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1

Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

Pin-Chih Wang

2014-09-01

2

Asteroids prospective energy and material resources  

CERN Document Server

The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

2013-01-01

3

Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

2013-11-01

4

Moon. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

2012-07-01

5

Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources  

CERN Document Server

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

2012-01-01

6

Resources and processing of thorium raw material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the estimation of thorium raw material resources, methods of thorium raw material processing as well as possibilities for thorium production and its compounds of nuclear purity making in a number of countries are considered. It is shown that thorium global resources available are sufficient to be a base for uranium-thorium fuel cycle. Technological processes of thorium raw material processing and production of thorium compounds-oxide and metal out of different forms of thorium raw material have been developed, all flowsheets permit the complex use of thorium raw material and decrease thorium production costs. Prospects for thorium use as a fuel in heavy-water and high-temperature reactors are noted

7

Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996), and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992) was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The result...

Cheng, Kevin H. C.

2009-01-01

8

Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996, and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992 was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The results show that people who have a high level of neuroticism handle their interpersonal relationships in a reflective manner by concealing their own opinions and focusing on the arguments of other people. The same people prefer to communicate by “mirroring” other people's utterances, irrespective of the role that was given to them in the study. The findings add to the body of knowledge on interpersonal dimensions and their relations with personality.

Kevin H. C. Cheng

2009-02-01

9

RELATIO: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONAL DIMENSION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indigenous traditions and values of African peoples have been viewed as being behind the times. Disregarding established, functioning systems of African resource allocation has led to a system of interaction out of touch with local cultural priorities. Through a review of literature, augmented by qualitative interviews and observational analysis, the evolutionary nature of rationality is revealed; demonstrating the necessity for our understanding of economic choice to be adjusted to involve broader conceptions of its constitution, restraints, and motivations. It is derived that two parallel systems for addressing basic questions of choice and resource management exist; a traditional “rational” Western system, and a “relational” African system. After establishing these intersecting systems, the value of African uniqueness is appreciated. This paper attempts to build upon the work of other economists in the addition of a “relational” component of rationality, informed by both social and material forms of capital.

Kevin Sheneberger

2011-10-01

10

Reinforcement in Phonics Materials (Instructional Resources).  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the selection criteria of reinforcement in phonics materials. Reports on a search for phonics materials which met the criteria of having an appropriate amount of reinforcement, high transfer potential, and high content validity. Finds that "Signals Video Learning Series" is a satisfactory phonics program. (MG)

Spiegel, Dixie Lee

1990-01-01

11

On Onsager Relations and Linear Electromagnetic Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the Onsager relations in the context of electromagnetic constitutive relations of linear, homogeneous materials. We determined that application of the Onsager relations to the constitutive equations relating $#P$ and $#M$ to both $#E$ and $#B$ is in accord with Lorentz reciprocity as well as the Post constraint.

Lakhtakia, A.; Depine, R. A.

2004-01-01

12

Information Resources for Coal Mining and Related Subjects. A Bibliographic Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography lists materials on coal mining and related resources contained in the library of Southeast Community College (Kentucky). The guide is organized in six sections. The first section lists reference materials and is annotated. The second section lists books. Subject headings include coal miners, mines, and trade; mine safety; mineral…

Zhang, Sha Li, Comp.

13

Revisiting Rebound Effects from Material Resource Use. Indications for Germany Considering Social Heterogeneity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the original investigation by William Stanley Jevons, compensations of energy savings due to improved energy efficiency are mostly analyzed by providing energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. In support of a sustainable resource management, this paper analyzes so-called rebound effects based on resource use. Material flows and associated expenditures by households allow for calculating resource intensities and marginal propensities to consume. Marginal propensities to consume are estimated from data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP in order to account for indirect rebound effects for food, housing and mobility. Resource intensities are estimated in terms of total material requirements per household final consumption expenditures along the Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (COICOP. Eventually, rebound effects are indicated on the basis of published saving scenarios in resource and energy demand for Germany. In sum, compensations due to rebound effects are lowest for food while the highest compensations are induced for mobility. This is foremost the result of a relatively high resource intensity of food and a relatively low resource intensity in mobility. Findings are provided by giving various propensity scenarios in order to cope with income differences in Germany. The author concludes that policies on resource conservation need to reconsider rebound effects under the aspect of social heterogeneity.

