WorldWideScience

Sample records for resource materials relating

  1. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  2. Resource Materials Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    Lists and describes nine print materials--inventories, guides, check sheets--dealing with economic and emotional stress at both the rural family and rural community levels. Lists and describes six films/videotapes showing impact of the rural crisis on students/schools, churches, and families. Cites publication/print dates mainly from 1984-1985.…

  3. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  4. Lunar material resources: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of returned lunar samples and a comparison of the physical and chemical processes operating on the Moon and on the Earth provide a basis for predicting both the possible types of material resources (especially minerals and rocks) and the physical characteristics of ore deposits potentially available on the Moon. The lack of free water on the Moon eliminates the classes of ore deposits that are most exploitable on Earth; namely, (1) hydrothermal, (2) secondary mobilization and enrichment, (3) precipitation from a body of water, and (4) placer. The types of lunar materials available for exploitation are whole rocks and their contained minerals, regolith, fumarolic and vapor deposits, and nonlunar materials, including solar wind implantations. Early exploitation of lunar material resources will be primarily the use of regolith materials for bulk shielding; the extraction from regolith fines of igneous minerals such as plagioclase feldspars and ilmenite for the production of oxygen, structural metals, and water; and possibly the separation from regolith fines of solar-wind-implanted volatiles. The only element, compound, or mineral, that by itself has been identified as having the economic potential for mining, processing, and return to Earth is helium-3.

  5. Moon. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

  6. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  7. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  8. Study on Insulating Material by Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yasuyuki; Kurosumi, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keita

    Under circumstances such as global warming caused by carbon dioxide and other green house gas and crisis of depletion of fossil resources, recyclable resources such as biomass have captured the world's attention as reproducible resources alternative to petroleum. Therefore the technologies such to manufacture chemicals from recyclable resources have been developed for the achievement of measures for controlling global warming and the low carbon society. Recently, the bioplastic such as polylactic resin is applied to the home appliances and the automobile interior part as substitution of general-purpose plastic Moreover, the insulation oil from the vegetable oil has been put to practical use. The application of recyclable resources is extending in an electric field. In this paper, we introduce the characteristic and the problem of the insulating material made from recyclable resources in the field of the solid insulation.

  9. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  10. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  11. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  12. Bicycle Safety Education. A Guide to Resources and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson (Lawrence) and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This annotated resource guide was developed as a tool for local groups planning bicycle safety education programs. Although it does not include every resource and material in the area, it provides a starting point for program planning. Focus is on safety materials, however some general bicycling resources are also included to give the user…

  13. Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin H C Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996), and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992) was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The result...

  14. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe2O3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe2O3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO3 product of Merck, and BaCO4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH)max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH)max are relatively lower than commercial product

  15. Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. C. Cheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996, and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992 was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The results show that people who have a high level of neuroticism handle their interpersonal relationships in a reflective manner by concealing their own opinions and focusing on the arguments of other people. The same people prefer to communicate by “mirroring” other people's utterances, irrespective of the role that was given to them in the study. The findings add to the body of knowledge on interpersonal dimensions and their relations with personality.

  16. RELATIO: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONAL DIMENSION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sheneberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous traditions and values of African peoples have been viewed as being behind the times. Disregarding established, functioning systems of African resource allocation has led to a system of interaction out of touch with local cultural priorities. Through a review of literature, augmented by qualitative interviews and observational analysis, the evolutionary nature of rationality is revealed; demonstrating the necessity for our understanding of economic choice to be adjusted to involve broader conceptions of its constitution, restraints, and motivations. It is derived that two parallel systems for addressing basic questions of choice and resource management exist; a traditional “rational” Western system, and a “relational” African system. After establishing these intersecting systems, the value of African uniqueness is appreciated. This paper attempts to build upon the work of other economists in the addition of a “relational” component of rationality, informed by both social and material forms of capital.

  17. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  18. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  19. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  20. Performance Related Resource Allocation Within Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Warren

    1995-01-01

    Four forms of funding universities (capitation, categorical, initiative, inventive) in Australia are examined for their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages. The option of using these funding mechanisms for allocating resources within individual universities, based on performance, is explored. Finally, use of the four kinds of funding…

  1. Radiation effects on pharmaceuticals and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization is the method of choice for many medical supplies and devices. However, because of the ionizing nature of gamma radiation, one must consider the effect of such radiation on the physical and chemical properties and on the biological behaviour of pharmaceutical and related materials before the feasibility of radiation sterilization for such products is established. The results of such feasibility studies can lead to an appropriate decision on the suitability of radiation sterilization for a particular pharmaceutical. (author)

  2. Extended crystal defects in perovskite related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, O.

    In perovskite related materials grain boundary phenomena exist that differ significantly from bulk properties. In BaTiO3 ceramics these properties have been used to design and fabricate a whole family of devices based on the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect, whereas for high-Tc superconductors grain boundary properties have delayed so far applications with large critical currents in the magnet and energy technology. The role of extended defects, particularly of twins, for the anomalous grain growth was investigated. It was found that twinning alone does not trigger anomalous grain growth in BaTiO3 ceramics. Superconducting material relevant for applications in the magnet and energy technology should have critical current densities of 105-106 A/cm2. In truly polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7 material the critical current density is reduced by several orders of magnitude, i.e. 102-103 A/cm2 at 77 K, due to the presence of grain boundaries. Bi-epitaxially textured material is required and can be produced for power applications yielding critical current densities of 106 A/cm2 at 77 K. Among the high-Tc superconducting materials (Bi, Pb) 2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+? is the most complicated but also the one with the largest potential for high-Tc superconducting components and devices. High-resolution TEM combined with image simulation was used to image and analyse the structure of the crystal defects. The anisotropy and granular microstructure limits the critical current densities in silver sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2-Cu3O10+? tapes to about 4.104 A/cm2 at 77 K.

  3. A Resource Guide of Solid Waste Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Solid Waste, this guide holds close to 80 educational materials related to solid waste. Types of materials covered in the guide include "curricula, activity guides, videos, and Internet sites [with] information on a variety of solid waste topics such as source reduction, recycling, reuse, household hazardous waste, and composting." The materials are designed for teachers engaged in K-12 learning environments.

  4. Informatics-based Learning Resources for Patients and their Relatives in recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Anne; Smørdal, Ole

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiences from design of an informatics-based learning resource for patients and relatives. The prototype, REPARERE (learning REsource for PAtients and RElatives during REcovery), aims to support patients and their family recovering from heart surgery in meeting challenges in to daily living post discharge. Using recovery experiences and patient teaching material, REPARERE includes examples of textual information, video-clips, images and illustrations relevant to t...

  5. Genetic materials at the gene engineering division, RIKEN BioResource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Murata, Takehide; Pan, Jianzhi; Nakade, Koji; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Ugai, Hideyo; Kimura, Makoto; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Masuzaki, Satoko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Kurihara, Chitose; Okubo, Masato; Nakano, Yuri; Kusa, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Inabe, Kumiko; Ueno, Kazuko; Obata, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    Genetic materials are one of the most important and fundamental research resources for studying biological phenomena. Scientific need for genetic materials has been increasing and will never cease. Ever since it was established as RIKEN DNA Bank in 1987, the Gene Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC) has been engaged in the collection, maintenance, storage, propagation, quality control, and distribution of genetic resources developed mainly by the Japanese research community. When RIKEN BRC was inaugurated in 2001, RIKEN DNA Bank was incorporated as one of its six Divisions, the Gene Engineering Division. The Gene Engineering Division was selected as a core facility for the genetic resources of mammalian and microbe origin by the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan in 2002. With support from the scientific community, the Division now holds over 3 million clones of genetic materials for distribution. The genetic resources include cloned DNAs, gene libraries (e.g., cDNA and genomic DNA cloned into phage, cosmid, BAC, phosmid, and YAC), vectors, hosts, recombinant viruses, and ordered library sets derived from animal cells, including human and mouse cells, microorganisms, and viruses. Recently genetic materials produced by a few MEXT national research projects were transferred to the Gene Engineering Division for further dissemination. The Gene Engineering Division performs rigorous quality control of reproducibility, restriction enzyme mapping and nucleotide sequences of clones to ensure the reproducibility of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Users can easily access our genetic materials through the internet and obtain the DNA resources for a minimal fee. Not only the materials, but also information of features and technology related to the materials are provided via the web site of RIKEN BRC. Training courses are also given to transfer the technology for handling viral vectors. RIKEN BRC supports scientists around the world in the use of valuable genetic materials. PMID:20484845

  6. Resource Materials for Nanoscale Science and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisensky, George

    2006-12-01

    Nanotechnology and advanced materials examples can be used to explore science and engineering concepts, exhibiting the "wow" and potential of nanotechnology, introducing prospective scientists to key ideas, and educating a citizenry capable of making well-informed technology-driven decisions. For example, material syntheses an atomic layer at a time have already revolutionized lighting and display technologies and dramatically expanded hard drive storage capacities. Resource materials include kits, models, and demonstrations that explain scanning probe microscopy, x-ray diffraction, information storage, energy and light, carbon nanotubes, and solid-state structures. An online Video Lab Manual, where movies show each step of the experiment, illustrates more than a dozen laboratory experiments involving nanoscale science and technology. Examples that are useful at a variety of levels when instructors provide the context include preparation of self-assembled monolayers, liquid crystals, colloidal gold, ferrofluid nanoparticles, nickel nanowires, solar cells, electrochromic thin films, organic light emitting diodes, and quantum dots. These resources have been developed, refined and class tested at institutions working with the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Interfaces at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (http://mrsec.wisc.edu/nano).

  7. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  8. Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

  9. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  10. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  11. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

  12. ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Non-material resources influence to the manufacturing company cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?. ?. ??????????

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ????????.The mutual relations diagrams of the different nonmaterial factors and growth factors of the company cost has been built. The methodic of numeric estimation of the non-material factors influence to the company cost has been proposed. The system of regression equations has been composed, the analytical changes of the manufacturing company cost dependencies on the intellectual improvement are built for the specific instance.

  13. Decision making model for the recovery of useful material resources from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, many of the material resources necessary for energy production are imported. Strategic stockpiling of these resources has been a well-known method for reducing the economic and productivity impact of supply interruption in case of emergency. Another viable option is the recovery of valuable materials and recycle of useful products from wastes generated in energy production and industrial processing. The technical feasibility for recovery and recycle, including decontamination of nuclear-related materials, has been proven and demonstrated. The economic feasibility would depend on both the resale and strategic values of the material, the saving from reusing rather than disposing of the material, the reclamation cost, and other factors that may influence the incentive for recovery and recycle. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to develop a model to identify the economic and other incentives for the reclamation of useful material resources. Using available data to quantify factors such as strategic and resale values, reclamation cost and disposal cost saving, this model calculates the incentive value consisting of the above factors and selects the appropriate reclamation option. Because this model is empirical, there are limitations to its application. However, within the boundary where the model has been tested, it can be a useful tool for the decision maker to evaluate the economic feasibility of reclamationity of reclamation

  14. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  15. Bodily-material resources in CSCL : Children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning of scale around touchscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation to communication, learning and collaboration and how they are used to organise intra- and inter-psychological processes. By presenting two short video excerpts of children working with the concept of scale around a touchscreen, we want to facilitate a discussion on what can be gained theoretically and methodologically from focusing on bodily-material resources in CSCL.

  16. Relations between radiotherapy resources and breast cancer patient survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimaru, Yuko; Ohno, Yuko; Numasaki, Hodaka; Theshima, Teruki; Shibuya, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the number of patients that have been treated with radiotherapy (RT), particularly those with breast cancer, has increased in the past decade, and is expected to double in the next decade. There is, however, a shortage of RT resources, particularly personnel, which represents a social problem. The shortage of RT resources might cause a difference in survival rate among treated patients. This study analyzed the characteristics of RT resources in RT facilities from Osaka based on the Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) database with principle component analysis and cluster analysis. In addition, the relation between RT resources and treatment outcome of breast cancer patients was investigated by linking together Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) and JASTRO data via a stratified key cord. By using the linked dataset it was shown that the prognosis of breast cancer patients was highly correlated with the scale of RT resources available at the RT facilities collaterally. From cluster analysis, four groups were identified based on RT facility information. The breast cancer survival rates for localized stage patients obtained in classified hospital groups showed a similar pattern, however, large differences (up to 20%) were seen in regional stage patients. Additional findings were: RT facilities with less than 1 radiation oncologist had the poorest outcome; RT was performed primarily at University hospitals; and differences in RT resources within the RT facilities had an effect on breast cancer patient prognosis in Osaka, Japan. PMID:20843143

  17. Adaptive differentiation of traits related to resource use in a desert annual along a resource gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Larry C; Mason, Chase M; Shirk, Rebecca Y; Donovan, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    • Plant resource-use traits are generally hypothesized to be adaptively differentiated for populations distributed along resource gradients. Although nutrient limitations are expected to select for resource-conservative strategies, water limitations may select for either resource-conservative or -acquisitive strategies. We test whether population differentiation reflects local adaptation for traits associated with resource-use strategies in a desert annual (Helianthus anomalus) distributed along a gradient of positively covarying water and nutrient availability. • We compared quantitative trait variation (Q(ST)) with neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST)), in a common garden glasshouse study, for leaf economics spectrum (LES) and related traits: photosynthesis (A(mass), A(area)), leaf nitrogen (N(mass), N(area)), leaf lifetime (LL), leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf water content (LWC), water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated as ?(13)C) and days to first flower (DFF). • Q(ST)-F(ST) differences support adaptive differentiation for Amass , N(mass), N(area), LWC and DFF. The trait combinations associated with drier and lower fertility sites represent correlated trait evolution consistent with the more resource-acquisitive end of the LES. There was no evidence for adaptive differentiation for A(area), LMA and WUE. • These results demonstrate that hot dry environments can selectively favor correlated evolution of traits contributing to a resource-acquisitive and earlier reproduction 'escape' strategy, despite lower fertility. PMID:24325125

  18. Defining relations for structure heterogeneous materials under complex stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increment defining relations are formulated for structurally heterogeneous materials under short-term three-axis loading. The suggested relations simulate the material as a nonlinear-orthotropic medium and are oriented to solve problems using the method of finite elements. Convergence of theoretical and experimental results on a wide range of stressed states is quantitatively estimated

  19. Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A.

    2012-12-01

    Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

  20. Relations with People and Relations with Things: Management of Human Resources in African Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Feijo?, Joa?o

    2010-01-01

    This article intends to analyze the viability of a paternalistic human resources management model in companies of the formal sector, where a logic of profit maximization assumes a more demanding dimension. Paternalism is used as a metaphor to understand the relations between employers and employees as modelled on relations between parents and children. The concept demonstrates the transformation of exploitation and authoritarian relations, guided under the imperative of regulation an...

  1. Causality relations for materials with strong artificial optical chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkunov, M V; Ezhov, A A; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the fundamental causality principle being applied to strongly chiral artificial materials yields the generalized Kramers-Kronig relations for the observables -- circular dichroism and optical activity. The relations include the Blaschke terms determined by material-specific features - the zeros of transmission amplitude on the complex frequency plane. By the example of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in silver films we show that the causality relations can be used not only for a precise verification of experimental data but also for resolving the positions of material anomalies and resonances and quantifying the degree of their chiral splitting.

  2. Evaluation of Structure Influence on Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Insulating Materials from Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ve?jeliene?, Jolanta; Gailius, Albinas; Ve?jelis, Sigitas; Vaitkus, Saulius; Balc?iu?nas, Giedrius

    2011-01-01

    The development of new thermal insulation materials needs to evaluate properties and structure of raw material, technological factors that make influence on the thermal conductivity of material. One of the most promising raw materials for production of insulation material is straw. The use of natural fibres in insulation is closely linked to the ecological building sector, where selection of materials is based on factors including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low resource productio...

  3. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  4. Encyclopedia of materials characterization [electronic resource] : surfaces, interfaces, thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive volume on analytical techniques used in materials science for the characterization of surfaces, interfaces and thin films is a unique, stand-alone reference for materials science practitioners, process engineers, students and anyone with a need to know about the capabilities available in materials analysis.

  5. Permittivity and permeability measurements methods for particle accelerator related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Vollinger, C; Jensen, E

    2014-01-01

    For the special requirements related to particle accelerators, knowledge of the different material parameters of dielectrics and other materials are needed in order to carry out simulations during the design process of accelerator components. This includes also properties of magnetically biased ferrites of which usually little information is available about material characteristics, especially in magnetic bias fields. Several methods of measurement are discussed and compared of which some require delicate sample preparation whereas others can work with unmodified material shapes that makes those methods also suited for acceptance checks on incoming materials delivered by industry. Applications include characterization of different materials, as absorbers in which dielectric losses play an increasing role, as well as low frequency measurements on ferrites that are used for tunable cavities. We present results obtained from both broadband and resonant measurements on different materials determined in the same s...

  6. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume One presents fundamental knowledge on ZnO-based materials and technologies. It covers the b

  7. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume Two focuses on devices and nanostructures created from ZnO and similar materials. The book

  8. Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

  9. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  10. Report on the Development of the List of Competencies for the National Resource Center for Materials Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, Mel

    The National Resource Center for Materials Science Education, MatEd, has identified and validated materials-related core competencies on a national level that target both general and materials technicians. The process is described for developing a prioritized list of competencies in the materials area for materials technicians and general technicians along with the results of that process. Topics covered were a) general technical, employability, and professionalism skills, b) mathematics, chemical science, and physical science skills, c) fundamentals of materials technology and materials testing, d) several classes of materials and their processing, e) manufacturing processes, tooling, manufacturing operations, quality management, and f) the effects of defects and manufacturing variations on the behavior and mechanical properties of materials. The results are being used to develop a materials resource center for educational materials to assist educators in associate degree engineering technology programs and in lower division engineering programs. Note: Please scroll to the bottom of the web page to access the full Adobe PDF report.

  11. Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Bollinghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

  12. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  13. Material relation to assess the crashworthiness of ship structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Sören

    2009-01-01

    A ship collision accident can result in severe environmental damage and loss of life. Therefore the non-linear finite element method with shell elements is used to assess the crashworthiness of ship steel structures through collision simulations. However, a non-linear finite element-based benchmark revealed inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results of collision analysis using current material relations and failure criteria. To overcome these problems in this thesis, the steel material's...

  14. Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control

    CERN Document Server

    Larsgarrd L, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

  15. Creating e-learning material with optimal utilization of limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa Abeyweera Gunawardena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is a country with comparatively high standards of healthcare, but a poor distribution of resources. While gaining access to expert trainers is relatively easy in the western province, the same cannot be said of regions like the eastern and north central provinces.With access to broadband crossing all regional and geographic boundaries and an 84% penetration rate for mobile phones, internet access is becoming the one resource that is uniformly distributed across the island. An eLearning solution therefore is the only practical means to ensure that training resources are available to everyone, anytime, anywhere in the island.The paper proposes a hosted eLearning solution incorporating video based lessons supplemented by text, animations and voiceovers to provide postgraduate level training for medical personnel. The process of creating training material will be non intrusive and not require any additional time or expensive resources as it will be primarily based on capturing of actual cases including consultations, surgery and other day to day activities as videos. A simple webcam attached to a laptop or even a relatively high resolution mobile phone with sufficient storage capacity is all that is required to capture the core training content.Assembly of the training course using these videos can be done by eLearning domain specialists, along with instructional design and preparation of rich content such as animations; only the knowledge and information needs to be provided by subject matter experts.The proposed approach ensures that the most valuable resource consumed in this process, the time of the expert practitioner, is used optimally and in a manner that has the least impact on his or her primary responsibility, that of providing care to patients.

  16. Holland-Based Career Materials: A Resource List for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lumsden, Jill A.

    This paper focuses on identifying and describing the current array of Holland-based career interventions that are available and most commonly used in educational settings. The authors' experiences suggest that busy practitioners may not be familiar with the more than 20 current instruments and resources that were developed by Holland and are…

  17. Open Access Internet Resources for Nano-Materials Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Peter; Seipel, Bjoern; Upreti, Girish; Harvey, Morgan; Garrick, Will

    2006-05-01

    Because a great deal of nano-material science and engineering relies on crystalline materials, materials physicists have to provide their own specific contributions to the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Here we briefly review two freely accessible internet-based crystallographic databases, the Nano-Crystallography Database (http://nanocrystallography.research.pdx.edu) and the Crystallography Open Database (http://crystallography.net). Information on over 34,000 full structure determinations are stored in these two databases in the Crystallographic Information File format. The availability of such crystallographic data on the internet in a standardized format allows for all kinds of web-based crystallographic calculations and visualizations. Two examples of which that are dealt with in this paper are: interactive crystal structure visualizations in three dimensions and calculations of lattice-fringe fingerprints for the identification of unknown nanocrystals from their atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  18. Magnetoelectric effect material and method for manufacturing same [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides the Magnetoelectric Effect Material consisted of a single isotope, the alloy of isotopes, or the compound of isotopes. The invention applies enrichment and purification to increase the isotope abundance, to create the density of nuclear exciton by irradiation, and therefore increase the magnetoelectric effect of the crystal of single isotope, the alloy crystal of isotopes and the compound crystal of isotopes. The invention provides the manufacturing method including the selection rules of isotopes, the fabrication processes and the structure of composite materials. The invention belongs to the area of the nuclear science and the improvement of material character. The invention using the transition of entangled multiple photons to achieve the delocalized nuclear exciton. The mix of selected isotopes adjusts the decay lifetime of nuclear exciton and the irradiation efficiency to generate the nuclear exciton.

  19. SRM Manual, Selected Resource Materials: Description and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Educational Services Branch.

    Provided in the manual is descriptive and evaluative information on 67 instructional materials or programs frequently used with exceptional children in Alberta schools. A flow chart describes the three methods of using the manual: l) to obtain descriptive and evaluative information of an instruction program in the manual 2) to classify and record…

  20. Diamond and related nanostructures (carbon materials: chemistry and physics)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Diamond and Related Nanostructures focuses on the advances in the area of diamond-like carbon nanostructures (hyper-structures built from fullerenes and/or carbon nanotube junctions) and other related carbon nanostructures. Each chapter contributes to the topic from different fields, ranging from theory to synthesis and properties investigation of these new materials. This volume brings together the major findings in the field and provides a source of inspiration and understanding to advanced undergraduates, graduates, and researchers ...

  1. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

  2. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO2 and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of 10B2O3 processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van dter overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO2 and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

  3. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization. PMID:19160775

  4. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  5. Probing disease-related proteins with fluorogenic composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Peng; Zang, Yi; James, Tony D; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong

    2014-12-01

    Construction of composite materials based on the self-assembly of fluorescently labeled biomolecules with a variety of micro- or nano-quenching materials (by the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer mechanism) for the fluorogenic recognition of disease-related proteins has become a dynamic research topic in the field of fluorescence recognition. Here we summarize the recent progress on the composition of fluorescence dye-labeled biomolecules including sugars, peptides and nucleotides with organic (graphene and carbon nanotubes) and inorganic (gold nanoparticles) materials. Their application in the fluorescence detection of proteins and enzymes on both the molecular and cellular levels is discussed. Perspectives are proposed with respect to the future directions of employing these composite materials in the recognition of pathological proteins. PMID:25474366

  6. Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlesworth B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting.Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence.Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts.Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized dressing-related trauma, identified associated clinical sequelae, and quantified resource utilization associated with a typical occurrence of each trauma concept. Further research is warranted into dressing-related trauma and the associated costs.Keywords: trauma, dressings, wounds, cost, resource use

  7. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  8. Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains ?-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

  9. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  10. Resource reciprocity: an event-related brain potentials analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirevaag, E J; Kramer, A F; Coles, M G; Donchin, E

    1989-02-01

    The amplitude of the P300 component of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) has proven useful in identifying the resource requirements of complex perceptual-motor tasks. In dual-task conditions, increases in primary task difficulty result in decreases in the amplitude of P300s elicited by secondary tasks. Furthermore, P300s elicited by discrete primary task events increase in amplitude with increases in the difficulty of the primary task. The reciprocity in P300 amplitudes has been used to infer the processing tradeoffs that occur during dual-task performance. The present study was designed to investigate further the P300 amplitude reciprocity effect under conditions in which primary and secondary task ERPs could be concurrently recorded within the same experimental situation. Forty subjects participated in the study. Measures of P300 amplitude and performance were obtained within the context of a pursuit step tracking task (the primary task) performed alone and with a concurrent auditory discrimination task (the secondary task). Primary task difficulty was manipulated by varying both the number of dimensions to be tracked (from one to two), and the control dynamics of the system (velocity or acceleration). ERPs were obtained from both secondary task tones and primary task step changes. Average root-mean-square (RMS) error estimates were also obtained for each tracking condition. Increased primary task difficulty, reflected in increased RMS error scores, was associated with decreased secondary task P300 amplitudes and increased primary task P300 amplitudes. The increases in primary task P300 amplitudes were complementary to the decrements obtained for the secondary task, supporting the hypothesis of reciprocity between primary and secondary task P300 amplitudes across different manipulations of primary task difficulty. PMID:2728903

  11. Materials-related regulatory aspects of converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NRC'S Principal mission is to assure that use of nuclear materials - as in the operation of nuclear power plants - are carried out with proper regard and provisions for the protection of public health and safety. To a large extent, this goal is accomplished by application of the ''defense-in-depth'' philosophy to the design and operation of nuclear power plants. The philosophy involves the use of three successive barriers for the containment of radioactive fission products. The uranium fuel itself must be sealed in a cladding material. The coolant surrounding the fuel must be maintained in a closed system. Finally, the reactor and its coolant system must be housed inside a containment building to protect the public should the previous two barriers fail, or leak, as a consequence of unexpected events. Many NRC regulatory requirements relate to the protection of the fission product barriers and, as such, are closely tied to the material properties of the barriers

  12. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  13. THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana MASRUR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course, recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.

  14. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

  15. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: material and relational pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The association between parental separation occurring during childhood and adult psychological distress is well established, however the potential mechanisms involved in translating the experience of parental separation into the increased risk of reporting psychological distress is unclear and little investigated. Previous literature indicates that material and relational factors may be involved and that these two pathways are likely to be linked across the life course. The identification of ...

  16. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune RØjgaard; Canga, Eriona

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4 Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7 from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air and water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 1611 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop – velocity relations for air 13 flow in 36 different Leca® particle size fractions (including the 14 used for water flow). The 14 measurements showed that it is indeed possible to predict the pressure drop – velocity relationship for 15 water flow from the corresponding relationship for air flow not only for a given particle size fraction 16 but also across different particle size fractions.

