was about 2.2 billion tons in an input total summing the imported resources and domestically available resources. Such construction materials as gravels and crushed stones occupy about half of the amount. The MFA in the exporting countries for which the imported resources of about 700 million tons were put into the `rucksack` is estimated about 2.4 billion tons. A rucksack for agricultural and forest products would also reach about 200 million tons. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Moriguchi, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-01-30

139

Isotope effects in high-temperature superconductors and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis examines isotope effects in four different materials. Two of the investigations deal with High Temperature Superconductors (HTSCs), specifically the copper isotope effect (63Cu/65Cu) on Tc in oxygen deficient YBa2Cu3O7-? and the oxygen isotope effect (16O/18O) on Tc in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+y as a function of oxygen content, y. The importance of CU-O planes and antiferromagnefic fluctuations in HTSCs leads to a search for isotope effects (both copper and oxygen) on the magnetic ordering temperatures of CuO. The fourth investigation concerns boron and carbon isotope effects on Tc in Ni and Pd based borocarbide superconductors. A brief introduction outlines some of the common properties of HTSCs and a sketch of the conventional theory concerning isotope effects in superconductors is given. Practical aspects of isotope effect experiments are discussed. The importance of sample preparation and characterization are emphasized. Background information is given for each material followed by a description of the experimental process and a summary of results. The investigation on the borocarbides shows clear evidence of a boron isotope effect in both YNi2B2C (?B = 0.26 +/- 0.03) and YPd2B2C (?B = 0.32 +/- 0.04). Results for a carbon isotope effect are suggestive for YNi2B2C (?C = 0.07 +/- 0.06), but essentially at the limit of experimental accuracy. Isotopically enriched samples of 63CuO,65CuO, Cu16O and Cu18O showed no difference in either Néel temperature within experimental uncertainty. Results for ?Cu(?) in YBa2Cu3 O7-? for 0.06 Tc(63Cu)) for all other values of ?. It is a nonmonotonic function of ?, showing large negative values away from the 60 K plateau and smaller values in the plateau (0.35 titration. A wide variation was encountered in the data, but for several samples with identical y values, ? o is small (<0.1) and positive, in both the over (y ~ 0.24) and under (y ~ 0.10) doped regions.

Lawrie, David Dickson

1999-11-01

140

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the ``particle pressure,`` the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

1991-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the particle pressure,'' the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

1991-11-01

142

Relative local density of states for homogeneous lossy materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We derive the appropriate form of the relative local density of states (RLDOS) for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous lossy medium, and give the corresponding result for the three-dimensional equation. The RLDOS enables the calculation of the enhancement or suppression of the energy radiated in the form of transverse electromagnetic waves by a localized source in the medium, and so would be useful in studies of either electromagnetic communication from inside a cloaking system or detection of the cloaking system by radiation from thermally excited atoms within it.

Nicorovici, N.-A.P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McPhedran, R.C., E-mail: ross@physics.usyd.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Botten, L.C. [CUDOS and Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

2010-07-15

143

Raman spectroscopy of plutonium dioxide and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence to support the Raman assignments of the 1LO (578 cm?1) and 2LO (1158 cm?1) lattice vibrations for PuO2 material is presented. The T2g signal is established at 476 ± 2 cm?1 in agreement with literature values. An increase of the 1LO band and an increase of the unit cell lattice parameter with ageing in our samples are found not to be a consequence of PuO2+x formation but rather a result of simple lattice defects due to radiation damage. The Raman spectrum of AnO2(OH)2?xH2O (An = Np, Pu) and laser induced decomposition products suggest that the transition to AnO2 involves Np2O5 for neptunium but no such analogue could be detected for Pu. The presence of a band around 1150 ± 10 cm?1 for a range of MO2 fluorite structures (CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2 and PuO2) suggests that this band is not derived from crystal field electronic f–f transitions as proposed previously and supports recent suggestions that it is the first overtone of the 1LO lattice vibration. The spectrum of PuO2 is taken across a wide wavenumber range (200–4000 cm?1) and additional signals (2116 and 2611 cm?1) not previously reported have been observed but are not yet assigned with confidence.

144

Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

2011-01-15

145

Raman spectroscopy of plutonium dioxide and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence to support the Raman assignments of the 1LO (578 cm{sup -1}) and 2LO (1158 cm{sup -1}) lattice vibrations for PuO{sub 2} material is presented. The T{sub 2g} signal is established at 476 {+-} 2 cm{sup -1} in agreement with literature values. An increase of the 1LO band and an increase of the unit cell lattice parameter with ageing in our samples are found not to be a consequence of PuO{sub 2+x} formation but rather a result of simple lattice defects due to radiation damage. The Raman spectrum of AnO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} Dot-Operator xH{sub 2}O (An = Np, Pu) and laser induced decomposition products suggest that the transition to AnO{sub 2} involves Np{sub 2}O{sub 5} for neptunium but no such analogue could be detected for Pu. The presence of a band around 1150 {+-} 10 cm{sup -1} for a range of MO{sub 2} fluorite structures (CeO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, NpO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}) suggests that this band is not derived from crystal field electronic f-f transitions as proposed previously and supports recent suggestions that it is the first overtone of the 1LO lattice vibration. The spectrum of PuO{sub 2} is taken across a wide wavenumber range (200-4000 cm{sup -1}) and additional signals (2116 and 2611 cm{sup -1}) not previously reported have been observed but are not yet assigned with confidence.

Sarsfield, Mark J., E-mail: mark.sarsfield@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Taylor, Robin J. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Puxley, Christopher [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Steele, Helen M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

146

Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Reno County, south-central Kansas  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-resource-related data for sites in Reno County, Kansas were compiled in cooperation with the Reno County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the spatial analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public- water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water-resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 958 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 3,936 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 51 wells, 18 public-water-supply distribution systems, and 7 streams; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 643 wells and 23 streams or surface-water impoundments; and by well-drilling contractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 96 wells. The data in these five data sets are available from the Reno County Health Department in Hutchinson, Kansas. (USGS)

Hansen, C.V.

1993-01-01

147

Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

1980-01-01

148

Gender Relations in Environmental Entitlements: Case of Coastal Natural Resources in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is about a study that rested on the mapping of how men and women gain entitlements (access to, ownership and control of coastal resources through endowments, referred to herein as environmental entitlements. Environmental entitlements are enhanced by institutional means and mechanisms and the policy dimension of which demand specific forms of action to promote and protect them. The central role played by institutions (regularised patterns of behaviour between men and women in society in bringing about changes to the environment and society relationships, was the premises of the study. The study explored on how men and women command natural resources that are instrumental to their wellbeing (van Ingen, Kawau, & Wells, 2002. A combination of data collection techniques were used, which included in-depth household interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations, and documentary review to capture the understanding of the relationship between environmental entitlements and gender roles. Various alternative conceptualisations of gender-environment relations, which can roughly be thought of as translations of the findings into the environment domain, were also used. As an action research, it highlighted a number of empowerment issues for participatory implementation with the focus on women. This is in recognition that there is undervaluation of both environmental resources and of women’s labour in managing and conserving these.

Albinus M. P. Makalle

2012-08-01

149

Determining resource intensity weights in ambulatory chemotherapy related to nursing workload.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ontario cancer programs aim to deliver high-quality nursing care and treatment that is safe for patients and staff. The reality of health care is that financial constraints, inherent in the delivery of care, require that funding mechanisms count not only the cost of drugs, but factors such as pharmacy and nursing human resource costs. While some organizations have developed patient classification systems to measure nursing intensity and workload, these systems apply primarily to inpatient populations, and are fraught with numerous challenges, such as the need for nurses to document to justify the workload required for care. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methodology and engagement of nurses to develop regimen-based resource intensity weights that can be applied to ambulatory chemotherapy suites. The methodology included determination of workload related to nursing time to prepare, teach, counsel and assess patients, as well as time to gather supplies, access lines, monitor, manage adverse reactions, manage symptoms and document care. Resource intensity weights provide better measures of the complexity of care required by cancer patients in ambulatory settings. PMID:22764587

Green, Esther; Preyra, Colin; Stewart, Janice; McLennan, Cindy; Bland, Rosemary; Dus, Tamara; Langhorn, Marcia; Beattie, Kathy; Cheung, Annie; Hertz, Sherrie; Sechter, Haim; Burns, Judy; Angus, Helen; Sawka, Carol

2012-01-01

150

Carbon and related materials for thermal and electrical applications  

Science.gov (United States)

High thermal stability has been attained in polyol ester by using a sterically half-hindered phenolic primary antioxidant and a thiopropionate secondary antioxidant. Carbon black and boron nitride (BN) serve as antioxidants in the presence of either primary antioxidant or secondary antioxidant at 200°C. BN paste shows an estimated 100°C lifetime of 19 years, compared to 1.3 years for the carbon black paste and 0.10 year for commercial silver paste. Phase-change materials (PCMs) with high thermal stability and high heat of fusion have been attained by using antioxidants (mainly hydrocarbons with linear segments). Their heat of fusion is much higher than those of commercial PCMs. The use of 98.0 wt.% thiopropionate antioxidant with 2.0 wt.% half-hindered phenolic antioxidant as the matrix and 16 vol.% BN particles gives 100°C lifetime indicator 5.3 years, in contrast to 0.95 year or less for the commercial PCMs. Carbon-based films with thickness 1-13 mum, electrical resistivity 6 x 10-4 - 3 O.cm, and strong bonding to alumina, have been attained through the use of EPON SU 2.5 epoxy and an amine curing agent as the carbon precursor, and a carbonization temperature of 650°C. Nickel nanoparticles (filamentary) are more effective for enhancing the conductivity than silver nanoparticles (not filamentary) at the same volume fraction. Even the combined use of carbon nanotube and silver is less effective than nickel. A three-dimensional microstructure in the form of a microscale bridge on alumina has been attained by using a novel low-cost process that involves thermoplastic spacer (wax) evaporation during pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coats the spacer and a part of the substrate. Multiwalled carbon nanotube as a filler is effective for reducing cracking during pyrolysis. A bridge with a girder of length 90-300 microm, separated from the substrate by a height of 5-15 mum, has been attained.

Aoyagi, Yasuhiro

151

78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...of Science as required by the Water Resources Development Act of 2007....

2013-03-27

152

78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007...

2013-05-24

153

78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007...

2013-03-27

154

Science and technology of polymers and advanced materials [electronic resource] : emerging technologies and business opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discusses composites and blends; high performance materials; materials for electronics and photonics; biomaterial and biotechnology; degradation, stabilization and recycling of materials, and environmentally friendly processing; sol-gel processed materials; advanced materials from natural and petroleum products; materials for separation technology; educational needs and trends; and business opportunities.

155

Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

156

The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

2008-01-01

157

Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes research done at Los Alamos in FY 1993 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. The US Department of Energy funds this research through two programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): defense and groundwater characterization. Los Alamos personnel have continued to study the high-pressure zone created in the aquifer under Yucca Flat. We analyzed data from a hole in this area (U-7cd) and drilled another hole and installed a water monitoring tube at U-4t. We analyzed water from a number of locations on the NTS where we know there are radionuclides in the groundwater and critiqued the effectiveness of this monitoring effort. Our program for analyzing postshot debris continued with material from the last nuclear test in September 1992. We supported both the defense program and the groundwater characterization program by analyzing water samples from their wells and by reviewing documents pertaining to future drilling. We helped develop the analytical methodology to be applied to water samples obtained in the environmental restoration and waste management efforts at the NTS. Los Alamos involvement in the Hydrologic Resources Management Program is reflected in the appended list of documents reviewed, presentations given, papers published, and meetings attended

158

Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs : The case of a Southern Danish Firm Cluster  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities but at the same time highlight the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne

2014-01-01

159

The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

1978-01-01

160

An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. PMID:25363638

Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. Conclusions Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development.

Wyss Kaspar

2004-07-01

162

Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark.

SØrensen, SØren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

2012-01-01

163

A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

1988-09-01

164

Changing Hydrological Cycle in Asian Monsoon Region in Relation to Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is a key resource for sustainable development in the Monsoon Asian Region. Frequent occurrence of flood disasters related to increasing Asian monsoon climate variability, progressing land degradation associated with anomalous monsoon dry climate and land overexploitation, increasing water use due to rapid social/economic development, and water pollution under the development of industrialization, urbanization and intensive agriculture, all pose fundamental questions about mid- and long term future carrying capacity of water systems in this key-region of the globe. We review some of the most recent data and methodological insights about how the hydrological cycle and hydroclimate in monsoon Asia is changing or has already changed in association with the global warming (GHG increase). Next,we analyze how regional-scale anthropogenic impacts such land cover/use changes, forest fire, dust increase, affect the hydrological cycle and water resources in the monsoon Asia and Northern China. The issues addressed in the presentation include: (i)the current regional hydrological cycle, especially causal chains leading to observable changes in droughts and floods;(ii)how the water cycle and the extremes may respond to future drivers of global change;(iii) feedbacks in the coupled system as they affect the hydrological cycle; (iv)the uncertainties in the predictions of coupled climate-hydrological- land use models and (v)the future vulnerability of water as a resource. We argue for a substantial increase of international collaborative research efforts into integrated impact assessment of climate change and human activity on water systems in this region.

Kabat, P.

2006-12-01

165

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress. In this study, virtual water trade in relation to water resources availability has been assessed as a way of relaxing water stress in Iran. The results showed that from the 21 food products, cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are water-intensive crops according to their estimated virtual water content, while fruits, vegetables and industrial crops are not water-intensive. Considering the volume of virtual water entering the country through food imports, more water will be available for other essential uses. However, the virtual water trade has been developed rather unconsciously regarding water use and crop water productivity during the past two decades. For instance, wheat with a share of 58.5% in the virtual water import to Iran, was the dominant imported crop during 1983-2003. By importing 10.4 Mt of wheat, 11.6 BCM of water has been saved within the country during 1999-2003. However, Iran became self-sufficient in wheat production in early 2005. Consequently, this latest drive for self-sufficiency in the production of wheat, as a water-intensive crop, put tremendous pressure on domestic water resources. The trend in crop trade in terms of quantity and virtual water for other groups of crops has also been shown in the study. Seemingly, crop production and import have been greatly influenced by the weather conditions. With the increasing water scarcity, the role of virtual water in food security is expected to rise continuously in Iran. Thus, conscious virtual water trade as a policy measure in water management and judicious adjustment in agricultural structure will ensure sustainable food security and water availability in Iran.

N Rouhani

2009-01-01

166

ARE OPPORTUNITIES DEMANDS AND RESOURCES RELATED TO STRESS ? A CRITICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of us are aware that employee stress is an increasing problem in organizations. Friends tell us they’re stressed out from greater workloads and having to work longer hours because of downsizing at their company. Parents talk about the lack of job stability in today’s world and reminisce about a time when a job with a large company implied lifetime security. We read surveys in which employees complain about the stress created in trying to balance work and family responsibilities. We’ll look at the causes and consequences of stress, and then consider what individuals and organizations can do to reduce it. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

Harish .K

2014-10-01

167

Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters : An Empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Innovation Capabilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub-clusters in the regional cluster organisation would strengthen the innovative capabilities on the cluster and on the firm level.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

168

Laboratory and field studies related to the hydrologic resources management program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 1995 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations office. Budgetary cuts have required us to scale back our activities, particularly field work at the Nevada Test Site. We have collaborated with a number of government agencies and universities in work related to radionuclide migration through geologic media. In cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have demonstrated the utility of high-sensitivity gamma logging and have successfully improved the design of a bailer routinely used for water sampling. We analyzed a suite of side-wall samples from the BASEBALL drill-back and have interpreted the distribution pattern of test-related radionuclides. Though heterogeneously distributed, they show a general separation of volatile and refractory fractions. The distribution pattern suggests that there has been little movement of radioactive material within this cavity, which is 13 years old and below the static water level. This characterization of the BASEBALL cavity/chimney complex may have important implications for radionuclide migration elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site

169

Exploitation and use of raw materials resources for manufacturing nuclear fuels. Present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel for Cernavoda Romanian nuclear power plant is based on natural uranium cycle implying mining, concentration-refining and UO2 manufacturing. For the Uranium National Company securing the raw materials necessary for fuel element manufacturing implies the following sources: - from the production cumulated till the year 2001 in the Security and Consumption Stock; - from the current production of uranium ore. Romania posses two categories of deposits which ensure at present and in the future the uranium ore production: active deposits and production center at Crucea-Botusana; - deposits proposed for the exploitation activity at Tulghes - Grinties. Other two important centers of production in Banat and Bihor ceased the production since 1999 due to the deposit depletion. The uranium reserve of Romania is estimated to 9,233 tones in geological deposits of high confidence level plus 6,344 tones in resources still not searched. The medium- and long-term strategy of CNU to fructify the uranium reserves of Romania is in concordance with the current government policy and is based upon two major investments: - opening a new production unit at Tulghes-Grinties; - Refurbishment of plants R1 and E1. The main amount of uranium currently used for making the needed nuclear fuel comes today from the production center Crucea-Botusana. Here the exploitation is based mainly on pitchblende-rich deposits. Uranium ore processing and concentration is made at 'R' and 'E' plants at Feldioara able to ensure an annual capacity of 300 tones UO2. In the assesment of the amount of uranium needed in the nuclear fuel fabrication the degree of uranium recovery was also taken into account. The uranium supply implied by the new electro-nuclear plants to be installed till 2025 was evaluated by taking into account the future advanced fuel solutions, SEU and RU, what will diminish the natural uranium consumption to 55% and 66%, respectively. The price of nuclear fuel has been estimated within the following assumptions: continuation of the present extraction and mining processing technologies; modernization and refurbishment of the extraction and processing technologies after 2010-2012. An increase of the uranium price is forecast and accordingly the current high cost of the Romanian uranium will approach the world costs what justifies maintaining the domestic uranium production and limitation of imports

170

Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

2014-01-15

171

Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

172

The Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz relation for lead-free solder and intermetallic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead-free solders are replacing lead-rich solders in the electronics industry. Due to the limitation of available experimental data for thermal conductivity of lead-free solder and intermetallic compound (IMC) materials, the Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz (WFL) relation is presented in this paper as a possible solution to predict thermal conductivity with known electrical conductivity. The method is based upon the fact that heat and electrical transport both involve free electrons. The thermal and electrical conductivities of Cu, Ni, Sn and different Sn-rich lead-free solder and IMC materials are studied by employing the WFL relation. Generally, analysis of the experimental data shows that the WFL relation is obeyed in both solder alloy and IMC materials, especially matching close to the relation for Sn, with a positive deviation from the theoretical Lorenz number. Thus, with the available electrical conductivity data, the thermal conductivity of solder and IMC materials can be obtained based on the proper WFL relation, and vice versa. A coupled thermal–electrical three-dimensional finite element analysis is performed to study the behavior of lead-free solder/IMC interconnects. Solder and IMC material properties predicted using the WFL relation are adopted in the computational model. By applying the WFL relation, the number of experiments required to determine the material properties for different lead-free solder/IMC interconnects can be significantly reduced, which can lead to pronounced savings of time and cost

173

Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

Faget, N. M.