Johannes Buhl

2014-02-01

14

Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psychological resources—optimism, mastery, and self-esteem—buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the “A” allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-e...

Saphire-bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M.; Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

2011-01-01

15

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

16

Related Resources for Cervical Cancer Screening  

Science.gov (United States)

NCI has comprehensive research-based information on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, genetics and supportive care. Our information specialists can answer questions related to cancer, including cervical cancer screening and treatment. You can contact us by phone, online chat, or e-mail.

17

Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

NONE

1998-03-01

18

Petroleum as a raw material resource for sustainable development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Author notes that for economic and social region development it is necessary has been created large petroleum chemical plants near by Atyrau city (initial raw material - Tengiz, Korolev and other petroleum deposits of this region) and Aktau (Mangistau and Bazuchin petroleum). Realization of projects for structure changes of petroleum and gas region demands a great investments. It is noted that growing scales of petroleum and gas resources mastering calls already a considerable environmental complications because of Caspian Sea's level marking rise

19

PREPARATION OF E-MATERIAL FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human development should be the main purpose of each company. Thereby, employees in different position should be treated as most important assets held by the company. Due to lowering costs, saving time, as well as efficiency, e-learning is one of the most effective way of learning in modern society. However, to achieve that, just high quality e-materials should be prepared. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare e-material about human resource. The main purposes of prepared ma...

Ocepek, Suzana

2013-01-01

20

Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

Michael Lettenmeier

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Resource Materials for Nanoscale Science and Technology Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology and advanced materials examples can be used to explore science and engineering concepts, exhibiting the "wow" and potential of nanotechnology, introducing prospective scientists to key ideas, and educating a citizenry capable of making well-informed technology-driven decisions. For example, material syntheses an atomic layer at a time have already revolutionized lighting and display technologies and dramatically expanded hard drive storage capacities. Resource materials include kits, models, and demonstrations that explain scanning probe microscopy, x-ray diffraction, information storage, energy and light, carbon nanotubes, and solid-state structures. An online Video Lab Manual, where movies show each step of the experiment, illustrates more than a dozen laboratory experiments involving nanoscale science and technology. Examples that are useful at a variety of levels when instructors provide the context include preparation of self-assembled monolayers, liquid crystals, colloidal gold, ferrofluid nanoparticles, nickel nanowires, solar cells, electrochromic thin films, organic light emitting diodes, and quantum dots. These resources have been developed, refined and class tested at institutions working with the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Interfaces at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (http://mrsec.wisc.edu/nano).

Lisensky, George

2006-12-01

22

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

23

Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage). PMID:17826971

Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

2008-01-01

24

Industrial Relations und/oder Human Resource Management?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Besprechungsessay: 1. The SAGE Handbook of Industrial Relations. Edited by Paul Blyton, Nicolas Bacon, Jack Fiorito and Edmund Heery. Sage Publication Ltd., Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore 2008. 2. The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management. Edited by Peter Boxall, John Purcell and Patrick Wright. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007.

Mu?ller-jentsch, Walther

2010-01-01

25

Improvements in or relating to refractory materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

26

MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

2010-12-13

27

Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

28

Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Related Materials  

CERN Document Server

"Amorphous Chalcogenide Semiconductors and Glasses" describes developments in the science and technology of this class of materials. This book offers an up-to-date treatment of chalcogenide glasses and amorphous semiconductors from basic principles to applications while providing the reader with the necessary theoretical background to understanding the material properties technology of this class of materials. This book offers an up-to-date treatment of chalcogenide glasses and amorphous semiconductors from basic principles to applications while providing the reader with the necessar

Tanaka, Keiji

2011-01-01

29

Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

Rosati, A.