  17. 77 FR 71842 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource Conservation...radioactive material, at the US Ecology Idaho (USEI) Resource Conservation...significantly impact the quality of the human environment and that the proposed...Plant Waste For Disposal at US Ecology, Inc'' [ADAMS...

  18. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  19. Sustainability in manufacturing recovery of resources in product and material cycles

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Population growth and increasing resource consumption are global challenges which have to be coped by sustainable development. Increasing the use productivity of resources by new cycle economical concepts supported by innovative technologies is significantly contributing to this ambitious goal. These challenges were accepted by several research institutions at the Technical University Berlin and lead to the establishment of the Collaborative Research Center (Sfb) 281 Dissassembly Factories for the Recovery of Resources in Product and Material Cycles funded by the German Research Foundation in

  20. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  1. Training Materials Sourcebook. Welding, Brazing, and Flame-Cutting. Voc./Tec. Resources Series Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Commission of Employment and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Second in a resource series (see note), this annotated bibliography provides detailed information on training curriculum and instructional materials for welding, brazing, and flame-cutting. The materials are divided into thirty-fie sections by topic and type. Specific topic areas include gas and arc welding; arc welding; oxyacetylene welding and…

  2. Adult Basic Education: An Evaluation of Materials. Volume I. Contains resource materials on English as a Second Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    An attempt to meet the need for resource materials available for Adult Basic Education (ABE) personnel who work with Spanish-speaking adults is presented. The information presented was acquired by writing to commercial publishers throughout the country. Evaluations included were completed by identifying the usefulness of the curricular offerings…

  3. Geometrical and topological aspects of graphene and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cortijo, Alberto; Vozmediano, Maria A H

    2011-01-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms, provides a new and unexpected bridge between low and high-energy physics. The field has evolved very fast and very good reviews are already available in the literature. Graphene constitutes a condensed matter realization of lower dimensional quantum field theory models that were proposed to confront important -- still unresolved -- puzzles of the area: Chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The new materials named topological insulators, closely related to graphene, are physical realizations of topological field theory. This article reviews some of these topics with the aim of bridging the gap and making these condensed matter issues accessible to high energy readers. The electronic interactions in the monolayer are analyzed with special emphasis on the recent experimental confirmation of some theoretical predictions. The issue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the model materials is also reviewed. Finally we give an extensive descrip...

  4. A quasi-linear constitutive relation for arterial wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, H

    1996-08-01

    In this work, considering that under physiological conditions the arteries are subjected to a large initial static deformation and additional small dynamical displacements are superimposed on this initial field, a Boltzman type of constitutive relation is presented for arterial wall materials. For its simplicity in the analysis, the material under investigation is assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and constitutionally nonlinear in Green deformation tensor but linear in the history of deformation tensor. The numerical values of elastic coefficients are obtained by comparing the analytical results with experiments by Simon et al. [Circ. Res. 30, 491-500 (1972)]. For the determination of viscoelastic coefficients we studied the propagation of torsional waves in a prestressed thin cylindrical tube and proposed a method of determining the viscoelastic coefficients. PMID:8817367

  5. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173...Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and...

  6. Microstructure-fracture-permeability relations in cemented granular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we investigate the relationships between the microstructure of cemented granular materials, morphology of cracks that may appear under tensile loading and their apparent permeability. In order to simulate the complexity of the multiphase heterogeneous structure of these materials, a numerical approach based on a lattice discretization was developed and used to study the mechanisms that control their behavior and rupture. Three distinct regimes of crack propagation were evidenced in terms of the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle/matrix adherence. In the context of nuclear safety and in view of analyzing cracked concrete tightness, a methodology is proposed for generating representative microstructures with controlled phase volume fractions and particle size distributions. The cracks obtained under tensile loading are analyzed and a relationship is obtained between the microstructure of concrete and the tortuosity of the cracks. The permeability of cracked numerical microstructures was obtained by the simulation of liquid flow through the cracks by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method. Finally, a microstructure-tortuosity-permeability relation is proposed. The modeling and analysis tools developed in this work are generic enough to be applied to other complex multiphase heterogeneous materials. (author)

  7. Evidence-based dentistry as it relates to dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Stephen C; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is reviewed in depth to underscore the limitations for evidence-based dental materials information that exist at this time. Anecdotal estimates of evidence for dental practice are in the range of 8 percent to 10 percent. While the process of evaluating the literature base for dental evidence began 20 years ago, it was not practical to implement it until high-speed wireless connections, open access to journals, and omnipresent connections via smart phones became a reality. EBD includes five stages of information collection and analysis, starting with a careful definition of a clinical question using the PICO(T) approach. Clinical evidence in randomized control trials is considered the best. Clinical trial perspectives (prospective, cross-sectional, retrospective) and outcome designs (RCTs, SCTs, CCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies) are quite varied. Aggregation techniques (including meta-analyses) allow meaningful combinations of clinical data from trials with similar designs but with fewer rigors. Appraisals attempt to assess the entire evidence base without bias and answer clinical questions. Varying intensities to these approaches, Cochrane Collaboration, ADA-EBD Library, UTHSCSA CATs Library, are used to answer questions. Dental materials evidence from clinical trials is infrequent, short-term, and often not compliant with current guidelines (registration, CONSORT, PRISMA). Reports in current evidence libraries indicate less than 5 percent of evidence is related to restorative dental materials. PMID:24571523

  8. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  9. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  10. A summary of available Rietveld and related software resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is a wide variety of Rietveld software available from both commercial and academic institutions. These resources will be reviewed along with the importance of validating Rietveld quantitative analysis results and gaining skills in complementary areas. This part of the workshop will mention a number of relevant programs and their main functionality: Rietveld software, Rietveld utilities, Rietveld friendly software and other powder diffraction utilities. Some of the main benefits of appreciating the availability of a wide range of software include: cross validation of results, data quality and diffractometer alignment, exploring new areas of research and analysis, solving new problems, nuances that occur as part of Rietveld analysis. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Making the Best of a Bad Situation: Material Resources and Teenage Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Past research has largely ignored the influence of material resources on teenage parents’ life outcomes. A lack of resources such as housing, child care, and financial support is hypothesized to explain the negative effect of teenage parenthood on educational attainment. Regression analyses use nationally representative data from the 1988 – 2000 National Education Longitudinal Study (N = 8,432, n = 356 teenage parents). Results support the hypothesis completely for the teenage fathers in ...

  12. Structural and Radiation Shielding Properties of a Martian Habitat Material Synthesized From In-Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Caranza, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Makel, D. B.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 primary requirements of a Martian habitat structure include sufficient structural integrity and effective radiation shielding. In addition, the capability to synthesize such building materials primarily from in-situ resources would significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth. To demonstrate the feasibility of such an approach we have fabricated samples in the laboratory using simulated in-situ resources, evaluated radiation shielding effectiveness using radiation transport codes and radiation test data, and conducted mechanical properties testing. In this paper we will present experimental results that demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with polyethylene as the binding material. Results from radiation transport calculations and data from laboratory radiation testing using a 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam will be discussed. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition and processing parameters will also be presented.

  13. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO2 emission by human breathing

  14. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Hollensen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a literature review. The results show that buying behavior is much less rational than has been presumed. For example, it is revealed that a consultant’s personal relationships to customers can often compensate for the consultant’s lack of knowledge. This suggests that consultants’ developing long-term personal relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another importantresult that emerged from the study is customers’ specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services.

  15. Common Waste and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

  16. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  17. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  18. Hydrogen compatibility of structural materials for energy-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural materials for H pressure vessels and H pipelines are discussed along with processes for producing H from water. The most difficult problems of those discussed are related to the design and construction of pressure vessels and pipelines for high pressure hydrogen. Because of the size of the facilities, quality control is difficult and low-cost materials must be used. In underground pipelines, the problems are compounded by possible corrosive attack leading to crack formation. In hydride storage vessels, the hydrogen pressures are sufficiently low that ordinary steels can be used as long as the design is conservative or special design features are incorporated. In thermochemical hydrogen production processes, the combined effects of hydrogen and corrosive halogens need to be investigated. Combined effects of hydrogen, other gases, and abrasive solids are the main concern in coal conversion processes. In all applications, there does not appear to be a critical need for new alloy development to protect against hydrogen damage, although the development of lower cost alloys or alloys with better properties should not be discouraged. Also, commercially available alloys may be inadequate for applications in which hydrogen damage is not the only concern

  19. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

  20. Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W. (Knoxville, TN); Deng, Suxiang (Knoxville, TN); Mauritz, Kenneth A. (Hattiesburg, MS); Hassan, Mohammad K. (Hattiesburg, MS); Gido, Samuel P. (Hadley, MA)

    2011-11-22

    Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

  1. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  2. Human resource management and labour relations in the Indian industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Soumi

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses gaps in research related to study and understanding of Human Resource Management in the context of Indian Automobile sector. The review is based on the available and published literature in peer reviewed journals of reputation and academic standing. A total of 138 papers were reviewed related to the general context of Human Resource Management practices. Of these, about 65 papers were found relevant and relating to understanding of HRM practices in India specifically in t...

  3. Managing work–family conflict in the medical profession: working conditions and individual resources as related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested a research model that examined the effects of working conditions and individual resources on work–family conflict (WFC) using data collected from physicians working at German clinics. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study of 727 physicians working in German hospitals. The work environment, WFC and individual resources were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the WFC Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism. Descriptive, correlation and linear regression analyses were applied. Results Clinical doctors working in German hospitals perceived high levels of WFC (mean=76). Sociodemographic differences were found for age, marital status and presence of children with regard to WFC. No significant gender differences were found. WFCs were positively related to high workloads and quantitative job demands. Job resources (eg, influence at work, social support) and personal resources (eg, resilient coping behaviour and self-efficacy) were negatively associated with physicians’ WFCs. Interaction terms suggest that job and personal resources buffer the effects of job demands on WFC. Conclusions In this study, WFC was prevalent among German clinicians. Factors of work organisation as well as factors of interpersonal relations at work were identified as significant predictors for WFC. Our results give a strong indication that both individual and organisational factors are related to WFC. Results may play an important role in optimising clinical care. Practical implications for physicians’ career planning and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:25941177

  4. 29 CFR 1208.5 - Material relating to mediation function-confidential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Material relating to mediation function-confidential. 1208...to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.5 Material relating to mediation function—confidential....

  5. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  6. Related Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metadata made simpler: a guide for libraries. gail hodge. 2001. (www.niso.org) dublin core metadata element set (std.) (www.niso.org) crossref and reference linking (www.crossref.org) digital object identifier (www.doi.org) ...

  7. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  8. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  9. Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Landry Michel D; Castillo-Laborde Carla; Gupta Neeru

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of t...

  10. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed ...

  11. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

  12. Technical resource document: Solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes are effective in treating a variety of difficult to manage waste materials for reuse or disposal. S/S has been identified as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for treating a wide range of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) non-wastewater hazardous waste subcategories. S/S has been selected as the treatment technology of choice for 26% of the remedial actions complete at Superfund sites through fiscal year 1992. The standard bulk material handling and mixing equipment used in many S/S processes make the technology appear simple. The morphology and chemistry of S/S-treated waste are complex. Selection of the binder requires an understanding of the chemistry of the bulk material, the contaminants, and the binder. Battelle, under the direction of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared the Technical Resources Document (TRD) as a resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future application of S/S processes

  13. Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for Space Resource Utilization Technologies Development: Effects of Materials Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fastpace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The recommendation of the workshop of establishing standard simulant materials to be used in lunar technology development and testing will be discussed here with an emphasis on space resource utilization. The variety of techniques and the complexity of functional interfaces make these simulant choices critical in space resource utilization.

  14. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  15. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  16. Urgent physics problems relating to radiation damage in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary tasks for fundamental theoretical and experimental investigations and organisational tasks are enumerated on the basis of literature data analysis and of stored experience. The expediency is marked to direct efforts of investigators in the field of reactor material science to their solution. The necessity is shown to find out the mechanisms of the following phenomena of radiation damage in materials of cores of nuclear and thermonuclear reactors: changes in mechanical properties, vacancy swelling, surface erosion, radiation growth, gaseous swelling, corrosion acceleration, deterioration of material compatibility

  17. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs re

  18. Oral health-related resources - a salutogenic perspective on Swedish 19-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, U; Abrahamsson, K H

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to explore health-oriented resources among 19-year-olds and, specifically, how these resources interact with oral health-related attitudes and behaviour. To represent individuals with various psychosocial environments and socioeconomic areas, the participants were selected from different geographical locations of the Public Dental Service clinics in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. A structured questionnaire was distributed, including the instrument 'sense of coherence', for description of the study group, followed by a semi-structured thematized interview. The qualitative method used for sampling and analyses was grounded theory. Data sampling and analysis were performed in parallel procedures and ended up in a sample of ten informants (five women). In the analysis of interview data, a core category was identified, 'Resources of Wealth and Balance in Life - a Foundation for Healthy Choices', describing the central meaning of the informants' perceptions of resources with an essential beneficial impact on oral health. The core category was built on five themes, which in turn had various subthemes, describing different dimensions of resources interacting with beneficial oral health-related attitudes and behaviour: 'Security-building Resources and Support', 'Driving force and Motivation', 'Maturity and Insight', 'Health Awareness' and 'Environmental influences.' The results elucidate personal and environmental health-oriented resources with influence on oral health-related attitudes and behaviours of young individuals. Such beneficial recourses should be recognized by dental personnel to promote oral health. PMID:25041137

  19. Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vitak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies (ICTs challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.

  20. Hypertextual Relations in Digital Born Materials : Hypertext and time: Towards a genre analysis of heterogeneous digital materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    The paper present a framework for distinguishing different sorts of heterogeneous digital materials. The hypothesis is that hypertextual linking is both a major source of the messy-ness of big data and a means to characterize and classify non-parametric data resources. Thus the notion of hypertext will be revalidated and utilized in the analysis of heterogeneous digital collections.

  1. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  2. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  3. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  4. Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

  5. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  6. Analytical Study for Seeking Relation Between Customer Relationship Management and Enterprise Resource Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Perwej, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a integration of various resources of any organization. It is computer software. All kinds of organization data that is relating to each and every function of the organization are available in ERP. So most of the big business organizations are implementing ERP and some of the medium, small scale companies are also using ERP system. CRM in an organization helps to retain their existing customers as well as capturing new customers for thei...

  7. Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment

    OpenAIRE

    VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

    2012-01-01

    With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

  8. Nutrition- and sex-dependent utilization of body resources in relation to reproduction in a scorpionfly.

    OpenAIRE

    Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter; Engels, Sierk

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction often comes at a cost of a reduction in body functions. In order to enhance their reproductive output, some insect species degenerate their thoracic muscles, typically resulting in reduced flight ability. From a life-history trade-off perspective, we expect the importance of body resource utilization to be amplified both with increased reproductive expenditure and with increased resource limitation. In this study, we measured age-related changes in thorax weight, as a measure of ...

  9. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authoritarian regimes of communism that gave it a face of their own, any more than has traditional conservatism been dependent on social Darwinism, racist or/and aggressive regimes. Beyond this indication we argue of the possibility that historical materialism can be recognised as explanatory system, as one that in derivation and maturity has as its focus of analysis and particularly lays emphasis on what more than ever before governs our social world today, capitalism. The cold war proved the ground or rather the fit for concealing the social and economic divide and made that division namely in competing strategic interest: with the failure of communism and the freeing of historical materialism itself, IR might as well accept the degree to which socio-economic issues determined its agenda and policy of the west.

  10. Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschine, Susan (Leverett, MA); Warnick, Thomas A. (Sunderland, MA)

    2010-03-23

    Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

  11. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

  12. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

  13. Relational Resources Management as Source of Company?s Innovativeness and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zió?kowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exist various resources which an enterprise can use in order to become more innovative and achieve competitive advantage on the market. Relational resources are definitely one of them, for instance enabling a company to make its customers more loyal or to attract new purchasers and other stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a study in which 200 Polish enterprises were asked about what relational resources they used and how frequently. Analysing the results, the authors of the study observed various interesting relationships between the use of relational resources and numerous factors such as the company’s development stage, ownership form, turnover, scope of activity and others. The general conclusion drawn is that more and more Polish enterprises tend to use and manage relational resources, but there still exists a visible difference between Poland and West European countries, as far as the extent of this use is concerned. Therefore, the authors of the study recommend a broader approach to the issue, since its development would be profitable from the economic point of view.

  14. BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

  15. Forest Reproductive Material and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kajba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of genetic diversity of forest tree species represents the foundation for sustainable forest management and preservation of natural structure of forest stands in Croatia. Diversity of geographical regions in Croatia has generated various ecological conditions and thus diverse forest communities which are directly affected by habitat degradation, various anthropogenic effects like pollution of air and water, excessive use of certain more valuable species of forest trees and by the increasing impact of global climatic changes. The need for conservation of genetic diversity is related to the species pertaining to social broadleaves—the prevailing species in terms of economic utilization as Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur, Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica. Among the conifers Silver Fir (Abies alba is the most endangered species, with more than 70% of its population being seriously damaged. Other native coniferous species must be preserved from a decrease in genetic diversity as well. Conservation of the noble broadleaves should encompass a larger number of species from various genera (Fraxinus, Alnus, Ulmus, Prunus, Juglans, Castanea, Sorbus, Acer, Malus, Pyrus, Tilia. These are partially endangered because of their exposure to different pests and diseases, as well as by permanent exploitation due to their technical value. Changes in hydrological conditions of rivers have led difficulties in regeneration of the riparian forests and decreased the genetic variability of European Black and White Poplar in their habitats (Populus nigra, P. alba. In Croatia’s Adriatic coastal areas, there is a need for conservation of genetic resources of Dalmatian Black Pine (P. nigra ssp. dalmatica and Mediterranean Oaks (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens. Conservation of genetic diversity of various forest tree species is conducted within the programmes that include in situ and ex situ methods with ensuring quality forest reproductive materials. In Croatia, a total of 125 seed stands have been selected, covering a total area of 3885.53 ha. The ex situ method is implemented by establishment of a total of 50 plots (clonal seed orchards, provenances and progeny trials, clonal archives, covering 114.85 ha.

  16. Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

  17. Functionalization of biomedical materials using plasma and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-08-01

    Plasma techniques are important to biomedical engineering and surface modification. By modifying selective surface characteristics, conventional materials can be designed with superior biological properties while the favorable bulk materials properties can be retained. In this mini-review, recent progress pertaining to surface modification of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials by plasma-based techniques such as gas or metal ion implantation, dual metal and gas ion implantation, as well as plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is described. Plasma-based surface modification is promising in elevating the cell biocompatibility, blood compatibility, and antibacterial properties of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials and expected to be extensively applied to biomaterials.

  18. Near-field acoustic microscopy of ferroelectrics and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroelectric ceramics and crystals, semiconductor on insulator material and MEMS device have been observed in scanning electron acoustic microscope. The images demonstrate the ability of the microscope to image surface texture, subsurface defect, domain structure and to penetrate opaque layers non-destructively. Ferroelectric domains viewed by scanning probe acoustic microscope based on atomic force microscope are also presented in order to compare both near-field acoustic techniques

  19. INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  20. The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2014-11-01

    Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes. PMID:25367477

  1. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  2. Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

  3. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated

  4. [Mutual relations between plastic materials and bacteria (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, C T; Kanz, E

    1976-12-01

    The complex problems of microbiological degradation of synthetic plastics and a fairly wide variety of 62 testing materials, belonging to 14 major groups of plastics, are described. Adaequate and reliable testing techniques had to be devised. Drawing on the experiences of H. Braun, 1930, and of Bushnell and Haas, 1941, as to the metabolism of bacteria and the utilization of certain hydrocarbons by microorganisms, and previous research work by A. Schwartz in Berlin, 1959-60, on microbial corrosion of plastics, methods of laboratory testing were developed. The bacteriological technique was based on selection of aerobic microorganisms, which were, by starvation, adapted to use the plastic materials as their only carbon source; foreign carbon sources had to be strictly eliminated; emphasis was laid on proper, double control cultures. The test organisms involved included P. aeruginosa and fluorescens strains, also a certain species of Candida, and mixtures of soil, sewage and garbage organisms grown on exposed plastic surfaces. By means of series of passages the selective adaptation and conservation of these organisms was continued up to 4 1/2 years. An anaerobic adaptation method for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was developed and used successfully. After preliminary experimentation (Soil burial, sewage and garbage exposure tests) in the laboratory as well as in the open, a large scale Field testing programme under realistic and to some extent extreme conditions was implemented: Nine different plastic materials comprising eight plain high polymer plastics and for comparison one synthetic Cellulose derivate, together with glass control samples, were exposed in twelve different sewage, garbage, and soil media over a period of 3 months to 2 years, and subsequently examined. On the basis of the bacteriological results obtained from the adaptation series the test materials were classified into three categories, corresponding to the stimulation of bacterial growth: Group one, which allowed strong proliferation, included certain types of plasticized P.V.C. and Cellulose esters, as expected, and, as a new result, Polyurethane rubber; the latter showed clear signs of surface corrosion. Group two, which induced a clear but moderate growth, comprised a nylon trade type of Polyamide. Gruop three, allowing weak but still recognisable growth, included Formaldehyde pressure resing (Bakelite). This was surprising as it was thought that the formaldehyde and phenol components would exert a bacteriocidic or at least bacteriostatic effect. The results of the long and time consuming adaptation series with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were confirmed by the manometric dissimilation method of O. Warburg by means of the Braun/Melsungen apparatus. With this subtle but elegant procedure results and graphical recordings were obtained within hours and days... PMID:828369

  5. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  6. Social relations, human resource management, and knowledge transfer in work organisations: toward an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2008-01-01

    Hailed as the basis for competitive advantage of contemporary firms, knowledge transfer has recently emerged as a key research topic in the organisation and management field. Despite wide recognition of the importance of social relations for effective knowledge transfer, there is little understanding of the micro-sociological foundations of this process, and even less understanding of the ways in which human resource management practices can support social relations conducive to knowledge tra...

  7. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  8. Traditional and Health-Related Philanthropy: The Role of Resources and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Rene

    2006-01-01

    I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving: agreeableness to blood donation, empathic concern to…

  9. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  10. High pressure ?SR studies: rare earths and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvius, G. M.; Schreier, E.; Ekström, M.; Hartmann, O.; Henneberger, S.; Kratzer, A.; Wäppling, R.; Martin, E.; Burghart, F. J.; Ballou, R.; Deportes, J.; Niedermayer, Ch.

    2000-11-01

    After a short introduction to ?SR with respect to the study of magnetic properties, followed by a brief outline of the principle of the high pressure-low temperature ?SR spectrometer installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, we discuss some measurements on rare earth materials employing this instrument. They are concerned with: (1) The pressure dependence of the spin turning process in ferromagnetic Gd. (2) The volume dependence of the internal magnetic field in the heavy rare earth metals Gd, Dy, and Ho in their ordered magnetic states. (3) The response of the (first order) magnetic transition in the frustrated antiferromagnets of type RMn2 (R = Y,Gd) to pressure. (4) The variation of magnetic parameters with pressure in La2CuO4 (powder sample), the antiferromagnetic parent compound of the high TC superconductors of type La2-x(Sr, Ba)xCuO4. In conclusion a short outlook on further developments is given.

  11. The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

  12. CaTiO3 RELATED MATERIALS FOR RESONATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. TaIbi - Benziada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics of Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb are prepared from mixtures of CaTiO3, MF2 and LiF powders by sintering at 950°C for 4 hours in free-air. The samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric measurements. The phase transitions of pure CaTiO3 are strongly influenced by the incorporation of the fluoride mixture MF2 + LiF into the host lattice whereas the orthorhombic symmetry at room temperature is not at all affected by the chemical substitutions Ca-M, Ti-Li and O-F. The dielectric permittivity e'r and losses tand are slightly dependent of temperature between 20°C and 200°C. At room temperature, e'r is stable over a large frequency range with tand < 1%. The Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb oxyfluorides are promising materials to manufacture resonators.

  13. Ecologization of intenational relations in the sphere of marine resources use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Stepanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of ecologization of international relations, analyses trends and steps of ecologization and environmental law development. Special role of UN in global environmental problems solving is highlighted.Ecologization of international regulation of marine-related activities is considered as an extremely importantdue to marine resources degradation, marine transboundary pollution, human impact in the coastal zones, high level of uncertainty and risk of marine-related activities.Ecologization of international relations in the Black Sea basin is realized by mechanism of conventions, international programs and international projects. Special role of the Black Sea Commission and International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is emphasized. Recommendations for rasing the level of international relations ecologization in the Black Sea basin are made

  14. Evaluation of a webquest on the theme "management of material resources in nursing" by undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta Cristiane Alves; Melo, Márcia Regina Antonietto da Costa; Silva, Adriana Serafim Bispo E; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2010-01-01

    The learning process mediated by information and communication technology has considerable importance in the current context. This study describes the evaluation of a WebQuest on the theme "Management of Material Resources in Nursing". It was developed in three stages: Stage 1 consisted of its pedagogical aspect, that is, elaboration and definition of content; Stage 2 involved the organization of content, inclusion of images and completion; Stage 3 corresponded to its availability to students. Results confirm the importance of information technology and information as instruments for a mediating teaching practice in the integration between valid knowledge and the complex and dynamic reality of health services. As a result of the students' favorable evaluation of the approximation with the reality of nursing work and satisfaction for performing the activity successfully, the WebQuest method was considered valid and innovating for the teaching-learning process. PMID:21340275

  15. Materials and energy resources. Report of the research committee working party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Working Party has tried to assess the problems likely to stem from future scarcity of a number of important materials and how these interact with the simultaneous depletion of energy resources. The report examines in detail the likely areas of shortages, and their economic, social and political implications, and suggests the various choices for preventive or corrective action. In its recommendations it has delineated areas not only for research but for action by government and by professional and other bodies. The need is forseen for a nuclear power programme of possibly 35 GW(e) by the end of the century part of which could be from fast breeders. Uranium supplies would appear to be adequate only if fast breeders become available. Nuclear fusion is potentially a very large energy source but only for the distant future. (author)

  16. Adjustment of offspring sex ratios in relation to the availability of resources for philopatric offspring in the common brushtail possum.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, C. N.; Clinchy, M.; Taylor, A. C.; Krebs, C. J.; Jarman, P. J.; Payne, A.; Ritchie, E. G.