1986-01-01

174

Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete

175

The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity : Ph.D.thesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the investigation of the moisture buffering capacity of building materials is introduced, measuring the resulting flux in the system instead of the resulting relative humidity.

Padfield, Tim

1999-01-01

176

Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

177

A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS) that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation). The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken. Results Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94–0.96, Prevenue neutral manner when applied to the market-based rates of commercial insurers. The new system more highly values delivery of care to more complex patients undergoing more complex surgery and better represents the true value of anesthetic case management. PMID:25336964

Sinclair, David R; Lubarsky, David A; Vigoda, Michael M; Birnbach, David J; Harris, Eric A; Behrens, Vicente; Bazan, Richard E; Williams, Steve M; Arheart, Kristopher; Candiotti, Keith A

2014-01-01

178

Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. 'Embodied HANPP' (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism. PMID:23470886

Haberl, Helmut; Steinberger, Julia K; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gaube, Veronika; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

2012-12-01

179

A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

2013-01-01

180

Assessment of impacts of proposed coal-resource and related economic development on water resources, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming; a summary  

Science.gov (United States)

Expanded mining and use of coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States will have substantial impacts on water resources, environmental amenities, and social and economic conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a 3-year assessment of the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, where increased coal-resource development has begun to affect the environment and quality of life. Economic projections of the overall effects of coal-resource development were used to estimate water use and the types and amounts of waste residuals that need to be assimilated into the environment. Based in part upon these projections, several physical-based models and other semiquantitative assessment methods were used to determine possible effects upon the basin's water resources. Depending on the magnitude of mining and use of coal resources in the basin, an estimated 0.7 to 2.7 million tons (0.6 to 2.4 million metric tons) of waste residuals may be discharged annually into the environment by coal-resource development and associated economic activities. If the assumed development of coal resources in the basin occurs, annual consumptive use of water, which was approximately 142,000 acre-feet (175 million cubic meters) during 1975, may almost double by 1990. In a related analysis of alternative cooling systems for coal-conversion facilities, four to five times as much water may be used consumptively in a wet-tower, cooling-pond recycling system as in once-through cooling. An equivalent amount of coal transported by slurry pipeline would require about one-third the water used consumptively by once-through cooling for in-basin conversion. Current conditions and a variety of possible changes in the water resources of the basin resulting from coal-resource development were assessed. Basin population may increase by as much as threefold between 1975 and 1990. Volumes of wastes requiring treatment will increase accordingly. Potential problems associated with ammonia-nitrogen concentrations in the Yampa River downstream from Steamboat Springs were evaluated using a waste-load assimilative-capacity model. Changes in sediment loads carried by streams due to increased coal mining and construction of roads and buildings may be apparent only locally; projected increases in sediment loads relative to historic loads from the basin are estimated to be 2 to 7 percent. Solid-waste residuals generated by coal-conversion processes and disposed of into old mine pits may cause widely dispersed ground-water contamination, based on simulation-modeling results. Projected increases in year-round water use will probably result in the construction of several proposed reservoirs. Current seasonal patterns of streamflow and of dissolvedsolids concentrations in streamflow will be altered appreciably by these reservoirs. Decreases in time-weighted mean-annual dissolved-solids concentrations of as much as 34 percent are anticipated, based upon model simulations of several configurations of proposed reservoirs. Detailed statistical analyses of water-quality conditions in the Yampa River basin were made. Regionalized maximum waterquality concentrations were estimated for possible comparison with future conditions. Using Landsat imagery and aerial photographs, potential remote-sensing applications were evaluated to monitor land-use changes and to assess both snow cover and turbidity levels in streams. The technical information provided by the several studies of the Yampa River basin assessment should be useful to regional planners and resource managers in evaluating the possible impacts of development on the basin's water resources.

Steele, Timothy Doak; Hillier, Donald E.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

GaAs and related materials bulk semiconducting and superlattice properties  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the various material properties of bulk GaAs and related materials, and aspects of the physics of artificial semiconductor microstructures, such as quantum wells and superlattices, made of these materials. A complete set of the material properties are considered in this book. They are structural properties; thermal properties; elastic and lattice vibronic properties; collective effects and some response characteristics; electronic energy-band structure and consequences; optical, elasto-optic, and electro-optic properties; and carrier transport properties. This book attempts to

Adachi, Sadao

1994-01-01

182

What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

2011-01-01

183

Florida Folk Festival: Asian and Pacific Island Traditions in Florida. Resource Materials for Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This information and activity booklet discusses the Florida Folk Festival, a celebration that offers students and teachers an opportunity to hear music, taste foods, see folk art demonstrations, observe dance, and listen to stories that celebrate Florida's cultural and ethnic legacies. The booklet offers resources for learning about Florida…

Smith. KC, Ed.

184

An Intervention Using Concept Sketching for Addressing Dislocation-Related Misconceptions In Introductory Materials Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

In materials science and engineering (MSE) a major goal of the discipline is to effectively teach learners from other engineering disciplines about engineering a material's macroscale properties based on the knowledge and understanding of its atomic-scale structure. This goal is a significant intellectual challenge because learners must develop a conceptual framework to understand and solve materials-related problems in their own discipline. There are significant difficulties in addressing materials-related problems in a discipline because robust misconceptions are used by students attempting to understand and correlate the concrete "macroworld" of everyday objects, properties, and phenomena to the abstract "atomic and micro-scale world" of atoms, molecules and microstructure, which are types of features of a material that actually control its properties. These misconceptions, which are scientifically-inaccurate interpretations about materials, can neither explain nor predict materials' phenomena or properties. In this study, different teaching methods were used to address the question, "What is the effect of pedagogy on student conceptual understanding of deformation and thermal processing and associated property changes of metals in an introductory materials class?" For classes in 2002, 2003, and 2007, content delivered by lectures, pair-based discussions, and team-based concept sketching, respectively, were compared in teaching the effect of deformation or annealing on a metal's properties by invoking the atomic-level structural feature of dislocations to understand macroscopic-level property changes in strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. The effect of the pedagogy was assessed from responses to dislocation-related questions on the Materials Concept Inventory (MCI). Results showed that a team-based concept sketching pedagogy was most effective in achieving conceptual change of faulty mental models about deformation-related misconceptions. This indicates that concept sketching may be an effective pedagogy both for revealing misconceptions and achieving conceptual change about other physical phenomena in materials engineering, as well as diverse physical phenomena in other engineering disciplines.

Krause, Stephen; Tasooji, Amaneh

2009-11-03

185

A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David R Sinclair,1 David A Lubarsky,1 Michael M Vigoda,1 David J Birnbach,1 Eric A Harris,1 Vicente Behrens,1 Richard E Bazan,1 Steve M Williams,1 Kristopher Arheart,2 Keith A Candiotti1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation. The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken. Results: Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94–0.96, P<0.001 for training, test, and overall. The proposed RBRVS-based billing matrix yielded payments that were 3.0%±1.34% less than would have been expected from commercial insurers, using standard rates for commercial ASA relative value units and RBRVS relative value units. Compared with current Medicare reimbursement under the ASA relative value guide, reimbursement would almost double when converting to an RBRVS billing model. The greatest increases in Medicare reimbursement between the current system and proposed billing model occurred as anesthetic management complexity increased. Conclusion: The new crosswalk correlates with existing evaluation and management and intensive care medicine codes in an essentially revenue neutral manner when applied to the market-based rates of commercial insurers. The new system more highly values delivery of care to more complex patients undergoing more complex surgery and better represents the true value of anesthetic case management. Keywords: payment reform, billing, crosswalk

Sinclair DR

2014-10-01

186

Exploring Educational Material Needs and Resources for Children Living in Poverty  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was two-fold. It was first to find out what the educational materials needs were for children living in poverty, and second, to learn of the challenges, obstacles, and strengths by the programs already in place that were supplying educational materials to these children. This study used interviews and surveys as data…

Mahabir, Indramati Kumar

2010-01-01

187

Personalised Networks of Influence in Public Relations : Strategic Resources for Achieving Successful Professional Outcomes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study is to look into Italian PR practitioners' opinions on whether or not specific social networks, the personalized networks of influence, are perceived to be as one of the main strategic resources and the degree of relevance they give to such networks. Personalised networks of influence are also tested with Italian journalists to verify whether or not other communication-related professions consider important to have personalised networks of influence and whether or not this relevance is perceived similar to that of PR practitioners. The data of this study was gleaned from a survey on PR practitioners and journalists' self-perceptions and perceptions of each others that was conducted in Italy from March to October 2007. The survey was based both on qualitative data collected through personal interviews with senior PR practitioners and journalists and on quantitative data gathered through an online, close-ended questionnaire. This study is based on the analysis of the survey data on personal influence.

Valentini, Chiara

2010-01-01

188

Health-related quality of life in psoriasis: important role of personal resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many patients with psoriasis demonstrate psychological disturbances, including decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected personal resources and HRQoL in 168 in-patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The following questionnaires were used: Skindex-29, General Health Questionnaire, Coping with Skin Disease Scale, Acceptance of Illness Scale, Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. It was demonstrated that younger patients experienced fewer problems in psychosocial functioning, and that they showed a correlation between worse HRQoL and both external powerful others and external chance domains in locus of health control. Subjective self-evaluation of health correlated with HRQoL irrespective of patient's age. Coping with stress strategies hopelessness/helplessness and distraction/catastrophization correlated with worse overall HRQoL, whereas fighting spirit strategy correlated with better overall HRQoL. Hopelessness/helplessness coping strategy, somatic symptoms, disease acceptance, psoriasis severity and patient's age explained 61% of overall HRQoL variance. Psychomedical interventions designed for psoriatic patients should take into account the above variables. PMID:23407910

Miniszewska, Joanna; Juczy?ski, Zygfryd; Ograczyk, Alicja; Zalewska, Anna

2013-09-01

189

The Effect of Globalization, Labor Fexibilization and National Industrial Relations Systems on Human Resource Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes how changes to the global organization of capitalism have accompanied and intensified globalization as well as have affected the regulation of labor and employment relationship. One of the most significant of these changes has been the dramatic increase in the rate of cross-border merger and acquisition activity. Of equal significance, especially for the regulation of labor and the employment relationship, has been the pronounced tendency of global enterprises to transform themselves into coordinators and organizers of activities performed for them by contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers. Outsourcing and sub­contracting have allowed global enterprises to reduce and externalize the costs incurred from the direct employment of labor. This reorganization of the operations of global corporations has been greatly facilitated by the removal of barriers to trade and the global movement of capital, and labor market deregulation. Labor market deregulation has largely been brought about by the emasculation of national Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs in developed and developing nations alike. As national IRSs have been emasculated, so has the regulation of labor and the employment relationship increasingly been internalized in the firm by the use of Human Resource Management (HRM.

Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

2009-09-01

190

Actual question of marketing procurement, planning needs material resources for industrial enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the marketing effectiveness of procurement depends not only on obtaining and maximizing profits, but the main thing - the competitiveness of products, opportunities for the development of an industrial enterprise in the long term. The article analyzes the current trends of development of procurement logistics, practical recommendations on selection of the planning system needs physical resources, optimizing the cost of your order and support the size of the stocks of industrial companies.

N.V. Rozumnaya

2011-03-01

191

The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to respond to struggles collectively has been put at risk as well. Bi-lateral and multilateral agencies need to take into account local needs and demands, and implement policies in a manner that respects national laws, and protects both the physical and social well-being of individuals.

Tesler Laura E

2010-05-01

192

Water-resources-related information for the St. Croix Reservation and vicinity, Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

The St. Croix Chippewa Tribe is interested in documenting water-quality conditions in lakes and streams adjacent to their Reservation lands in northwestern Wisconsin and developing management plans to protect these water resources. This report provides the Tribe with a retrospective summary and analysis of available water-resources-related information for their Reservation and vicinity. The study area is divided into four main watersheds: Big Round Lake, Clam River at Clam Lake Outlet, Yellow River at Danbury, and Loon Creek at Danbury. The Clam River Watershed includes the subwatersheds of Bashaw and Sand Lakes. The Yellow River Watershed includes the subwatersheds of Big Sand and Gaslyn Lakes. In all, 41 surface-water studies or reports that include information relevant to the study area were identified. Most of the surface-water studies were regional or statewide summaries. Fifteen of these studies include lake information and 36 include stream information. Twenty-eight of the studies include water-quality data and 16 include information describing aquatic biology. Water- and sediment-quality data were obtained for 80 lakes and 23 streams in the study area. Lake information includes data for 101 water-quality characteristics from nearly 4,300 water and sediment analyses of samples collected between 1972 and 1998. Stream information summarized in this report includes data for 135 water-quality characteristics and nearly 4,500 water and sediment analyses of samples collected at 23 sites between 1964 and 1999. A total of 41 ground-water studies or reports that include information relevant to the study area were identified. Most of the ground-water studies were regional or statewide summaries. Of the 41 studies, 33 include water-quality information, 9 include information regarding water use, and 23 provide descriptions of geology and aquifer characteristics relevant to the study area. Water-quality information for 773 wells was compiled. Most of the sampled wells were used for drinking water, and most of the drinking-water wells represent domestic supplies. Water-quality data summarized in this report represent 270 characteristics and more than 10,300 analyses of samples collected from drinking-water wells between 1911 and 1999; however, most of the water-quality data were collected after about 1990.

Saad, David A.; Robertson, Dale M.

2000-01-01

193

Parametric Optimization of Laser Engraving Process for different Material using Grey Relational Technique- A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser engraving process is non conventional machining process used for marking/engraving of almost each material which cannot be mark by conventional machining processes. In laser engraving process the surface of material is heat up and subsequently vaporize the material. With the use of laser engraving machine the marking/engraving is possible by using different input parameter as spot diameter, laser power, laser frequency, different wave length etc, and get the changes in output parameter like material removal rate, surface finish and indentation. To optimization of all these parameters with multiple performance characteristic based on the Grey relational analysis. Taguchi method of orthogonal array will be performed to determine the best factor level condition. By analyzing Grey relational grade, it will be observed that which parameter has more effect on responses of input parameter to the output parameter.

Dharmesh K. Patel*1

2014-04-01

194

The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

2009-08-15

195

Stainless Steel in Biological Environments – Relation between Material Characteristics, Surface Chemistry and Toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Triggered by the regulatory need of the industry to demonstrate safe use of their alloy products from an environmental and health perspective, and by the significant lack of metal release data and its correlation to material and surface characteristics for iron- and chromium-based alloys, a highly interdisciplinary in-depth research effort was undertaken to assess the relation between material/surface characteristics and toxicity with main emphasis on stainless steel alloys. This thesis focus...