2012-12-01

30

Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Helland, Carolyn, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Jay, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frame, Katherine, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Michael, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scherer, Caroylnn, P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vo, Duc, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

31

Creating e-learning material with optimal utilization of limited resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka is a country with comparatively high standards of healthcare, but a poor distribution of resources. While gaining access to expert trainers is relatively easy in the western province, the same cannot be said of regions like the eastern and north central provinces.With access to broadband crossing all regional and geographic boundaries and an 84% penetration rate for mobile phones, internet access is becoming the one resource that is uniformly distributed across the island. An eLearning solution therefore is the only practical means to ensure that training resources are available to everyone, anytime, anywhere in the island.The paper proposes a hosted eLearning solution incorporating video based lessons supplemented by text, animations and voiceovers to provide postgraduate level training for medical personnel. The process of creating training material will be non intrusive and not require any additional time or expensive resources as it will be primarily based on capturing of actual cases including consultations, surgery and other day to day activities as videos. A simple webcam attached to a laptop or even a relatively high resolution mobile phone with sufficient storage capacity is all that is required to capture the core training content.Assembly of the training course using these videos can be done by eLearning domain specialists, along with instructional design and preparation of rich content such as animations; only the knowledge and information needs to be provided by subject matter experts.The proposed approach ensures that the most valuable resource consumed in this process, the time of the expert practitioner, is used optimally and in a manner that has the least impact on his or her primary responsibility, that of providing care to patients.

Channa Abeyweera Gunawardena

2012-04-01

32

Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

33

Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting.Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence.Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts.Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized dressing-related trauma, identified associated clinical sequelae, and quantified resource utilization associated with a typical occurrence of each trauma concept. Further research is warranted into dressing-related trauma and the associated costs.Keywords: trauma, dressings, wounds, cost, resource use

Charlesworth B

2014-04-01

34

Data Book of Social Studies Materials and Resources, Volume 13.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the document is to provide analyses of curriculum materials that will allow elementary and secondary school teachers, administrators, curriculum coordinators, and college methods teachers to select materials that are appropriate to their students, school, and community on the basis of grade level (K-6, 7-12), discipline,…

Hendrikson, Leslie, Ed.

35

Data Book of Social Studies Materials and Resources. Volume 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document provides analyses of curriculum materials that help elementary and secondary school teachers, administrators, curriculum coordinators, and college methods teachers select materials that are appropriate for their students, school, and community. Analyses are provided on the basis of grade level, content, underlying philosophy, goals,…

Hendrikson, Leslie, Ed.

36

Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

McLean, Michelle

2001-01-01

37

Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

Meinzinger, Franziska

2010-07-01

38

International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO Global Plan of Action on Plant Genetic Resources (GPA), the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT-PGRFA), the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual ...

Eaton, D. J. F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

2004-01-01

39

Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials  

CERN Document Server

Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

Smallwood, Carol

2012-01-01

40

Permittivity and permeability measurements methods for particle accelerator related materials  

CERN Document Server

For the special requirements related to particle accelerators, knowledge of the different material parameters of dielectrics and other materials are needed in order to carry out simulations during the design process of accelerator components. This includes also properties of magnetically biased ferrites of which usually little information is available about material characteristics, especially in magnetic bias fields. Several methods of measurement are discussed and compared of which some require delicate sample preparation whereas others can work with unmodified material shapes that makes those methods also suited for acceptance checks on incoming materials delivered by industry. Applications include characterization of different materials, as absorbers in which dielectric losses play an increasing role, as well as low frequency measurements on ferrites that are used for tunable cavities. We present results obtained from both broadband and resonant measurements on different materials determined in the same s...