    2001-01-01

    The local-resource-competition hypothesis predicts that where philopatric offspring compete for resources with their mothers, offspring sex ratios will be biased in favour of the dispersing sex. This should produce variation in sex ratios between populations in relation to differences in the availability of resources for philopatric offspring. However, previous tests of local resource competition in mammals have used indirect measures of resource availability and have focused on sex-ratio var...

  17. Carbon and related materials for thermal and electrical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhiro

    High thermal stability has been attained in polyol ester by using a sterically half-hindered phenolic primary antioxidant and a thiopropionate secondary antioxidant. Carbon black and boron nitride (BN) serve as antioxidants in the presence of either primary antioxidant or secondary antioxidant at 200°C. BN paste shows an estimated 100°C lifetime of 19 years, compared to 1.3 years for the carbon black paste and 0.10 year for commercial silver paste. Phase-change materials (PCMs) with high thermal stability and high heat of fusion have been attained by using antioxidants (mainly hydrocarbons with linear segments). Their heat of fusion is much higher than those of commercial PCMs. The use of 98.0 wt.% thiopropionate antioxidant with 2.0 wt.% half-hindered phenolic antioxidant as the matrix and 16 vol.% BN particles gives 100°C lifetime indicator 5.3 years, in contrast to 0.95 year or less for the commercial PCMs. Carbon-based films with thickness 1-13 mum, electrical resistivity 6 x 10-4 - 3 O.cm, and strong bonding to alumina, have been attained through the use of EPON SU 2.5 epoxy and an amine curing agent as the carbon precursor, and a carbonization temperature of 650°C. Nickel nanoparticles (filamentary) are more effective for enhancing the conductivity than silver nanoparticles (not filamentary) at the same volume fraction. Even the combined use of carbon nanotube and silver is less effective than nickel. A three-dimensional microstructure in the form of a microscale bridge on alumina has been attained by using a novel low-cost process that involves thermoplastic spacer (wax) evaporation during pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coats the spacer and a part of the substrate. Multiwalled carbon nanotube as a filler is effective for reducing cracking during pyrolysis. A bridge with a girder of length 90-300 microm, separated from the substrate by a height of 5-15 mum, has been attained.

  18. Evaporated organic films of tetrathiafulvalene and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the design, construction and application of a novel vacuum system for the preparation of thin films of organic charge-transfer compounds. The method of thermal evaporation was used for four materials: tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and three of its derivatives, dimethyltetrathiafulvalene (DiMe-TTF), trimethyltetrathiafulvalene (TriMe-TTF) and bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF). The resulting thin layers were characterised using optical and electron microscopy, infrared/visible spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements down to 77 K. Thin films of tetrathiafulvalene, after doping with iodine, exhibited a maximum value of dc, in-plane room temperature conductivity ? of 8.0±2.4 S cm-1. Semiconducting behaviour was exhibited over the range 77-300 K with ?E = 0.09±0.02 eV. The effect of the deposition rate on film morphology is reported. TTF iodide layers were also prepared by co- evaporating the two components. These films exhibited a maximum conductivity of 2.9±0.4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Again, semiconducting behaviour was noted over the range 77- 300 K with ?E 0.2±0.02 eV. A comparison of the optical, structural and electrical properties of the two types of films is made. DiMe-TTF and TriMe-TTF thin films were also successfully prepared. Doping with iodine resulted in in-plane, dc room temperature conductivities of 10-6 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively. These values, togetherespectively. These values, together with data from optical spectroscopy, suggested that both salts were in the full charge-transfer state. (BEDT-TTF) iodide thin films were deposited by evaporating the organic compound and subsequent doping. Doped films possessed a dc, in-plane room temperature conductivity of 10-3 S cm-1. Annealing these layers at 60 deg C resulted in an increase in conductivity with a final value of 1.6 S cm-1. Semiconducting behaviour over the range 77-300 K was exhibited by the annealed films (?E = 0.028 eV). Finally, thin film transistors, incorporating TTF and BEDT-TTF doped layers, were fabricated and their electrical characteristics measured. (author)

  19. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. PMID:25232097

  20. Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, SØren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark.

  1. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional division of Chinese materia medica resources, interview of key information holders and standardization of information.' In particular, using "snowball method" can effectively identify traditional knowledge holder in the targeted regions and ensuring traditional knowledge holders receiving prior informed concerned before sharing the information with researcher to make sure the rights of traditional knowledge holders are protected. Employing right survey methods is not only the key to obtain traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources, but also the pathway to fulfill the objectives of access and benefit sharing stipulated in Convention on Biological Resources. It will promote the legal protection of TCM traditional knowledge and conservation of TCM intangible, cultural heritage. PMID:25898568

  2. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization related projects. [Article content in Chinese

  3. Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) activities in exploring its uranium resources, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: NMA was initiated as the Geology and Nuclear Raw Materials Department in the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt (established in 1957). However, due to the extended nature of NMA's work and it s increasingly expanded activities in the fields of prospection, exploration and evaluation of nuclear raw materials required for the peaceful uses application of nuclear energy, beside processing of their ores; this Department was converted into a separate authority; namely the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) of Egypt, in 1977. Since several decades, Egypt started prospecting and regional exploration for radioactive raw materials using Airborne and ground surveys, carborne, and field reconnaissance in soft and hard rocks During this work activities, some promising U-occurrences were discovered. Airborne radiometric survey started in Egypt in 1958; The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)cooperated with NMA in 1998 for the construction of 4 sets of calibration pads for standardizing both aerial and ground survey instruments. Application of all these activities resulted in completing aerial radiometric prospection of about 40% of the Egyptian territories, among which some locations were also magnetically surveyed from the air. NMA organized several ground geophysical and geological expeditions to verify the registered anomalies, discover any possible mineralization and identify the promising locations using electric, electromagnetic , self-potential, induced polariomagnetic , self-potential, induced polarization, radon, seismic, gravity, ets In the meantime, the necessary relevant field geologic studies were undertaken, together with site development works, involving percussion and core drilling. Geophysical well logging measurements, beside excavation works of some exploratory mining tunnels were conducted. The before mentioned activities led to the definition of three encouraging uranium occurrences in the granite; and metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and a fourth occurrence in the sedimentary rocks of west Central Sinai these are: Gabal Qattar, occurrences (Northern Eastern Desert). Al-Missikate, and Al-Aradiya occurrences, (Central Eastern Desert). Abu- Russhied, Seila, and Um-Ara occurrences, Southern Eastern Desert. Abu-Zeneima occurrences(west Central Sinai).These represent the main occurrences of Uranium resources which were variably developed by NMA, in addition to some other less-important uranium localities. These occurrences could be classified into conventional uranium resources, and non-conventional uranium resources (uranium production is a by-product). NMA undertaken different ore processing studies for the discovered mineralizations and was actually able to design several technological flow sheets for the preparation of uranium concentrate(yellow cake). NMA erected two experimental units for uranium recovery at Abu-Zeneima, and Qattar respectively; The preparation of yellow cake was executed using acid heap leaching, followed by uranium extraction with anion exchange resin. Kilograms of uranium concentrate(yellow cake) were prepared by such two units. NMA is also undertaking various works for the purification of the uranium concentrate(yellow cake) obtainable from the different experimental units whether from that at Inchass or from the two field experimental units at Gebel Gattar Abu Zeneima sites. Airborne surveys, recently conducted by NMA over the Mediterranean cost, demonstrated their use as a, powerful tool in evaluating mineral of beach mineral sand deposits. The most important economic minerals are: ilmenite, magnetite zircon, garnet, rutile and monazite.NMA started, since the year 2000 a detailed evaluation of the black sands at AL-Burullus - Balteem, Northern coast which could offer more than 200 million tons as reserves. (author)

  4. Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, E; Calixto, M

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback-Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems. PMID:25791771

  5. Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, E.; Calixto, M.

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback–Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems.

  6. Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete

  7. Structure-property relations in negative permittivity reststrahlen materials for IR metamaterial applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Shelton, David J. (University of Central Florida); Carroll, James F., III; Boreman, Glenn D. (University of Central Florida); Sinclair, Michael B.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Ginn, James Cleveland, III; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Matias, Vladimir (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2010-09-01

    We will present a study of the structure-property relations in Reststrahlen materials that possess a band of negative permittivities in the infrared. It will be shown that sub-micron defects strongly affect the optical response, resulting in significantly diminished permittivities. This work has implications on the use of ionic materials in IR-metamaterials.

  8. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  9. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  10. Enhanced priming for trauma-related material in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, T.; Ehlers, A.; Halligan, Sl

    2005-01-01

    Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to perceptual priming for trauma-related material. A prospective longitudinal study (N = 69) investigated perceptual priming for trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words in assault survivors with and without PTSD, using a new version of the word-stem completion task. Survivors with PTSD showed enhanced priming for trauma-related words. Furthermore, priming for trauma-related words measured soon after the...

  11. Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Martin L.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.

    2013-06-01

    High throughput (combinatorial) materials science methodology is a relatively new research paradigm that offers the promise of rapid and efficient materials screening, optimization, and discovery. The paradigm started in the pharmaceutical industry but was rapidly adopted to accelerate materials research in a wide variety of areas. High throughput experiments are characterized by synthesis of a "library" sample that contains the materials variation of interest (typically composition), and rapid and localized measurement schemes that result in massive data sets. Because the data are collected at the same time on the same "library" sample, they can be highly uniform with respect to fixed processing parameters. This article critically reviews the literature pertaining to applications of combinatorial materials science for electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials. It is expected that high throughput methodologies will facilitate commercialization of novel materials for these critically important applications. Despite the overwhelming evidence presented in this paper that high throughput studies can effectively inform commercial practice, in our perception, it remains an underutilized research and development tool. Part of this perception may be due to the inaccessibility of proprietary industrial research and development practices, but clearly the initial cost and availability of high throughput laboratory equipment plays a role. Combinatorial materials science has traditionally been focused on materials discovery, screening, and optimization to combat the extremely high cost and long development times for new materials and their introduction into commerce. Going forward, combinatorial materials science will also be driven by other needs such as materials substitution and experimental verification of materials properties predicted by modeling and simulation, which have recently received much attention with the advent of the Materials Genome Initiative. Thus, the challenge for combinatorial methodology will be the effective coupling of synthesis, characterization and theory, and the ability to rapidly manage large amounts of data in a variety of formats.

  12. iAIDS: HIV-related internet resources for the practicing clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakower, Douglas; Kwan, Candice K; Yassa, David S; Colvin, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    In this review, we collate 25 clinically useful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Web sites to facilitate efficient access to online resources according to themes of clinical inquiry: (1) comprehensive clinical information, (2) opportunistic infections, (3) antiretroviral drug interactions, (4) care of HIV-infected women and children, and (5) continuing medical education. We evaluated these Web sites for clinical content and quality using criteria including the currency of information, inclusion of references, sponsors, whether the site is useful in resource-limited settings, ease of navigation, and content specific for each theme. Using the specified criteria, we provided overall ratings for each Web site. We conclude that the Web sites listed in this review can help extend knowledge about best practices and provide real-time patient care support to clinicians. PMID:20738185

  13. Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp) With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

    2013-01-01

    The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, L...

  14. A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

    1988-09-01

    Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

  15. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  16. The projected relative index of consequence equivalence of transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need exists for defining a unit risk factor to enable analysis to make a proper decision when faced with many options relating to the transport of radioactive materials between sites. A method is discussed for deriving such a factor with reference to the collective dose receivable due to the transport of radioactive material incidental to the production of one GWe.a of nuclear power. This quantity would enable the analyst to determine the projected relative index of consequence equivalence (PRICE) for the transport of various types of radioactive materials. (author)

  17. The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and to facilitate investments. The UN Framework Classification provides information about: the stage of geological assessment, subdivided into: Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration; the stage of feasibility assessment, subdivided into: Geological Study, Prefeasibility Study and Feasibility Study/Mining Report; the degree of economic viability, subdivided into: Economic, Potentially Economic and Intrinsically Economic. The Mineral Reserve is defined as the economically extractable part of the Total Mineral Resource, demonstrated by feasibility assessment. A numerical codification of the eight resource classes available was introduced to facilitate the application. Due to many similarities to the classification of uranium resources used by the NEA and IAEA the new UN Framework Classification can be used to classify uranium resources. In general Reasonably Assured Resources of the lowest cost category (presently economically extractable amounts) are consistent with the UN term Proved Reserve. It is therefore hoped that the UN Framework, which now will be tested internationally for three years, will be accepted by all countries and for all mineral commodities including uranium. (author)

  18. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.

    Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.

    Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.

    Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.

    Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.

    Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

    How to cite this article:Ferreira, N., Basson, J., & Coetzee, M. (2010. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1, Art. #284, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.284

  19. A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system

    OpenAIRE

    Dr, Sinclair; Da, Lubarsky; Mm, Vigoda; Dj, Birnbach; Ea, Harris; Behrens V; Re, Bazan; Sm, Williams; Arheart K; Ka, Candiotti

    2014-01-01

    David R Sinclair,1 David A Lubarsky,1 Michael M Vigoda,1 David J Birnbach,1 Eric A Harris,1 Vicente Behrens,1 Richard E Bazan,1 Steve M Williams,1 Kristopher Arheart,2 Keith A Candiotti1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative val...

  20. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  1. Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzyg?o?d, B.; Regulski, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study is related with one of the components of a hybrid decision support system called CAPCAST, implemented under a research project conducted by WIMIIP AGH. It is a model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database, de- signed to allow the transformation of its records into components of a rule-based knowledge base.

  2. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

  3. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.L. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs.

  4. Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs : The case of a Southern Danish Firm Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities but at the same time highlight the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

  5. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collectedNNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  6. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research done at Los Alamos in FY 1993 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. The US Department of Energy funds this research through two programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): defense and groundwater characterization. Los Alamos personnel have continued to study the high-pressure zone created in the aquifer under Yucca Flat. We analyzed data from a hole in this area (U-7cd) and drilled another hole and installed a water monitoring tube at U-4t. We analyzed water from a number of locations on the NTS where we know there are radionuclides in the groundwater and critiqued the effectiveness of this monitoring effort. Our program for analyzing postshot debris continued with material from the last nuclear test in September 1992. We supported both the defense program and the groundwater characterization program by analyzing water samples from their wells and by reviewing documents pertaining to future drilling. We helped develop the analytical methodology to be applied to water samples obtained in the environmental restoration and waste management efforts at the NTS. Los Alamos involvement in the Hydrologic Resources Management Program is reflected in the appended list of documents reviewed, presentations given, papers published, and meetings attended

  7. Swelling, stiffness, and stress in gel material - as related to moisture sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented by which estimates can be made on swelling, bulk modulus, and internal stresses in gel materials as related to water sorption. Porous gel materials are considered as gel materials made porous by capillary pores large enough not to create capillary condensation and capillary tension.Experiments made at the Department of Structural Engineering and Materials, indicate that a number of cellulosic materials can be considered a porous gel materials. Sorption analysis show that water taken up from ambient relative humidity by pulp, for example, cannot by far be explained only by surface adsorption. Volumetric sorption as in gel is very likely to be the main sorption mechanism in the whole area of ambient relative vapor pressures from 0 to very close to 100%. Capillary pores in pulp are first saturated with water when pulp is placed in bulk water. The results might be of interest in further studies of cellulosic materials, especially such studies where main topics are mechanical behaviour.

  8. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

  9. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. Conclusions Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development.

  10. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  11. Parametric Optimization of Laser Engraving Process for different Material using Grey Relational Technique- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh K. Patel*1

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser engraving process is non conventional machining process used for marking/engraving of almost each material which cannot be mark by conventional machining processes. In laser engraving process the surface of material is heat up and subsequently vaporize the material. With the use of laser engraving machine the marking/engraving is possible by using different input parameter as spot diameter, laser power, laser frequency, different wave length etc, and get the changes in output parameter like material removal rate, surface finish and indentation. To optimization of all these parameters with multiple performance characteristic based on the Grey relational analysis. Taguchi method of orthogonal array will be performed to determine the best factor level condition. By analyzing Grey relational grade, it will be observed that which parameter has more effect on responses of input parameter to the output parameter.

  12. Seismology Resources for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This list of reference material was prepared by the Seismological Society of America to provide teachers (primarily grades K-12) with resource information that will be of use in teaching topics related to seismology. The resources are separated into seven categories, the first of which is reference information (primarily books, scientific papers and pamphlets). Other resources include maps, slide sets, videotapes, computer hardware/software, seismographs, and databases. Several of the references include links to order material, view it on line, or provide more information. This site also includes suggestions for "first time users" of seismology materials and some information about how to obtain copies of the resources listed at this site.

  13. Laboratory and field studies related to the hydrologic resources management program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 1995 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations office. Budgetary cuts have required us to scale back our activities, particularly field work at the Nevada Test Site. We have collaborated with a number of government agencies and universities in work related to radionuclide migration through geologic media. In cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have demonstrated the utility of high-sensitivity gamma logging and have successfully improved the design of a bailer routinely used for water sampling. We analyzed a suite of side-wall samples from the BASEBALL drill-back and have interpreted the distribution pattern of test-related radionuclides. Though heterogeneously distributed, they show a general separation of volatile and refractory fractions. The distribution pattern suggests that there has been little movement of radioactive material within this cavity, which is 13 years old and below the static water level. This characterization of the BASEBALL cavity/chimney complex may have important implications for radionuclide migration elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site

  14. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

  15. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  16. Advances in gas-mediated electron beam-induced etching and related material processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Milos [University of Technology, Sydney, School of Physics and Advanced Materials, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Electron beam-induced etching (EBIE) has traditionally been used for top-down, direct-write, chemical dry etching, and iterative editing of materials. The present article reviews recent advances in EBIE modeling and emerging applications, with an emphasis on use cases in which the approaches that have conventionally been used to realize EBIE are instead used for material analysis, surface functionalization, or bottom-up growth of nanostructured materials. Such applications are used to highlight the shortcomings of existing quantitative EBIE models and to identify physicochemical phenomena that must be accounted for in order to enable full exploitation and predictive modeling of EBIE and related electron beam fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  17. Advances in gas-mediated electron beam-induced etching and related material processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Milos

    2014-12-01

    Electron beam-induced etching (EBIE) has traditionally been used for top-down, direct-write, chemical dry etching, and iterative editing of materials. The present article reviews recent advances in EBIE modeling and emerging applications, with an emphasis on use cases in which the approaches that have conventionally been used to realize EBIE are instead used for material analysis, surface functionalization, or bottom-up growth of nanostructured materials. Such applications are used to highlight the shortcomings of existing quantitative EBIE models and to identify physicochemical phenomena that must be accounted for in order to enable full exploitation and predictive modeling of EBIE and related electron beam fabrication techniques.

  18. MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

  19. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  20. Technology-Related Research in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Publications: A Review between 2000 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod P.; Dirani, Khalil; Gitonga, Jacqueline; Teng, Ya-Ting; Benson, Angela D.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of technology has influenced human resource development (HRD) practitioners to embrace technology for both training and non-training interventions. This study examined technology-related articles in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) publications in order to understand what these articles address and the future needs of…

  1. ARE OPPORTUNITIES DEMANDS AND RESOURCES RELATED TO STRESS ? A CRITICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish .K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are aware that employee stress is an increasing problem in organizations. Friends tell us they’re stressed out from greater workloads and having to work longer hours because of downsizing at their company. Parents talk about the lack of job stability in today’s world and reminisce about a time when a job with a large company implied lifetime security. We read surveys in which employees complain about the stress created in trying to balance work and family responsibilities. We’ll look at the causes and consequences of stress, and then consider what individuals and organizations can do to reduce it. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

  2. Exploitation and use of raw materials resources for manufacturing nuclear fuels. Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fuel for Cernavoda Romanian nuclear power plant is based on natural uranium cycle implying mining, concentration-refining and UO2 manufacturing. For the Uranium National Company securing the raw materials necessary for fuel element manufacturing implies the following sources: - from the production cumulated till the year 2001 in the Security and Consumption Stock; - from the current production of uranium ore. Romania posses two categories of deposits which ensure at present and in the future the uranium ore production: active deposits and production center at Crucea-Botusana; - deposits proposed for the exploitation activity at Tulghes - Grinties. Other two important centers of production in Banat and Bihor ceased the production since 1999 due to the deposit depletion. The uranium reserve of Romania is estimated to 9,233 tones in geological deposits of high confidence level plus 6,344 tones in resources still not searched. The medium- and long-term strategy of CNU to fructify the uranium reserves of Romania is in concordance with the current government policy and is based upon two major investments: - opening a new production unit at Tulghes-Grinties; - Refurbishment of plants R1 and E1. The main amount of uranium currently used for making the needed nuclear fuel comes today from the production center Crucea-Botusana. Here the exploitation is based mainly on pitchblende-rich deposits. Uranium ore processing and concentration is made at 'R' and 'ing and concentration is made at 'R' and 'E' plants at Feldioara able to ensure an annual capacity of 300 tones UO2. In the assesment of the amount of uranium needed in the nuclear fuel fabrication the degree of uranium recovery was also taken into account. The uranium supply implied by the new electro-nuclear plants to be installed till 2025 was evaluated by taking into account the future advanced fuel solutions, SEU and RU, what will diminish the natural uranium consumption to 55% and 66%, respectively. The price of nuclear fuel has been estimated within the following assumptions: continuation of the present extraction and mining processing technologies; modernization and refurbishment of the extraction and processing technologies after 2010-2012. An increase of the uranium price is forecast and accordingly the current high cost of the Romanian uranium will approach the world costs what justifies maintaining the domestic uranium production and limitation of imports

  3. Physical relation between coda wave analysis and fabric change in multiphase, granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of fabric changes in porous structures is an important factor for geotechnical identification to detect fabric soil change. If these changes are small, the detection can be a challenge by use of conventional dynamic or acoustic methods. Under use of Coda-wave Interferometry the changes can detected as velocity gradients, but to use this information in engineering fields a further transfer by use of constitutive relations is needed. This article present some physical relations for multiphase material in Geomechanics based on, e.g. different Hertzian contact models. The study covers relations for stress change, humidity change, creep and cementation processes. All tests were validated between sufficient experimental test and numerical simulations. To analyse the given relation specific laboratory equipment in triaxial and large cell tests were performed. Beside different pressures, a control of internal matric and net stress is needed. That control requires an anisotropic pressure control outside of the granular material and a control of water and air pressure inside of the granular material. In compare to conventional acoustic laboratory investigation methods, the coda wave interferometry coupled with geomechanical constitutive relations is much more sensitive, not subjective influenced testing method to detect small changes in multi-phase granular material.

  4. Unconformity-related uranium-gold deposits of northern Australia: Resources, genesis and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has a uranium resource of 370 kt U3O8 (313 kt U) contained in unconformity-related deposits. Over 85% of this resource is located in the Alligator Rivers Province of the Northern Territory. In addition to uranium, several of the deposits here contain economic gold (38t have so far been delineated) and two contain major amounts of platinum-group metals. Uranium-gold deposits of the Alligator Rivers Provinces are in many ways similar to deposits of the Athabasca Basin in Saskatchewan (Canada). They are located at the unconformity between Mid Proterozoic clastic rocks and older metamorphic basement. Ore is associated with fault zones which in some cases transgress and offset the unconformity. Ore is enveloped by intense clay-sized phyllosilicate alteration haloes. Differences (i.e. lower grade, no ore in sandstone, no Ni-Co-As ore) can largely be attributed to the effects of extensive erosion and weathering which has exposed the Alligator Rivers deposits, and overall lack of exploration in areas of thick sandstone cover. All the known deposits in the Alligator Rivers Province were discovered by relatively simple airborne or ground radiometric surveys. Modern, geophysical methods as are routinely employed in Saskatchewan (such as airborne TEM), have not been tried in the Alligator Rivers Province. There has been a paucity of exploration in the Alligator Rivers Province in the past 15 years, as a result of creation of a national park over thult of creation of a national park over the most prospective area. (author). 31 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  6. Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Haihu Ma; Jun Li; Hua Tang; Xiaodan Wang; Qi Wang; Tianxing Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui) illustrated regional sustainable development approach. In this study, to provide insight into spatial and dynamic analysis of region sustainable development, we calculated the relative carrying capacity of land resources and economical reso...

  7. Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, R. E.; Bartley, M.; H. Pikhart; Stafford, M; Cable, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods: This study used the 1970 Brit...

  8. Human Development as semiotic-material Ordering: Sketching a Relational Developmental Psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Kontopodis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented here is an attempt at casting human development as a semiotic-material phenomenon which reflects power relations and includes uncertainty. On the ground of post-structuralist approaches, development is considered here as a performative concept, which does not represent but creates realities. Emphasis is put on the notions of ‘mediation’, ‘translation’ and ‘materiality’ in everyday practices of students and teachers in a concrete school setting, where I conducted ethnographical research for one school year. The analysis of discursive research material of teachers’ discussions and interviews with students proves the developmental discourse to be interrelated to teachers’ and students’ positioning in the school; the developmental discourse orders ongoing interaction and enables students and teachers to perform the past and witness the future in a way which corresponds with dominant values and state social/educational policies. By translating a variety of events into a line moving from the past to the future as well as by materializing this line as diagrams and other semiotic-material objects, development becomes a technology of the self of (late modernity which implies power relations and supports the maintenance of the modern order. On these grounds, a relational approach to development is suggested, which raises methodological and political issues.

  9. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

  10. Development of materials related to the 60T and 100T magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    In the past year, the effort in materials science related to the 60T and 100T magnets at Los Alamos has been concentrated in three areas: (a) development of a fabrication route for Cu-Ag wire in collaboration with Handy and Harman and IGC and (b) investigation of the mechanical properties of a variety of potential high strength high conductivity materials (c) selection of the reinforcement materials for the coils and development of a fabrication route for these materials. The selection of the conductors and reinforcement materials is based on their mechanical properties and electrical properties at cryogenic temperature ({minus} 196 C). The authors have taken the approach of trying to relate the properties both to design requirements and to the service life of magnet. Thus, they have given some consideration both to the role of the internal stresses developed during the fabrication on the elastic-plastic transition and on the mechanical and thermal stability of heavily drawn wires. The feasibility of the fabrication route and the cost of manufacturing the materials must also be considered. They have emphasized the need to develop a fabrication route capable of producing the conductors with homogeneous mechanical and electrical properties and with a cross-section of 8.6 mm x 5.2 mm and 146 m in length or longer for a 100T magnet.