Hedberg, Yolanda

2012-01-01

196

Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

Viswanathan, Tito

2014-02-11

197

Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

198

Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

2011-04-15

199

The Relative and Absolute Risks of Disadvantaged Family Background and Low Levels of School Resources on Student Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a long-lasting debate of whether the effects of family background are larger than those of school resources, and whether these effects are a function of national income level. In this study, we bring a new perspective to the debate by using the concepts of relative risk and population attributable risk in estimating family and…

Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Willms, J. Douglas

2010-01-01

200

Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere. Hydrogeochemical conditions were defined on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 16 chemical parameters. Quite wide variations in geochemistry were encountered, with evolved groundwater types affected by cation exchange or mixing with sea water. Groundwater residence time can thus be quite long, which may be due to the relatively high porosity (5-10%) of the rock. Methane is of mixed origin and preferentially associated with evolved water types. SALTFLOW, a variable-density flow and mass transport simulator, was used to represent the peninsula as well as the adjacent highlands in a 2D vertical section model. The interaction of the highland and peninsula recharge leads to nested flow systems with converging-diverging flow conditions under the peninsula, with a relatively shallow active flow zone. The observed and simulated conditions support a conceptual model that can be used to infer the level of risk for groundwater quality related to oil and gas industry activities.

Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
201

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress...

Rouhani, N.; Yang, H.; Amin Sichani, S.; Afyuni, M.; Mousavi, S. F.; Kamgar Haghighi, A. A.

2009-01-01

202

Home Range Size Variation in Female Arctic Grizzly Bears Relative to Reproductive Status and Resource Availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal’s home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus ...

Edwards, Mark A.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Nagy, John A.

2013-01-01

203

Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

1999-01-01

204

Measuring the Value of Library Resources and Student Academic Performance through Relational Datasets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This article describes a project undertaken by the University of Wollongong Library (UWL to identify whether a correlation exists between usage of library resources and academic performance.Methods – A multidimensional approach to systems design was implemented, requiring collaboration between among the library, university administration, Performance Indicator Project team (PIP, and information technology services. The project centers on the integration and interrogation of a series of discrete datasets containing student performance, attrition, demographic, borrowing, and electronic resources usage data. PIP built a cube for the library that links usage of library resources to student demographic data and academic performance (the “Library Cube”. Other cubes will be linked later.Results – While initial reports are rudimentary and do not yet incorporate data on e-resource usage, results are favourable in demonstrating the value of using the library information resources in coursework. Based on the data generated to date, students who borrow library resources do outperform students who do not. Early trend data shows up to a 12-point difference in grades.Conclusion – The Library Cube signals a new milestone in the UWL’s quality assessment journey. Well-established measures of effectiveness and efficiency will be further complemented by measures of impact and value, allowing the library to step even closer to the goal of having effective and valued partnerships with the university community to realize teaching, learning, research, and internalization goals.

Margie Jantti

2013-06-01

205

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods: This study used the 1970 Brit...

Lacey, R. E.; Bartley, M.; Pikhart, H.; Stafford, M.; Cable, N.

2014-01-01

206

Materials Repurposed: Find a Wealth of Free Resources at Your Local Recycling Center  

Science.gov (United States)

By looking at the function and purpose of any piece of equipment, a creative teacher can find a suitable replacement for many premade science materials, sometimes from the most unlikely places. This chapter features a few of the recyclable items the autho

Townsend, J. S.; White, Orvil L.

2010-02-01

207

The Hawaiian Monarchy: Instructional Materials/Resources for Grade 7 Social Studies. Draft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials in this curriculum guide for a seventh grade social studies course focus on the development of the monarchy period in Hawaii's history. Following a course outline, 10 study units cover map skills, early historical background, and the reigns of the following kings and queens: Kamehameha, Liholiho, Kauikeaouli, Alexander Liholiho, Lot,…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

208

The Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and the related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper an attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in nonlinear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron energy spectrum taking into account the combined influences of the anisotropies in the effective electron mass and the spin orbit splitting constant together with the inclusion of crystal field splitting in the Hamiltonian within the framework of k.p formalism. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary types of optoelectronic materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. We have also studied the DMR in II-VI, Bi, IV-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various band models as applicable for such specialized materials. It has been found taking n-Cd3As2, n-CdGeAs2, n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg1- x Cd x Te and n-In1- x Ga x As y P1- y lattice matched to InP, CdS, Bi, PbS, PbTe, PbSe and stressed InSb as examples of the aforementioned compounds that the DMR increases with increasing electron concentration in various manners and the rate of increase is greatly influenced by the presence of the different energy band constants of the said materials together with the fact that the rates of variation are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in degenerate samples having arbitrary dispersion laws has bees having arbitrary dispersion laws has been suggested and the present simplified analysis is in agreement with the suggested relationship. In addition, the well-known results for nondegenerate wide gap materials have been obtained as special cases of our generalized theory under certain limiting conditions

209

PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

210

Human Development as semiotic-material Ordering: Sketching a Relational Developmental Psychology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presented here is an attempt at casting human development as a semiotic-material phenomenon which reflects power relations and includes uncertainty. On the ground of post-structuralist approaches, development is considered here as a performative concept, which does not represent but creates realities. Emphasis is put on the notions of ‘mediation’, ‘translation’ and ‘materiality’ in everyday practices of students and teachers in a concrete school setting, where I conducted ethnographical research for one school year. The analysis of discursive research material of teachers’ discussions and interviews with students proves the developmental discourse to be interrelated to teachers’ and students’ positioning in the school; the developmental discourse orders ongoing interaction and enables students and teachers to perform the past and witness the future in a way which corresponds with dominant values and state social/educational policies. By translating a variety of events into a line moving from the past to the future as well as by materializing this line as diagrams and other semiotic-material objects, development becomes a technology of the self of (late modernity which implies power relations and supports the maintenance of the modern order. On these grounds, a relational approach to development is suggested, which raises methodological and political issues.

Michalis Kontopodis

2007-04-01

211

Nuclear power plant life management: Materials and components, research, human resource, radwaste and regulatory aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects concerning nuclear power plant (NPP) life management (PLiM) programmes are examined. The objectives of PLiM and their influence on safety and operation are presented in terms of potential gains in safety, reliability and performance of systems, structures and components (SSCs) by giving due emphasis to social and economic considerations. A nuclear plant implementing a PLiM programme needs state of science and technology information and approaches as well as availability of well trained personnel in sufficient numbers to achieve safe and optimized operating life of the NPP. Accordingly, the importance of succession planning for assuring trained human resources, knowledge management and the need for continued research in all fields of nuclear power generation are highlighted in the paper. (author)

212

Field-flow fractionation: potential role in the analysis of energy related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principles and scope of field-flow fractionation (FFF) are presented with descriptions of individual FFF subtechniques and the macromolecular, colloidal, and fine particle systems to which they have been applied. Several specific examples of energy-related materials are presented for which FFF is expected to yield important analytical information

213

The Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation Using Alternative Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the surprising results of research on the relation between a person's material circumstances and his or her subjective well-being was the finding that this relationship appears to be rather weak (throughout this paper the terms "(general) life satisfaction", "(subjective) satisfaction", "happiness" and "subjective well-being" will be used…

Christoph, Bernhard

2010-01-01

214

Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

Robert Pitz-Paal

2012-10-01

215

Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

1993-01-01

216

The relative sensitivity of thermoluminescent material to neutrons: a review of available data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review is intended as the basis for establishing the response of thermoluminescent (TL) materials to neutrons so that these materials can be used in the assessment of the gamma-ray dose in mixed neutron and gamma-ray fields. The relative tissue-kerma sensitivity, k, is defined as the ratio of the measured response of the TL material to neutrons to the measured response to 60Co gamma radiation relative to the tissue kerma for neutrons and gamma radiation, respectively. There are many factors which effect k including the TL material itself (its composition, dimensions and surrounding material), the characteristics of the TL reader, the irradiation conditions, batch to batch variations and environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, UV light and irradiation history. None of the data in the literature is produced under standard conditions and so a true comparison is not possible. However, it has been possible to eliminate the kerma dependent factors from k and so demonstrate that the efficiency of TL materials for detecting neutrons, etasub(n), relative to that for detecting 60Co gamma rays, etasub(s), is essentially constant for a given material for neutron energies from thermal to about 10 MeV. Above this energy, etasub(n)/etasub(s) increases significantly. The increase can be accounted for qualitatively by a reduction in LET at higher energies. There are large uncertainties in the data which could be reduced if standard conditions could be agreed internationally. However, following this Symposium, a full report of this study will be published by CENDOS with any more information that may be forthcoming

217

Computer-Based Interactive Material for Teaching Special and General Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Spacetime has fascinated both specialist and layman for over 100 years. Spacetime geometry is a difficult topic for student understanding despite popularizations such as Albert Einstein's Relativity and Edwin Abbott's Flatland. There are many reasons to create computer-based material for relativity. Special relativity is the first topic presented in modern physics. It is full of (apparent) paradoxes, and, like quantum mechanics, captivates students' interest in physics. Because relativity focuses on abstract concepts, visualization is especially valuable. We report the development of new simulations that allow the exploration of spacetime and the role of the observer. Special relativity examples include: visualizing simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, and spacetime diagrams. General relativity examples include the gravitational red shift, trajectories of particles and light rays, and the observer's view in the vicinity of non-spinning black holes. Programs are available from the Open Source Physics website http://www.opensourcephysics.org. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (DUE-0126439).

Christian, Wolfgang

2005-04-01

218

Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

Allan, M.L.

1998-06-01

219

SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

ALLAN,M.L.

1998-06-01

220

Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

Engi, D.

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

222

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n?=?10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect?=?33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health. PMID:24655926

2014-01-01

223

Research issues relating to material degradation mechanism in the aging management of cable insulating materials used in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymeric insulating materials used for safety related cables in nuclear power plants are subject to thermal and radiation environment. The durability of such materials has been confirmed through environmental qualification tests, but recently some international organizations have also mentioned the necessarily to develop condition monitoring methods for condition-based qualifications and plant aging management programs. Thanks to this trend and recent demands for scientific rationality, it is encouraged to carry out a research on understanding the difference of aging phenomena in actual environment and the ones in testing environment. Such research activities will also reflect the validation of testing manner used for environmental qualification. The present research completed a map of technological issues that still need to be solved for the management program. Each issue, found through a bibliographic survey, is categorized into the following three fields: 1) investigation of aging mechanism and development of degradation model, 2) development of condition monitoring methods for global inspection and/or mechanism-based analysis, and 3) concept and procedure of environmental qualification. The main goals of the management program may be accomplished thanks to a synergy of these three fields. An example of such goal is an assessment of remaining life based on condition monitoring. (author)

224

The diffusivity-mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs2,, Cd3As2, InAs, InSb, Hg1-xCdxTe, In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb1-xSnxSe and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested

225

Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

2008-01-01

226

The IAEA inventory databases related to radioactive material entering the marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter (LC 1972) have requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for developing and maintaining the inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from different sources can be assessed and compared. Five anthropogenic sources of radionuclides entering the marine environment can be identified. These sources are: radioactive waste disposal at sea; accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material; discharge of low level liquid effluents from land-based nuclear facilities; the fallout from nuclear weapons testing; and accidental releases from land-based nuclear facilities. The first two of these sources are most closely related to the objective of the LC 1972 and its request to the IAEA. This paper deals with the Agency's work on developing a database on radioactive material entering the marine environment from these two sources. The database has the acronym RAMEM (RAdioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment). It includes two modules: inventory of radioactive waste disposal at sea and inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

227

Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs2, n-Hg1-xCdxTe, n-In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

228

Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields’ configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs 2, n-Hg 1- xCd xTe, n-In 1- xGa xAs yP 1- y lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

Pahari, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; De, D.; Adhikari, S. M.; Niyogi, A.; Dey, A.; Paitya, N.; Saha, S. C.; Ghatak, K. P.; Bose, P. K.

2010-09-01

229

Relative toxicity of products of pyrolysis and combustion of polymeric materials using various test conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative toxicity data for a large number of natural and synthetic polymeric materials are presented which were obtained by 11 pyrolysis and three flaming-combustion test methods. The materials tested include flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, different kinds of fabrics and woods, and a variety of commodity polymers such as polyethylene. Animal exposure chambers of different volumes containing mice, rats, or rabbits were used in the tests, which were performed over the temperature range from ambient to 800 C with and without air flow or recirculation. The test results are found to be sensitive to such variables as exposure mode, temperature, air flow and dilution, material concentration, and animal species, but relative toxicity rankings appear to be similar for many methods and materials. It is concluded that times to incapacitance and to death provide a more suitable basis for relative toxicity rankings than percent mortality alone, that temperature is the most important variable in the tests reported, and that variables such as chamber volume and animal species may not significantly affect the rankings.

Hilado, C. J.

1976-01-01

230

Students' "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" Conceptual Framework in Relation to E-Learning Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the systematic development of a "Uses and Gratification Expectancy" (UGE) conceptual framework which is able to predict students' "Perceived e-Learning Experience." It is argued that students' UGE as regards e-learning resources cannot be implicitly or explicitly explored without first examining underlying communication…

Mondi, Makingu; Woods, Peter; Rafi, Ahmad

2007-01-01

231

A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

Leland, Anna E.

232

Legal issues related to geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The legal aspects of geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are discussed. Many of the legal issues associated with geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are unsettled and represent areas of developing policy and law. Lawsuits can be expected either before or shortly after the first commercial development of geopressured-geothermal resources.

1979-07-01

233

Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383

Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

2014-10-01

234

Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

1976-06-01

235

Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? UFG materials produced by SPD do exhibit specific GBs defined earlier as “non-equilibrium GB”. ? Such boundaries differ from regular GBs on atomic structure and appearance of long-range stresses. ? The apparent thickness of “non-equilibrium” GB is typically in a range of 1 to 2 nm. ? GBs in SPD materials may promote segregations and mechanical mixing that affect the properties. ? “Non-equilibrium” GBs do significantly enhance the atomic mobility in SPD materials. - Abstract: Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called “non-equilibrium” grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These features and related phenomena (diffusion, segregation, etc.) have been the object of intense studies and the obtained results provide convincing evidence of the importance of a non-equilibrium state of high angle grain boundaries for UFG materials with unusual properties. The aims of the present paper are first to give a short overview of this research field and then to consider tangled, yet unclear issues and outline the ways of oncoming studies. A special emphasis is given on the specific structure of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by SPD, on grain boundary segregation, on interfacial mixing linked to heterophase boundaries and on grain bounnd on grain boundary diffusion. The connection between these unique features and the mechanical properties or the thermal stability of the ultrafine grained alloys is also discussed.

236

Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design  

Science.gov (United States)

In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

2014-11-01

237

Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas of Edo State. Data analysis was carried out using t-test for the hypothesis and simple percentages for questions one and two. The results showed that instructional materials and resources available were grossly inadequate. It was also observed that there was no difference in the use of instructional materials between specialist social studies teachers and non-specialist teachers. It is therefore recommended that instructional materials and resources be made available for the teaching of social studies.

E.O. Okobia

2011-11-01

238

Fault-related amorphous materials and their influence on the rheological behavior of fault zones (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of fault-related amorphous materials in both nature as well as experiment has significantly increased over the last years. Amorphous materials provide new possibilities for our understanding of the rheological behavior of fault zones and the seismic cycle. We performed a series of experiments on granitoid fault rocks under a range of temperatures (T ? 300 to 600°C), confining pressures (Pc ? 300 to 1500 MPa) and slow displacement rates of (10-8 ms-1 2.5) some C' - C slip zones continue to accommodate strain and further change their microstructure. Up to 25 vol% of the sample consists of PAM as well as fully TEM-amorphous material (AM). This material shows injection veins, flow structures and contains quartz clasts surrounded by a thin layer of different z-contrast material. At highest stresses (> 1.1 GPa) and lowest temperatures (300°C) stretched bubbles, and bubble trains following the local flow pattern are observed. The chemical composition of the amorphous zones varies depending on the precursor material and is in general more ferromagnesian and basic compared to the bulk rock. Amorphous materials exhibit a wide range of rheological behavior from solid-like to fluid-like. Depending on many parameters (the amount of short-, medium- and long-range order, presence of second-phase particles, chemical composition, bond strength, degree of polymerization, sress-relaxation timescales and temperature with respect to the glass transition temperature) amorphous materials can either flow or fracture. We conclude that the observed mechanical response (temperature and rate dependence as well as abrupt failure under highest stresses) is well explained by the inferred visco-elastic nature of the AM and PAM. Hence, AM and PAM is not the result but the cause of failure in our experiments. At last, we note the many similarities of the AM with naturally occurring pseudotachylites.

Pec, M.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Drury, M. R.