Vollinger, C; Jensen, E

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources  

CERN Document Server

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

Bollinghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

42

Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To help address these challenges and related issues, the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is working on behalf of the State of Texas with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The center directs three major programs that address the key aspects of the plutonium management issue: (1) the Communications, Education, Training and Community Involvement Program, which focuses on informing the public about plutonium and providing technical education at all levels; (2) the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Program, which investigates the key ES and H impacts of activities related to the DOE weapons complex in Texas; and (3) the Nuclear and Other Materials Program, which is aimed at minimizing safety and proliferation risks by helping to develop and advocate safe stewardship, storage, and disposition of nuclear weapons materials. This paper provides an overview of the center's nuclear activities described in four broad categories of international activities, materials safety, plutonium storage, and plutonium disposition

43

Open Access Internet Resources for Nano-Materials Physics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Because a great deal of nano-material science and engineering relies on crystalline materials, materials physicists have to provide their own specific contributions to the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Here we briefly review two freely accessible internet-based crystallographic databases, the Nano-Crystallography Database (http://nanocrystallography.research.pdx.edu) and the Crystallography Open Database (http://crystallography.net). Information on over 34,000 full structure determinations are stored in these two databases in the Crystallographic Information File format. The availability of such crystallographic data on the internet in a standardized format allows for all kinds of web-based crystallographic calculations and visualizations. Two examples of which that are dealt with in this paper are: interactive crystal structure visualizations in three dimensions and calculations of lattice-fringe fingerprints for the identification of unknown nanocrystals from their atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

Moeck, Peter; Seipel, Bjoern; Upreti, Girish; Harvey, Morgan; Garrick, Will

2006-05-01

44

Radiation-resistant properties of InP-related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation effects of high-energy electrons and protons, and 60Co gamma-rays on InP-related materials have been examined i comparison with those of GaAs and Si. Superior radiation-resistance of InP-related materials and their devices compared to GaAs and Si has been found by using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and properties of devices such as solar cells and light-emitting devices. Moreover, minority-carrier injection enhanced annealing phenomena of radiation-induced defects in InP-related materials have also been observed even at low temperature of around 150K. Mechanism of radiation-resistance of InP-related materials is discussed. The superior radiation-resistance of InP-related materials and their devices is understood to be attributable to the fact that the migration energy (annealing temperature) of radiation-induced defects in them is much lower than that of GaAs and is also related to the minority-carrier enhanced annealing phenomena of defects in them

45

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

2012-07-01

46

Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

2012-01-01

47

THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course, recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.

Rehana MASRUR

2010-04-01

48

NASA CORE: Central Operation of Resources for Educators-Educational Materials Catalog  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), established in cooperation with Lorain County Joint Vocational School, serves as the worldwide distribution center for NASA-produced educational materials. For a minimal charge, CORE will provide a valuable service to educators unable to visit one of the NASA Educator Resource Centers by making NASA educational audiovisual materials available through its mail order service. Through CORE's distribution network, the public has access to more than 200 videocassette, slide, and CD-ROM programs, chronicling NASA!s state-of-the-art research and technology. Through the use of these curriculum supplement materials, teachers can provide their students with the latest in aerospace information. NASAs educational materials on aeronautics and space provide a springboard for classroom discussion of life science, physical science, astronomy, energy, Earth resources, environment, mathematics, and career education.

1998-01-01

49

Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains ?-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

2014-01-01

50

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

51

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

1993-09-01

52

Uranium resources and production of nuclear fuel material in the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are summed up relating to uranium resources, the technology of nuclear fuel manufacture, the prices of U concentrate and the costs of the basic operations of the fuel cycle. Resources are sufficient for the needs of nuclear power production based on LWR's without closing the fuel cycle for at least up to the year 2010; in the subsequent period fuels of higher price categories would have to be used (> or approx. 130 $/kg U). The manufacture of U concentrate after culmination in the years 1979 to 1980 is declining as is its price. Fuel material on an operation scale (15a t/year and more) is now being manufactured in 11 countries, with the US leading followed by Canada and Japan. From the point of view of technology the following methods are interesting: processing complex ores (USSR), the use of wastes from the production of nuclear purity uranium in agriculture (Canada), single-stage reconversion of UF6 to UO2 (the so-called IDR process in the UK), chemical methods of uranium enrichment (France and Japan), etc. Great attention is being devoted to the design and construction of spent fuel reprocessing plants and thus the introduction of the closed fuel cycle which is the only way towards the full utilization of uranium, to the transition to fast reactors and the extended service life of nuclear power way into the next millenium. (author)