  11. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

  12. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

  13. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

  14. The Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation Using Alternative Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Among the surprising results of research on the relation between a person's material circumstances and his or her subjective well-being was the finding that this relationship appears to be rather weak (throughout this paper the terms "(general) life satisfaction", "(subjective) satisfaction", "happiness" and "subjective well-being" will be used…

  15. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01...material related to the International Energy Program. 9a...Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE...APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS;...

  16. Space Exploration Initiative Fuels, Materials and Related Nuclear Propulsion Technologies Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

  17. Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts

  18. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pitz-Paal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

  19. Functional Thermoplastic Materials from Derivatives of Cellulose and Related Structural Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikuni Teramoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys advances in the development of various material functionalities based on thermoplastic cellulose and related structural polysaccharide derivatives. First, the dependence of thermal (phase transition behavior on the molecular composition of simple derivatives is rationalized. Next, approaches enabling effective thermoplasticization and further incorporation of material functionalities into structural polysaccharides are discussed. These approaches include: (a single-substituent derivatization, (b derivatization with multi-substituents, (c blending of simple derivatives with synthetic polymers, and (d graft copolymerization. Some examples addressing the control of supramolecular structures and the regulation of molecular and segmental orientations for functional materials fabrication, which have especially progressed over the past decade, are also addressed. Attractive material functions include improved mechanical performance, controlled biodegradability, cytocompatiblity, and optical functions.

  20. Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihu Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui illustrated regional sustainable development approach. In this study, to provide insight into spatial and dynamic analysis of region sustainable development, we calculated the relative carrying capacity of land resources and economical resources and synthetical carrying capacity of resources in different cities in Zhejiang, and geographic information system was carried out. The results showed that all cities but Hangzhou and Ningbo were ecologically sustainable, and relative carrying capacity of land resources in northern and eastern Zhejiang was larger than those in southern and western Zhejiang. The sampling years of Wenzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo contribution rates of land resource to synthetic carrying capacity were grouped into three stages, and there were two milestones trends and changes in 1996 and 2004, respectively. This study demonstrated that geographic information system and relative carrying capacity of resources are effective for assessment of region sustainable development, and provide policy guidelines for decision-making.

  1. Services of radiological protection: as sizing the human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)

  2. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are a substantial resource for molybdenum metal and may have anomalous concentrations of tungsten. The deposits contain low-grade ore (0.03-0.22 percent molybdenum) as molybdenite, but are large-tonnage, making them amenable to bulk mining open-pit techniques. The mineralizing system usually has fluorine contents of less than 0.1 percent. The cogenetic intrusion is a differentiated calc-alkaline granitoid, typically granodiorite to quartz monzonite in composition, with low rubidium and niobium, and moderate to high strontium concentrations. Metals and hydrothermal fluids are sourced from these intrusions, with an additional meteoric fluid component contributing to peripheral alteration but not adding more metal. The lithology of the surrounding country rocks is not important to the formation of these deposits, but a surrounding carbonate unit may be altered to skarn that contains economic mineralization. The creation of contact-metamorphosed hornfels adjacent to the intrusion is common. Formation of arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits typically occurs within a continental arc environment related to arc-continent or continent-continent collision and subduction. Few deposits are found in an island arc setting. Most classified arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are located in the western cordillera of North America, notably in British Columbia and Alaska. Hydrothermal alteration provides a key component to the identification of a deposit. Alteration usually is zoned from a core of potassic plus/minus silicic alteration outwards through phyllic to propylitic alteration. Argillic alteration may be irregular in shape and will overprint earlier hydrothermal alteration. Exploration should be limited to magmatic arc belts that have been unroofed and eroded to levels of a few kilometers depth. Important geological vectors toward areas of higher grade mineralization include intensity of hydrothermal alteration, veining, and faulting. Anomalous levels of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, lead, or zinc in soils, tills, stream sediments, and drainage waters may indicate the presence of an arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit. Geophysical exploration techniques have been met with minimal success because of the overall low concentration of associated sulfide and oxide minerals. Geoenvironmental concerns are generally low because of low volumes of sulfide minerals. Most deposits are marginally acid-generating to non-acid-generating with drainage waters being near-neutral pH because of the acid generating potential of pyrite being partially buffered by late-stage calcite-bearing veins. The low ore content results in a waste:ore ratio of nearly 1:1 and large tailings piles from the open-pit method of mining.

  3. School difficulties and role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, K.; Baumann, Miche?le

    2012-01-01

    Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods:...

  4. Failure of school project: the role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, K.; Baumann, Miche?le

    2012-01-01

    Youth context require social-material-behavioral-mental resources to realize school achievement and their community participation, but they are lacking or altered for many adolescents. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of these factors with repeating a school year, low school-performance, and quitting-school thinking at 16 years. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including: sex, age, family st...

  5. White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Arola, Lluis; van Erk, Marjan; van Ommen, Ben; Radonjic, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products. PMID:25466819

  6. IMPACTS OF MATERIAL SUBSTITUTION IN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURE ON RESOURCE RECOVERY. VOLUME IV. APPENDICES H-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume contains appendices covering the following subjects: (1) Shredder Industry Survey; (2) Material Substitution and Automobile Performance; (3) Integrated Analysis of the Impact of Automobile Composition Changes Using the Strategic Environmental Assessment System....

  7. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

  8. The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

    2009-08-15

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  9. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  10. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  11. Adult Basic Education: An Evaluation of Materials. Volume III. Contains resource materials on Supplemental Language Arts; Vocational Education; Social Living; General Equivalency Diploma: English, Literature, Math, Social Studies, Science; Equivalency Examination Materials; Spelling; Vocational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    An attempt to meet the need for resource materials available for Adult Basic Education (ABE) personnel who work with Spanish-speaking adults is presented. The information presented was acquired by writing to commercial publishers throughout the country. Evaluations included were completed by identifying the usefulness of the curricular offerings…

  12. Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Steinberger, Julia K; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gaube, Veronika; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-12-01

    Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. 'Embodied HANPP' (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism. PMID:23470886

  13. The Effect of Globalization, Labor Fexibilization and National Industrial Relations Systems on Human Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how changes to the global organization of capitalism have accompanied and intensified globalization as well as have affected the regulation of labor and employment relationship. One of the most significant of these changes has been the dramatic increase in the rate of cross-border merger and acquisition activity. Of equal significance, especially for the regulation of labor and the employment relationship, has been the pronounced tendency of global enterprises to transform themselves into coordinators and organizers of activities performed for them by contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers. Outsourcing and sub­contracting have allowed global enterprises to reduce and externalize the costs incurred from the direct employment of labor. This reorganization of the operations of global corporations has been greatly facilitated by the removal of barriers to trade and the global movement of capital, and labor market deregulation. Labor market deregulation has largely been brought about by the emasculation of national Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs in developed and developing nations alike. As national IRSs have been emasculated, so has the regulation of labor and the employment relationship increasingly been internalized in the firm by the use of Human Resource Management (HRM.

  14. Personalised Networks of Influence in Public Relations : Strategic Resources for Achieving Successful Professional Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to look into Italian PR practitioners' opinions on whether or not specific social networks, the personalized networks of influence, are perceived to be as one of the main strategic resources and the degree of relevance they give to such networks. Personalised networks of influence are also tested with Italian journalists to verify whether or not other communication-related professions consider important to have personalised networks of influence and whether or not this relevance is perceived similar to that of PR practitioners. The data of this study was gleaned from a survey on PR practitioners and journalists' self-perceptions and perceptions of each others that was conducted in Italy from March to October 2007. The survey was based both on qualitative data collected through personal interviews with senior PR practitioners and journalists and on quantitative data gathered through an online, close-ended questionnaire. This study is based on the analysis of the survey data on personal influence.

  15. Florida Folk Festival: Asian and Pacific Island Traditions in Florida. Resource Materials for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith. KC, Ed.

    This information and activity booklet discusses the Florida Folk Festival, a celebration that offers students and teachers an opportunity to hear music, taste foods, see folk art demonstrations, observe dance, and listen to stories that celebrate Florida's cultural and ethnic legacies. The booklet offers resources for learning about Florida…

  16. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  17. Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

  18. Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the 'ITER Materials R and D Data Bank' has been built up, with the use of ExcelTM spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

  19. Transportation safety aspects of ore and related material - inconsistencies in current exemption values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's system for exemption of material from the transport regulations is based on the fundamental principle that exemption values should be commensurate with the risk posed by the material, as represented by effective dose and skin dose. Important departures from that principle as well as inconsistencies between exemption values for different radionuclides have resulted from special provisions for natural materials that depend on their intended use, and from exposure scenarios and other assumptions and rules used in the derivation of exemption values. This paper examines the sources and extent of inconsistencies in exemption values for transport, particularly as they relate to naturally occurring radionuclides, and suggests ways to achieve greater internal consistency in exemption values as well as greater consistency with the fundamental principle underlying the current system

  20. Application of SPM and Related Techniques to the Mechanical Properties of Biotool Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, T.; Jäger, I. L.; Lichtenegger, H. C.

    Soon after the introduction of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) originally developed for imaging purposes, their potential for mechanical analyses at the smallest scales was recognized and soon the method was applied to a variety of materials, including some of biological origin. Experimental techniques range from phase imaging to indentation and scratch testing. This chapter focuses on the use of instrumented indentation and related techniques such as scanning wear testing on biological tool tissues, materials often characterized by a high abrasion resistance. A brief overview of structure and composition of biological materials is given, since these factors are crucial in determining the mechanical properties and a basic understanding of such correlations is indispensable for the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the influence of sample storage, preparation, and environmental conditions on mechanical tests is discussed, and relevant evaluation methods described. Finally, examples from the literature illustrating the successful application of SPM techniques on biotool tissues (mainly teeth) are presented.

  1. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesler Laura E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to respond to struggles collectively has been put at risk as well. Bi-lateral and multilateral agencies need to take into account local needs and demands, and implement policies in a manner that respects national laws, and protects both the physical and social well-being of individuals.

  2. Using closely-related language to build an ASR for a very under-resourced language: Iban

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Sarah Samson; Besacier, Laurent; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Tien Ping, Tan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our work on automatic speech recognition system (ASR) for an under-resourced language, Iban, a language that is mainly spoken in Sarawak, Malaysia. We collected 8 hours of data to begin this study due to no resources for ASR exist. We employed bootstrapping techniques involving a closely-related language for rapidly building and improve an Iban system. First, we used already available data from Malay, a local dominant language in Malaysia, to bootstrap grapheme-to-phoneme...

  3. Materiality of Code: Towards an understanding of socio-technical relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to better understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the code at the program level in order to trace the use of technological elements such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. This is a socio-technical study of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I explore the materiality of code, going beyond technical implementation, to consider how code has been socially inscribed. I argue that approaching code is a way to understand socio-technical relations.

  4. Supplemental Pacific Northwest History Materials: Overcoming Racism and Sexism. Multicultural Education Resource Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Stephen Lawrence

    Twenty-four units which focus on the contribution of women and minority group members to the development of the Pacific Northwest provide supplementary material for high school social studies classes. The lives of 12 women are treated in separate units. Other topics include the Pacific Northwest 100 years ago, the temperance movement, oral history…

  5. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C.K. [BARC, Materials Group, Mumbai (India); Singh, H. [BARC, REDS and OSD-IREL, Mumbai (India)

    2003-07-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects.

  6. Guide relative to the quality assurance applicable to the radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programs of quality assurance relative to the move of radioactive materials must take into account any operations as: the conception of packaging, the fabrication of packaging, the use, the checking and the maintenance of the packaging, the expedition and the preparation, the radiation monitoring, the load of packages in the transport means, the operation of transport and storage, the reception, the commissioning and the management of emergency situations. (N.C.)

  7. Stachybotrys atra Growth and Toxin Production in Some Building Materials and Fodder under Different Relative Humidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulin, Marjo; Pasanen, Anna-liisa; Berg, Seija; Hintikka, Eeva-liisa

    1994-01-01

    Growth of Stachybotrys atra and its toxin production on some building materials and in animal fodder were studied at relative humidities ranging from 78 to 100%. Toxins were detected by biological assays and chemical methods. Strong growth of the fungus and presence of macrocyclic trichothecenes, mainly satratoxins G and H, were detected on wallpaper and gypsum boards and in hay and straw at saturation conditions. On pine panels, S. atra grew well, but neither biological toxicity nor producti...

  8. The Relation between Human Resource Management (HRM) Strategies and Job Loyalty as Practiced at the Public Relations (PR's) Units in the Government Ministries of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Akif Lutfi Al-Khasawneh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between human resource management strategies (selection, training, evaluation, safety & security, and motivation) as practiced at the public Relations department in the Government Ministries of Jordan and job loyalty (job). The study employed the questionnaire for data gathering and SPSS program for processing. A representative inclusive to all PR's employees (N=145) and major findings were: 1. Low satisfaction level among PR's employees regarding HRM...

  9. Material-Model-Based Determination of the Shock-Hugoniot Relations in Nanosegregated Polyurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.

    2013-10-01

    Previous experimental investigations reported in the open literature have indicated that applying polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can substantially improve ballistic penetration resistance and blast survivability of buildings, vehicles, and laboratory/field test-plates, as well as the blast-mitigation capacity of combat helmets. The protective role of polyurea coatings/linings has been linked to polyurea microstructure, which consists of discrete hard-domains distributed randomly within a compliant/soft matrix. When this protective role is investigated computationally, the availability of reliable, high-fidelity constitutive models for polyurea is vitally important. In the present work, a comprehensive overview and a critical assessment of a polyurea material constitutive model, recently proposed by Shim and Mohr (Int J Plast 27:868-886, 2011), are carried out. The review revealed that this model can accurately account for the experimentally measured uniaxial-stress versus strain data obtained under monotonic and multistep compressive loading/unloading conditions, as well as under stress relaxation conditions. On the other hand, by combining analytical and finite-element procedures with the material model in order to define the basic shock-Hugoniot relations for this material, it was found that the computed shock-Hugoniot relations differ significantly from their experimental counterparts. Potential reasons for the disagreement between the computed and experimental shock-Hugoniot relations are identified.

  10. Changes in relative material deprivation in regions of Slovakia and the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelinsky Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the level of relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak Republics and their regions. The first part of the article describes the level of households’ equipment with utilities and durables using the 1991 and 2001 censuses. The second part is aimed at estimating the relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak regions using EU SILC 2006-2008 microdata, i.e. approximately 15 years after the split. The results indicate that there are significant differences in the relative material deprivation rates between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and among their regions. According to the results, the level of deprivation is higher in Slovakia, and deprived households are highly concentrated in the eastern part of Slovakia. The regions can be divided into five clusters, while the Czech Capital Prague Region has a special position. It has the highest level of housing deprivation and the lowest level of durables/economic strain deprivation.

  11. Managing, marketing, maximising : creating an information resources development policy to further academic-library relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kendlin, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a school information resources development policy and illustrates how these policies can be used to further liaison among academic libraries, to market library resources to our users and to ensure that library purchases accurately reflect the teaching and research needs of each school.

  12. Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organizations use balanced developed leadership pattern is far higher than other three leadership patterns. Different human resource system is adopted according to different leadership pattern. When different leadership pattern matches with human resource system, organization performance will prominently be varied. Furthermore, human resource system must be fit with organization situational factor.

  13. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status ...

  14. Enhancing resource effectiveness: An environmental and economic analysis of thermal and biological treatment of discarded material

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Castillo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Waste-to-energy technology addresses several societal concerns. It protects human health and the environment, treats waste and recovers material. It mitigates climate change by reducing the carbon intensity of energy generation whilst increasing energy security. Often, these multiple services are not sufficiently recognised. This thesis informs energy and waste management policy by characterising the benefits that can justify appropriate support to address the currently limited awareness. ...

  15. Teaching General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides some guidance on issues that arise in teaching general relativity at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for presenting the mathematical material needed for the formulation of general relativity.

  16. NTSB (U. S. National Transportation Safety Board) hazardous materials spill maps a new safety information resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, L.; Rote, R.

    1980-01-01

    The NTSB Hazardouus Material Accident Spill Map program has been under development since 1978 to fill the need of emergency response personnel for practical, current information about hazardous-materials behavior in actual transportation accidents. The tentatively standardized format consists of a time-sequenced series of U.S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000 scale, topographic maps showing dispersion patterns and ranges and the weather at each of the times reported (at 7.5 min intervals), the sites of injuries and/or fatalities, and a synopsis of the sequence of events associated with the accident. The maps are currently used by NTSB to report the behavior of hazardous materials released in transportation accidents, but they could also be used as a basis for pre-emergency planning and decision making during accidents, as well as for model verification, and accident simulations, or in establishing or amending regulations. Future possible activities in this area by NTSB and other organizations are discussed briefly.

  17. Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

    2001-01-01

    The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

  18. Vector of development of prospecting branch in the conditions of exhaustion of raw material resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Zastypov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustion of oil resources in many oil-extracting regions staticizes a problem of development of mechanisms of economic incentives of activity of the prospecting companies, effective regulation of tax system and its adaptation to needs of development of oil-extracting and prospecting branches. Offers on rational use of investment means in geological exploration and to justification of administrative decisions are considered. The main questions of tax and investment incentives of activity in the subsurface use sphere in the conditions of insufficiency of financing of prospecting works are taken up.

  19. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  20. Joining relatively different melting point materials with metal powder and electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, K.; Goya, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Itomura, S.; Yara, H.; Yamashiro, Y.; Oshiro, T. [Univ. of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ushio, M.; Ikeuchi, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Haneji, T. [Industrial Research Lab. of the Okinawa Prefecture (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    In this study, experiments on solid-state joining were performed under atmospheric conditions by using metal powder medium which was sandwiched in the space between the two solid materials of specimen to be joined (i.e., base metal). In the first experiment, solid specimen were same materials and had a same melting point as the same powder medium. In the second and third, solid specimen were different materials and had relatively different melting points, and with considerably higher melting point materials with nickel powder medium. Complete joining samples were compressed longitudinally by electrodes and current was conducted simultaneously to generate Joule thermal heat. Some fundamental data on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the joint were obtained by resistance welding and tests. The data was discussed with a view to optimizing the method, and was compared with that of the base metals, in terms of tensile, impact strength, Vickers hardness tests; bending U shape flexure test; the macro and micro structural observation was also made by microscopes. The solid specimen bars of the materials used in this study were pure copper, stainless steel, tungsten carbide and titanium cylindrical bars of solid specimen, and the insert materials were atomized copper and nickel powder medium. Some of the mechanical and metallurgical properties were studied by examining the macro and micro structures of the joint section. In particular, the experimental data obtained was compared with those of the base metals, and was found that the strength of the joint reached approximately that of the annealed one of the lower melting point solid copper specimen bar.

  1. Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, X., E-mail: xavier.sauvage@univ-rouen.fr [University of Rouen, CNRS UMR 6634, Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP12, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Wilde, G.; Divinski, S.V. [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Horita, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Valiev, R.Z., E-mail: rzvaliev@mail.rb.ru [Institute for Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marx 12, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UFG materials produced by SPD do exhibit specific GBs defined earlier as 'non-equilibrium GB'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such boundaries differ from regular GBs on atomic structure and appearance of long-range stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apparent thickness of 'non-equilibrium' GB is typically in a range of 1 to 2 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GBs in SPD materials may promote segregations and mechanical mixing that affect the properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 'Non-equilibrium' GBs do significantly enhance the atomic mobility in SPD materials. - Abstract: Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called 'non-equilibrium' grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These features and related phenomena (diffusion, segregation, etc.) have been the object of intense studies and the obtained results provide convincing evidence of the importance of a non-equilibrium state of high angle grain boundaries for UFG materials with unusual properties. The aims of the present paper are first to give a short overview of this research field and then to consider tangled, yet unclear issues and outline the ways of oncoming studies. A special emphasis is given on the specific structure of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by SPD, on grain boundary segregation, on interfacial mixing linked to heterophase boundaries and on grain boundary diffusion. The connection between these unique features and the mechanical properties or the thermal stability of the ultrafine grained alloys is also discussed.

  2. Taking Design Games Seriously : Re-connecting Situated Power Relations of People and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting to relate research on various PD techniques and power issues more directly.

  3. Post operation recurrence of inguinal hernia in children and its relation with suture material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Amanollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using non-absorbable suture in children hernia repair to decrease of recurrence is recommended in the most pediatric surgery centers. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between kind of suture material and rate of hernia recurrence. Methods: In this clinical trial 200 children (age 1-5 years with inguinal hernia who operated in Imam-Reza Hospital (kermanshah –Iran Between April 2007 until April 2008 enrolled into the study. Cases were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into two groups (100 cases per group and operated with absorbable (silk 3-0 and non-absorbable (vicryli 3-0 suture material. Following period was 12 months after operation and collected data analyzed by statistical software. Emergency operations were excluded from the study.Results: 83% of patients were boy and 17% were girl. %53 showed right side inguinal, 29% left side and %18 were bilateral hernia. After one year follow up only one case of recurrence was observed in each group.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that recurrence of inguinal hernia in children after surgery, is not related to kind of suture material (absorbability and we didn’t find any significant difference. Other factors than suture material may influence recurrence rate of hernia operation in children.

  4. Joining relatively different melting point materials with metal powder and electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, K.; Goya, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Itomura, S.; Yara, H.; Oshiro, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ushio, M.; Ikeuchi, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Haneji, T. [Industrial Research Lab. of the Okinawa Prefecture, Okinawa (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    In this study, experiments on solid-state joining were performed under atmospheric conditions by using metal powder medium which was sandwiched in the space between the two solid materials of specimen to be joined (i.e., base metal). In the first experiment, solid specimen were same materials and had a same melting point as the same powder medium. In the second and third, solid specimen were different materials and had relatively different melting points, and with considerably higher melting point materials with nickel powder medium. Complete joining samples were compressed longitudinally by electrodes and current was conducted simultaneously to generate Joule thermal heat. Some fundamental data on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the joint were obtained by resistance welding and tests. The data was discussed with a view to optimizing the method, and was compared with that of the base metals, in terms of tensile, impact strength, Vickers hardness tests; bending U shape flexure test; the macro and micro structural observation was also made by microscopes.

  5. Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organization...

  6. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  7. Nuclear power plant life management: Materials and components, research, human resource, radwaste and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspects concerning nuclear power plant (NPP) life management (PLiM) programmes are examined. The objectives of PLiM and their influence on safety and operation are presented in terms of potential gains in safety, reliability and performance of systems, structures and components (SSCs) by giving due emphasis to social and economic considerations. A nuclear plant implementing a PLiM programme needs state of science and technology information and approaches as well as availability of well trained personnel in sufficient numbers to achieve safe and optimized operating life of the NPP. Accordingly, the importance of succession planning for assuring trained human resources, knowledge management and the need for continued research in all fields of nuclear power generation are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  8. Characteristics of opportunistic species of the Corynebacterium and related coryneforms isolated from different clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnicka, Alina; Kozio?-Montewka, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account the increasing contribution of species, which enter into the composition of purely physiological flora of the organism, of the Corynebacterium type and related coryneforms in opportunistic infections in people, the analysis of strains was made from different clinical materials from patients. Their identification was made on the basis of biochemical properties and their antibiotic sensitivity was characterized. It was found that strains with similar biochemical properties (C.striatum, C.amycolatum ) should be identified by means of genetic methods, all the more that they were isolated from clinically important materials. Out of the examined strains the biggest number of infections were caused by C.pseudodiphtheriticum, next C. striatum/C. amycolatum, Brevibacterium sp., C.propinquum, one: C.afermentans, C.jeikeium, C.group G, C.group F1, C.accolens, C.macqinleyi. The highest sensitivity of isolated strains was to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Imipenem. PMID:15315020

  9. Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

  10. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  11. Recent developments in superhydrophobic graphene and graphene-related materials: from preparation to potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Wanhua; Lee, Luke P.; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, graphene has revealed a cornucopia of both fundamental science and potential applications due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. Recently, increasing effort has been devoted to exploiting its new features, for example, wetting properties. Benefitting from its inherent material properties, graphene shows great potential for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, which could be potentially used for various anti-water applications. In this review, we summarize the recent developments in superhydrophobic graphene and graphene-related materials. Preparation strategies using pure graphene, graphene oxide, and graphene/polymer hybrids are presented and their potential applications are discussed. Finally, our own perspective of this dynamic field, including both current challenges and future demands, has been discussed. It is anticipated that the cooperation of the numerous merits of graphene and superhydrophobicity will lead to new opportunities for high-performance multifunctional devices.In the past decade, graphene has revealed a cornucopia of both fundamental science and potential applications due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. Recently, increasing effort has been devoted to exploiting its new features, for example, wetting properties. Benefitting from its inherent material properties, graphene shows great potential for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces, which could be potentially used for various anti-water applications. In this review, we summarize the recent developments in superhydrophobic graphene and graphene-related materials. Preparation strategies using pure graphene, graphene oxide, and graphene/polymer hybrids are presented and their potential applications are discussed. Finally, our own perspective of this dynamic field, including both current challenges and future demands, has been discussed. It is anticipated that the cooperation of the numerous merits of graphene and superhydrophobicity will lead to new opportunities for high-performance multifunctional devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supporting Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00719d

  12. NIR SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO THE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF PRE-TREATED MATERIALS FROM MULTIPLE LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESOURCES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROSABIO DEL P, CASTIIIO; CABOIINA, PABBA; EDUABDO, TBONCOSO; HEBIBEBTO, FBANCO; SAMUEL, PEÑA; JUANITA, FBEEB.

    2347-23-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) has been recognized as potential raw for bioethanol production. To facility LB bioconversion a pretreatment is applied, followed by simultaneous or separated saccharification and fermentation (SSF or SHF, respectively) steps. Characterization of pretreated materials, nee [...] ded to evaluate their ethanol yields, involves laborious and destructive methodologies. Therefore, saccharification is also time consuming and expensive step and some pretreated samples have not suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields. Since bioethanol production aims to be a multivariable process respect to lignocellulosic resources, this work attempts to use NIR spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize samples from multiple pretreatments and lignocellulosic resources simultaneously and estimate their ethanol yield after a SSF process using multivariate calibration. Selection of suitable samples to obtain high ethanol yields using a classification method is also evaluated. Partial least squares (PLS) and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA) were used as calibration and classification techniques, respectively. Results showed ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict the chemical composition of samples and their ethanol yields, even if different lignocellulosic materials were used in the models, with low prediction errors and high correlation coefficients with reference methods (r>0,96) in PLS models and low misclassification rates (20- 30%) in classification models. Use of these models could facility the fast selection of high number of samples with suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields and as predictive tool of these ethanol yields after a SSF process under controlled conditions.