2013-12-01

239

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

1998-01-01

240

Materials related R and D work for the ESS target stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current planning for the European Spallation Neutron Source Project (ESS) provides for two target stations of 5 MW beam power each: a long pulse station (2 ms, 162/3 Hz) and a short pulse station (1.4 ?s, 50 Hz). In both target stations liquid mercury is the reference target material. Materials related R and D work concentrates on: - The effects of the high pulsed power input into the short pulse target (stress pulses, pitting, high cycle fatigue) and their mitigation (with emphasis on the introduction of bubbles of non-condensable gas in the liquid metal). - The effects of radiation on the mechanical properties of structural target components (hardening and embrittlement). - Investigations of novel cryogenic moderator materials (ice and solid organic compounds) under fast neutron irradiation. Most of these efforts are carried out together with other projects within international collaborations such as ASTE, JESSICA, LiSoR, STIP, URAM and others

 
 
 
 
241

Materials related R&D work for the ESS target stations  

Science.gov (United States)

Current planning for the European Spallation Neutron Source Project (ESS) provides for two target stations of 5 MW beam power each: a long pulse station (2 ms, 16 2/3 Hz) and a short pulse station (1.4 ?s, 50 Hz). In both target stations liquid mercury is the reference target material. Materials related R&D work concentrates on: The effects of the high pulsed power input into the short pulse target (stress pulses, pitting, high cycle fatigue) and their mitigation (with emphasis on the introduction of bubbles of non-condensable gas in the liquid metal). The effects of radiation on the mechanical properties of structural target components (hardening and embrittlement). Investigations of novel cryogenic moderator materials (ice and solid organic compounds) under fast neutron irradiation. Most of these efforts are carried out together with other projects within international collaborations such as ASTE, JESSICA, LiSoR, STIP, URAM and others.

Bauer, G. S.; Ullmaier, H.

2003-05-01

242

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the 'ITER Materials R and D Data Bank' has been built up, with the use of ExcelTM spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

243

Transportation safety aspects of ore and related material - inconsistencies in current exemption values  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IAEA's system for exemption of material from the transport regulations is based on the fundamental principle that exemption values should be commensurate with the risk posed by the material, as represented by effective dose and skin dose. Important departures from that principle as well as inconsistencies between exemption values for different radionuclides have resulted from special provisions for natural materials that depend on their intended use, and from exposure scenarios and other assumptions and rules used in the derivation of exemption values. This paper examines the sources and extent of inconsistencies in exemption values for transport, particularly as they relate to naturally occurring radionuclides, and suggests ways to achieve greater internal consistency in exemption values as well as greater consistency with the fundamental principle underlying the current system.

Rawl, R.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cook, J.R. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

2004-07-01

244

IAEA programme on fast reactor, related fuels, and structural materials technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For obvious sustainability reasons, spent fuel utilization and breeding are returning to centre stage, and with this the fast reactor as the necessary linchpin. The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term of fast reactors and the associated fuel cycles is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on research and technology development efforts. Achieving the full potential of fast neutron systems and closed fuel cycle technologies with regard to both efficient utilization of the fissile resources and waste management is conditional on continued advances in research and technology development to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The IAEA's fast reactor technology development activities are pursued within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Currently, the TWG-FR comprises 14 IAEA Member States, the European Commission (EC), the ISTC, and the OECD/NEA, as well as Belgium and Sweden as observers. The TWG-FR assists in the implementation of IAEA activities, and ensures that all technical activities performed within the framework of the IAEA project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems are in line with expressed needs from Member States. The scope of the TWG-FR is broad, covering all technical aspects of fast reactors and ll technical aspects of fast reactors and sub-critical systems, including: research and development, design, deployment, operation, and decommissioning. The TWG-FR has focused on experimental and theoretical aspects of fast reactor technology and safety. A benchmark test with experimental data was conducted to verify and improve the codes used for the seismic analysis of reactor cores. A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted to apply acoustic signal processing for the detection of boiling or sodium/water reactions in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Benchmark analyses addressed accident behaviour and design improvements of the Russian BN-800 reactor. In cooperation with the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety, assistance was provided to ensure safe operation during the remaining lifetime and the development of an effective decommissioning programme for the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan. A CRP is being conducted with the objective of reducing the calculational uncertainties of fast reactor reactivity effects. Another CRP is contributing to the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation (FRKP) initiative through bibliographic catalogues and synthesis (lessons learned) reports related to feedback from fast reactor operational experience in the areas of steam generators, fuel and blanket subassemblies, and structural materials. Advanced reactor technology options for effective utilization and transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is addressed in another CRP. Its focus is on the transient behaviour of advanced transmutation systems, both critical and sub-critical. An ongoing CRP is performing computational and experimental benchmarking of ADS and non-spallation neutron source driven sub-critical systems. Two new CRPs were initiated in 2009: the first one aiming at the validation of multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes based on thermal stratification measurements performed during the 1995 Monju start-up experiments; the second one performing blind benchmarking and post-experiment analyses for two Phenix end-of-life tests, viz. the Control Rod Withdrawal Test and the Sodium Natural Circulation Test. More CRPs are planned for 2010/2011 and beyond, e.g. on the estimation of the source term in a fast reactor for radioactivity release, and on thermal hydraulics code verification and validation of liquid metal and molten salt coolants. The IAEA maintains a database to foster information exchange in the field of advanced fast reactor technology development. It is planned to establish a 'living' (WWW-based) innovative fast reactor technology statu

245

Comparison of Two User Interfaces for Accessing Context-Specific Information Resources Related to Hazards and Near Misses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Hazard and Near Miss Reporting System (HNMRS) was designed to promote patient safety mindfulness as part of a patient safety curriculum for Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) students. We are extending the functionality of the system beyond reporting to Just-in-Time learning by providing context-specific links to internal and external information resources related to the type of hazard or near miss reported. As part of this process, 55 APN nursing students compared two different interfaces o...

Yen, Po-yin; Jia, Haomiao; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne

2009-01-01

246

NIR SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO THE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF PRE-TREATED MATERIALS FROM MULTIPLE LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESOURCES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) has been recognized as potential raw for bioethanol production. To facility LB bioconversion a pretreatment is applied, followed by simultaneous or separated saccharification and fermentation (SSF or SHF, respectively) steps. Characterization of pretreated materials, nee [...] ded to evaluate their ethanol yields, involves laborious and destructive methodologies. Therefore, saccharification is also time consuming and expensive step and some pretreated samples have not suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields. Since bioethanol production aims to be a multivariable process respect to lignocellulosic resources, this work attempts to use NIR spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize samples from multiple pretreatments and lignocellulosic resources simultaneously and estimate their ethanol yield after a SSF process using multivariate calibration. Selection of suitable samples to obtain high ethanol yields using a classification method is also evaluated. Partial least squares (PLS) and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA) were used as calibration and classification techniques, respectively. Results showed ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict the chemical composition of samples and their ethanol yields, even if different lignocellulosic materials were used in the models, with low prediction errors and high correlation coefficients with reference methods (r>0,96) in PLS models and low misclassification rates (20- 30%) in classification models. Use of these models could facility the fast selection of high number of samples with suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields and as predictive tool of these ethanol yields after a SSF process under controlled conditions.

ROSABIO DEL P, CASTIIIO; CABOIINA, PABBA; EDUABDO, TBONCOSO; HEBIBEBTO, FBANCO; SAMUEL, PEÑA; JUANITA, FBEEB.

2347-23-01

247

An Analysis on Incidents related with Nuclear Facilities or Radioactive Materials from 1961 to 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Korean government has been putting much effort one establish legal and regulatory framework of nuclear security. 'The Act of Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency' has been legislated for a secure operation and management of nuclear materials and facilities in 2004. According to this act, Korean government set up Design Basis Threat (DBT), description of a representative set of attributes and characteristics of adversaries, in 2009. DBT plays a role as a standard to design or to test physical protection system in nuclear facilities. Thus, it is important to renew DBT for keeping up efficiency of physical protection system. KINAC is collecting and analyzing risk information with related government agencies or other organizations and reassesses threats in every 3 years to update DBT. Incidents are good information source for assessing threats. We gathered global incidents related with radioactive material or nuclear facilities happened from 1961 to 2005. We learn a few lessons from them

Lee, Jeong Ho [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

248

Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know” was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%, time spent receiving healthcare services (39%, regular medication currently taken (35% and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%. These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

Chernyak Nadja

2012-09-01

249

All in transition - Human resource management and labour relations in the Chinese industrial sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This discussion paper is a literature study reviewing the development of human resource management in China, with a particular focus (where possible) on the automobile industry. It presents the Chinese context for HRM discussing the normative debate about the adaptation of Western management methods and the heritage of Chinese philosophy and values, and it describes the economic, cultural, and transition-specific factors which influence HRM in China. In more detail, the paper deals with work ...

Yu, Nan

2012-01-01

250

Theoretical studies of graphene and graphene-related materials involving carbon and silicon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structural and electronic properties of graphene and graphene-related materials have been intensively investigated using the plane wave based periodic density func- tional theory (DFT). The Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) code employing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange correlation potential was used. In all calculations, the geometry optimization option was employed in allow- ing the structure to fully relax. Hydrogen ad...

Mapasha, Refilwe Edwin

2011-01-01

251

PUPILS WASTE MATERIALS AWARENESS AND THEIR RELATION WITH IT IN PRIMARY SCHOOL KIDRI?EVO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My diploma paper has the title »Pupil Waste Materials Awareness and Their Relation with It in Primary School Kidri?evo« and it is divided into a theoretic and empiric part. In the theoretic part the notion environment in general and the environment in Slovenia are presented. Our attention is given to natural circumstances in Slovenia and the negative consequences on it. It is explained how important the environmental education in kindergarten and primary school is. In detail are prese...

Kurez?, Tatjana

2014-01-01

252

Magnetoelectric response of multiferroic BiFeO3 and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first-principles scheme for computing the magnetoelectric response of multiferroics. We apply our method to BiFeO3 (BFO) and related compounds in which Fe is substituted by other magnetic species. We show that under certain relevant conditions -- i.e., in absence of incommensurate spin modulation, as in BFO thin films and some BFO-based solid solutions -- these materials display a large linear magnetoelectric response. Our calculations reveal the atomistic origi...

Wojdel, Jacek C.; Iniguez, Jorge

2009-01-01

253

Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

2013-01-01

254

Changes in relative material deprivation in regions of Slovakia and the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the level of relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak Republics and their regions. The first part of the article describes the level of households’ equipment with utilities and durables using the 1991 and 2001 censuses. The second part is aimed at estimating the relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak regions using EU SILC 2006-2008 microdata, i.e. approximately 15 years after the split. The results indicate that there are significant differences in the relative material deprivation rates between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and among their regions. According to the results, the level of deprivation is higher in Slovakia, and deprived households are highly concentrated in the eastern part of Slovakia. The regions can be divided into five clusters, while the Czech Capital Prague Region has a special position. It has the highest level of housing deprivation and the lowest level of durables/economic strain deprivation.

Zelinsky Tomas

2012-01-01

255

Material-Model-Based Determination of the Shock-Hugoniot Relations in Nanosegregated Polyurea  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous experimental investigations reported in the open literature have indicated that applying polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can substantially improve ballistic penetration resistance and blast survivability of buildings, vehicles, and laboratory/field test-plates, as well as the blast-mitigation capacity of combat helmets. The protective role of polyurea coatings/linings has been linked to polyurea microstructure, which consists of discrete hard-domains distributed randomly within a compliant/soft matrix. When this protective role is investigated computationally, the availability of reliable, high-fidelity constitutive models for polyurea is vitally important. In the present work, a comprehensive overview and a critical assessment of a polyurea material constitutive model, recently proposed by Shim and Mohr (Int J Plast 27:868-886, 2011), are carried out. The review revealed that this model can accurately account for the experimentally measured uniaxial-stress versus strain data obtained under monotonic and multistep compressive loading/unloading conditions, as well as under stress relaxation conditions. On the other hand, by combining analytical and finite-element procedures with the material model in order to define the basic shock-Hugoniot relations for this material, it was found that the computed shock-Hugoniot relations differ significantly from their experimental counterparts. Potential reasons for the disagreement between the computed and experimental shock-Hugoniot relations are identified.

Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.

2013-10-01

256

Resource Allocation and Related Transactions of Listed Company: Based on Perspective of the Implicit Transaction Costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implicit related-party transaction has its own particularity on the background of Chinese listed companies. It has strong significance of study the implicit related-party transaction. The study thinks that the related party transaction within the group of decrease implicit transaction costs but increased the cost of small shareholders. Hidden costs have stronger influence on hidden related party transactions. Hidden costs increase agency costs but the relationship between the hidden costs and the size of related party transactions is uncertain. So it is necessary to distinguish related-party transactions from the point of normative research.

L.I. Zhiguo

2013-01-01

257

The diffusivity-mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs{sub 2,}, Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}, InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested.

Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Pahari, S. [Administrative Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sarkar, R. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, S. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India); Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Achryya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)], E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in

2008-10-01

258

The diffusivity mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs 2,, Cd 3As 2, InAs, InSb, Hg 1-xCd xTe, In 1-xGa xAs yP 1-y lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb 1-xSn xSe and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested.

Bhattacharya, S.; Pahari, S.; Sarkar, R.; Ghosh, S.; Ghatak, K. P.

2008-10-01

259

Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost comparison of the central plant option and DG in meeting additional load demand. The economic analysis for a twenty-year planning horizon is carried out in this study using present worth factor. The results obtained with a 30-bus test radial distribution network using MATPOWER show the economic viability of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered. ©2010 IEEE.

Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.

2010-01-01

260

Joining relatively different melting point materials with metal powder and electromagnetic energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, experiments on solid-state joining were performed under atmospheric conditions by using metal powder medium which was sandwiched in the space between the two solid materials of specimen to be joined (i.e., base metal). In the first experiment, solid specimen were same materials and had a same melting point as the same powder medium. In the second and third, solid specimen were different materials and had relatively different melting points, and with considerably higher melting point materials with nickel powder medium. Complete joining samples were compressed longitudinally by electrodes and current was conducted simultaneously to generate Joule thermal heat. Some fundamental data on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the joint were obtained by resistance welding and tests. The data was discussed with a view to optimizing the method, and was compared with that of the base metals, in terms of tensile, impact strength, Vickers hardness tests; bending U shape flexure test; the macro and micro structural observation was also made by microscopes. The solid specimen bars of the materials used in this study were pure copper, stainless steel, tungsten carbide and titanium cylindrical bars of solid specimen, and the insert materials were atomized copper and nickel powder medium. Some of the mechanical and metallurgical properties were studied by examining the macro and micro structures of the joint section. In particular, the experimental data obtained was compared with those of the base metals, and was found that the strength of the joint reached approximately that of the annealed one of the lower melting point solid copper specimen bar.

Miyagi, K.; Goya, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Itomura, S.; Yara, H.; Yamashiro, Y.; Oshiro, T. [Univ. of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ushio, M.; Ikeuchi, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Haneji, T. [Industrial Research Lab. of the Okinawa Prefecture (Japan)

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

GaN and related alloys -- 1999. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 595  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The symposium, GaN and Related Alloys, was held November 28--December 3 at the 1999 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. This symposium on GaN and associated materials focused on advances in basic science, as well as the rapidly maturing technologies involving blue/green light-emitters, detectors and high power electronics. Nichia Chemical reported on the commercialization of a laser operating at 405 nm wavelength with a 4,000 hour device lifetime. At 450 nm emission wavelength, significant reductions in lifetime are found, and are believed to arise from non-ideal properties of the InGaN alloy used in the active layer of the device. Transistors for microwave applications have achieved significant success in terms of device speed and high power capability. Improvements in the epitaxy of GaN were discussed, using both selective area growth techniques (lateral epitaxial overgrowth) and introduction of low-temperature intra-layers in the films. Advances in both molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy were reported, including several studies of quantum dot formation in strained alloys. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy continues to show improvements, particularly for providing very thick films. As the material quality improves, advances in characterization (structural, optical, and electrical) have provided an increased understanding of the role of defects in the materials, and the effects of processing steps on material propertis of processing steps on material properties. One hundred thirty two papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

262

18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs...

2010-04-01

263

PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions, 'Boron chemistry' and 'Superconductivity', were also held at the symposium. The session on Boron chemistry was planned to honor the scientific work in boron chemistry of Professor J Bauer on the occasion of his retirement. Many recent results were discussed in the session, and Professor Bauer himself introduced novel rare-earth-boron-carbon compounds RE10B7C10 (RE = Gd - Er) in his lecture. In the latter session, on the basis of recent discoveries of superconductivity in MgB2 and in ?-boron under high pressure, the superconductivity of boron and related materials was discussed and the superconductivity of boron-doped diamond was also addressed. More than 120 participants from 16 countries attended the ISBB 2008, and active presentations (22 invited, 33 oral and 68 posters) and discussions suggest that research on boron and borides is entering a new phase of development. This volume contains 46 articles from 52 submitted manuscripts. The reviewers were invited not only from symposium participants but also from specialists worldwide, and they did a great job of evaluating and commenting on the submitted manuscripts to maintain the highest quality standard of this volume. Recent discoveries of superconductivity in boron under high pressure, synthesis of a new allotrope of boron and of various boron and boride nanostructures will lead this highly interdisciplinary field of science, which will further grow and gain attention in terms of both basic and applied research. In this context, we are very much looking forward to the next symposium, which will be held in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011, organized by Professor Onuralp Yucel, Istanbul Technical University. Turkey currently has the world highest share of borate production and is expected to be involved more in boron-related research. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the style improvement by Dr K Iakoubovskii, and sincerely thank Shimane Prefecture and Matsue City for their financial support. The symposium was also supported by Tokyo University of Science, Suwa and foundations including, the Kajima Foundat

Tanaka, Takaho

2009-07-01

264

Post operation recurrence of inguinal hernia in children and its relation with suture material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Using non-absorbable suture in children hernia repair to decrease of recurrence is recommended in the most pediatric surgery centers. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between kind of suture material and rate of hernia recurrence. Methods: In this clinical trial 200 children (age 1-5 years with inguinal hernia who operated in Imam-Reza Hospital (kermanshah –Iran Between April 2007 until April 2008 enrolled into the study. Cases were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into two groups (100 cases per group and operated with absorbable (silk 3-0 and non-absorbable (vicryli 3-0 suture material. Following period was 12 months after operation and collected data analyzed by statistical software. Emergency operations were excluded from the study.Results: 83% of patients were boy and 17% were girl. %53 showed right side inguinal, 29% left side and %18 were bilateral hernia. After one year follow up only one case of recurrence was observed in each group.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that recurrence of inguinal hernia in children after surgery, is not related to kind of suture material (absorbability and we didn’t find any significant difference. Other factors than suture material may influence recurrence rate of hernia operation in children.

Omid Amanollahi

2011-09-01

265

Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, Learning, etc., as all these are covered in anumbrella namely Soft Skills. No technology can attain maximum efficiency without the Human Intervention evenit is fully automated. This paper attempts to explain the problems faced by the ERP consultants before, during andafter the implementation.

Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

2013-08-01

266

Characteristics of opportunistic species of the Corynebacterium and related coryneforms isolated from different clinical materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking into account the increasing contribution of species, which enter into the composition of purely physiological flora of the organism, of the Corynebacterium type and related coryneforms in opportunistic infections in people, the analysis of strains was made from different clinical materials from patients. Their identification was made on the basis of biochemical properties and their antibiotic sensitivity was characterized. It was found that strains with similar biochemical properties (C.striatum, C.amycolatum ) should be identified by means of genetic methods, all the more that they were isolated from clinically important materials. Out of the examined strains the biggest number of infections were caused by C.pseudodiphtheriticum, next C. striatum/C. amycolatum, Brevibacterium sp., C.propinquum, one: C.afermentans, C.jeikeium, C.group G, C.group F1, C.accolens, C.macqinleyi. The highest sensitivity of isolated strains was to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Imipenem. PMID:15315020

Chudnicka, Alina; Kozio?-Montewka, Maria

2003-01-01

267

Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

268

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

269

Materials  

...de Interests: biomaterials; porous materials; scaffolds; tissue engineering; bioactive glasses; composite materials; waste recycling; carbon nanotubes; electrophoretic deposition; vascularization; bioceramics; biofabrication; bioactive coatings; drug delivery Contribution: Special Issue: Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Special Issue: Biodegradability of Materials in Biomedical Applications 2011 In other journals: Special Issue: Biodegradability of Materials in Biomedical Applications 2011 PD Dr. Dominik Brühwiler Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW), Institute of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Einsiedlerstrasse 31, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland Tel. +41 58 934 ...

270

Influence of magnetic quantization on the Einstein relation in non-linear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we have investigated the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under magnetic quantization in non-linear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by considering the crystal field constant, the anisotropies of the momentum-matrix element and the spin-orbit splitting constant, respectively, within the frame work of k·p formalism. The corresponding result for the three-band model of Kane (the conduction electrons of III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds obey this model) forms a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR under magnetic quantization has also been investigated for II-VI (on the basis of Hopfield model), bismuth (using the models of McClure and Choi, Cohen, Lax and parabolic ellipsoidal, respectively), and stressed materials (on the basis of model of Seiler et al.) by formulating the respective electron statistics under magnetic quantization incorporating the respective energy band constants. It has been found, taking n-CdGeAs 2, n-Hg 1-xCd xTe, p-CdS, and stressed n-InSb as examples of the aforementioned compounds, that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependence with the inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Subhnikov de Haas (SdH) effect with different numerical values. The DMR also increases with increasing carrier degeneracy and the nature of oscillations are totally dependent on their respective band structures in various cases. The classical expression of the DMR has been obtained as a special case from the results of all the materials as considered here under certain limiting conditions, and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. In addition, we have suggested an experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials under magnetic quantization having arbitrary dispersion laws. The three applications of our results in the presence of magneto-transport have further been suggested.

Ghatak, K. P.; Bhattacharya, S.; De, D.; Bose, P. K.; Mitra, S. N.; Pahari, S.

2008-08-01

271

Influence of magnetic quantization on the Einstein relation in non-linear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we have investigated the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under magnetic quantization in non-linear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by considering the crystal field constant, the anisotropies of the momentum-matrix element and the spin-orbit splitting constant, respectively, within the frame work of k.p formalism. The corresponding result for the three-band model of Kane (the conduction electrons of III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds obey this model) forms a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR under magnetic quantization has also been investigated for II-VI (on the basis of Hopfield model), bismuth (using the models of McClure and Choi, Cohen, Lax and parabolic ellipsoidal, respectively), and stressed materials (on the basis of model of Seiler et al.) by formulating the respective electron statistics under magnetic quantization incorporating the respective energy band constants. It has been found, taking n-CdGeAs2, n-Hg1-xCdxTe, p-CdS, and stressed n-InSb as examples of the aforementioned compounds, that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependence with the inverse quantizing magnetic field due to Subhnikov de Haas (SdH) effect with different numerical values. The DMR also increases with increasing carrier degeneracy and the nature of oscillations are totally dependent on their respective band structures in various cases. The classica structures in various cases. The classical expression of the DMR has been obtained as a special case from the results of all the materials as considered here under certain limiting conditions, and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. In addition, we have suggested an experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials under magnetic quantization having arbitrary dispersion laws. The three applications of our results in the presence of magneto-transport have further been suggested

272

Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical model for describing effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of nanocrystalline materials has been proposed, so that the ETC can be easily obtained from its grain size, single crystal thermal conductivity, single crystal phonon mean free path (PMFP), and the Kaptiza thermal resistance. In addition, the relative importance between grain boundaries (GBs) and size effects on the ETC of nanocrystalline diamond at 300?K has been studied. It has been demonstrated that with increasing grain size, both GBs and size effects become weaker, while size effects become stronger on thermal conductivity than GBs effects. PMID:25391882

Dong, Huicong; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick

2014-01-01

273

DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials  

Science.gov (United States)

High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

2002-05-14

274

Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical model for describing effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of nanocrystalline materials has been proposed, so that the ETC can be easily obtained from its grain size, single crystal thermal conductivity, single crystal phonon mean free path (PMFP), and the Kaptiza thermal resistance. In addition, the relative importance between grain boundaries (GBs) and size effects on the ETC of nanocrystalline diamond at 300?K has been studied. It has been demonstrated that with increasing grain size, both GBs and size effects become weaker, while size effects become stronger on thermal conductivity than GBs effects. PMID:25391882

Dong, Huicong; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick

2014-01-01

275

Rapid photometric determination of phosphorus in iron ores and related materials as phosphomolybdenum-blue.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid, simple and accurate method for determining phosphorus photometrically in iron ores and related materials, obviating the use of perchloric acid, is described. The sample is fused with sodium peroxide in a zirconium crucible and the melt dissolved in hydrochloric acid. The molybdenum-blue complex is developed by the addition of ammonium molybdate and hydrazine sulphate and the absorbance is measured at 725 nm. The range of the method is from 0.005 to 1.0% P. A batch of 6 samples can be analysed in about 2 hr. PMID:18963595

Bhargava, O P; Gmitro, M

1984-04-01

276

Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find that relative erodibility (for fixed erosive forcing and variable rock type) is well-predicted by power functions of tensile strength and grain size for each of the erosional processes studied. This result is consistent with fracture mechanics theory applied to brittle materials subjected to low (sub-ballistic) velocity impacts or collisions. Theory suggests that absolute erodiblity can be quantified as the impact kinetic energy required to detach a unit volume of material, which can be parameterized as a power function of tensile strength, elastic modulus and grain size. Theory also helps explain the high degree of correlation among many of the rock material properties we measured, an attribute of the data set that can be used to develop other predictive relations using more-easily measured rock attributes such as dry bulk density or Schmidt hammer rebound number. These relationships can be used for temporal scaling where weak materials are used in the laboratory to accelerate erosion processes that are much slower in strong rocks in the field, and for collapsing field and lab erosion rate measurements collected across multiple rock types. The community would benefit from a shared database of linked measurements of rock material properties, erosion rates, and details of erosion dynamics for a variety of rock detachment mechanisms.

Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

2012-12-01

277

76 FR 62804 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Meetings To Discuss Resource Issues Related to the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Stakeholder Team and Shoreline Management Resource Committee: Wednesday...resource committees and stakeholder team as part of its consultation...Committee: Operations models. Duke Stakeholder Team and Shoreline Management Resource Committee:...

2011-10-11

278

The influence of illness-related variables, personal resources and context-related factors on real-life functioning of people with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In people suffering from schizophrenia, major areas of everyday life are impaired, including independent living, productive activities and social relationships. Enhanced understanding of factors that hinder real-life functioning is vital for treatments to translate into more positive outcomes. The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of real-life functioning in people with schizophrenia, and to assess their relative contribution. Based on previous literature and clinical experience, several factors were selected and grouped into three categories: illness-related variables, personal resources and context-related factors. Some of these variables were never investigated before in relationship with real-life functioning. In 921 patients with schizophrenia living in the community, we found that variables relevant to the disease, personal resources and social context explain 53.8% of real-life functioning variance in a structural equation model. Neurocognition exhibited the strongest, though indirect, association with real-life functioning. Positive symptoms and disorganization, as well as avolition, proved to have significant direct and indirect effects, while depression had no significant association and poor emotional expression was only indirectly and weakly related to real-life functioning. Availability of a disability pension and access to social and family incentives also showed a significant direct association with functioning. Social cognition, functional capacity, resilience, internalized stigma and engagement with mental health services served as mediators. The observed complex associations among investigated predictors, mediators and real-life functioning strongly suggest that integrated and personalized programs should be provided as standard treatment to people with schizophrenia. PMID:25273301

Galderisi, Silvana; Rossi, Alessandro; Rocca, Paola; Bertolino, Alessandro; Mucci, Armida; Bucci, Paola; Rucci, Paola; Gibertoni, Dino; Aguglia, Eugenio; Amore, Mario; Bellomo, Antonello; Biondi, Massimo; Brugnoli, Roberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; De Ronchi, Diana; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Fagiolini, Andrea; Marchesi, Carlo; Monteleone, Palmiero; Oldani, Lucio; Pinna, Federica; Roncone, Rita; Sacchetti, Emilio; Santonastaso, Paolo; Siracusano, Alberto; Vita, Antonio; Zeppegno, Patrizia; Maj, Mario

2014-10-01

279

Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

280

Ab initio study of the unusual thermal transport properties of boron arsenide and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, using a first principles approach, we predicted that zinc blende boron arsenide (BAs) will have an ultrahigh lattice thermal conductivity, ?, of over 2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature (RT), comparable to that of diamond. Here, we provide a detailed ab initio examination of phonon thermal transport in boron arsenide, contrasting its unconventional behavior with that of other related materials, including the zinc blende crystals boron nitride (BN), boron phosphide, boron antimonide, and gallium nitride (GaN). The unusual vibrational properties of BAs contribute to its weak phonon-phonon scattering and phonon-isotope scattering, which are responsible for its exceptionally high ?. The thermal conductivity of BAs has contributions from phonons with anomalously large mean free paths (˜2 ?m), two to three times those of diamond and BN. This makes ? in BAs sensitive to phonon scattering from crystal boundaries. An order of magnitude smaller RT thermal conductivity in a similar material, zinc blende GaN, is connected to more separated acoustic phonon branches, larger anharmonic force constants, and a large isotope mixture on the heavy rather than the light constituent atom. The striking difference in ? for BAs and GaN demonstrates the importance of using a microscopic first principles thermal transport approach for calculating ?. BAs also has an advantageous RT coefficient of thermal expansion, which, combined with the high ? value, suggests that it is a promising material for use in thermal management applications.

Broido, D. A.; Lindsay, L.; Reinecke, T. L.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Creating organizational cultures : Re-conceptualizing the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine NØrholm

2012-01-01

282

Creating Organizational Cultures : Re-Conceptualizing the Relations Between Rhetorical Strategies and Material Practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

Mouton, Nico; Just, Sine NØrholm

2012-01-01

283

Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species. PMID:24523893

Rivers, James W; Johnson, J Matthew; Haig, Susan M; Schwarz, Carl J; Glendening, John W; Burnett, L Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

2014-01-01

284

Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species.

Johnson, J. Matthew; Haig, Susan M.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Glendening, John W.; Burnett, L. Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

2014-01-01

285

Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with sodium azide to prevent microbial degradation, all samples showed oscillating concentrations of PAH over time pointing to the presence of anaerobic biodegradation. This also had an impact on the temporal development of pH, DOC and electrical conductivity. However, the concentrations of PAH desorbed were very low; for components with a molecular weight higher than pyrene, no desorption was observed at all. On a percentage basis, more PAH desorbed from the BK sample, even though the BMR sample contained an up to ten times higher amount of PAH. In addition, the organic material of the sludges was characterised by C and N elemental and sugar analysis and 13C CPMAS NMR to see how the type of organic material influenced desorption. It was shown that the two sludges did not differ significantly in the amount but more in the type of organic material. The BK sample contained organic material which was more degraded than the BMR sample. By combining desorption behaviour with organic material characterisation, we will show how the type of organic material influences desorption of PAH from the sediments.

Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

2009-04-01

286

Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

2009-09-08

287

The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

288

Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

289

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

2002-02-26

290

Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidatiodreduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation shows that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LO1 stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Si&icant bias also requires that UO1 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U30s clsning LO1 testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on wellestablished literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LO1 weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confum these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LO1 oxidatiodreduction biases. LO1 bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Stakebake, J. L. (Jerry L.); Cooper, T. D. (Thruman D.)

2001-01-01

291

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temng LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable

292

Review on electrode-electrolyte solution interactions, related to cathode materials for Li-ion batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we review some critical aspects related to interactions between cathode materials and electrolyte solutions in lithium-ion batteries. Previous results are briefly summarized, together with the presentation of new results. This review deals with the basic anodic stability of commonly-used electrolyte solutions for Li-ion batteries (mostly based on alkyl carbonate solvents). We discuss herein the surface chemistry of the following cathode materials: LiCoO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}, LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, and LiFePO{sub 4}. The methods applied included solution studies by ICP, Raman, X-ray photoelectron and FTIR spectroscopies, and electron microscopy, all in conjunction with electrochemical techniques. General phenomena are the possible dissolution of transition metal ions from these materials, which leads to changes in the active mass and a retardation in the electrode kinetics due to the formation of blocking surface films. These phenomena are significant mostly at elevated temperatures and in electrolyte solutions containing acidic species. Water-contaminated LiPF{sub 6} solutions can reach a high concentration of acidic species (e.g., HF), which is detrimental to the performance of materials such as LiCoO{sub 2} and LiFePO{sub 4}. Both LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} and LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, even when used as nanomaterials, show a high stability in commonly-used electrolyte solutions at high temperatures. This stability is attributed to unique surface chemistry that is correlated to the presence of Ni ions in the lattice. (author)

Aurbach, Doron; Markovsky, Boris; Salitra, Gregory; Markevich, Elena; Talyossef, Yossi; Koltypin, Maxim [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nazar, Linda; Ellis, Brian [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Kovacheva, Daniella [IGIC, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2007-03-20

293

Kaynak Ba??ml?l??? Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizli?i ve Mü?teri -Tedarikçi Aras?ndaki ?li?kisel De?i?ime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

Gürhan UYSAL

2008-01-01

294

Einstein relation in n-i-p-i and microstructures of nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestions for an experimental determination  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) for n-i-p-i and the microstructures of nonlinear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The respective DMRs for II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials have been studied. It has been found that taking CdGeAs 2, Cd 3As 2, InAs, InSb, Hg 1- xCd xTe, In 1- xGa xAs yP 1- y lattices matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe and Pb 1- xSn xSe and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with increasing electron concentration in various manners with different numerical magnitudes which reflect the different signatures of the n-i-p-i systems and the corresponding microstructures. We have suggested an experimental method of determining the DMR in this case and the present simplified analysis is in agreement with the suggested relationship. In addition, our results find three applications in the field of quantum effect devices.