  13. Sinks as limited resources? A new indicator for evaluating anthropogenic material flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Chen, Sih-Rong

    2014-11-01

    Besides recyclables, the use of materials inevitably yields non-recyclable materials such as emissions and wastes for disposal. These flows must be directed to sinks in a way that no adverse effects arise for humans and the environment. The objective of this paper is to present a new indicator for the assessment of substance flows to sinks on a regional scale. The indicator quantifies the environmentally acceptable mass share of a substance in actual waste and emission flows, ranging from 0% as worst case to 100% as best case. This paper consists of three parts: first, the indicator is defined. Second, a methodology to determine the indicator score is presented, including (i) substance flows analysis and (ii) a distant-to-target approach based on an adaptation of the Ecological Scarcity Method 2006. Third, the metric developed is applied in three case studies including copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the city of Vienna, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Switzerland. The following results were obtained: in Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to geogenic and anthropogenic sinks are acceptable when evaluated by the distant-to-target approach. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters are beyond the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, and 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The examples demonstrate the need (i) for appropriate data of good quality to calculate the sink indicator and (ii) for standards, needed for the assessment of substance flows to urban soils and receiving waters. This study corroborates that the new indicator is well suited as a base for decisions regarding the control of hazardous substances in waste and environmental management. PMID:25368543

  14. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  15. Theoretical calculations of electronic structure and properties of pyrromethene laser dye and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) both on semi empirical and Ab initio levels have been carried out for pyrromethene laser dye and related compounds (PM-chromophore, PM-4m, PM 546, PM 650 PM 567 and PM 597). We carried out theoretical calculations using DFT, AM1, TD-DFT and CIS on ground and excited states for the selected laser dye materials, we obtained the optimized geometry of the molecules, UV, IR spectrum, and the transition between the ground So and the first excited S1 states exclusively, the Homo and Lumo states and other properties. (author)

  16. Proximity-effect-induced superconductivity in topological insulator-related material Bi2Se3

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Qu, Fanming; Shen, Jie; Ding, Yue; Chen, Jun; Ji, Zhongqing; Liu, Guangtong; Fan, Jie; Yang, Changli; Fu, Liang; Lu, Li

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electron transport properties of topological insulator-related material Bi2Se3 near the superconducting Pb-Bi2Se3 interface, and found that a superconducting state is induced over an extended volume in Bi2Se3. This state can carry a Josephson supercurrent, and demonstrates a gap-like structure in the conductance spectra as probed by a normal-metal electrode. The establishment of the gap is not by confining the electrons into a narrow space close to the su...

  17. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  18. Potential uses of military-related resources for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its resolution 45/58 N of 4 December 1990, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to carry out a study on the potential uses of resources such as know-how, technology, infrastructure and production currently allocated to military activities for promoting civilian endeavors to protect the environment. The present study concentrates mainly on the possible environmental uses, through reorientation, redeployment or redirection of resources currently put primarily to military ends or those which may be released through arms reductions

  19. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  20. Certification of environmental reference materials using relative local density graph by ADT-4300 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fly ash reference samples were prepared at the institute. 34 laboratories in the world participated in a study in which independent analyses were made. The IAEA Vienna Laboratory technique was selected for statistical evaluation. The so-called relative local density graph, also used by IAEA, was chosen for more exact graphical representation of the distribution of the results. In view of labor consuming calculations and the need for their accuracy, software was written for reference material certification, consisting of a program for input data analysis, a program for the calculation of the relative local density graph, and of a program for graphic output. The application of this certification method can, among others, reveal the grouping of values into multiple areas and can also establish the reasons for this effect (e.g., a systematic error). (E.S.) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  1. A semi-empirical model relating micro structure to acoustic properties of bimodal porous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosanenzadeh, Shahrzad Ghaffari; Doutres, Olivier; Naguib, Hani E.; Park, Chul B.; Atalla, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology of open cell porous media makes it difficult to link microstructural parameters and acoustic behavior of these materials. While morphology determines the overall sound absorption and noise damping effectiveness of a porous structure, little is known on the influence of microstructural configuration on the macroscopic properties. In the present research, a novel bimodal porous structure was designed and developed solely for modeling purposes. For the developed porous structure, it is possible to have direct control on morphological parameters and avoid complications raised by intricate pore geometries. A semi-empirical model is developed to relate microstructural parameters to macroscopic characteristics of porous material using precise characterization results based on the designed bimodal porous structures. This model specifically links macroscopic parameters including static airflow resistivity ( ? ) , thermal characteristic length ( ? ' ) , viscous characteristic length ( ? ) , and dynamic tortuosity ( ? ? ) to microstructural factors such as cell wall thickness ( 2 t ) and reticulation rate ( R w ) . The developed model makes it possible to design the morphology of porous media to achieve optimum sound absorption performance based on the application in hand. This study makes the base for understanding the role of microstructural geometry and morphological factors on the overall macroscopic parameters of porous materials specifically for acoustic capabilities. The next step is to include other microstructural parameters as well to generalize the developed model. In the present paper, pore size was kept constant for eight categories of bimodal foams to study the effect of secondary porous structure on macroscopic properties and overall acoustic behavior of porous media.

  2. Creating organizational cultures : Re-conceptualizing the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine NØrholm

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

  3. Creating Organizational Cultures : Re-Conceptualizing the Relations Between Rhetorical Strategies and Material Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nico; Just, Sine NØrholm

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

  4. Coping strategies in relation with personality resources of resilience and possibilities of intervention in adolescents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    Oslo : NPA, 2009. s. 1-1. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 14.07.2009-17.07. 2009, Oslo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : prevention of stress * personality resources * coping strategies Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Anna E.

    2009-11-01

    An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

  6. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

  7. Are socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods deprived of health-related community resources? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  8. Energy resources impact on economy development and international relations in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Chen

    2007-01-01

    In the project Kazakhstan has been chosen as a case area to analyze the significance of energy resources mainly on oil and natural gas that possessed in the country towards its economy development and its international relationship with other countries over the world.

  9. Resource Allocation Practices in Three Charter Middle Schools in Relation to Student Achievement Improvement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Contreras, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a better understanding of the allocation of resources used to improve student learning outcomes in three middle schools within a Charter Management Organization (CMO). The three middle schools that participated in the study have similar demographics and serve students in low socio-economic areas of Los…

  10. Legal issues related to geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The legal aspects of geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are discussed. Many of the legal issues associated with geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are unsettled and represent areas of developing policy and law. Lawsuits can be expected either before or shortly after the first commercial development of geopressured-geothermal resources.

  11. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  12. Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

  13. The materiality of Code : Towards an understanding of socio-technical relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical implementation, and to consider the things that have been inscribed in the level of code socially. I argue that examining code is a way to understand socio-technical relations.

  14. The materiality of Code: Towards an understanding of socio-technical relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    This essay studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical implementation, and to consider the things that have been inscribed in the level of code socially. I argue that examining code is a way to understand socio-technical relations.

  15. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

  16. Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Stakebake, J. L. (Jerry L.); Cooper, T. D. (Thruman D.)

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidatiodreduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation shows that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LO1 stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Si&icant bias also requires that UO1 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U30s clsning LO1 testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on wellestablished literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LO1 weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confum these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LO1 oxidatiodreduction biases. LO1 bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

  17. Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. In this paper the relative TL and OSL efficiencies to protons of various dosimetric materials were investigated using three different proton beam energies (58.7, 27 and 6.5 MeV). The result demonstrated that in the case of CW-OSL signal from Al2O3:C, the shape of decay curves depends on proton energy (decay shows a decreased rate as the energy increases). For other OSL detectors, BeO and LiAlO2, these effects are not clearly visible. The factor R, parameterizing decay-curve shape, for Al2O3:C shows an increase with increasing LET. For the remaining OSL materials, an increase of factor R seems to be also present, but it is much less pronounced. The relative luminescence efficiency for all investigated OSL detectors increases with an increasing energy. For 58.7-MeV protons, OSL detectors exhibit the highest efficiency (from 1.12 for Al2O3:C to 1.22 for LiAlO2). (authors)

  18. Nutrition Education Resource Guide: An Annotated Bibliography of Educational Materials for the WIC and CSF Programs. Bibliographies and Literature of Agriculture Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Elaine Casserly, Comp.; And Others

    This resource guide to evaluated print and audiovisual nutrition materials has been developed to assist state and local staff of the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and the Commodity Supplemental Foods Program (CSFP), in selecting, acquiring, and developing accurate and appropriate materials for nutrition…

  19. Proceedings of Seminar on Water Resources and Environment: application of nuclear and related technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope techniques have been used in solving problems in the fields of hydrology and environment since 1950s. It is acknowledged that of all the methods used to understand hydrologic processes, applications of tracers in particular have been the most useful in terms of providing new insights into the processes. Isotope techniques have been applied in the investigation of seepage losses from dams and canals, coastal sediment dynamics, surface water and groundwater resources, groundwater age dating, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, sediment movement and transport pathways, streamflow measurements, pollution transport behaviour and others. A total of sixteen papers were presented by Malaysian researchers involved in the field. The papers covered areas in dam surveillance, river management, water resources and stream flow measurement, estuary and coastal studies and slope stability investigations

  20. PPRS: Production skills and their relation to product, process, and resource

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrommer, J.; Schleipen, Miriam; Beyerer, Ju?rgen

    2013-01-01

    To model increasingly adaptive production systems, skills are used to describe generic capabilities of the system components. In this paper, the authors extend the well-known division of production entities into product, process, and resource (PPR) with a skill definition. There are two main advantages for this approach: First, using PPR for the skill definition allows easy integration into existing models and tools. Second, there is a natural tendency to define very generic skills to capture...

  1. Natural Resources – Food Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean region. PMID:25988125

  2. All in transition - Human resource management and labour relations in the Chinese industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    YU, NAN

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper is a literature study reviewing the development of human resource management in China, with a particular focus (where possible) on the automobile industry. It presents the Chinese context for HRM discussing the normative debate about the adaptation of Western management methods and the heritage of Chinese philosophy and values, and it describes the economic, cultural, and transition-specific factors which influence HRM in China. In more detail, the paper deals with work ...

  3. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

  4. Digital Database of Selected Aggregate and Related Resources in Ada, Boise, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, and Owyhee Counties, Southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Wallis, John C.; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a database of aggregate sites and geotechnical sample data for six counties - Ada, Boise, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, and Owyhee - in southwest Idaho as part of a series of studies in support of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) planning process. Emphasis is placed on sand and gravel sites in deposits of the Boise River, Snake River, and other fluvial systems and in Neogene lacustrine deposits. Data were collected primarily from unpublished Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) records and BLM site descriptions, published Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) records, and USGS sampling data. The results of this study provides important information needed by land-use planners and resource managers, particularly in the BLM, to anticipate and plan for demand and development of sand and gravel and other mineral material resources on public lands in response to the urban growth in southwestern Idaho.

  5. Assessing the Impact of Relative Social Position and Absolute Community Resources on Depression and Obesity Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Adrian; Leykin, Yan; Adler, Nancy; Mun?oz, Ricardo F.

    2012-01-01

    We tested two competing hypotheses—relative social position and community resources—in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactiv...

  6. Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth B; Pilling C; Chadwick P; Butcher M

    2014-01-01

    Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study...

  7. Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyak Nadja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know” was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%, time spent receiving healthcare services (39%, regular medication currently taken (35% and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%. These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

  8. Applying Semantic Web technologies to improve the retrieval, credibility and use of health-related web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Miguel A; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Kukurikos, Antonis; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Villarroel, Dagmar; Leis, Angela

    2011-06-01

    The number of health-related websites is increasing day-by-day; however, their quality is variable and difficult to assess. Various "trust marks" and filtering portals have been created in order to assist consumers in retrieving quality medical information. Consumers are using search engines as the main tool to get health information; however, the major problem is that the meaning of the web content is not machine-readable in the sense that computers cannot understand words and sentences as humans can. In addition, trust marks are invisible to search engines, thus limiting their usefulness in practice. During the last five years there have been different attempts to use Semantic Web tools to label health-related web resources to help internet users identify trustworthy resources. This paper discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied in practice to generate machine-readable labels and display their content, as well as to empower end-users by providing them with the infrastructure for expressing and sharing their opinions on the quality of health-related web resources. PMID:21712354

  9. Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.

    2010-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost comparison of the central plant option and DG in meeting additional load demand. The economic analysis for a twenty-year planning horizon is carried out in this study using present worth factor. The results obtained with a 30-bus test radial distribution network using MATPOWER show the economic viability of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered. ©2010 IEEE.

  10. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  11. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  12. Processes in scientific workflows for information seeking related to physical sample materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.

    2014-12-01

    The majority of State Geological Surveys have repositories containing cores, cuttings, fossils or other physical sample material. State surveys maintain these collections to support their own research as well as the research conducted by external users from other organizations. This includes organizations such as government agencies (state and federal), academia, industry and the public. The preliminary results presented in this paper will look at the research processes of these external users. In particular: how they discover, access and use digital surrogates, which they use to evaluate and access physical items in these collections. Data such as physical samples are materials that cannot be completely replaced with digital surrogates. Digital surrogates may be represented as metadata, which enable discovery and ultimately access to these samples. These surrogates may be found in records, databases, publications, etc. But surrogates do not completely prevent the need for access to the physical item as they cannot be subjected to chemical testing and/or other similar analysis. The goal of this research is to document the various processes external users perform in order to access physical materials. Data for this study will be collected by conducting interviews with these external users. During the interviews, participants will be asked to describe the workflow that lead them to interact with state survey repositories, and what steps they took afterward. High level processes/categories of behavior will be identified. These processes will be used in the development of an information seeking behavior model. This model may be used to facilitate the development of management tools and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure related to physical samples.

  13. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  14. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

  15. Analysis of Commercial Vegetable Tannin materials and Related Polyphenols of Selected Acacia Species in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Haroun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannins and related polyphenols from twelve indigenous and exotic woody plant species were studied by different methods (Hide powder method, combined method, Folin-Denis method, and Hagerman Butler method with objectives of evaluating the quantity and quality of extractable tannins for comparison with standard Acacia mearnsii (wattle tannins. The result showed that of the sixteen parts studied, nine had more than 10% tannin content and were thus suitable for commercial exploitation. Thin layer and paper chromatography indicated and confirmed the differences of the chemical nature of the materials as mixed (Hydrolysable-condensed and condensed tannins. The protein precipitation behaviours confirmed complexity and differences in their nature and potentiality for tanning or other uses compared with A. mearnsii. The tannin type of Acacia nilotica species was of hydrolysable-condensed while that of A. mearnsii was of condensed type.

  16. The relation between magnetic and material arms in models for spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, D; Sokoloff, D; Stepanov, R; Krause, M; Arshakian, T G

    2013-01-01

    Context. Observations of polarized radio emission show that large-scale (regular) magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are not axisymmetric, but generally stronger in interarm regions. In some nearby galaxies such as NGC 6946 they are organized in narrow magnetic arms situated between the material spiral arms. Aims. The phenomenon of magnetic arms and their relation to the optical spiral arms (the material arms) call for an explanation in the framework of galactic dynamo theory. Several possibilities have been suggested but are not completely satisfactory; here we attempt a consistent investigation. Methods. We use a 2D mean-field dynamo model in the no-z approximation and add injections of small-scale magnetic field, taken to result from supernova explosions, to represent the effects of dynamo action on smaller scales. This injection of small scale field is situated along the spiral arms, where star-formation mostly occurs. Results. A straightforward explanation of magnetic arms as a result of modulation of th...

  17. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Chroneos, A; Jiang, C; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2012-09-01

    Gadolinia doped ceria in its doped or strained form is considered to be an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The simulation of the defect processes in these materials is complicated by the random distribution of the constituent atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure (SQS) approach as a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature of the local cation environment and the distribution of the oxygen vacancies. We have generated two 96-atom SQS cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of the local environment around a Y dopant in Y-codoped gadolinia doped ceria. It is energetically favourable if Y is not close to Gd or an oxygen vacancy. Moreover, Y-O bonds are found to be weaker than Gd-O bonds so that the conductivity of O ions is improved. PMID:22828722

  18. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy. PMID:12288639

  19. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  20. Guidelines for an Adequate Investment in Instructional Materials; How Much Should You Spend for Textbooks and Related Printed Instructional Materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Lemos L.; McNamara, Robert C., Jr.

    Although printed instructional material is the most basic tool for classroom instruction, in the school year 1966-67 a national survey showed per pupil expenditure for textbooks to be only $4.96. Lack of guidelines for expenditures on textbooks, failure to use sound budgetary practices, inadequate teacher involvement in decisions affecting texts,…

  1. Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, Learning, etc., as all these are covered in anumbrella namely Soft Skills. No technology can attain maximum efficiency without the Human Intervention evenit is fully automated. This paper attempts to explain the problems faced by the ERP consultants before, during andafter the implementation.

  2. LEGAL ISSUES AND ASPECTS RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT REGARDING THE SELECTION OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENU?E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration selects its servants exclusively on competence criteria (the so-called merit system. The selection of civil servants is performed by contest, organized within the limit of vacant public positions provided annually for this purpose, by the plan for occupation of public positions. As a general rule, the contest is organized on a quarterly basis. Any individual who meets the general conditions provided by law and the specific conditions established by law for occupying a certain public position may participate at the selection contest organized for the occupation of a public position. Among other aspects, in this study we underline an inconsistency regarding the recruitment defined in the field of Human Resources Management and its definition from The Statute of the Civil Servants.

  3. New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

  4. Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support. Practical Resources for Public Engagement, Public Relations, and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

    With the growing recognition that public perception of education is an essential component of soliciting support, this guide is intended to help public-school principals refine their approaches to communication, marketing, public affairs, and public relations. It instructs principals on looking at public engagement, on building public support, on…

  5. Arts Education Advocacy: The Relative Effects of School-Level Influences on Resources for Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksza, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…

  6. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 25 October 2004 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  7. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 28 February 2003 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Note Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  8. Cultural, Sociofamilial, and Psychological Resources that Inhibit Psychological Distress in African Americans Exposed to Stressful Life Events and Race-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Hook, Joshua; Stanard, Pia M.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested a sociocultural model of stress and coping in a sample of 215 African Americans. Psychological resources (optimism, ego resilience) were modeled as a "nested self" (S. E. Hobfoll, 2001), supported by social resources (family adaptability and cohesion) and cultural resources (racial pride, religiosity). Race-related stress was a…

  9. Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S?del, M; Bilski, P; Swako?, J

    2014-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. PMID:24036656

  10. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  11. Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

    1993-12-01

    Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

  12. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is primarily concerned with Section 11 of INFCIRC/153 which provides for the possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material in question has been consumed, has been diluted, or has become practicably irrecoverable. Two distinctly different categories of nuclear material have been suggested for possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material has become practicably irrecoverable: One relates to a variety of low concentration waste materials, meaning thereby materials which the State or plant operator considers to be of questionable economic recoverability and the other relates to the spent fuel placed in facilities described as ''permanent repositories'' which are at least claimed to represent ''final disposal'' facilities and are candidates for a possible determination of practicably irrecoverable. 26 refs, tabs

  13. A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Binali Dogan; Ata Özdemirci; Nese Güngör

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR) management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1)The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2) Whi...

  14. Human resource management and labour relations in post-transitional Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shulzhenko, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the personnel function as described in the research literature before the background of the particular characteristics of the Russian HR conditions which have evolved during the transition period. It describes the characteristics of wage and incentive systems in Russian private enterprises, of personnel development systems, and of work organisation on the shop floor. Leadership styles and work- behaviour and work values are discussed as well as industrial relat...

  15. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the environmental consequences related to activities in society is associated with our consumption of resources. Modern products become more and more complex and rely on more complex sets of resources than before. This emphasizes the need for continuous access to high quality resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources. Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment of resource recovery as well as examples of recent research.

  16. Human Specimen Resources | Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

  17. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  18. The distribution and spread of schistosomiasis in relation to water resources development in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, U K; Korte, R; Schmidt-Ehry, B

    1988-06-01

    Schistosomiasis prevalence is known to be high in water resources development projects. Data from 225 villages and 34,434 persons were used to compare areas with irrigation in agricultural development projects, villages in the vicinity of small dams, settlements around a large artificial lake, communities along the Niger river and places in savanna areas without any irrigation programmes. For ten villages the prevalence rates before and after the creation of the large lake were analysed. In irrigated areas the risk of schistosomiasis infection was found to be six times higher than in savanna villages. Even in the vicinity of natural bodies of water the prevalence of infection was three times less than in agricultural development projects employing irrigation. A pre-valence of intense infections above 5%, indicating that schistosomiasis requires specialized interventions was observed only in areas with irrigation. Therefore schistosomiasis may be considered a man-made health problem in rural Mali although the infection is endemic in the whole country. PMID:3140361

  19. Electrochemical study on microbiology-related corrosion of metallic dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Chung; Oshida, Yoshiki; Gregory, Richard L; Andres, Carl J; Barco, Thomas M; Brown, David T

    2003-01-01

    Microbiology-related corrosion has been noted in industry for many years. It is widely recognized that microorganisms affect the corrosion of metal and alloys immersed in aqueous environments. Under similar conditions, the effect of bacteria in the oral environment on the corrosion of dental metallic materials remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of dental metallic materials in the presence of Streptococcus mutans and its growth byproducts. Samples were commercially pure titanium (CPT), Ti-6Al-4V (TAV), Ti-Ni (TN), Co-Cr-Mo alloy (CCM), 316L stainless steel (SSL), 17Cr-4Ni PH-type stainless steel (PH), and Ni-Cr alloy (NC). Using Gamry corrosion test system, surfaces were exposed to (1) sterilized Ringer's solution as a control for (2), (2) S. mutans mixed with sterilized Ringer's solution; (3) sterilized tryptic soy broth as a control for (4), and (4) byproducts of S. mutans mixed with sterilized tryptic soy broth. Corrosion parameters (EOCP, ECORR, ICORR, etc.) were corrected for all tested samples. Averaged values of these parameters were statistically analyzed by t-test to identify significant differences. It was concluded that (1) S. mutans reduced the EOCP of CPT, TAV, TN, and SSL, and the byproducts of S. mutans reduced the EOCP of TAV, TN, SSL, and PH. (2) S. mutans increased the ICORR of PH, and byproducts of S. mutans increased the ICORR of all the samples. (3) S. mutans reduced the ECORR of CPT, TAV and TN, and the byproducts of S. mutans reduced the ECORR of TN, SSL, PH, and NC. (4) S. mutans increased the IPASS of CPT, and the byproducts of S. mutans increased the IPASS of CPT, PH, and NC. PMID:12883177

  20. Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the annihilation radiation whose momentum density distribution has its own peculiarities, different from the ones to be detected for defect-'free' crystal structure. Being a 'fingerprint' of a certain type of defects these peculiarities make it possible the nondestructive characterization of the heterostructures and superlattices by means of the positron particle microprobe. (author)

  1. A Study of Travel Agencies’ Human Resources in Relation to Internet Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Wei Su

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When technological advances emerge in electronic commerce, travel agencies rapidly take account of their application in Internet marketing. Internet marketing presents many advantages to its users, such as the ability to break the barriers of time and space, convenience and speed of trade between travel agencies and consumers, ability to provide customers with sufficient information of travel services and products, and low cost. In order to take advantage of the new Internet market, travel agencies have already set up websites to attract potential customers. However, the traditional marketing of travel agencies generally depends on the sales force, because travel agency representatives act not only as salespeople, but also as guides and escorts. Therefore, personal selling offers the benefits of evaluating travel courses in advance, providing information on various choices, and accompanying customers throughout the trip to help them feel at ease. Since Internet marketing and personal selling both have their own advantages, should travel agency salespeople feel threatened by the emergence of Internet marketing? Will the marketing functions impact travel agency salespeople because consumers purchase services on the Internet themselves? The purpose of this study is to discover whether the travel agencies salespeople feel threatened by the development of Internet marketing. Also, this study seeks to reveal the specific personal thoughts of travel agency salespeople if they do feel threatened. At its conclusion, this study will provide suggestions for training programs or criteria of recruitment for the human resource directors in travel agencies. Also, those interested in travel business may use the results of this study as guidelines as they prepare themselves for the impact of Internet marketing.

  2. A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Dogan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2 While innovative differentiation orientates establishmentstowards participative management, empowerment, and proactive selection and placement policies, competitivedifferentiation influences only the empowerment factor in a sense of a provision of initiative. The cost leadershipstrategy does not have any meaningful effect on HR policies. The only meaningful influence of the focusstrategy on the HR policies is on the proactive selection and placement policies, and this influence is a negativeone. (3 When the results related with the harmony between the competitive strategy and the HR architecture areexamined, it turns out that the participative management, the long term training policies, the proactive HRpolicies, and partly the generous compensation policies are more successful even under different strategies incomparison with the dictating, short term, reactive and ungenerous HR policies. In terms of quantitativeperformance, to select a differentiation strategy and apply HR policies that are participative, proactive andgenerous is much more effective than to look for the perfect harmony between strategy and HR policies.

  3. Non-fatal violence-related injuries in Kingston, Jamaica: a preventable drain on resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohoori, Namvar; Ward, Elizabeth; Gordon, Georgiana; Wilks, Rainford; Ashley, Deanna; Forrester, Terrence

    2002-12-01

    Using data for a one-year period from the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) in Jamaica, we describe patterns of non-fatal violence-related injuries, and carry out simulation analysis to estimate rates of hospital admission under various injury reduction scenarios, and the potential savings that can be realized by reducing violent crimes. In this period there were 6107 registered violence-related visits to the KPH representing 11.5% of all recorded visits. Of these 16.6% (1001) were admitted. The most common methods of inflicting injury was by stabbing (52.1%), blunt injuries (37.9%) and gunshot wounds (7.3%). Multivariate analyses indicated that gunshot injuries, stab injuries, being male between the ages of 15 and 44 years, receiving the injury in November or December, and being injured by a stranger or unknown assailant, were significant correlates of a higher probability of admission. Simulation analysis with various injury reduction scenarios indicated decreases in the probability of admission ranging from 12% to 44%, with estimated savings of up to 31% of the annual supplies budget of KPH. PMID:12613105

  4. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of the proposed facilities and utility trenches. The public cannot be directly exposed to the vapor plume beneath MDA C because Pajarito Road is closed to the public.