Ghatak, K. P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pahari, S.; De, D.; Benedictus, R.

2009-09-01

295

Einstein's Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

These web pages contain material explaining Einstein's general and special theories of relativity. Gravity and warped spacetime are included, along with explanations of the impact on observational astronomy. This is part of Astronomy Notes, an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes.

Strobel, Nick

2004-06-13

296

Arts Education Advocacy: The Relative Effects of School-Level Influences on Resources for Arts Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…

Miksza, Peter

2013-01-01

297

Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support. Practical Resources for Public Engagement, Public Relations, and Marketing.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing recognition that public perception of education is an essential component of soliciting support, this guide is intended to help public-school principals refine their approaches to communication, marketing, public affairs, and public relations. It instructs principals on looking at public engagement, on building public support, on…

National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

298

New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

2008-01-01

299

A Study of Travel Agencies’ Human Resources in Relation to Internet Marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When technological advances emerge in electronic commerce, travel agencies rapidly take account of their application in Internet marketing. Internet marketing presents many advantages to its users, such as the ability to break the barriers of time and space, convenience and speed of trade between travel agencies and consumers, ability to provide customers with sufficient information of travel services and products, and low cost. In order to take advantage of the new Internet market, travel agencies have already set up websites to attract potential customers. However, the traditional marketing of travel agencies generally depends on the sales force, because travel agency representatives act not only as salespeople, but also as guides and escorts. Therefore, personal selling offers the benefits of evaluating travel courses in advance, providing information on various choices, and accompanying customers throughout the trip to help them feel at ease. Since Internet marketing and personal selling both have their own advantages, should travel agency salespeople feel threatened by the emergence of Internet marketing? Will the marketing functions impact travel agency salespeople because consumers purchase services on the Internet themselves? The purpose of this study is to discover whether the travel agencies salespeople feel threatened by the development of Internet marketing. Also, this study seeks to reveal the specific personal thoughts of travel agency salespeople if they do feel threatened. At its conclusion, this study will provide suggestions for training programs or criteria of recruitment for the human resource directors in travel agencies. Also, those interested in travel business may use the results of this study as guidelines as they prepare themselves for the impact of Internet marketing.

Huang-Wei Su

2011-03-01

300

Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

Raskovic Matevz

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

1993-12-01

302

The contribution of renewable resources in meeting Turkey's energy-related challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of renewable energy as a key way for resolving the Turkey's energy-related challenges. As a consequence of economic and social development, Turkey's energy consumption has risen dramatically over the past three decades. At present, fossil fuels account for more than 90% of the total energy consumption in the country. Turkey has no large oil and natural gas reserves and it import nearly all of these fossil fuels. Turkey's current energy mix is not likely to support development of sustainable energy. The energy mix shows a relatively small contribution from renewable energy sources in the country. They have the potential to make a large contribution to Turkey's sustainable and independent energy future. In particular they can help to reach the environmental goals of Turkey and to increase the security of energy supply by reducing the dependence on imported-fuel supplies. (author)

303

Global business, local law: the Indian legal system as a communal resource in foreign investment relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This volume establishes a theoretical framework for exploring the role of host state legal systems (courts and bureaucracies) in mediating relations between foreign investment, civil society and government actors. It then demonstrates the application of that framework in the context of the south Indian city of Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore). Drawing on the 'law-and-community' approach of Roger Cotterrell, the volume identifies three mechanisms through which law might, in theory, ensure that s...

Perry-kessaris, Amanda

2008-01-01

304

Drug2Gene: an exhaustive resource to explore effectively the drug-target relation network  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Information about drug-target relations is at the heart of drug discovery. There are now dozens of databases providing drug-target interaction data with varying scope, and focus. Therefore, and due to the large chemical space, the overlap of the different data sets is surprisingly small. As searching through these sources manually is cumbersome, time-consuming and error-prone, integrating all the data is highly desirable. Despite a few attempts, integration has been hampered by the diversity of descriptions of compounds, and by the fact that the reported activity values, coming from different data sets, are not always directly comparable due to usage of different metrics or data formats. Description We have built Drug2Gene, a knowledge base, which combines the compound/drug-gene/protein information from 19 publicly available databases. A key feature is our rigorous unification and standardization process which makes the data truly comparable on a large scale, allowing for the first time effective data mining in such a large knowledge corpus. As of version 3.2, Drug2Gene contains 4,372,290 unified relations between compounds and their targets most of which include reported bioactivity data. We extend this set with putative (i.e. homology-inferred) relations where sufficient sequence homology between proteins suggests they may bind to similar compounds. Drug2Gene provides powerful search functionalities, very flexible export procedures, and a user-friendly web interface. Conclusions Drug2Gene v3.2 has become a mature and comprehensive knowledge base providing unified, standardized drug-target related information gathered from publicly available data sources. It can be used to integrate proprietary data sets with publicly available data sets. Its main goal is to be a ‘one-stop shop’ to identify tool compounds targeting a given gene product or for finding all known targets of a drug. Drug2Gene with its integrated data set of public compound-target relations is freely accessible without restrictions at http://www.drug2gene.com. PMID:24618344

2014-01-01

305

A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

2014-01-01

306

Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John C.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

2010-01-01

307

The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

Palenskis, V., E-mail: vilius.palenskis@ff.vu.lt [Radiophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Saul?tekio al. 9, LT-10222, Vilnius (Lithuania)

2014-04-15

308

Analysis of Commercial Vegetable Tannin materials and Related Polyphenols of Selected Acacia Species in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tannins and related polyphenols from twelve indigenous and exotic woody plant species were studied by different methods (Hide powder method, combined method, Folin-Denis method, and Hagerman Butler method with objectives of evaluating the quantity and quality of extractable tannins for comparison with standard Acacia mearnsii (wattle tannins. The result showed that of the sixteen parts studied, nine had more than 10% tannin content and were thus suitable for commercial exploitation. Thin layer and paper chromatography indicated and confirmed the differences of the chemical nature of the materials as mixed (Hydrolysable-condensed and condensed tannins. The protein precipitation behaviours confirmed complexity and differences in their nature and potentiality for tanning or other uses compared with A. mearnsii. The tannin type of Acacia nilotica species was of hydrolysable-condensed while that of A. mearnsii was of condensed type.

Mahdi Haroun

2013-01-01

309

Positron annihilation spectroscopy in the study of quasicrystals and their related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in the study of quasicrystals (QC's) and their related materials (crystalline approximants) by using positron annihilation spectroscopy are reviewed. We describe how a series of positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied for the studies of aperiodic QC's. Positron lifetime measurements revealed the presence of high concentration of structural vacancies giving rise to saturation trapping for QC's and approximants studied. Chemical environments around the structural vacancies were successfully clarified by coincident Doppler broadening measurements. In addition, the concentrations of structural vacancies were estimated by analyzing the positron diffusion data obtained by a slow positron beam under the saturation trapping condition. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

310

Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

311

Some classes of inelastic materials related problems basic to future technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This mainly philosophic look ahead to the future highlights a number of developing classes of materials-related mechanics problems on the microscale and the macroscale. Each appears to be of considerable practical importance, intellectually stimulating, and likely to be very difficult. The list includes: the mechanics of response of lightly and heavily damaged structures and microstructures to further loading, the development of design theorems for the microscale and macroscale which contain suitable measures of damage, mechanics guidance for the development and interpretation of the remarkably sensitive and discerning NDE ultrasonic measurements that are now becoming possible for creep and fatigue damage, the mechanics of chemically active solids, and the mechanics of enormous strain rates, strains, stresses and temperatures likely to be encountered in power generation by fusion. The paper closes with attention to the need to capture the essence of reality rather than its full complexity. (orig.)

312

The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas  

Science.gov (United States)

Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

Palenskis, V.

2014-04-01

313

The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

V. Palenskis

2014-04-01

314

Analysis of CdTe solar cells in relation to materials issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By now, extensive experimental research is available on thin film solar cells based on CdTe and on CIGS, and their electrical and optical behaviour is characterised by a multitude of diverse characterisation techniques. At the same time, numerical simulation programmes have matured and are available to the research community to assist in interpreting these measurements consistently. Once multiple measurements are (more or less) quantitatively described, the numerical simulation can be used to explore the effect of a variation of materials parameter (e.g. the presence or absence of a property, or variation in a range of values) to the final solar cell characteristics. Examples of such analysis for CdTe solar cells are shown. In CdTe cells, much research has been devoted to the activation treatment of the absorber, and to the technology of the back contact. Analysis of ample measurements has evidenced the crucial role of the profile of the (effective) doping density through the device. It will be illustrated how this relative simple (but hardly mastered) materials property has a far reaching influence to the cell characteristics such as roll-over and cross-over of I-V curves, also in dependence on illumination and voltage, conventional and apparent quantum efficiency, and finally fill factor and efficiency

315

Estimating the backscatter spectral dependence and relative concentration for multiple aerosol materials from lidar data  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection and estimation of materials in the atmosphere by lidar has heretofore required that the spectral dependence of the relevant cross section coefficients -- backscatter in the case of aerosols and absorptivity for vapors -- be known in advance. While this typically is a reasonable assumption in the case of vapor, the aerosol backscatter coefficients are complicated functions of particle size, shape, and refractive index, and are therefore usually not well characterized a priori. Using incorrect parameters will give biased concentration estimates and impair discrimination ability. This paper describes an approach for estimating both the spectral dependence of the aerosol backscatter and relative concentration range-dependence of a set of materials using multi-wavelength lidar. The approach is based on state-space filtering that applies a Kalman filter in range for concentration, and updates the backscatter spectral estimates through a sequential least-squares algorithm at each time step. The method is illustrated on aerosol-release data of the bio-simulant ovalbumin collected by ECBC during field tests in 2002, as well as synthetic data sets.

Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

2004-08-01

316

A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2 While innovative differentiation orientates establishmentstowards participative management, empowerment, and proactive selection and placement policies, competitivedifferentiation influences only the empowerment factor in a sense of a provision of initiative. The cost leadershipstrategy does not have any meaningful effect on HR policies. The only meaningful influence of the focusstrategy on the HR policies is on the proactive selection and placement policies, and this influence is a negativeone. (3 When the results related with the harmony between the competitive strategy and the HR architecture areexamined, it turns out that the participative management, the long term training policies, the proactive HRpolicies, and partly the generous compensation policies are more successful even under different strategies incomparison with the dictating, short term, reactive and ungenerous HR policies. In terms of quantitativeperformance, to select a differentiation strategy and apply HR policies that are participative, proactive andgenerous is much more effective than to look for the perfect harmony between strategy and HR policies.

Binali Dogan

2014-02-01

317

Evolution of cyanobacteria by exchange of genetic material among phyletically related strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cyanobacterial radiation consists of several lineages of phyletically (morphologically and genetically) related organisms. Several of these organisms show a striking resemblance to fossil counterparts. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for stabilizing or homogenizing cyanobacterial characters, we compared the evolutionary rates and phylogenetic origins of the small-subunit rRNA-encoding DNA (16S rDNA), the conserved gene rbcL (encoding D-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase large subunit), and the less conserved gene rbcX. This survey includes four categories of phyletically related organisms: 16 strains of Microcystis, 6 strains of Tychonema, 10 strains of Planktothrix, and 12 strains of Nostoc. Both rbcL and rbcX can be regarded as neutrally evolving genes, with 95 to 100% and 50 to 80% synonymous nucleotide substitutions, respectively. There is generally low sequence divergence within the Microcystis, Tychonema, and Planktothrix categories both for rbcLX and 16S rDNA. The Nostoc category, on the other hand, consists of three genetically clustered lineages for these loci. The 16S rDNA and rbcLX phylogenies are not congruent for strains within the clustered groups. Furthermore, analysis of the phyletic structure for rbcLX indicates recombinational events between the informative sites within this locus. Thus, our results are best explained by a model involving both intergenic and intragenic recombinations. This evolutionary model explains the DNA sequence clustering for the modern species as a result of sequence homogenization (concerted evolution) caused by exchange of genetic material for neutrally evolving genes. The morphological clustering, on the other hand, is explained by structural and functional stability of these characters. We also suggest that exchange of genetic material for neutrally evolving genes may explain the apparent stability of cyanobacterial morphological characters, perhaps over billions of years. PMID:9642201

Rudi, K; Skulberg, O M; Jakobsen, K S

1998-07-01

318

Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

2013-05-01

319

Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

320

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this dispos

 
 
 
 
321

Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. PMID:24036656

S?del, M; Bilski, P; Swako?, J

2014-10-01

322

Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

323

Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

324

Relation of bulk precipitation and evapotranspiration to water quality and water resources, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, lies in what can be considered a true maritime regime, being 600 miles (1000 kilometers) from the nearest continental landmass. The island is composed almost entirely of volcanic rocks mantled by a thin soil seldom more than 2 feet (60 centimeters) thick. Rainfall, averaging about 40 inches (1020 millimeters) annually, has an orographic distribution related to the central ridge of the island, altitude 600 to 1500 feet (180 to 405 meters), and the easterly to northeasterly trade winds. The mineral content of bulk precipitation falling on the island is derived principally from the sea although soil dust contributes much of the calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. Two-thirds of the sulfate in the precipitation is provided by sea salts; the remainder is derived from other sources. The concentration of the constituents of bulk precipitation fluctuates widely month to month, but the load of the constituents shows little monthly variation. Bulk precipitation is concentrated on the land surface and in the soil zone. From there it is carried into the ground water during recharge or is removed by storm-water runoff. It is the principal source of minerals in the waters of the island. Soil-moisture demand and evaporation limits recharge to 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) annually for the greater part of the island. Evapotranspiration also occurs directly from the aquifer. The salts left further increase the mineralization of the ground water. Water loss from the aquifer by evapotranspiration ranges from 40 to 80 percent of the recharge. Recharge to the aquifers and evapotranspiration of ground water determined by ratios of chloride concentrations in bulk precipitation, surface water, and subsurface water agree favorably with recharge and groundwater loss computed by other means.

Jordan, Donald George; Fisher, Donald W.

1977-01-01

325

Material-related measuring methods for the nanotechnology; Materialspezifische Messverfahren fuer die Nanotechnologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimization of functionalities of nanoscale systems required a comprehensive knowledge of material properties. Besides the material and product development the quality and production control needs measuring methods that are adjusted to the respective dimensions. The measuring methods require calibration standards and nanoscale reference materials. The article describes the material-specific measuring methods for the nanotechnology developed by PTB, that allow the determination of relevant material characteristics without reference materials. The article covers the following topics: X-ray spectrometry using synchrotron radiation, contamination control, elemental analysis, depth profiles and chemical binding state, micro- and nanoforce measuring technique for scanning force microscopy and nanoindentation.

Beckhoff, Burkhard; Hoenicke, Philipp; Kolbe, Michael; Mueller, Matthias; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Reinhardt, Falk; Weser, Jan [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Roentgenspektrometrie' ; Brand, Uwe; Nesterov, Vladimir [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Nanokraftmesstechnik' ; Herrmann, Konrad [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Haerte- und Schichtdickenmesstechnik'

2011-06-15

326

Synthesis and Electron Field-Emission of 1-D Carbon-Related Nanostructured Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon nanotubes, a new stable form of carbon that was first identified in 1991 [1], are fullerene-related structures which consist of graphitic cylinders closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. Although carbon nanotube structures are closely related to graphite, the curvature, symmetry and small size induce marked deviations from the graphitic behavior. Various methods have been used to produce carbon nanotubes, e.g., arc-discharge, laser-vaporization, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, but too many impurities also be produced, such as fullerenes, carbon nanoparticles and amorphous carbons. The microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system has been used to grow carbon nanotubes in this work and other 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials was synthesized by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system. Plasma is generated by microwave excitation at 2.45 GHz by a magnetron passes through a waveguide and fed perpendicularly through a quartz dome into an 875 G magnetic field generated by the coils surrounding the resonance volume that creates the ECR condition. The deposition chamber was pumped down to the base pressure of 6.7X10-4 Pa (5X10-6 Torr) with a turbomolecular pump for ECR-plasma and subatmospheric pressures for MPECVD by a rotary mechanical pump. Well-aligned carbon-related nanostructures have been synthesized in nanoporous alumina or silicon with a uniform diameter of 30-100 nm by microwave excited plasma of CH_4, C_2H_2, N_2, H2 and Ar precursors. Nickel nanowires not only serve as catalysts to decompose hydrocarbons to form nanostructures but also function as an electrical conductor for other advanced applications. A negative dc bias is always applied to the substrate to promote the flow of ion fluxes through the nanochannels of the template materials that facilitate the physical adsorption and subsequent chemical absorption in the formation of carbon- and carbon-nitride nanotubes[2]. The electron field emission characteristics of the 1-D carbon-related nanostructures were measured by the conventional diode method at an ambient pressure of 1.3X10-3 Pa (10-5 Torr). The films (1X1-cm^2) were separated from the anode by ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass, where a glass fiber spacer was maintained at 150 ?m from the cathode. The current density and electric field characteristics were measured using a Keithley 237 electrometer. A range of onset electron emission field from 3.5 to 1.5 V/?m and an emission current density up to 1 mA/cm^2 at 3V/?m have been achieved in this study, apparently superior to other carbon-based electron field emitters[3]. The results were reproducible over a period of weeks and the nanotubes did not degrade physically when exposing to a humid air of RH 90using the Fowler-Nordheim model, I=aV^2 exp (-b?_e^3/2/V) , where a and b are constants. The turn-on voltage was estimated as the voltage deviating from ln(I/V^2)-1/V curve. The effective work function (?_e=?/?) of the arrayed carbon nanotubes was calculated from the slope of the Fowler-Nordheim plot, where the value of ?, the field enhancement factor, was found to be 1517. This value increased to 3357 when nitrogen was doped, but decreased to 974 when boron was doped. The incorporation of nitrogen or boron into the carbon network apparently changes the original nanostructure and the chemical bonding. The structural and compositional modification by the incorporation of nitrogen, boron, or hydrogen into the 1-D carbon-related nanostructured materials were analyzed by FTIR , XPS , Raman spectroscopy , and FE-SEM . Various forms in connection with 1-D nanostructured materials applicable to the NEMS , e.g. , nanowelding of nanotubes[4], tubes on tube , open-end nanotubes and coils of nanofiber and nanotubes have been produced in this research depending on the plasma chemistry, catalytic effect and the design of template. [1]. S. Iijima, Nature 354, 56 (1991). [2]. S. L. Sung, S. H. Tsai, C. H. Tseng, X. W. Liu, and H. C. Shih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 197 (1999). [3]. S. H. Tsai,

Shih, Han C.

2002-10-01

327

Electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide related materials and first-principles theory of electrochromism  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungsten trioxide WO3 is an interesting semiconductor with a wide-range of potential applications. One important property of WO 3 is its electrochromic behavior, which has generated significant research interest. Electrochromic materials exhibit reversible and persistent changes of the optical properties, hence their color, upon applying an electrical pulse. The applications of the electrochromic WO3 range from information display, light shutters, to energy efficient smart windows. Although there are many materials that exhibit electrochromic behavior, tungsten trioxide is one of the most extensively studied ones due to its superior coloration efficiency, short response time and reversibility. Enhanced electrochromic properties in WO3 nanowires have been reported recently. Despite much research effort, a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in this material has not emerged. In this work, we establish a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in NaxWOx, which is also able to explain the electrochromism in WO3. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to electrochromism in WO3 and related materials. In Chapter 2, we summarize the theories and computational methods used in this work including the local density approximation (LDA) within density functional theory (DFT), pseudopotential planewave formalism and the GW approximation. We study the crystal and electronic structures of WO3 in Chapter 3. WO3 has a basic octahedron structure. From -140 ˜ 830°C, the crystal structure changes from monoclinic to triclinic, again monoclicnic, then successively orthorhombic, tetragonal, and again tetragonal. Several groups have investigated the electronic structure of WO3 within DFT, but the band gap is severely underestimated compared with experiment. We have carried out quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. The calculated band gap is much closer to experimental results. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 discuss the optical properties and coloration mechanism of WO3 upon charge insertion. The calculated dielectric functions, reflectance, transmission and absorption coefficient agree very well with experiments. Our results explain the systematic change in color of Na3WO3 from blue to golden-yellow with increasing sodium concentration x. We find that proper accounts for the free-carriers contribution to the optical response are critical for a quantitative understanding of the coloration mechanism in this system. Besides WO3, we have studied another "smart material", VO2. The results are reported in chapter 6. The most interesting property of VO2 is its metal-insulator transition (MIT) at T c=340 K. The crystal structure changes from a high-temperature rutile phase to a low-temperature monoclinic phase at Tc. The MIT in VO2 has led to many practical applications such as thermocoatings, optical switching devices etc. However, it has long been a controversial issue regarding the mechanism behind the MIT. It is still not clear whether the insulating behavior is driven by the electron correlation or structural distortions. In this work, we perform first-principles electronic structure calculation using both LDA and LDAU method. It is found that the correlation effect is very important to explain the insulating phase of VO2. However, correlation effects alone cannot help open a band gap for the insulating phase of VO2. Structural distortion also plays an important role. It seems that it is the subtle interplay between the electron-electron correlation and electron-lattice interaction that ultimately drives the development of an insulating gap.

Xue, Yu

328

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 28 February 2003 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Note Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

329

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 25 October 2004 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

330

The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of the proposed facilities and utility trenches. The public cannot be directly exposed to the vapor plume beneath MDA C because Pajarito Road is closed to the public.

Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-02

331

The position of IAEA safeguards relative to nuclear material control accountancy by States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

IAEA Safeguards, which are always implemented on the basis of agreements which are concluded between one or more Governments and the IAEA, lay down the rights and obligations of the parties; and the more modern types of agreement, in particular those in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, do this in quite some detail. Several articles, for instance, regulate the working relations between the States and the IAEA inspectorate. These are based on two basic obligations - that of the State to establish and maintain a ''System of Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Material'' and that of the IAEA to ascertain the absence of diversion of nuclear material by verifying the findings of the States' systems, inter alia through independent measurements and observations. Other articles dealing also with the working relations between States and the IAEA rule that the IAEA should take due account of the technical effectiveness of the States' systems and mention among the criteria for determining the inspection effort, the extent of functional dependence of the State's accountancy on that of the facility operator. However, quantitative relationships in this respect are left to be worked out in practice. With the help of consultants and expert advisory groups a rationale has been developed and possible practical arrangements discussed with several States concerned. The rationale for co-ordinating the work of the States' inspectorate with that of the IAEA was to use a factor by which the significant quantity used for calculating verification sampling plans would be adjusted so as to reduce to a certain extent the IAEA's independent verification work in case the States would themselves do extensive verifications in a manner transparent to the IAEA. However, in practice it proved that there are a number of points in the fuel cycle where such adaptations would have little or no effect on the inspection effort necessary to achieve the safeguards objective. Such a strategic point is, e.g. the input to a reprocessing plant, as it must in any case be verified continuously by the responsible inspectorate. Ad-hoc co-ordination arrangements had to be invented for several key measurement points and various safeguards techniques. A selection of such solutions is described and discussed. (author)

332

Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

Jiang, Hongxing

2008-10-31

333

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

334

Photovoltaic Effects of Retinal-Related Materials in Langmuir-Blodgett Films  

Science.gov (United States)

Multilayer films consisting of retinal, retinoic acid, and retinol were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. It was found for the first time that these three materials in Langmuir-Blodgett films exhibit different photovoltaic characteristics. To study this difference of photovoltaic characteristics, the surface pressure vs area isotherms of these materials were measured and the dipole moment of the materials were calculated.

Okazaki, Choichiro

1998-03-01

335

Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and support Member States in solving them through international collaboration under the IAEA’s aegis

336

Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

337

Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas o...

Okobia, E. O.

2011-01-01

338

High temperature fatigue behaviour of engineering materials in relation to microstructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to indicate how intergranular fracture can be used to rationalise a number of observations related to high temperature fatigue behaviour of metals and alloys. Two classes of materials are investigated in more detail: austenitic stainless steels and nickel base superalloys. The first part illustrates how microstructural features, such as slip character, dynamic strain-ageing, recovery, precipitation reaction and overageing, play an important role. In the second part, it is shown that at least three forms of microstructural damage, i.e. oxidation, grain boundary creep cavitation and slip-induced grain boundary cavitation, are responsible for intergranular fracture in high temperature fatigue conditions. These three types of damage are discussed successively in the light of published results. In the last part the effect of intergranular fracture on high temperature fatigue endurance is discussed. Several models dealing with this aspect are reviewed. An attempt is made to indicate how quantitative measurement of intergranular damage in austenitic stainless steels tested under hold time low cycle fatigue might provide a basis for the establishment of life prediction models. Indications for future work are given. (author)

339

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high Tc cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below ? 300 K towards the Neel temperature TN=257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K2NiF4-type spin 1/2 model compound Sr2CuO2Cl2 will be described. The spin 1/2 linear chain compound Sr2CuO3, the parent of the Sr2CuO3+? oxygen-doped superconductors, is found to exhibit classic Bonner-Fisher magnetic behavior, with a large antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange coupling constant. Studies of the evolution of La2-xSrxCuO4 with Sr doping in the insulating regime (x 2.1, a copper-oxygen cluster compound, exhibits ferromagnetic rather than antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange interactions. Finally, a summary of the magnetic properties of single crystals of the recently discovered RNi2B2C layered structure superconductors will be given. (orig.)

340

Roget's Thesaurus: a Lexical Resource to Treasure  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents the steps involved in creating an electronic lexical knowledge base from the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus. Semantic relations are labelled with the help of WordNet. The two resources are compared in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Differences in the organization of the lexical material are discussed, as well as the possibility of merging both resources.

Jarmasz, Mario

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Black Religion: A Bibliography of Fisk University Library Materials Relating to Various Aspects of Black Religious Life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undertaken as a project in the ethnic studies internship program at Fisk University in 1974, this bibliography identifies materials of potential interest to those studying black religion. Entries are listed under seven catagories: (1) black religion, (2) the church and race relations, (3) church and state in relation to balck religion, (4) church…

Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

342

Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects  

CERN Document Server

This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

Winget, Megan A

2008-01-01

343

Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Important levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leading multinational and national companies. In this article we raise questions about the government’s and private companies’ capability to give enough institutional support to this transformation process. We focus on the problem of providing skilled labour by analysing the production of graduates in secondary and tertiary educations and especially labour market related courses, and ask to what extent do institutions promote the upgrading efforts? In order to frame and contrast the Malaysian transformation efforts we make a comparison with Denmark, which also is in a transformation process to a more knowledge-based economy but began this process at an earlier stage than Malaysia. The countries have different traditions regarding participation and relations between the labour market and the government influencing supporting institutions. Our aim is to analyse some of the difficulties for a newly industrialising country to build up a new “soft” infrastructure (educational and human resource development institutions) to a more knowledge-based economy.

Fleming, Daniel; SØborg, Henrik

2010-01-01

344

Protective strength factors, resources, and risks in relation to depressive symptoms among childbearing women of Mexican descent.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an immigrant population becomes more prominent in an established culture, research strategies for examining intragroup differences are needed to understand their health care risks and strengths. However, acculturation also must be taken into account. Our objective in this secondary analysis was to identify the most useful acculturation parameter for examining depressive symptoms in relation to strengths and resources among women of Mexican descent living in the United States during the vulnerable perinatal period and to examine other intragroup differences among the women by childbearing status (pregnant or postpartum). Our secondary analysis was done with a subsample of 129 women from a larger cross-sectional study of 315 women of Mexican descent who were recruited from three urban community health centers and an associated bilingual school in the United States. Exposure to the United States in childhood, a poor sense of mastery, and dissatisfaction with life were more related to depressive symptom experience than childbearing status or more traditional demographic variables such as age, income, or education. PMID:14742112

Heilemann, MarySue; Frutos, Lisa; Lee, Kathyrn; Kury, Felix Salvador

2004-01-01

345

Análisis de calidad de los recursos estadísticos (sección material y método) en los proyectos de tesis de un departamento universitario / Quality analisis of the statistical used resources (material and methods seccion) in thesis projects of an universitary department  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Los estudios sobre la calidad de tesis y proyectos de investigación en ciencias biomédicas son muy escasos, pero de enorme interés para la docencia universitaria, por la necesidad académica de mejorar la calidad del proceso de elaboración de la tesis. Los objetivos del estu [...] dio fueron determinar la calidad de los proyectos de tesis de nuestro departamento, según el cumplimiento de la metodología científica y establecer, si existe, una relación entre la calidad global del proyecto y los recursos estadísticos utilizados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo en el que se analizaron 273 proyectos de tesis realizados entre 1995 y 2002 en el departamento de Cirugía de la Universidad de Zaragoza. La revisión se realizó por 15 observadores que analizaron 28 indicadores de cada proyecto. Dando un valor ponderado a cada uno de los indicadores, se calificaron los proyectos en una escala de 0 a 10 según la calidad en el cumplimiento de la metodología científica. RESULTADOS: La media de las calificaciones de los proyectos fue de 5,53 (D.E: 1,77.) Un 13,9% de los proyectos de tesis se concluyeron con la defensa y lectura del trabajo. En los tres indicadores de recursos estadísticos se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa con la valoración de la calidad de los proyectos. DISCUSIÓN: La calidad de los recursos estadísticos es de suma importancia cuando se quiere realizar un proyecto de tesis con buena metodología, ya que asegura llegar a conclusiones ciertas. En nuestro estudio hemos encontrado que más de la tercera parte de la variabilidad en la calidad del proyecto de tesis se explica por los tres ítems estadísticos referidos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION AND OBJETIVES: Studies about quality in thesis and investigation projects in biomedical sciences are unusual, but very important in university teaching because is necessary to improve the quality elaboration of the thesis. The objectives the study were to determine the project's quality [...] of thesis in our department, according to the fulfillment of the scientific methodology and to establish, if it exists, a relation between the global quality of the project and the statistical used resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study of 273 thesis projects performed between 1995-2002 in surgery department of the Zaragoza University. The review realized for 15 observers that they analyzed 28 indicators of every project. Giving a value to each of the indicators, the projects qualified in a scale from 1 to 10 according to the quality in the fulfillment of the scientific methodology. RESULTS: The mean of the project´s quality was 5.53 (D.E: 1.77). In 13.9% the thesis projects was concluded with the reading of the work. The three indicators of stadistical used resources had a significal difference with the value of the quality projects. DISCUSSION: The quality of the statistical resources is very important when a project of thesis wants to be realized by good methodology, because it assures to come to certain conclusions. In our study we have thought that more of the third part of the variability in the quality of the project of thesis explains for three statistical above-mentioned articles.

Ó., Regojo Zapata; F., Lamata Hernández; J.M., Sánchez Zalabardo; Á., Elizalde Benito; J., Navarro Gil; J.G., Valdivia Uría.

2004-09-01

346

Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPbmSbTem+2), LASTT-m-x (AgPbm-xSnxSbTem+2), LABST-m-x (AgPbmSb1-xBixTem+2), doped LAST-m and (PbTe)m(M152Te3) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic precipitates and crystal defects the thermal conductivity was generally low. Similar to other reports the powder processing caused a deleterious effect on the electrical conductivity. The comparison between short term annealed and long term sintered polycrystalline bulk samples revealed that the annealing temperature caused partly connected particles for the LAST-derivates but well sintered compacts for the non-LAST-compounds. For both classes, long-term sintering caused a simultanious increase of both thermopower and electrical conductivity which shows that co-ball milling leads to a decoupling of those two properties. This could prove usefull in further investigations and the development of new thermoelectric materials and the processing thereof.

347

Artslynx International Dance Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive directory for resources in the performance, history, and scholarship of dance is offered by Artslynx, a gateway for Web-based materials on the creative and performing arts. The site provides annotated links on dance related organizations, academies, schools, and companies; research and scholarship; publications and magazines; international competitions; dance-affiliated art; physical theater and performance art; ethnic and international dance resources; electronic mailing lists and Usenet groups; and much more. A search engine that encompasses the entire Artslynx gateway is available for users who wish to search the site.

348

Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

349

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (? 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap ? in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

350

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

Achatz, Philipp

2009-05-15

351

Bond strengths of New Carbon-nitride-Related material C2N2(CH2)  

Science.gov (United States)

A new carbon-nitride-related material C2N2(CH2) nanopletelet was synthesized by subjecting a precursor C3N4HxOy+Au in a laser-heating diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) to the pressure of 40 GPa and the temperature of 1200-2000 K. The synthesized C2N2(CH2) was accordingly found to be an orthorhombic unit cell of the space group Cmc21 with lattice constants a = 7.625Å, b = 4.490Å, and c = 4.047Å. The bulk modulus B0 was determined to be B0 = 258 ± 3.4 GPa, only the 60 % that of the diamond. C2N2(CH2) consists of the tetrahedrally coordinated C with three C-N single bond and the one C-C single bond, and the bridging carbon with the C-CH2-C bond. The C-N single bond length of the tetrahedron ranges from 1.444 to 1.503 Å. This bond length is close to the C-N single bond of 1.447 to 1.458 Å in the superhard ?-C3N4. The compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of C2N2(CH2) ranges from 0.976 to 0.982 with the pressure of 30 GPa. These values are very close to the compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of 0.978 to 0.982 in ?-C3N4, cubic-C3N4, and diamond.