  5. Product-service systems: Added value for productivity and raw material efficiency at one blow?: Status quo and potentials in resource-intensive production processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bollho?fer, Esther; Mattes, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Germany is a country with limited resources and thus its industries are highly dependent on an intelligent and efficient use of raw materials and resources. In order to stay competitive, the management has to seize and implement strategic solutions which focus on efficiency and contribute to global sustainability. Hence, the use of product-service systems (PSS) could have a valuable impact on this development, e. g. by intensifying the usage of products or because the provider possesses a dee...

  6. Photovoltaic Effects of Retinal-Related Materials in Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Choichiro

    1998-03-01

    Multilayer films consisting of retinal, retinoic acid, and retinol were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. It was found for the first time that these three materials in Langmuir-Blodgett films exhibit different photovoltaic characteristics. To study this difference of photovoltaic characteristics, the surface pressure vs area isotherms of these materials were measured and the dipole moment of the materials were calculated.

  7. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and support Member States in solving them through international collaboration under the IAEA’s aegis

  8. Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

  9. High temperature fatigue behaviour of engineering materials in relation to microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to indicate how intergranular fracture can be used to rationalise a number of observations related to high temperature fatigue behaviour of metals and alloys. Two classes of materials are investigated in more detail: austenitic stainless steels and nickel base superalloys. The first part illustrates how microstructural features, such as slip character, dynamic strain-ageing, recovery, precipitation reaction and overageing, play an important role. In the second part, it is shown that at least three forms of microstructural damage, i.e. oxidation, grain boundary creep cavitation and slip-induced grain boundary cavitation, are responsible for intergranular fracture in high temperature fatigue conditions. These three types of damage are discussed successively in the light of published results. In the last part the effect of intergranular fracture on high temperature fatigue endurance is discussed. Several models dealing with this aspect are reviewed. An attempt is made to indicate how quantitative measurement of intergranular damage in austenitic stainless steels tested under hold time low cycle fatigue might provide a basis for the establishment of life prediction models. Indications for future work are given. (author)

  10. Reduced thermal budget processing of high Tc superconducting thin films and related materials by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper the authors report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) on MgO, SrTiO3, and YSZ substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. Some preliminary results are also presented for the deposition of BaF2, Y2O3 and MgO on silicon substrates. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N2O and O2 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower the overall thermal budget for processing of YBCO films

  11. Biological availability of energy related effluent material in the coastal ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make the predictions necessary to forecast the ecological consequences of an energy-related technology, there must be an understanding of: the biogeochemical processes involved in the natural system; the manner in which an energy technology affects these processes and how, in turn, this affects the ecosystem as a whole. Direct biological effects such as lethality, behavioral changes, and physiological changes, are being studied under the program previously discussed. The biological availability and impact studies are investigating: the chemical, physical, and biological processes that occur in the natural marine ecosystem; how energy effluents affect these processes; and the factors involved in regulating the bioavailability of effluent material. This past year's effort has centered on defining the quantities and forms of metals and radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluent streams, the chemical forms present in bioassay systems, the chemical and microbial processes controlling the forms of metals available from the sediments, and the uptake and control of copper in shrimp. In addition, several sites in Sequim Bay have been monitored for potential use in field verification studies

  12. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  13. Access to water and related resources in Ngamiland, Botswana: Toward a more critical perspective and sustainable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgomotso, Phemo K.; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Governance structures in Botswana are highly centralized and top-down in orientation. For water and related resources management in rural areas, this creates particular difficulties - from lack of decision-making capacity to limited human and financial capital at the level of the resource base. In Ngamiland, government is currently undertaking the Okavango Delta Management Plan project as part of its commitment to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The project purports to develop an integrated management plan based on an ecosystems approach. Meaningful participation by local people is a requirement of the process. Data from 43 village meetings undertaken under the auspices of the ODMP process reveal that local people’s access to their resource base is diminishing. Information from key informant interviews and a variety of government documents, however, suggests that policy makers are either unaware of or uninterested in this growing problem. Although citizens and government are engaged in an on-going dialogue, there is little evidence to suggest that policy and practice are moving toward sustainable solutions for all. This article highlights these issues in the hope that a more meaningful dialogue among all stakeholders may be undertaken.

  14. Swedish upper secondary school pupils' sense of coherence, coping resources and aggressiveness in relation to educational track and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Per; Ohlund, Lennart S

    2005-03-01

    The health of an individual depends on how well he or she can handle various stressors in his or her environment. One vulnerable period occurs during the transition from child to adult. The overall aim of this research project was to determine whether differences in the ability to deal with stress are related to various health indicators, aggression, and school marks during primary and upper secondary school. Data were collected class-wise and 253 Swedish upper secondary school pupils participated. Three well-established questionnaires [Sense of Coherence (SOC), Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ)] were used. In addition, blood pressure, teacher evaluation and school marks were collected. Some demographic data such as gender, age and type of study programme were also collected. Both SOC and Coping Resources Inventory correlated significantly positively with many of the primary and upper secondary marks, while the AQ had significantly negative correlations with the mark. Females obtained higher values than males in Coping Resources Inventory, but lower in SOC and AQ. PMID:15737170

  15. Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Songpo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P = 0.005 and publicity material (P = 0.04 is associated with moderate rate of condom use (condom use often. Conclusions Although the prevalence of HIV infection is low among MSM in Heilongjiang province, the situation that the risk behaviors were frequent in the population is alarming. The study suggests that some strategies like condom use and education intervention are practical approaches and need to be strengthened.

  16. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  17. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  18. Interactions of water with energy and materials in urban areas and agriculture. IWRM. Integrated water resources management. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steusloff, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The current rationale, range and significance of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are subject to increasing dimensionality, such as systemic conflicts between water users, increasing regulatory influences, and the growing energy requirements for providing the appropriate water resources. The competition between urban and agricultural consumers for water is dealt with as are regulatory, technological and socio-economic aspects of IWRM. The conference proceedings of IWRM Karlsruhe 2012 impart knowledge and relate practical experience in three key areas of IWRM: 1. Challenges for Future Cities and Efficient Agricultural Production Satisfying the growing demand for fresh water for a growing population as well as for agriculture bears the risk of aggravating the conflict between economic and ecological needs. Providing a reliable and secure supply of water for our future cities requires appropriate technical infrastructure systems coupled with environmentally optimized management. In this context it is essential to have greater awareness of the relationship of water and energy and of the overall water usage including the re-use of water 2. Competing Water Uses Water must be shared between domestic/municipal, industrial, agricultural, and hydropower users as well as between regions. This competition is intensified by the vulnerability of supply and sanitation systems to increasing climate extremes and to terrorism. 3. Regulatory and Policy Framework Using water is associated with a great number of externalities. For this reason a proper legislative and regulatory framework is prerequisite for proper management of the water supply, sewerage and storm-water services as well as water usage, all of which are essential for public health, economic development and environmental protection.

  19. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raskovic Matevz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

  20. Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, Megan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPbmSbTem+2), LASTT-m-x (AgPbm-xSnxSbTem+2), LABST-m-x (AgPbmSb1-xBixTem+2), doped LAST-m and (PbTe)m(M152Te3) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic precipitates and crystal defects the thermal conductivity was generally low. Similar to other reports the powder processing caused a deleterious effect on the electrical conductivity. The comparison between short term annealed and long term sintered polycrystalline bulk samples revealed that the annealing temperature caused partly connected particles for the LAST-derivates but well sintered compacts for the non-LAST-compounds. For both classes, long-term sintering caused a simultanious increase of both thermopower and electrical conductivity which shows that co-ball milling leads to a decoupling of those two properties. This could prove usefull in further investigations and the development of new thermoelectric materials and the processing thereof.

  2. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  3. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianshun S; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-chamber test method was used. Results showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for two kinds of wallboards and carpet. The carpet was also found to be very permeable resulting in an effective diffusion coefficient at the same order of magnitude with the formaldehyde diffusion coefficient in air. The partition coefficient (K(ma)) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was 1.52 times larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, whereas it decreased slightly from 50% to 70% RH, presumably due to the combined effects of water solubility of formaldehyde and micro-pore blocking by condensed moisture at the high RH level. The partition coefficient of formaldehyde increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity in "green" wallboard and "green" carpet. At the same relative humidity level, the "green" wallboard had larger partition coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient than the conventional wallboard, presumably due to the micro-pore structure differences between the two materials. The data generated could be used to assess the sorption effects of formaldehyde on building materials and to evaluate its impact on the formaldehyde concentration in buildings. PMID:22788105

  4. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  5. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Materials at the Urban Scale-Relating Existing Process Life Cycle Assessment Studies to Urban Material and Waste Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Rees

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many cities are engaged in efforts to calculate and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, most are accounting for “scope one” emissions i.e., GHGs produced within urban boundaries (for example, following the protocol of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives. Cities should also account for the emissions associated with goods, services and materials consumed within their boundaries, “scope three” emissions. The emissions related to urban consumption patterns and choices greatly influence overall emissions that can be associated with an urban area. However, data constraints and GHG accounting complexity present challenges. In this paper we propose one approach that cities can take to measure the GHG emissions of their material consumption: the solid waste life cycle assessment (LCA based approach. We used this approach to identify a set of materials commonly consumed within cities, and reviewed published life cycle assessment data to determine the GHG emissions associated with production of each. Our review reveals that among fourteen commonly consumed materials, textiles and aluminum are associated with the highest GHG emissions per tonne of production. Paper and plastics have relatively lower production emissions, but a potentially higher impact on overall emissions owing to their large proportions, by weight, in the consumption stream.

  6. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Abebe, Lakew; Girma, Eshetu; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2012-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting. Methods A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity. Results Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach’s alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors. Conclusion The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool. PMID:22536080

  7. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV

  8. Relation of ultrasonic energy loss factors and constituent properties in unidirectional composites. [graphite-epxoy composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Nayebhashemi, H.

    1979-01-01

    A model is developed relating composite constituents properties with ultrasonic energy loss factors for longitudinal waves propagating in the principal directions of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy fiber composite. All the constituents are assumed to behave as linear viscoelastic materials with energy dissipation properties defined by loss factors. It is found that by introducing a new constituent called the interface material, the composite and constituent properties can be brought into consistency with simple series and parallel models. An expression relating the composite loss factors to the loss factors of the constituents is derived and its coefficients are evaluated.

  9. Bond strengths of New Carbon-nitride-Related material C2N2(CH2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carbon-nitride-related material C2N2(CH2) nanopletelet was synthesized by subjecting a precursor C3N4HxOy+Au in a laser-heating diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) to the pressure of 40 GPa and the temperature of 1200-2000 K. The synthesized C2N2(CH2) was accordingly found to be an orthorhombic unit cell of the space group Cmc21 with lattice constants a = 7.625Å, b = 4.490Å, and c = 4.047Å. The bulk modulus B0 was determined to be B0 = 258 ± 3.4 GPa, only the 60 % that of the diamond. C2N2(CH2) consists of the tetrahedrally coordinated C with three C-N single bond and the one C-C single bond, and the bridging carbon with the C-CH2-C bond. The C-N single bond length of the tetrahedron ranges from 1.444 to 1.503 Å. This bond length is close to the C-N single bond of 1.447 to 1.458 Å in the superhard ?-C3N4. The compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of C2N2(CH2) ranges from 0.976 to 0.982 with the pressure of 30 GPa. These values are very close to the compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of 0.978 to 0.982 in ?-C3N4, cubic-C3N4, and diamond.

  10. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (? 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap ? in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  11. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  12. Thermoelectric power in carbon nanotubes and quantum wires of nonlinear optical, optoelectronic, and related materials under strong magnetic field: Simplified theory and relative comparison :

    OpenAIRE

    Ghatak, K. P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.; Choudhury, S.

    2008-01-01

    We study thermoelectric power under strong magnetic field (TPM) in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and quantum wires (QWs) of nonlinear optical, optoelectronic, and related materials. The corresponding results for QWs of III-V, ternary, and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The TPM has also been investigated in QWs of II-VI, IV-VI, stressed materials, n-GaP, p-PtSb2, n-GaSb, and bismuth on the basis of the appropriate carrier dispersion laws in the respective cases...

  13. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Materials at the Urban Scale-Relating Existing Process Life Cycle Assessment Studies to Urban Material and Waste Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, William E.; Jennie Moore; Cornelia Sussmann; Meidad Kissinger

    2013-01-01

    Although many cities are engaged in efforts to calculate and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, most are accounting for “scope one” emissions i.e., GHGs produced within urban boundaries (for example, following the protocol of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives). Cities should also account for the emissions associated with goods, services and materials consumed within their boundaries, “scope three” emissions. The emissions related to urban consump...

  14. Resource efficient car body manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Rennau, Anett

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of climate change and the limited availability of resources also put resource input for car body production to the test. But since the percentage of costs for raw material compared to the total production cost of products is well above the cost of labor, new, resource-efficiency-related factors will have influence on the competitive success of a company on the market in addition to the factors already existing. Strategies and solution approaches, which lead to an increased effec...

  15. On the thermoelastic analysis of solar cell arrays and related material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, M. A.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    Accurate prediction of failure of solar cell arrays requires accuracy in the computation of thermally induced stresses. This was accomplished by using the finite element technique. Improved procedures for stress calculation were introduced together with failure criteria capable of describing a wide range of ductile and brittle material behavior. The stress distribution and associated failure mechanisms in the N-interconnect junction of two solar cell designs were then studied. In such stress and failure analysis, it is essential to know the thermomechanical properties of the materials involved. Measurements were made of properties of materials suitable for the design of lightweight arrays: microsheet-0211 glass material for the solar cell filter, and Kapton-H, Kapton F, Teflon, Tedlar, and Mica Ply PG-402 for lightweight substrates. The temperature-dependence of the thermal coefficient of expansion for these materials was determined together with other properties such as the elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, and the stress-strain behavior up to failure.

  16. Youth, AIDS, and HIV. Resources for Educators and Policymakers, 1999-2000. A Directory of Selected National, State, and Local Resources, and an Annotated Resource Listing of Audiovisual, Print, and Software Materials for AIDS Education and HIV Prevention. Bulletin No. 99218.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This resource document provides information about technical assistance and educational materials that can guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) education. The resources also offer information about programs whose goals are to prevent the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and…

  17. A Statistical Comparitive Approach To Study The Relation Between Building Material Cost And Standard Of Living In India Using Sas©

    OpenAIRE

    Omkar Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Housing in India has extensively become a money mending business. Several private sector companies have made housing affordability in India elusive for a common man. The elevated housing costs, however, are not in proportion with the growth of per capita income. This relation is well articulated in this paper. A scrupulous relation between housing and building material costs (H&BMC) and gross per capita income has been established, thus coming to a conclusion of polarization of economies and ...

  18. Definition of Terms Relating to Reactions of Polymers and to Functional Polymeric Materials, VII.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of polymers, particularly polymers with functional groups (crosslinking, grafting, complexation, reactive blending, etc. enable the preparation of polymeric materials of various properties (swelling, conductivity, photosensitivity, catalytic activity, etc. and functions (superabsorber, ion-exchanger, polyelectrolyte, supporter, surfactant, compatibilizer, etc.. Such an interdisciplinary branch of polymer chemistry requires clear and unified terminology. The present IUPAC recommendations fulfill this demand with definitions of 64 general and specific terms divided into three sections: reactions involving polymers; polymer reactants and reactive polymeric materials; functional polymeric materials. The document will contribute to the proper scientific and technological understanding of the field.

  19. Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

  20. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel (AGM-660)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Group was asked to advise the Agency on the circumstances under which the Agency might logically implement Section 11 of INFCIRC/153, or the comparable Section 26c of INFCIRC/66/rev2, which provides for a determination that nuclear material is 'practicably irrecoverable', and that therefore safeguards could be terminated. This advice was sought, and in the paragraphs that follow is given, in two areas. One relates to 'waste', which the Group understands as referring to material which contains nuclear material that the State/facility operator believes has no economically recoverable value and for which no further use is foreseen. The other relates to spent fuel, which in some cases may be placed in geological 'permanent repositories'

  1. PREFACE Surface Modifications of Diamond and Related Materials (Session D, E-MRS Spring Meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-11-01

    This special issue contains selected papers which were presented at the E-MRS Symposium BIOMATERIALS, SENSORS & SURFACES, D: 'Surface modifications of diamond and related materials' which was held on 7-9 June 2010 in Strasbourg (France). With about 54 oral and poster presentations given from teams all over the world it was a very interesting, dense and lively meeting. The symposium focused on chemical modifications applied to graft surfaces of diamond, nano-diamond particles, diamond-like carbon, graphene, graphite and carbon nano-tubes with linker molecular layers for realization of bio-sensors, bio-markers, separation techniques, and switchable chemical links. Presented techniques span spontaneous bonding to photo-chemical attachment, electrochemical modifications, to Suzuki-coupling of aryl molecules. Special attention was drawn to mechanisms driving bonding kinetics such as electron transfer reactions, hydrogen cleavage reactions by nucleophilic molecules and growths schemas which vary from correlated two-dimensional chain reactions to three-dimensional cross polymerization. Hydrogen terminations, surface defects, surface roughness and atomic arrangements of surface carbon atoms were of interest to elucidate bonding mechanisms. In addition, bonding stability, either of linker molecules or of complex functionalized surfaces with DNA, proteins and enzymes was discussed by several speakers as well as details of the electronic interfaces between solid transducers and bio-layers. Here the characterization of surface and interface defect densities, of Fermi level pinning and of electron transfer rates was a major topic. Miniaturization of sensor area and application of new detection schemas was discussed. Diamond nano-particles which are increasingly used as biomarkers in drug delivery experiments also attracted attention. The organizers express our gratitude to the international members of the scientific committee who actively contributed to ensure an attractive program in proposing invited speakers. Finally, our symposium would not have been successful without the strong involvement and implication of the EMRS headquarter especially P Siffert, T Lippert, S Schoeffter and C Kocher. They will all find here our sincere thanks. Christoph E Nebel (Chair) Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF), Germany Takako Nakamura National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan Philippe Bergonzo CEA-LIST, France John Foord University of Oxford, United Kingdom Kian-Ping Loh National University of Singapore, Singapore

  2. The synergistic character of the defect-induced magnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors and related magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we introduce a new perspective in explaining the origin of magnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors, carbon-based materials and other related materials. According to our proposal, the magnetism in these materials is the result of the synergistic action of defect-induced electronic processes mostly of local character which can provide magnetic moments and develop a ferromagnetic coupling among them. This synergy is realizable via appropriate codoping which appears as a general and generic approach. In the present report, we use ab initio results to demonstrate that in a diverse sample of systems including codoped ZnO, GaN, TiO2 and carbon-based materials, the ferromagnetic coupling that is developed among the doped (or defect-induced) magnetic moments results from the interaction of spin-polarized neighborhoods centered at the defect sites. Our results also give evidence that bipartite codopant configurations can further enhance the ferromagnetic features of these systems significantly.

  3. The built heritage in the Southern Italy: problems of decay and significant properties of the building materials with relation to their durability and conservationDECAY AND SIGNIFICANT PROPERTIES OF THE BUILDING MATERIALS WITH RELATION TO THEIR DURABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, M.; Calia, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper deals with the use of building materials within the built heritage of the Southern Italy, their decay problems and the research of stone parameters material to their durability. The study documents the most common and widespread stone building materials and their forms of decay within the historical-architectural heritage, as well as in the archaeological artifacts. The heavy presence of the decay forms related to granular disgregation and loss of powder material from the surface suggest an high susceptibility of such materials to the disruptive processes induced by water penetration and salt crystallisation. The study of the stone properties and artificial ageing tests in laboratory, carried out by comparing several lithologies, are aimed to understand their response to the decay with relation to the petrophisical and compositional features, with the final purpose to identify durability parameters, usefull for choosing the appropriate conservation measures. In order to this final purpose, further elements of evaluation are drawn by the activity in progress, concerning the monitoring of the conservation treatments carried out on the Baroque heritage of Lecce town (Southern Italy) during the last decades.

  4. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food packaging application as no significant growth was seen within 28 d of incubation at 30 degreesC.

  5. Interfacing graphene and related 2D materials with the 3D world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tománek, David

    2015-04-01

    An important prerequisite to translating the exceptional intrinsic performance of 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides into useful devices precludes their successful integration within the current 3D technology. This review provides theoretical insight into nontrivial issues arising from interfacing 2D materials with 3D systems including epitaxy and ways to accommodate lattice mismatch, the key role of contact resistance and the effect of defects in electrical and thermal transport.

  6. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Bogdanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  7. The Relation between Human Resource Management (HRM Strategies and Job Loyalty as Practiced at the Public Relations (PR's Units in the Government Ministries of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Lutfi Al-Khasawneh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between human resource management strategies (selection, training, evaluation, safety & security, and motivation as practiced at the public Relations department in the Government Ministries of Jordan and job loyalty (job. The study employed the questionnaire for data gathering and SPSS program for processing. A representative inclusive to all PR's employees (N=145 and major findings were: 1. Low satisfaction level among PR's employees regarding HRM strategies as practiced within their organizational units. 2. Low relationship (M=2.57 between staff selection and recruitment methods and job desirability and retention. 3. Low relationship (M=2.73 between training methods and job desirability & retention 4. Low relationship (M=2.77 between motivation methods and job desirability & retention 5. Low relationship (M=2.78 between evaluation methods and job desirability & retention 6. Low relationship (M=2.89 between occupational safety measures and job satisfaction and retention 7. No statistically significant differences were found regarding the relation between HRM strategies and job desirability and retention by "Job Title". 8. There were statistically significant differences by gender in favor of female participants regarding the relation between HRM strategies and job satisfaction and retention excluding the motivation strategy that demonstrated no statistically significant differences for the females. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  8. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

  9. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    michael j. holzemer; Edward Hart

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  10. Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; SØborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Important levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leading multinational and national companies. In this article we raise questions about the government’s and private companies’ capability to give enough institutional support to this transformation process. We focus on the problem of providing skilled labour by analysing the production of graduates in secondary and tertiary educations and especially labour market related courses, and ask to what extent do institutions promote the upgrading efforts? In order to frame and contrast the Malaysian transformation efforts we make a comparison with Denmark, which also is in a transformation process to a more knowledge-based economy but began this process at an earlier stage than Malaysia. The countries have different traditions regarding participation and relations between the labour market and the government influencing supporting institutions. Our aim is to analyse some of the difficulties for a newly industrialising country to build up a new “soft” infrastructure (educational and human resource development institutions) to a more knowledge-based economy.

  11. NEW BIO-BASED MATERIALS FROM SOYBEAN OIL: HYDRAZINE AND RELATED DERIVATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is a renewable natural resource and is an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based products. The major components of soybean oil (SBO) are triacylglycerols with a mixture of fatty acids moieties (typically 51% linoleic acid, 25% oleic acid, 10% palmitic acid, 7% linolenic...

  12. Scaling relative neutron depth-dose distributions from one phantom material to another: a comparison of experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correct percentage depth-dose data from one phantom material to another, experimental and theoretical scaling factors (SF) are compared for different neutron beam qualities. Differences of up to 10% were observed for different phantom materials relative to water. The ratio SF/rho was plotted as a function of H concentration by mass where rho is the mass density of the phantom material. A nearly linear relationship resulted at all energies for the theoretical scaling factors, while, for the experimental points, important deviations appeared at high energies for materials with relatively low H and high C concentrations. It can be shown that a single linear relationship for all compounds composed of H, C and O can only be valid if the ratio of total cross sections of carbon to oxygen is equal to 3/4. Experimental scaling factors will be more accurate than calculated values because of the uncertainty in the average total cross sections. If these factors for tissue equivalent (TE) liquid relative to water are converted to those of ICRU muscle by correcting to a mass density of 1.04 g cm-3, then the scaling factors are, within experimental uncertainty, equal to one. (author)

  13. Hypervelocity impact on brittle materials of semi-infinite thickness: fracture morphology related to projectile diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emma A.; Kay, Laurie; Shrine, Nick R. G.

    Hypervelocity impact on brittle materials produces features not observed on ductile targets. Low fracture toughness and high yield strength produce a range of fracture morphologies including cracking, spallation and shatter. For sub-mm diameter projectiles, impact features are characterised by petaloid spallation separated by radial cracks. The conchoidal or spallation diameter is a parameter in current cratering equations. An alternative method for interpreting hypervelocity impacts on glass targets of semi-infinite thickness is tested against impact data produced using the Light Gas Gun (LGG) facility at the University of Kent at Canterbury (UKC), U.K. Spherical projectiles of glass and other materials with diameters 30-300 ?m were fired at ~5 km s^-1 at a glass target of semi-infinite thickness. The data is used to test a power law relationship between projectile diameter and crack length. The results of this work are compared with published cratering/spallation equations for brittle materials.