Sougawa, M.; Sumiya, T.; Takarabe, K.; Mori, Y.; Okada, T.; Gotou, H.; Yagi, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Tomioka, N.; Katsura, T.; Kariyazaki, H.; Sueoka, K.; Kunitsugu, S.

2012-07-01

352

Safeguards resource management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of systems upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and cost and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers

353

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

354

Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

355

On the thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and related material properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate prediction of failure of solar cell arrays requires accuracy in the computation of thermally induced stresses. This was accomplished by using the finite element technique. Improved procedures for stress calculation were introduced together with failure criteria capable of describing a wide range of ductile and brittle material behavior. The stress distribution and associated failure mechanisms in the N-interconnect junction of two solar cell designs were then studied. In such stress and failure analysis, it is essential to know the thermomechanical properties of the materials involved. Measurements were made of properties of materials suitable for the design of lightweight arrays: microsheet-0211 glass material for the solar cell filter, and Kapton-H, Kapton F, Teflon, Tedlar, and Mica Ply PG-402 for lightweight substrates. The temperature-dependence of the thermal coefficient of expansion for these materials was determined together with other properties such as the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, and the stress-strain behavior up to failure.

Salama, M. A.; Bouquet, F. L.

1976-01-01

356

Properties of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide electrode material in relation to electrochemical generation of ozone  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?In this study, the properties of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO) electrode materials were investigated in relation to the electrochemical generation of ozone. The performance of NATO materials was correlated to ·OH radical generation and oxygen adsorption properties. Long-time ozone generation results suggested that surface property changes, including surface morphology, chemical composition and electro-catalyst thickness, could lead to ozone production rate decreased from ...

Wang, Bin; ??

2013-01-01

357

Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Materials at the Urban Scale-Relating Existing Process Life Cycle Assessment Studies to Urban Material and Waste Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many cities are engaged in efforts to calculate and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, most are accounting for “scope one” emissions i.e., GHGs produced within urban boundaries (for example, following the protocol of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives. Cities should also account for the emissions associated with goods, services and materials consumed within their boundaries, “scope three” emissions. The emissions related to urban consumption patterns and choices greatly influence overall emissions that can be associated with an urban area. However, data constraints and GHG accounting complexity present challenges. In this paper we propose one approach that cities can take to measure the GHG emissions of their material consumption: the solid waste life cycle assessment (LCA based approach. We used this approach to identify a set of materials commonly consumed within cities, and reviewed published life cycle assessment data to determine the GHG emissions associated with production of each. Our review reveals that among fourteen commonly consumed materials, textiles and aluminum are associated with the highest GHG emissions per tonne of production. Paper and plastics have relatively lower production emissions, but a potentially higher impact on overall emissions owing to their large proportions, by weight, in the consumption stream.

William E. Rees

2013-03-01

358

Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

Orellana, Jose Luis

359

Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-chamber test method was used. Results showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for two kinds of wallboards and carpet. The carpet was also found to be very permeable resulting in an effective diffusion coefficient at the same order of magnitude with the formaldehyde diffusion coefficient in air. The partition coefficient (K(ma)) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was 1.52 times larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, whereas it decreased slightly from 50% to 70% RH, presumably due to the combined effects of water solubility of formaldehyde and micro-pore blocking by condensed moisture at the high RH level. The partition coefficient of formaldehyde increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity in "green" wallboard and "green" carpet. At the same relative humidity level, the "green" wallboard had larger partition coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient than the conventional wallboard, presumably due to the micro-pore structure differences between the two materials. The data generated could be used to assess the sorption effects of formaldehyde on building materials and to evaluate its impact on the formaldehyde concentration in buildings. PMID:22788105

Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianshun S; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Zhi

2012-06-01

360

Genomic resources for gene discovery, functional genome annotation, and evolutionary studies of maize and its close relatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics. PMID:24037269

Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Kudrna, David A; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A; Luo, Meizhong

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Definition of Terms Relating to Reactions of Polymers and to Functional Polymeric Materials, VII.2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactions of polymers, particularly polymers with functional groups (crosslinking, grafting, complexation, reactive blending, etc. enable the preparation of polymeric materials of various properties (swelling, conductivity, photosensitivity, catalytic activity, etc. and functions (superabsorber, ion-exchanger, polyelectrolyte, supporter, surfactant, compatibilizer, etc.. Such an interdisciplinary branch of polymer chemistry requires clear and unified terminology. The present IUPAC recommendations fulfill this demand with definitions of 64 general and specific terms divided into three sections: reactions involving polymers; polymer reactants and reactive polymeric materials; functional polymeric materials. The document will contribute to the proper scientific and technological understanding of the field.

Jarm, V.

2009-10-01

362

Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61 and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28. These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

Bondevik Margareth

2008-10-01

363

Chemistry Prospective Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Using Internet Resources and Difficulties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays needs to digital materials are rapidly increasing related to widespread use of computer. Internet including countless contents has an important role in obtaining these materials. Teachers tend to develop specific contents by separating materials into sub contents and aggregating them considering self needs.There are many operations such as searching, saving, arrangement, aggregating in the process of developing new materials by using of internet resources. In this study, it was aimed to determine chemistry prospective teachers’ attitudes towards using of internet resources and the difficulties they have experienced in the process of material development by using these resources.

Selçuk KARAMAN

2006-12-01

364

PREFACE Surface Modifications of Diamond and Related Materials (Session D, E-MRS Spring Meeting)  

Science.gov (United States)

This special issue contains selected papers which were presented at the E-MRS Symposium BIOMATERIALS, SENSORS & SURFACES, D: 'Surface modifications of diamond and related materials' which was held on 7-9 June 2010 in Strasbourg (France). With about 54 oral and poster presentations given from teams all over the world it was a very interesting, dense and lively meeting. The symposium focused on chemical modifications applied to graft surfaces of diamond, nano-diamond particles, diamond-like carbon, graphene, graphite and carbon nano-tubes with linker molecular layers for realization of bio-sensors, bio-markers, separation techniques, and switchable chemical links. Presented techniques span spontaneous bonding to photo-chemical attachment, electrochemical modifications, to Suzuki-coupling of aryl molecules. Special attention was drawn to mechanisms driving bonding kinetics such as electron transfer reactions, hydrogen cleavage reactions by nucleophilic molecules and growths schemas which vary from correlated two-dimensional chain reactions to three-dimensional cross polymerization. Hydrogen terminations, surface defects, surface roughness and atomic arrangements of surface carbon atoms were of interest to elucidate bonding mechanisms. In addition, bonding stability, either of linker molecules or of complex functionalized surfaces with DNA, proteins and enzymes was discussed by several speakers as well as details of the electronic interfaces between solid transducers and bio-layers. Here the characterization of surface and interface defect densities, of Fermi level pinning and of electron transfer rates was a major topic. Miniaturization of sensor area and application of new detection schemas was discussed. Diamond nano-particles which are increasingly used as biomarkers in drug delivery experiments also attracted attention. The organizers express our gratitude to the international members of the scientific committee who actively contributed to ensure an attractive program in proposing invited speakers. Finally, our symposium would not have been successful without the strong involvement and implication of the EMRS headquarter especially P Siffert, T Lippert, S Schoeffter and C Kocher. They will all find here our sincere thanks. Christoph E Nebel (Chair) Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), Germany Takako Nakamura National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan Philippe Bergonzo CEA-LIST, France John Foord University of Oxford, United Kingdom Kian-Ping Loh National University of Singapore, Singapore

Nebel, Christoph E.

2010-11-01

365

Reaction bonded silicon carbide material characteristics as related to its use in high power laser systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction bonded silicon carbide (RB SiC) is a durable material that is well-suited for use as a high power laser mirror substrate. The reaction bonded material has a low mass density, a high Young's Modulus, good thermal conductivity, and a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. All of these properties are beneficial in mirror substrates used in multikilowatt lasers. In conjunction with the development of RB SiC, special polishing processes, fabrication processes, and coatings have also been developed. In this paper we will present a comparison of the material properties of RB SiC and other mirror materials currently used in high power lasers. A brief overview of the critical fabrication and coating processes will also be reviewed. Finally, we will present thermal heat load test data showing the surface deformation of various high power mirrors used under heat loads typically found in laser systems operating at average powers greater than 10 kilowatts.

Pitschman, Matthew; Miller, Travis; Hedges, Alan R.; Rummel, Steve

2014-09-01

366

High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

Borislav Bogdanović

2009-01-01

367

NA Departmental Activities Related to Nuclear Materials for Advanced Reactor Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overview of completed and ongoing coordinated research projects which address the following issues: (1) Better understanding of radiation effects and mechanisms of material damage and basic physics of accelerator irradiation under specific conditions, (2) Improvement of knowledge and data for the present and new generation of structural materials, (3) Contribution to developmental of theoretical models for radiation degradation mechanism, (4) Fostering of advanced and innovative technologies by support of Round Robin testing, collaboration and networking

368

Resources efficiency in milling of dies and molds with various hard coating materials and modified machine dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complexity of highly loaded molds and dies with increased demands for lifetime and resources efficiency combined with requirements for higher performance, improved economy and better ecological behaviour makes it necessary to use new hard coating technologies. A complete or a partial hard layer coating of a component offers huge economic potentials, but requires an additional finish milling process. The investigations refer to milling of Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA)-welded Cobalt alloys (Ste...

Neugebauer, Reimund; Wertheim, R.; Ho?sel, D.; Hochmuth, C.; Georgi, R.

2011-01-01

369

Details of criminological investigations of large-valued thefts related to nuclear materials (diversion safeguards program)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were made of five areas of criminology which have great similarity to the case of nuclear materials. Actual cases of crimes were analyzed by experts in law enforcement and criminal justice. To identify fields of analogous criminology, possible characteristics of nuclear material thefts were considered: total value, high unit cost, limited marketability, special technology for handling, and licensing. The items considered to be analogous to nuclear materials in these aspects were: narcotics, data (as exists in computer memories, tapes, or discs), precious metal and gems, objects of art, and weapons. A criminology survey was conducted in which 509 individuals received one or more questionnaires soliciting opinion responses. Sixty-five questionnaires were returned. Eighty-four individuals replied by letter indicating inadequate knowledge of the crimes being surveyed. The questionnaire was supplemented by 18 interviews with criminal justice and industry personnel for more definitive information on diversion problems. Results of this survey are reported

370

Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

2008-01-01

371

Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

372

Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

Temmerman, G. De

2006-07-01

373

On the relation between strength properties of carbon materials and total porosity following neutron irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Correlation of compression strength and flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus with the general porosity of carbon materials irradiated with neutrons is considered. The syntactic foam and fine-grain graphite on the base of non-calcinated oil coke with pitch binding have been used as samples for investigations. The irradiation is carried out by neutron fluence of 1.3x1021 neutr/cm2. It is shown that the above correlation as well as in non-irradiated materials is approximated satisfactorily by the exponential equation. Besides the character of the interaction of filler grains between themselves and with the binding, has not changed

374

Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

375

"It's Not Their Job to Share Content": A Case Study of the Role of Senior Students in Adapting Teaching Materials as Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's landmark decision to make its teaching and learning materials freely available to the public as OpenCourseWare (OCW), many other higher education institutions have followed suit sharing resources now more generally referred to as Open Educational Resources (OER). The University of Cape…

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

2013-01-01

376

An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources

Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

377

Human resource assignment and role representation mechanism with the "cascading staff-group authoring" and "relation/situation" model.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously reported the access control mechanism and audit strategy of the "patient-doctor relation and clinical situation at the point-of-care" model with multi-axial access control matrix (ACM). This mechanism overcomes the deficit of ACM in the aspect of data accessibility but does not resolve the representation of the staff's affiliate and/or plural membership in the complex real world. Care groups inside a department or inter-department clinical team plays significant clinical role but also spend great amount of time and money in the hospital. Therefore the impact of human resource assignment and cost of such stakeholders to the hospital management is huge, so that they should be accurately treated in the hospital information system. However multi-axial ACM has problems with the representation of staff groups due to static parameters such as department/license because staffs belong to a group rather temporarily and/or a medical staff may belong to plural groups. As a solution, we have designed and implemented "cascading staff-group authoring" method with "relation and situation" model and multi-axial ACM. In this mechanism, (i) a system administrator certifies "group chief certifying person" according to the request and authorization by the department director, (ii) the "group chief certifying person" certifies "group chief(s)", (iii) the "group chief" recruits its members from the medical staffs, and at the same time the "group chief" decides the profit distribution policy of this group. This will enable medical staff to access EMR according to the role he/she plays whether it is as a department staff or as a group member. This solution has worked successfully over the past few years. It provides end-users with a flexible and time-to-time staff-group authoring environment using a simple human-interfaced tool without security breach and without system administration cost. In addition, profit and cost distribution is clarified among departments and inter-departments groups. PMID:11604835

Hirose, Y; Sasaki, Y; Kinoshita, A

2001-01-01

378

Relating ionic liquids and polyethylene glycols to green chemistry, organometallic catalysis, and materials science  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of green chemistry has grown tremendously over the past years due to stricter environmental laws regulating the amount of toxic substances that are legally allowed into the environment. The objective of this work was to incorporate ILs and PEGs into gel type matrices and utilize them as solvent alternatives in hopes of helping advance the field of green chemistry and lowering environmental burden. Here, three new gel-type materials were studied. A PEG gel-silica sol composite and an IL-PEG gel were developed. Both materials were based on a cross-linked PEG hydrogel and its response to various inorganic salts. The new materials developed exhibited the same shrink-swell characteristics as the control PEG hydrogel, while the IL-PEG gel showed similar uptakes of linear alcohols from salt solutions. Additionally, when calcined, the PEG gel-silica sol composite was found to have unique morphologies that were dependent on PEG hydrogel concentration. The third material that was developed was a silica sol gel that was synthesized utilizing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a (co)solvent. All previous work reported used ILs that had structures similar to surfactants that are traditionally used in creating high surface area materials. The work here presents a fundamental study of how short chained ILs can be used to produce high surface area materials and addresses questions such as how the IL orients itself within the matrix during the sol gel process. Another facet of the work involves the incorporation of ILs and PEGS into organometallic catalytic systems, specifically the hydroesterification of styrene and the copolymerization of styrene and carbon monoxide. The ILs' non-coordinating nature allows them to stabilize catalytically active charged species in addition to allowing for ease of catalyst recycling. The application of the presented work to the field of green chemistry includes the implementation of benign, non-volatile reaction media, specifically ILs and PEGs, in catalytic systems. Utilizing these types of solvents will aid in cutting costs due to solvent recycling and catalyst retention. Additionally, the solid gel type materials described could be modified and used in remediation efforts, as catalyst supports, sensors, electrochemical, or in fuel cell applications.

Klingshirn, Marc Allen

379

The Belgoprocess Strategy Relating to the Management of Materials from Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belgium started its nuclear program quite early. The first installations were constructed in the fifties, and presently, more than 55 % of the Belgian electricity production is provided by nuclear power plants. After 30 years of nuclear experience, Belgium started decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the eighties with two main projects: the BR3-PWR plant and the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The BR3-decommissioning project is carried out at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, while the decommissioning of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant is managed and operated by Belgoprocess n.v., which is also operating the centralized waste treatment facilities and the interim storage for Belgian radioactive waste. Some fundamental principles have to be considered for the management of materials resulting from the decommissioning of nuclear installations, equipment and/or components, mainly based on the guidelines of the ''IAEA-Safety Fundamentals. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F, IAEA, Vienna, 1995'' with respect to radioactive waste management. Two of the fundamental principles indicated in this document are specifically dealing with the strategy for the management of materials from decommissioning, ''Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to the minimum practicable'' (seventh principle), and ''Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that it will not impose undue burdens on future generations'' (fifth principles on future generations'' (fifth principle). Based on these fundamental principles, Belgoprocess has made a straightforward choice for a strategy with minimization of the amount of materials to be managed as radioactive waste. This objective is obtained through the use of advanced decontamination techniques and the unconditional release of decontaminated materials. Unconditionally released materials are recycled, such as i.e., metal materials that are removed to conventional melting facilities, or are removed to conventional industrial disposal sites if they have no remaining value. In order to achieve these objectives, Belgoprocess uses techniques and equipment that enable the high degrees of decontamination to be obtained, while based on commercially available technology. As an example, for concrete surfaces, where the contamination has not penetrated deeply, significant improvement in operation efficiency was achieved when developing dry hand held and automated floor and wall shaving systems as an alternative for scabbling. As it was also shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, an industrial automated dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. Moreover, a specific facility was developed and operations started for taking representative samples and monitoring concrete material in view of the final demolition and unconditional release of remaining structures of buildings after completing all dismantling and decontamination work

380

31 CFR 560.523 - Exportation of equipment and services relating to information and informational materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exportation of equipment and services relating...of Licensing Policy § 560.523 Exportation of equipment and services relating...on a case-by-case basis for the exportation of equipment and services...

2010-07-01