  14. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  15. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  17. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. PMID:25247662

  18. Post-September 11 responses in US regulatory practice affecting the export and import of radioactive materials and related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses certain significant changes in the US laws and regulations in the post-September 11 era regarding the export and import of nuclear and other radioactive materials, as well as related equipment. These changes demonstrate the US Government's growing vigilance concerning the movement and end-user of such materials and equipment in light of the intensified threat of their diversion to terrorist activities. In particular, both the congress and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have recently devoted particular attention to the transportation, storage, use and disposition of radioactive sources. Meanwhile, the NRC has made it easier to import major nuclear reactor components. (author)

  19. Thermal neutron activation investigation of raw materials and related final products involved in the iron making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to investigate some samples of raw and auxiliary materials (sinter, pellets, coke) and related final products (cast iron, slag, blast-furnace flue dust) involved in the iron making process in the SIDEX Iron and Steel Works at Galati, Romania. A series of elements were determined in the analyzed samples: Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, V and W. We sought for the transfer of As, Cu, K, Na, V and W from auxiliary materials to cast iron during the blast furnace process. (authors)

  20. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  1. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  2. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

  3. The Belgoprocess Strategy Relating to the Management of Materials from Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgium started its nuclear program quite early. The first installations were constructed in the fifties, and presently, more than 55 % of the Belgian electricity production is provided by nuclear power plants. After 30 years of nuclear experience, Belgium started decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the eighties with two main projects: the BR3-PWR plant and the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The BR3-decommissioning project is carried out at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, while the decommissioning of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant is managed and operated by Belgoprocess n.v., which is also operating the centralized waste treatment facilities and the interim storage for Belgian radioactive waste. Some fundamental principles have to be considered for the management of materials resulting from the decommissioning of nuclear installations, equipment and/or components, mainly based on the guidelines of the ''IAEA-Safety Fundamentals. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F, IAEA, Vienna, 1995'' with respect to radioactive waste management. Two of the fundamental principles indicated in this document are specifically dealing with the strategy for the management of materials from decommissioning, ''Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to the minimum practicable'' (seventh principle), and ''Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that it will not impose undue burdens on future generations'' (fifth principles on future generations'' (fifth principle). Based on these fundamental principles, Belgoprocess has made a straightforward choice for a strategy with minimization of the amount of materials to be managed as radioactive waste. This objective is obtained through the use of advanced decontamination techniques and the unconditional release of decontaminated materials. Unconditionally released materials are recycled, such as i.e., metal materials that are removed to conventional melting facilities, or are removed to conventional industrial disposal sites if they have no remaining value. In order to achieve these objectives, Belgoprocess uses techniques and equipment that enable the high degrees of decontamination to be obtained, while based on commercially available technology. As an example, for concrete surfaces, where the contamination has not penetrated deeply, significant improvement in operation efficiency was achieved when developing dry hand held and automated floor and wall shaving systems as an alternative for scabbling. As it was also shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, an industrial automated dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. Moreover, a specific facility was developed and operations started for taking representative samples and monitoring concrete material in view of the final demolition and unconditional release of remaining structures of buildings after completing all dismantling and decontamination work

  4. Complex Workflow Management and Integration of Distributed Computing Resources by Science Gateway Portal for Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Materials Science

    OpenAIRE

    Gordienko, Yuri; Bekenov, Lev; Gatsenko, Olexandr; Zasimchuk, Elena; Tatarenko, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    The "IMP Science Gateway Portal" (http://scigate.imp.kiev.ua) for complex workflow management and integration of distributed computing resources (like clusters, service grids, desktop grids, clouds) is presented. It is created on the basis of WS-PGRADE and gUSE technologies, where WS-PGRADE is designed for science workflow operation and gUSE - for smooth integration of available resources for parallel and distributed computing in various heterogeneous distributed computing i...

  5. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos ? versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos ? rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: ? cos ? of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. ? Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. ? Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. ? Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. ? Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effectes. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  6. Study on Photon Sensitivity of Silicon Diodes Related to Materials Used for Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large area Silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X and gamma rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diodes active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since Silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 ?m thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to lower photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter. (author)

  7. Study on photon sensitivity of silicon diodes related to materials used for shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large area silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X- and gamma-rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diode's active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 ?m thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon-induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low-energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to loher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X- and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter. (author)

  8. Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okobia, E. O.

    2011-01-01

    Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas o...

  9. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  10. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilson, Morales; Antonio Edésio, Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel, Klein; Juliana, Guarda.

    1511-15-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage leve [...] l process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  11. West Virginia US Department of Energy experimental program to stimulate competitive research. Section 2: Human resource development; Section 3: Carbon-based structural materials research cluster; Section 3: Data parallel algorithms for scientific computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    This report consists of three separate but related reports. They are (1) Human Resource Development, (2) Carbon-based Structural Materials Research Cluster, and (3) Data Parallel Algorithms for Scientific Computing. To meet the objectives of the Human Resource Development plan, the plan includes K--12 enrichment activities, undergraduate research opportunities for students at the state`s two Historically Black Colleges and Universities, graduate research through cluster assistantships and through a traineeship program targeted specifically to minorities, women and the disabled, and faculty development through participation in research clusters. One research cluster is the chemistry and physics of carbon-based materials. The objective of this cluster is to develop a self-sustaining group of researchers in carbon-based materials research within the institutions of higher education in the state of West Virginia. The projects will involve analysis of cokes, graphites and other carbons in order to understand the properties that provide desirable structural characteristics including resistance to oxidation, levels of anisotropy and structural characteristics of the carbons themselves. In the proposed cluster on parallel algorithms, research by four WVU faculty and three state liberal arts college faculty are: (1) modeling of self-organized critical systems by cellular automata; (2) multiprefix algorithms and fat-free embeddings; (3) offline and online partitioning of data computation; and (4) manipulating and rendering three dimensional objects. This cluster furthers the state Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research plan by building on existing strengths at WVU in parallel algorithms.

  12. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many ?m in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  13. Using satellite communications to improve public relations in radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed transcom, a transportation tracking and communication system that addresses public concern for the movement of radioactive materials throughout the United States. This paper reports how, aided by navigation towers and communication satellites, Federal, State, Indian, and local government agencies can witness the movement of designated DOE shipments from origin to destination using a personal computer and user friendly software

  14. Electrochemical properties of a liquid-crystalline mixed fullerene–ferrocene material and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Carano, Maurizio; Chuard, Thierry; Deschenaux, Robert; Even, Michael; Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio; Roffia, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of a fullerene–ferrocene liquid crystal are reported. The electrochemical study was carried out under strictly aprotic conditions: a total of seven reduction peaks were detected in the negative potential region, and two oxidation peaks in the positive potential one. Comparison of the data with those obtained from suitable model compounds (i.e., analogous fullerene- or ferrocene-free materials ) has allowed the assignment of all reduction and oxidation steps. T...

  15. On elastic waves and related phenomena in lattice materials and structures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Srikantha Phani

    2011-01-01

    Lattice materials possessing a spatially periodic microstructure are suitable in weight sensitive multifunctional structural applications such as sandwich panels. They not only possess high specific stiffness but also provide opportunities to tailor acoustic and thermal properties through designing their unit cell topology. This paper seeks to understand their mechanical response under static and dynamic loads from a structural mechanics perspective combining Bloch wave theory with Finite Ele...

  16. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  17. Materials interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass, the glass will eventually interact with groundwater in the repository system. Interactions can also occur between the glass and other waste package materials that are present. These include the steel canister that holds the glass, the metal overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and the repository host rock. This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in the waste package will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g. oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interactions is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. It is noted when further tests of repository interactions are needed before long-term predictions can be made. 63 references, 1 table

  18. Cloud point curve of nonionic surfactant related to the structures of mesoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, J L; Bleta, R; Stébé, M J

    2006-08-15

    We have investigated the phase behavior of a fluorinated surfactant R(7)(F)(EO)(7) in water. The cloud point is situated at 19 degrees C for 2 wt% of surfactant. Using this surfactant, mesoporous materials have been synthesized with micellar solution prepared either at 10 degrees C (below the cloud point) or at 40 degrees C (above the cloud point). Results show that whatever the syntheses conditions, only wormhole-like structure is recovered. The effect of perfluorodecalin addition on the fluorinated surfactant/water system was also investigated. Swollen micelles, microemulsion, and lamellar (L(alpha)) liquid crystals were identified. When perfluorodecalin is added, the cloud point is shifted toward higher temperature. As regards the mesoporous syntheses, perfluorodecalin plays a dual role. First, incorporation of perfluorodecalin leads to the formation of well ordered materials. Secondly, the pore size enlargement occurs when perfluorodecalin is added. Our results evidence that the ratio between the volume of the hydrophilic headgroup (V(H)) and the hydrophobic part (V(L)) of the surfactant is not an efficiency parameter to explain the ordering improvement of mesoporous materials and that we should rather consider the existence of the cloud point curve, which disturbs the cooperative templating mechanism (CTM). PMID:16677667

  19. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg?1 of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg?1 of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation. - Highlights: • We developed a brown rice certified reference material (CRM) for post-Fukushima assessments. • Gamma-ray spectrometry and Monte Carlo simulation were employed. • Characterization of the CRM was reported in detail. • The CRM can be used to check the validity of radioactivity measurements

  20. Improvements in and relating to apparatus for moving along or through a material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus described, which has many uses, including operation as part of a remote control device in a nuclear environment, comprises two parts the first of which has an electrically conducting outer surface for engagement with the material and the second part also having an electrically conducting outer surface, electrically insulated from the first part, for engagement with the material. The two conducting outer surfaces are connected to a source of potential difference, and thrust means are provided for exerting a force between the two parts to move them closer together or further apart as required. The first part may be divided into a number of electrically insulated sections. The apparatus may include structures in the first and second parts to prevent liquid that has collected in the first part during operation from entering the second part, or vice versa. The method of operation relies on the fact that the ease with which an electrically conducting body not carrying an electric current can pass along or through material is increased by making the body negative or reduced by making the body positive. (U.K.)

  1. A Statistical Comparitive Approach To Study The Relation Between Building Material Cost And Standard Of Living In India Using Sas©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Kulkarni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Housing in India has extensively become a money mending business. Several private sector companies have made housing affordability in India elusive for a common man. The elevated housing costs, however, are not in proportion with the growth of per capita income. This relation is well articulated in this paper. A scrupulous relation between housing and building material costs (H&BMC and gross per capita income has been established, thus coming to a conclusion of polarization of economies and widening of gap between rich and poor; making it imperative to scrutinize the issue.

  2. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...Significant Impact Related to Exemption...for Proposed Disposal Procedures for...Division of Waste Management and...environmental impacts that result...USEI site for disposal of its waste as opposed to...Significant Impact The NRC...

  3. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related...REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS...SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and...

  4. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  5. Kaynak Ba??ml?l??? Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizli?i ve Mü?teri -Tedarikçi Aras?ndaki ?li?kisel De?i?ime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan UYSAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

  6. Investigational research on highly functional carbon and related materials (HF-CRMs); Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper arranged a fiscal 1997 guiding study of highly functional carbon and related materials (HF-CRMs). In the material invention field, described were the composition by interatomic control technology and the characteristics of pure carbon nanotubes, carbynes, graphite, fullerene polymer, porous carbon, etc. Heteroelement substituted materials were also described. The paper also reported the application of HF-CRMs to the electric/chemical field, and arranged the basement technology and applicability of diamond in particular. The subjects are enhancement of composition technology and reduction of the price of processing technology. Especially, the control of impurities and defects is a must for the electric use. The application of HF-CRMs to the mechanical field was reported. Superlubricant, wear resistant and high temperature corrosion resistant materials were taken up, and were surveyed in terms of their use mostly to refuse incineration power generation boilers, and thermal power generation use turbines. In the development of mechanical materials, technologies were surveyed especially for large area/complex shape film formation to form films for various parts, functionally gradient film formation for relaxation of thermal stress and residual stress in the film, and high speed film formation for quantity production. 363 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. A Study of Selected Properties and Applications of AlMgB14 and Related Composites: Ultra-Hard Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron L. Lewis

    2002-05-28

    This research presents a study of the hardness, electrical, and thermal properties AlMgB{sub 14} containing Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel. This research also investigated how much Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel consistently forms with AlMgB{sub 14}, if AlMgB{sub 14} materials can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), what effects TiC and TiB{sub 2} have on this composite material, and the importance of mechanical alloying. Included also is a study of the variation in hardness measurements and how they relate to SI units. Heretofore, all ultra-hard materials (hardness > 40 GPA) have been found to be cubic in structure, electrical insulators, and expensive; the behavior of AlMgB{sub 14}, which in certain specimens and compositions can have hardness values greater than 40 GPa, is therefore quite unusual since it is non-cubic, conductive, and moderate in cost. This offers an opportunity to investigate the relationship between hardness, thermal, and electrical properties from a new perspective. The main purpose of this project was to characterize the different properties of the AlMgB{sub 14} materials and to demonstrate that this material can be made in bulk. The technologies used for this study include microhardness measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy at different temperatures, optical microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, differential thermal analysis, 4-point probe resistivity, density techniques, Seebeck Effect, and Hall Effect. This research may lead to use of this material for applications where high abrasion resistance along with electrical conduction is needed. Also this research gave more information about a material that could have a great impact on industrial applications.

  8. Regulatory problems relating to physical protection of nuclear plants and materials in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the questions raised by physical protection have an international charater, it is important to know of national regulations in that field since exchange of information and study of common problems help to achieve satisfactory results. This paper analyses the Italian situation, by illustrating legislative and administrative actions undertaken as well as the practices adopted in Italy to meet problems of prevention of malevolent acts against nuclear installations and substances, until such time an Act is passed in this respect. Finally, the author is in favour of the 1980 Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material being ratified soon by a large number of countries. (NEA)

  9. Hydrological dispersion of radioactive material in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide discusses the dispersion of normal and accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants into surface water, including the washout of airborne radionuclides, and gives recommendations on information to be collected during the various stages of the siting procedure, a minimum measurement programme and the selection and validation of appropriate mathematical models for predicting dispersion. Guidelines are also provided for the optimal use of models for a specific site situation and for defining the necessary input parameters. Results of existing validation studies are given

  10. Issues relating to the disposal of removal soil containing radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, soil contamination by radioactive materials has occurred in various parts of Japan. However, the method of disposal of contaminated soil has not been clarified yet by the government. Recently, description of the study to confirm the safety of excavation without timbering disposal have been implemented by the Ministry of the Environment. Regardless of geological conditions are also important, but it is not considered when making the selection of disposal sites. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the geological vulnerability to contaminants. In this paper, we discuss the scientific issues of this exercise. (author)

  11. The effect of broadening the definition of generalized anxiety disorder on healthcare resource utilization and related costs in outpatient psychiatric clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Rejas; José M. Olivares; Vanessa López-Gómez; María Perez; Enrique Álvarez; José L. Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are among the highest users of healthcare resources. The broadening of the DSM-IV criteria for GAD has been a subject of controversy in the literature, but its consequences have not been analyzed to date. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze how the broadening of the DSM-IV criteria affects healthcare resource utilization and related costs. Methods: A multicentre, prospective, observational study was conducted in rand...

  12. Determination of the relative linear collision stopping power and linear scattering power of electron bolus material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear collision stopping power and linear scattering power for machineable wax relative to water have been determined for electron energies between 2 and 20 MeV. Knowledge of these quantities is necessary for the use of this wax as bolus in electron pencil-beam dose algorithms. The atomic composition of the wax (? = 0.920 ± 0.001 g cm-3) was obtained by having the wax assayed. The formalism expressed in the ICRU Report 35 were used to calculate the relative linear collision stopping and linear scattering powers of the wax. (author)

  13. Structural investigation of nonionic fluorinated micelles by SANS in relation to mesoporous silica materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, Florentin; Blin, Jean-Luc; Teixeira, José; Stébé, Marie José

    2012-01-12

    In an attempt to answer the question if there is dependence between the pore ordering of the mesoporous silica, obtained through the cooperative template mechanism, and the shape of the micellar aggregates of the surfactant solutions, the micellar structures of two nonionic fluorinated surfactant based-systems are studied by SANS. By fitting the experimental spectra with theoretical models, the structural evolution of the molecular aggregates can be described, and some important parameters can be obtained, such as the water and eventually oil penetration into the surfactant film, the aggregation number, the area per polar head of the surfactant, and the surfactant chain conformations. We have shown that for the C(8)F(17)C(2)H(4)(OC(2)H(4))(9)OH system, the micelles are prolate spheroids. The increase of the surfactant concentration in water does not change the characteristics of the interfacial film, but the aggregation number raises and the particles become more elongated. By contrast, the experimental curves of C(7)F(15)C(2)H(4)(OC(2)H(4))(8)OH cannot be fitted considering a small particle model. However, progressive incorporation of fluorocarbon induces a change of size and shape of the globules, which become smaller and more and more spherical. Regarding the material mesopore ordering, it appears that the micelles that lead to hexagonal mesoporous silica materials are described with a model of quasi-spherical globules. On the contrary, when large micelles are found, only wormhole-like structures are obtained. PMID:22145934

  14. LVR-15 Reactor and Fusion Related Activities in Material Research and Technology at CV Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LVR-15 is a light water, tank type reactor operating with a power rating of 10 MWth. The reactor is currently undergoing conversion from IRT-2M fuel of 36 wt% 235U enrichment to IRT-4M fuel of 19.7% enrichment. Due to its power output and achievable neutron flux the LVR-15 reactor is suitable for the study of combined effects of radiation and ambient media on materials. The reactor is equipped with experimental facilities such as irradiation loops and rigs that permit an exposure under simulated conditions corresponding to those in power reactors. Irradiation rigs permit the exposure starting from small samples (ring, tensile) up to very large samples (1T CT, 2T CT). Four loops simulating either pressurized or boiling water reactor conditions in various irradiation channels and Generation IV loops (SCWL, HTHL) are in either active or inactive operation at the reactor. Reactor LVR-15 has been engaged in research of fusion reactor materials and technology under EFDA and F4E/ITER. These projects are oriented toward developing a PbLi ancillary system for the He cooled PbLi test blanket module and on testing of small scale mock-ups of the ITER first wall. (author)

  15. Organic materials for second-harmonic generation: advances in relating structure to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M

    2003-12-15

    The relationships between molecular structure and the nonlinear optical phenomenon second-harmonic generation (SHG) are discussed. New-found relationships built up from basic structural axioms that were deduced in the 1970s and 1980s are the particular focus of this article, using structural results from X-ray and neutron-diffraction studies. The molecular and supramolecular manifestations of the SHG effect are borne out, although ways to optimize the effect on the molecular scale feature predominantly, since control of SHG on the supramolecular scale remains difficult given present limitations. The use of a variety of templates to generate head-to-tail oriented host-guest species thereby bypassing such limitations is described. The paper concludes with a look ahead at next generation 'octupolar' SHG-active compounds, the prediction of new series of SHG-active compounds via data-mining computational procedures, and developments in diffraction technology that may enable structural movies of a molecule to be captured during the SHG process. A practical assessment of the viability of organic SHG materials for industrial application is reviewed with a positive outcome, thus indicating a promising future for organic SHG materials. PMID:14667296

  16. 77 FR 12202 - Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service that relate to the...statements that the Internal Revenue Service requires to be filed...submission by letter requesting recognition of tax exemption and any statements...documents as prescribed by Revenue Procedure 2011-9, IRB...

  17. Consumer Law-Related Education Materials (Grades 4-7). Highlands County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; Landry, Russell H., Ed.

    Intended for students in grades 4-7, the lessons in this guide focus on consumer law-related education. Major objectives are for students to gain an understanding of (1) the laws and legal practices in a democratic society; (2) the concepts of authority, order, property, and justice in the operation of institutions; and (3) the processes and…

  18. Consumer Law-Related Education Materials (Grades 4-7). Hardee County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; Landry, Russell H., Ed.

    Intended for students in grades 4-7, the lessons in this guide focus on law related education. Major objectives are for students to gain an understanding of (1) the laws and legal practices in a democratic society; (2) the concepts of authority, order, property, and justice in the operation of institutions; and (3) the processes and functions of…

  19. Consumer Law-Related Education Materials (Grades 4-7). Okeechobee County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.; Landry, Russell H., Ed.

    These teacher-developed learning activities for grades 4-7 deal with consumer law-related topics. The self-contained activities are organized into five sections. Section one contains a role-playing card game that helps students examine rules and feelings. For example, one role-playing situation involves a confrontation between a student and a bus…

  20. Inapplicability of the Maxwell relation for the quantification of caloric effects in anisotropic ferroic materials.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niemann, R.; Heczko, Oleg; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 37, SI (2014), 281-288. ISSN 0140-7007 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP107/11/0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocaloric * shape memory alloys * multiferroic * Ni-Mn-Ga * Maxwell relation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2014

  1. Safeguards resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of systems upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and cost and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers

  2. Research strategies and programs related to the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes. Issue 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the legal context defining the requirements of the PNGMDR (Plan national de gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs, national plan of management of radioactive materials and wastes), this report presents several research programs which address various domains: waste packaging and behaviour (decontamination, waste characterization, waste processing, the storage sizing inventory model, parcel behaviour, used fuel evolution, future wastes), warehousing and storage in deep geological formation (characterization of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, scientific program, simulation programs, measurement means for storage monitoring, knowledge base, security and reversibility options for storage design, security studies, warehousing options), storage of radiferous and graphite wastes, investigation of separation/transmutation scenarios, investigations related to separation, investigations related to fuel fabrication, investigations related to the transmutation of minor actinides, researches in social and human sciences

  3. Transmission electron goniometry and its relation to electron tomography for materials science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moeck, P; Moeck, Peter; Fraundorf, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Aspects of transmission electron goniometry are discussed. Combined with high resolution phase contrast transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic resolution scanning TEM (STEM) in the atomic number contrast (Z-STEM) or the phase contrast bright field mode, transmission electron goniometry offers the opportunity to develop dedicated methods for the crystallographic characterization of nanocrystals in three dimensions. The relationship between transmission electron goniometry and electron tomography for materials science applications is briefly discussed. Internet based java applets that facilitate the application of transmission electron goniometry for cubic crystals with calibrated tilt-rotation and double-tilt specimen holders/goniometers are mentioned. The so called cubic-minimalistic tilt procedure for the determination of the lattice parameters of sub-stoichiometric WC1-x nanocrystals with halite structure is demonstrated. The freely (openly) accessible, Internet based, Crystallography Open Data...

  4. On elastic waves and related phenomena in lattice materials and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srikantha Phani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lattice materials possessing a spatially periodic microstructure are suitable in weight sensitive multifunctional structural applications such as sandwich panels. They not only possess high specific stiffness but also provide opportunities to tailor acoustic and thermal properties through designing their unit cell topology. This paper seeks to understand their mechanical response under static and dynamic loads from a structural mechanics perspective combining Bloch wave theory with Finite Element Method (FEM. Bringing together results from earlier works, it is shown that three eigenvalue problems, containing the frequency and wave vector as the unknowns, can be used to analyze bulk and surface wave phenomena. The application of eigenvalue problems to band-gaps (spatially extended response, edge effects of Saint Venant type (spatially localised response, and buckling of long cellular structures is shown.

  5. Self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials, photon effective rest mass and some related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, J Q S F

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of self-induced charge currents of metamaterial media to photon effective rest mass is discussed in detail in the present paper. We concern ourselves with two kinds of photon effective rest mass, i.e., the frequency-dependent and frequency-independent effective rest mass. Based on these two definitions, we calculate the photon effective rest mass in the left-handed medium and the 2TDLM media, the latter of which is described by the so-called two time derivative Lorentz material (2TDLM) model. Additionally, we concentrate primarily on the torque, which is caused by the interaction between self-induced charge currents in dilute plasma (e.g., the secondary cosmic rays) and interstellar magnetic fields (ambient cosmic magnetic vector potentials), acting on the torsion balance of the rotating torsion balance experiment.

  6. Legal and insurance problems related to the salvage of radioactive materials from the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs involved in salvaging radioactive materials from the sea are usually not covered by nuclear third party liability insurance, whereas transport insurance normally covers such costs. However, in specific cases, such as high level waste transports, even transport insurance might not provide sufficient protection. The issue then for the party concerned, which may be obliged to salvage, becomes complex. According to administrative laws concerning public order and security in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), the owner of cargo which represents a disturbance to the public order can be obliged to remove such a disturbance (in this case, salvaging the radioactive materials). These laws are applicable not only when the cargo is to be salvaged within the territorial waters of the FRG, but also for salvage operations on the open seas when the public order and security of the FRG is, or might be, negatively affected. The latter application does not conflict with international law. However, it should be mentioned that according to international law, no state is allowed to enforce its own administrative laws against persons or organizations residing in a foreign state. In such cases, the foreign state must be asked to enforce the salvage obligation. The owner of the cargo usually cannot take recourse with respect to the salvage costs against such third parties as the shipping companies involved in the accident or the shipping agent because, according to international agent because, according to international treaties, the liability of these parties for nautical negligence that causes damage to the transport goods is excluded. Recently, it has become possible to buy special insurance coverage for salvage costs. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of geological resources in northwestern Serbia, Jadar block terrene, and its relation to tectonic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovi? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    This work presents new information about the interconnection between diverse geological resources and tectonic structures framing the Jadar block terrene. Deep fault zones are found to have been principal bearers of geothermal, thermo mineral and metallic ore resources. Increased bitumen and hydrocarbon concentrations in pre-Tertiary deposits, which may be potential oil/gas zones, are also associated with these areas.

  8. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INEX series of international nuclear emergency exercises, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving the arrangements for responding to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies at the national and international level. Previous INEX exercises focussed largely on national and international aspects of early phase management of emergencies at nuclear power plants and more recently, in INEX 4, on issues in consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. Since the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, it has been recognised that notification, communication, and identifying and obtaining resources during catastrophic events can be difficult and the need for established protocols, policies, and procedures among and between country entities is critical for minimizing negative impacts. Therefore, the benefit and goal of INEX 5 is to provide a basis for enhancing national and international emergency management arrangements related to notification, communication and obtaining resources through the exchange of exercise outcomes and experiences from participating countries, in order to identify good practice and common issues to be addressed. INEX 5 will address emergency management aspects of notification, communication and interfaces between and among country and international organizations. INEX 5 is set up as a table top exercise with three levels of discussion for participants (prior to a release, recognizing/validating a release, and impacts to the radiological event from a catastrophic natural event). Countries can develop additional materials to expand this table top to a full field exercise if preferred. Prior to initiation of the table top, participants will be provided clear guidance about how the exercise will be conducted. Because this exercise may involve government agencies and international organizations, countries may consider using video conferencing as a tool for interaction, as well as face-to-face settings. The exercise begins when a potential problem is identified (NPP is experiencing minor problems; a broken radiation source has been found and there is a potential area of contamination; etc.) and discussions will begin with a focus on initial notification and communication interfaces and understandings by each player. This document provides an overview of the INEX 5 exercises on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events involving Radiation or Radiological Materials, organized under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. It provides basic information on the exercise and is intended to facilitate decisions on national participation in the INEX 5 exercise series by those organizations responsible for national exercise programmes. (authors)

  9. Human resource assignment and role representation mechanism with the "cascading staff-group authoring" and "relation/situation" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Y; Sasaki, Y; Kinoshita, A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the access control mechanism and audit strategy of the "patient-doctor relation and clinical situation at the point-of-care" model with multi-axial access control matrix (ACM). This mechanism overcomes the deficit of ACM in the aspect of data accessibility but does not resolve the representation of the staff's affiliate and/or plural membership in the complex real world. Care groups inside a department or inter-department clinical team plays significant clinical role but also spend great amount of time and money in the hospital. Therefore the impact of human resource assignment and cost of such stakeholders to the hospital management is huge, so that they should be accurately treated in the hospital information system. However multi-axial ACM has problems with the representation of staff groups due to static parameters such as department/license because staffs belong to a group rather temporarily and/or a medical staff may belong to plural groups. As a solution, we have designed and implemented "cascading staff-group authoring" method with "relation and situation" model and multi-axial ACM. In this mechanism, (i) a system administrator certifies "group chief certifying person" according to the request and authorization by the department director, (ii) the "group chief certifying person" certifies "group chief(s)", (iii) the "group chief" recruits its members from the medical staffs, and at the same time the "group chief" decides the profit distribution policy of this group. This will enable medical staff to access EMR according to the role he/she plays whether it is as a department staff or as a group member. This solution has worked successfully over the past few years. It provides end-users with a flexible and time-to-time staff-group authoring environment using a simple human-interfaced tool without security breach and without system administration cost. In addition, profit and cost distribution is clarified among departments and inter-departments groups. PMID:11604835

  10. Rapid pretreatment of environmental samples of food and related materials by a microwave dehydration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple radiometric method was developed to determine the radioactivity levels of food and related environmental samples corresponding to 5 mrem/y, Japan AEC's guideline, by pretreating with a modified microwave dehydration apparatus followed by radiation counting. An equation to estimate the heating conditions by the apparatus is derived, and results calculated by the equation are in good agreement with experimental data. The lower limit of detection for each radionuclide by the proposed method, using a Ge(Li) detector of 20% relative efficiency, is lower than one half of the needed detection limit to determine and evaluate the 5 mrem/y level. Radionuclide levels in vegetables and crustaceans were below the lower detection limit of the proposed method except natural radionuclide sup(40)K and fallout-originated sup(137)Cs. (author)

  11. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the meeting were: - To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; - To discuss the results of studies and on-going R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; and - To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  12. Resources efficiency in milling of dies and molds with various hard coating materials and modified machine dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Wertheim, R.; Hösel, D.; Hochmuth, C.; Georgi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of highly loaded molds and dies with increased demands for lifetime and resources efficiency combined with requirements for higher performance, improved economy and better ecological behaviour makes it necessary to use new hard coating technologies. A complete or a partial hard layer coating of a component offers huge economic potentials, but requires an additional finish milling process. The investigations refer to milling of Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA)-welded Cobalt alloys (Ste...

  13. Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjo?rg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduc...

  14. Public Earthquake Resource Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Public Earthquake Resource Center at the University of Memphis provides information about the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquake hazards in general. Students and the general public can learn about earthquakes; examine science fair ideas, a reading list, and earthquake images; or explore a career as an earthquake scientist. For educators there are links to teacher's resources, lesson plans, online learning materials, and field trip information. Other features include links to additional information about the New Madrid seismic zone, earthquake preparedness tips, other earthquake-related organizations, and a site where citizens can report earthquakes.

  15. Position paper on activities in IGCAR related to radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of radioactive materials like fission products in the core of LMFBR can result in their transport to different parts of primary circuit through coolant/cover gas and subsequent deposition in some of the locations, leading to high radiation fields in those locations. A leak in the sodium system can cause sodium fire, that can give rise to increase in pressure, if the event occurs in a confined space or cause damage to concrete, if the leaking system is located in an area where liners are not provided on concrete. Hence studies related to release of radioactive materials and sodium fires are relevant to the assessment of safety of LMFBR. This paper discusses the status of work at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in these two important fields

  16. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed

  17. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  18. Calculations on displacement damage and its related parameters for heavy ion bombardment in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth distribution of displacement damage expressed in displacements per atom (DPA) in reactor materials such as Mo, Nb, V, Fe and Ni bombarded by energetic nitrogen, argon and self ions with incident energy below 2 MeV was calculated following the theory developed by Lindhard and co-workers for the partition of energy as an energetic ion slowing down. In this calculation, energy loss due to electron excitation was taken into account for the atomic collision cascade after the primary knock-on process. Some parameters indispensable for the calculation such as energy loss rate, damage efficiency, projected range and its straggling were tabulated as a function of incident ion energy of 20 keV to 2 MeV. The damage and parameters were also calculated for 2 MeV nickel ions bombarding Fe targets. In this case, the DPA value is of 40--75% overestimated in a calculation disregarding electronic energy loss for primary knock-on atoms. The formula proposed in this report is significant for calculations on displacement damage produced by heavy ion bombardment as a simulation of high fluence fast neutron damage. (auth.)

  19. Cavity Mode Related Wire Breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and Loss Measurements of Wire Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Jensen, E; Koopman, J; Malo, J F; Roncarolo, F

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350 MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE_01n type device is utilized.

  20. Cavity mode related wire breaking of the SPS Wire Scanners and loss measurements of wire materials

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, Federico

    2003-01-01

    During the SPS high intensity run 2002 with LHC type beam, the breaking of several of the carbon wires in the wire scanners has been observed in their parking position. The observation of large changes in the wire resistivity and thermionic electron emission clearly indicated strong RF heating that was depending on the bunch length. A subsequent analysis in the laboratory, simulating the beam by two probe antennas or by a powered stretched wire, showed two main problems: i) the housing of the wire scanner acts as a cavity with a mode spectrum starting around 350MHz and high impedance values around 700 MHz; ii) the carbon wire used so far appears to be an excellent RF absorber and thus dissipates a significant part of the beam-induced power. Different wire materials are compared with the classical cavity mode technique for the determination of the complex permittivity in the range of 2-4 GHz. As a resonator a rectangular TE01n type device is utilized.

  1. Decay heat measurement of fusion related materials in an ITER-like neutron field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay heat is one of the most important factors for the safety aspect of ITER. Especially, the prediction of decay heat with an uncertainty less than 15% for the three most important materials, i.e., copper, type-316 stainless steel (SS316) and tungsten, is strongly requested by designers of ITER. To provide experimental decay heat data needed for validation of decay heat calculations for SS316 and copper, an experiment was conducted as the ITER/EDA task T-426. An ITER-like neutron field was constructed, and decay heat source distributions in thick copper and SS316 plates were measured with the whole energy absorption spectrometer. The measured decay heat distributions in the thick sample plates were compared with the predicted values by MCNP calculations. It was found that the use of an effective activation cross-section calculated by MCNP was needed to consider the self-shielding effects and, for both cases, MCNP calculations could predict the decay heat adequately

  2. Decay heat measurement of fusion related materials in an ITER-like neutron field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Maekawa, F.; Wada, M.; Nishitani, T.; Takeuchi, H.

    2002-12-01

    Decay heat is one of the most important factors for the safety aspect of ITER. Especially, the prediction of decay heat with an uncertainty less than 15% for the three most important materials, i.e., copper, type-316 stainless steel (SS316) and tungsten, is strongly requested by designers of ITER. To provide experimental decay heat data needed for validation of decay heat calculations for SS316 and copper, an experiment was conducted as the ITER/EDA task T-426. An ITER-like neutron field was constructed, and decay heat source distributions in thick copper and SS316 plates were measured with the whole energy absorption spectrometer. The measured decay heat distributions in the thick sample plates were compared with the predicted values by MCNP calculations. It was found that the use of an effective activation cross-section calculated by MCNP was needed to consider the self-shielding effects and, for both cases, MCNP calculations could predict the decay heat adequately.

  3. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  4. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report

  5. Radiation damages of organic materials at 4 K: an ESR study of polyethylene and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the radiation damages produced at 4 K in polyethylene and related hydrocarbons, a series of studies have been carried out by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. It has been found that the local concentration of radiation induced paramagnetic species is considerably higher in the irradiation at 4 K than that at 77 K. The causes of this irradiation temperature effect on the spatial distribution of radicals have been extensively studied. It is suggested that the suppression of hydrogen atom migration and the reactivity of hydrogen atoms at 4 K play an important role in the low temperature radiation damages of saturated hydrocarbons. In the present paper the results previously and newly obtained are surveyed and discussed as a whole. (author)

  6. Relations between structural and superconducting properties of bulk and thin film high-Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural ordering of oxygen deficient and Co-doped YBCO (YBa2Cu3-yCoyO6+x) have been studied experimentally, and by computer simulations of the oxygen ordering in the basal plane of the structure. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional ASYNNNI model and its modifications. Good agreement is established between the ASYNNNI calculations and the experimentally observed structural properties of the double cell ortho-II structure and the oxygen disordering process from Co-doping into the basal plane. A model that relates the superconducting transition temperature Tc(x) of undoped YBCO and Tc(y) of Co-doped YBCO to the formation of specific domains of the two orthorhombic ordered oxygen phases, ortho-I and ortho-II, shows a close agreement with experimental Tc(x) and Tc(y) data of samples prepared under equilibrium conditions. The structural changes as a result of metal ion substitutions and oxidation/reduction processes have been studied by neutron powder diffraction in Pb2Sr2Ln1-xCaxCu3O8+y (Ln = Y and Ho), Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4+y, and chemically oxidized La2-xSrxCuO4+y 2Cu3-yAlyO6+x (y 2Cu3O6+x and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x thin films deposited on SrTiO3 (001), MgO (001), LaAlO3 (001), and NdGaO3 (001) substrates has been studied by x-ray diffraction, TEM and RBS, and the structural ordering has been analysed in relation to their superconducting properties. (au) (30 ills., 29 refs.)

  7. Spatial distribution of geological resources in northwestern Serbia, Jadar block terrene, and its relation to tectonic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipovi? Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents new information about the interconnection between diverse geological resources and tectonic structures framing the Jadar block terrene. Deep fault zones are found to have been principal bearers of geothermal, thermo mineral and metallic ore resources. Increased bitumen and hydrocarbon concentrations in pre-Tertiary deposits, which may be potential oil/gas zones, are also associated with these areas.

  8. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different reso...

  9. Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

  10. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-01

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change.To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00814j

  11. Health resource utilization and the economic burden of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyameth Dilokthornsakul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine healthcare resource utilization and the economic burden associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD in ThailandMETHODS:This study included patients diagnosed with wet AMD that were 60 years old or older, and had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA measured at least two times during the follow-up period. We excluded patients having other eye diseases. Two separate sub-studies were conducted. The first sub-study was a retrospective cohort study; electronic medical charts were reviewed to estimate the direct medical costs. The second sub-study was a cross-sectional survey estimating the direct non-medical costs based on face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. For the first sub-study, direct medical costs, including the cost of drugs, laboratory, procedures, and other treatments were obtained. For the second sub-study, direct non-medical costs, e.g. transportation, food, accessories, home renovation, and caregiver costs, were obtained from face-to-face interviews with patients and/or caregivers.RESULTS: For the first sub-study, sixty-four medical records were reviewed. The annual average number of medical visits was 11.1±6.0. The average direct medical costs were $3 604±4 530 per year. No statistically-significant differences of the average direct medical costs among the BCVA groups were detected (P=0.98. Drug costs accounted for 77% of total direct medical costs. For direct non-medical costs, 67 patients were included. Forty-eight patients (71.6% required the accompaniment of a person during the out-patient visit. Seventeen patients (25.4% required a caregiver at home. The average direct non-medical cost was $2 927±6 560 per year. There were no statistically-significant differences in the average costs among the BCVA groups (P=0.74. Care-giver cost accounted for 87% of direct non-medical costs.CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that wet AMD is associated with a substantial economic burden, especially concerning drug and care-giver costs.

  12. Genome-wide QTL mapping for three traits related to teat number in a White Duroc × Erhualian pig resource population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Huashui

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teat number is an important fertility trait for pig production, reflecting the mothering ability of sows. It is also a discrete and often canalized trait presenting bilateral symmetry with minor differences between the two sides, providing a potential power to evaluate fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability. The knowledge of its genetic control is still limited. In this study, a genome-wide scan was performed with 183 microsatellites covering the pig genome to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for three traits related to teat number including the total teat number (TTN, the teat number at the left (LTN and right (RTN sides in a large scale White Duroc × Erhualian resource population. Results A sex-average linkage map with a total length of 2350.3 cM and an average marker interval of 12.84 cM was constructed. Eleven genome-wide significant QTL for TTN were detected on 8 autosomes including pig chromosomes (SSC 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12. Six suggestive QTL for this trait were detected on SSC6, 9, 13, 14 and 16. Eight chromosomal regions each on SSC1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 showed significant associations with LTN. These regions were also evidenced as significant QTL for RTN except for those on SSC6 and SSC8. The most significant QTL for the 3 traits were all located on SSC7. Erhualian alleles at most of the identified QTL had positive additive effects except for three QTL on SSC1 and SSC7, at which White Duroc alleles increased teat numbers. On SSC1, 6, 9, 13 and 16, significant dominance effects were observed on TTN, and predominant imprinting effect on TTN was only detected on SSC12. Conclusion The results not only confirmed the QTL regions from previous experiments, but also identified five new QTL for the total teat number in swine. Minor differences between the QTL regions responsible for LTN and RTN were validated. Further fine mapping should be focused on consistently identified regions with small confidence intervals, such as those on SSC1, SSC7 and SSC12.

  13. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  14. Stored Energy and Quality Factor of Spherical Wave Functions–in Relation to Spherical Antennas With Material Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels V.; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2012-01-01

    We present closed-form expressions for central properties of spherical wave functions of arbitrary order in relation to arbitrarily sized spherical antennas with lossless solid material cores. These properties are the electric or magnetic spherical surface current distribution radiating a spherical wave, the excitation coefficients for the internal and external spherical waves, the radiated power, the internal and external stored electric and magnetic energies, the difference of total electric and total magnetic energy, the cavity and radiating resonance conditions, and the quality factor. We investigate the variation of the internal/external and electric/magnetic stored energies with the electrical size of the antenna to study their relative significance for the quality factor.

  15. 2D materials. Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems for energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Yu, Guihua; Stoller, Meryl; Tozzini, Valentina; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ruoff, Rodney S; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional crystals and hybrid systems showcase several key properties that can address emerging energy needs, in particular for the ever growing market of portable and wearable energy conversion and storage devices. Graphene's flexibility, large surface area, and chemical stability, combined with its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, make it promising as a catalyst in fuel and dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically functionalized graphene can also improve storage and diffusion of ionic species and electric charge in batteries and supercapacitors. Two-dimensional crystals provide optoelectronic and photocatalytic properties complementing those of graphene, enabling the realization of ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices or systems for hydrogen production. Here, we review the use of graphene and related materials for energy conversion and storage, outlining the roadmap for future applications. PMID:25554791

  16. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces. PMID:18723203

  17. Vacancy related defects in thin film Pb(ZrTi)O3 materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation techniques have been applied to characterize vacancy-related defects in ferroelectric thin film structures. Variable energy positron beam measurements were carried out on doped and undoped Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) samples subjected to different post-deposition cool down and anneal conditions. The PZT was deposited by sol-gel with either with platinum or RuO2 electrodes, or by laser ablation with La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 electrodes. The RuO2 and La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 electrode samples showed a smaller S-parameter compared to those deposited with Pt electrodes consistent with an improved PZT layer quality. For laser ablated samples cooled in a reducing ambient an increase in S-parameter for both the PZT and La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 layers was observed indicating an increase in neutral or negatively charged open-volume defects

  18. Electroabsorption spectroscopy of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-p- phenylenevinylene) and related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Helen; Bleyer, Andreas; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Lane, Paul A.; Martin, Simon J.; Rohlfing, Frank; Tajbakhsh, Ali R.

    1997-12-01

    We report experimental studies of poly(m-phenylenevinylene- co-2,5-dioctoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV-co-DOctOPV). Model oligomers based on this polymer have been synthesized and results on these materials are also presented. Electroabsorption measurements have been performed on spin coated films between 1.5 eV and 5 eV with electric fields of up to 200 KV/cm. Using Stark shift analysis the electroabsorption spectra are compared with the first derivative of the corresponding low temperature absorption spectra. We also investigate the effect of changes in chemical structure by studying the variation between the electroabsorption spectra of related materials. Samples of these polymers and oligomers that differ by the proportion of trans and cis vinylene bonds are also compared to see what effect the trans or cis bond has on the electronic structure. Increased cis content enhances emission efficiency but little alters the electroabsorption spectra. The results for the different materials are compared and several features occurring at the onset and at the minima of the electroabsorption spectra are considered. These features do not depend on the trans/cis ratio and we present evidence that suggests aggregation effects play an important role in these samples.

  19. Supports filmiques transversaux en pratique de la langue : document authentique ou authentiquement intéressant ? Transversal film resources for language practice : authentic or authentically interesting materials ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséphine Rémon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une réflexion sur les supports filmiques dans l’enseignement des langues, nous nous proposons de revisiter la notion de document authentique pour apporter une contribution théorique à l’appréhension de l’attractivité d’une ressource filmique et à l’appréhension de la nature de l’acte pédagogique que représente l’utilisation de ces ressources. Des exemples de vidéos disponibles sur Internet montrent que l’opposition entre le didactique et l’authentique laisse place à la transversalité des thématiques, fédér??es par le concept de « question socialement vive ».Si les ressources filmiques n’ont pas le monopole des questionnements éthiques, le « regarder ensemble pédagogique » en fait un vecteur privilégié pour aborder les questions vives.Avec ces ressources capables de générer une « écoute engagée », la langue devient le vecteur d’une modification d’un système de connaissances, au-delà de la poursuite d’objectifs langagiers mis au service d’une interpellation citoyenne.As part of a reflection on films and videos for language teaching, this paper re-examines the notion of authentic material and presents a theoretical contribution to understanding a video resource’s attractiveness, and to understanding what pedagogical act is represented by the use of such resources. Examples of videos from the Internet show that the traditional opposition between didactic and authentic documents is replaced by the transversal nature of certain topics, connected through the controversies they can generate.While it is true that films and videos are not the only resource allowing one to tackle ethical issues, watching them as a group in class makes them a most adequate vector for work on controversial topics.With these resources capable of triggering engagement in the process of listening, language becomes the way to challenge a knowledge system, far beyond linguistic objectives that are used to serve a wider questioning by the citizen.

  20. ?????????????????????????????? | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.

    ???9-18

  1. Validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of related substances in a candidate certified reference material of captopril

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Nogueira; Wagner, Wollinger; Thaís Elias da, Silva; Leonardo Mesquita de, Oliveira; Eliane Cristina Pires do, Rego; Gabriela Fernandes, Moreira; Juliano Smanioto, Barin; Luciane Varini, Laporta; Márcia Foster, Mesko; Celso Figueiredo, Bittencourt; Janaína Marques, Rodrigues; Valnei Smarçaro da, Cunha.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em fase reversa (CLAE-RP) com detector de fotodiodos (DAD) para determinação de substâncias relacionadas (impurezas orgânicas de síntese e produtos de degradação) de captopril segundo Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. [...] Este estudo teve como objetivo garantir que o método é capaz de quantificar com exatidão o teor de substâncias relacionadas, um requisito essencial para que o teor de captopril seja determinado por balanço de massa no primeiro material de referência certificado (MRC) de fármacos brasileiro, o qual foi desenvolvido pelo Inmetro. A instabilidade do captopril em solução é discutida em detalhes e o teor de captopril determinado por balanço de massa é comparado com aqueles obtidos por titulação e por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC). Abstract in english This paper describes the validation of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method (RP-HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) for determination of related substances (impurities from organic synthesis and degradation products) of captopril according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia I [...] V. The aim of this study was to guarantee the method accuracy for quantification of related substances, an essential requisite to determine, using the mass balance approach, the captopril content in the first Brazilian certified reference material (CRM) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), developed by Inmetro. The captopril instability in solution is discussed and the captopril content determined by mass balance is compared to the results from titration and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  2. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  3. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    1999-01-31

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from October 1, 1998 through January 31, 1999, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3) continued to serve as a liaison between the NGA FFCA Task Force states and the Department.

  4. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann B. Beauchesne

    1998-09-30

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from June 1, 1998 through September 30, 1998, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and EM Integration activities; and (3) continued to serve as a liaison between the NGA FFCA Task Force states and the Department.

  5. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  6. Study of radon emanation from uranium mill tailings. Relations between radon emanating power and physicochemical properties of the material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium extraction from ores leads to large amounts of mill tailings still containing radionuclides, such as thorium-230 and radium-226, which generate radon-222. Without protective action, radon exposition may be high enough to cause concern for health of populations living in the vicinity of an uranium mill tailings disposal. This exposition pathway has therefore to be taken into account in the radiological impact studies. The emanating power, i.e. the part of radon atoms which escape from the solid particles, is directly involved in the radon source term evaluation. It may be determined for a given material by laboratory measurements. Emanating powers from 0.08 to 0.33 have been obtained for mill tailings from Jouac (Limousin, France), at various moisture contents. In order to reduce the relations of dependence between some of the emanation parameters, more simple phases, kaolinite and polymeric resins, have been studied. Those experiments have led us to the selection of the mechanisms and the parameters to consider for the development of an emanation modelling. The whole of the results obtained point out the radon sorption, in various proportions depending on the materials. The moisture content influence on the emanation from materials containing fine particles have been confirmed: the emanation increases with this parameter until a continuous water film surrounding the particles have been formed, and then become constant. This 'water effect' occurs in a moisture content range, which depends on the material porosity. Elsewhere, the presence of amorphous phases may led to a high radon emanation. (author)

  7. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components.

  8. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presears that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components

  9. Assessment of nuclear material imports and exports based data from the national control related to the protection of these materials against any malevolent act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document first discusses the aim and regulatory base of the national control of nuclear materials the objective of which is to prevent and impede such materials to be lost, stolen, misappropriated or dispersed. The French code of Defence comprises articles which define the various arrangements an operator must implement for a physical protection and a surveillance of detained materials and of their confinement, a physical follow through of movements of these materials, and an accounting of material input and output in every installation. After a comment on these different aspects, the report comments those concerning controls and inspections. Then, it reports and comments the use of data to assess export and import material flows. Tables give evolution of uranium exports to Russia, uranium imports from Russia, and data and information on imports and exports of different materials (depleted, natural and enriched uranium, plutonium, thorium, deuterium, enriched lithium, and tritium)

  10. Water Resources Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQ’s, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

  11. Role of low dose danazol therapy for endometriosis related infertility and its comparison with laparoscopic fulguration in low resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Verma

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Based on this study it can be concluded that choice of therapy depend on age of patient, duration of infertility, physical findings, goal of surgery, experience of surgeon and most important the availability of resources. In this study result was comparable. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 67-69

  12. A Study of Selected Learning Disabled Students in Secondary Resource and Alternative Programs Relative to Levels of Intelligence and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Rolland L.; Verret, Ann Brown

    Two groups of learning disabled (LD) secondary school students (ages 16-18) were studied to determine if such factors as levels of intelligence and achievement contribute to success in high school. The first group of students (N=10) were sophomores enrolled in special education resource classes for one period each day and were addressing Louisiana…

  13. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  14. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES and H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial. Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to es are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis for sharing ''lessons learned'' from R and D efforts across DOE programs to increase efficiency and effectiveness in addressing gas generation issues. The gas generation roadmap identified pathways that have significant risk, indicating where more emphasis should be placed on contingency planning. Roadmapping further identified many opportunities for sharing of information and collaboration. Roadmapping will continue to be useful in keeping focused on the efforts necessary to mitigate the risk in the disposition pathways and to respond to the specific needs of the sites. Other areas within NM programs, including transportation and disposition of orphan and other nuclear materials, are prime candidates for additional roadmapping to assure achievement of timely and cost effective solutions for the processing, packaging, shipping, and/or final disposition of nuclear materials

  15. Human resources handbook [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

  16. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 1. Bottom-up Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in the main report. This report (part 1) presents scenarios for future biomass use for energy and materials, and analyses the consequences on energy supply, chemical productions, costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a bottom-up approach. The bottom-up projections, as presented in this report, form the basis for modelling work using the top-down macro-economic model (LEITAP) to assess the economic impact of substituting fossil-based energy carriers with biomass in the Netherlands. The results of the macro-economic modelling work, and the linkage between the results of the bottom-up and top-down work, will be presented in the top-down economic part and synthesis report of this studysynthesis report of this study

  17. Comportamento estratégico da empresa e a visão baseada em recursos: um estudo no setor varejista de material de construção / Strategic behavior and resource-based view: a study in construction material retail sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo, Ribeiro; Carlos Ricardo, Rossetto; Miguel Angel, Verdinelli.

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar o relacionamento dos recursos da organização quanto ao seu comportamento estratégico na percepção dos gestores das lojas de material de construção. Para tanto, aborda a teoria de recursos, a partir da RBV (Resource-based View), e a tipologia de Miles e Snow ( [...] 1978), na determinação do comportamento estratégico das organizações. Com a finalidade de atingir o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma abordagem qualiquantitativa. A pesquisa qualitativa foi exploratória, utilizando focus group e a quantitativa descritiva, a partir de uma survey. Os resultados, quanto ao comportamento estratégico, indicam que 34,3% das empresas são defensoras, 27,1% são reativas, 20,0% são analistas e 18,6% prospectoras. Com relação às hipóteses propostas, inexistência de diferenças nas capacidades segundo os comportamentos estratégicos, nenhuma mostrou significância estatística. Com Respeito à associação mensurada entre o comportamento estratégico e as capacidades, os prospectores são os que possuem a maior correlação positiva, verificada com as capacidades de administração. Já os reativos são os que apresentam a maior correlação negativa, também com as capacidades de administração. Conclui-se que há ausência de ajuste entre comportamentos estratégicos e os recursos e capacidades, o que pode, segundo a RBV, deixar de gerar vantagem competitiva sustentável. Abstract in english This study aims to investigate the relationship between the organization resources and the strategic behavior from construction material stores viewpoint. The RBV (Resource-Based View) and the Miles and Snow Typology (1978) are used in this study for determining the organization's strategic behavior [...] . A quali-quantitave approach was used. The qualitative study was exploratory making use of the focus group technique and the quantitative descriptive analysis through a survey. The results indicated that, according to the strategic behavior, 34.3% of the organizations are defenders, 27.1% are reactors, 20% are analyzers, and 18.6% are prospectors. With regard to proposed hypothesis, there was no statistically significant capability difference according to the Studying the correlation between strategic behavior and capabilities, one can see that the prospectors are the ones that exhibit the strongest positive correlation according to the management capabilities. On the other hand, the reactors exhibit the strongest negative correlation also according to the management capabilities. One can therefore conclude that there is lack of adjustment between the strategic behavior and the resources and capabilities, which, according to the Resource-Based View, may prevent sustainable competitive advantages.

  18. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  19. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  20. "It's Not Their Job to Share Content": A Case Study of the Role of Senior Students in Adapting Teaching Materials as Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's landmark decision to make its teaching and learning materials freely available to the public as OpenCourseWare (OCW), many other higher education institutions have followed suit sharing resources now more generally referred to as Open Educational Resources (OER). The University of Cape…