53

Material relation to assess the crashworthiness of ship structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A ship collision accident can result in severe environmental damage and loss of life. Therefore the non-linear finite element method with shell elements is used to assess the crashworthiness of ship steel structures through collision simulations. However, a non-linear finite element-based benchmark revealed inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results of collision analysis using current material relations and failure criteria. To overcome these problems in this thesis, the steel material's...

Ehlers, So?ren

2009-01-01

54

Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control  

CERN Document Server

Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

Larsgarrd L, Mary

2013-01-01

55

Materials and international relations. [Need some demonstrable cooperation or world system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this discussion the author points out that materials embrace the following: (1) ''energy,'' because with energy we could be assured of all the materials we would ever need; (2) ''economics,'' with the economics of growth taking into account the environmental and social costs and the material as well as cosmetic appetites of a multiplying population; and (3) ''politics,'' since today materials dominate international relations--polarizing the attitudes of the industrialized and the less-developed countries. In response to questions, the author feels it is necessary to try to find ways to secure demonstrable cooperation among nations--make it feasible to have some kind of world system--with the hope of dividing natural resources or technology in a fairer way.

Ritchie-Calder, L.

1977-05-01

56

Regional assessment of nonforestry-related biomass resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The southeastern region of the United States can produce approximately the annual equivalent of 897 trillion Btu of energy from nonforestry wastes such as agriculture crop residues, animal excreta from confined feedlots, craps that could be grown on agricultural set-aside land, municipal solid wastes, and sewage sludge. This study developed county-level data for these resources.

1989-12-01

57

Diamond and related nanostructures (carbon materials: chemistry and physics)  

CERN Document Server

Diamond and Related Nanostructures focuses on the advances in the area of diamond-like carbon nanostructures (hyper-structures built from fullerenes and/or carbon nanotube junctions) and other related carbon nanostructures. Each chapter contributes to the topic from different fields, ranging from theory to synthesis and properties investigation of these new materials. This volume brings together the major findings in the field and provides a source of inspiration and understanding to advanced undergraduates, graduates, and researchers ...

2013-01-01

58

The ideal usage of sustainable materials and local resources of the interior space design in Jordan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large amount of waste is generated by buildings over their life cycle, from construction and operation to destruction. Sustainable design principles and recycling programs in buildings can help moderate this waste. The simplest way is directly through the materials used in the building's construction. The materials and resources used should focus on the health and productivity consequences for the building's inhabitants and its environmental, social and economic impacts. This aim of this study is to make certain recommendations with respect to the use of sustainable building materials and resources in indoor spaces in Jordan. A general overview of collection and storage of recyclable materials, waste management, material reuse, and green and rapidly renewable materials is given. Sustainable material usage in the elements of interior design in Jordan is also discussed in two case studies. A set of indicators is proposed which identify the ideal sustainable materials and resources for use in interior design in Jordan to provide a healthy living environment.

Fahmi Hussien, Mayyadah [Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Architect and Art, Petra University (Jordan)], Email: Mayada19732004@yahoo.com

2011-07-01

59

Probing disease-related proteins with fluorogenic composite materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction of composite materials based on the self-assembly of fluorescently labeled biomolecules with a variety of micro- or nano-quenching materials (by the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer mechanism) for the fluorogenic recognition of disease-related proteins has become a dynamic research topic in the field of fluorescence recognition. Here we summarize the recent progress on the composition of fluorescence dye-labeled biomolecules including sugars, peptides and nucleotides with organic (graphene and carbon nanotubes) and inorganic (gold nanoparticles) materials. Their application in the fluorescence detection of proteins and enzymes on both the molecular and cellular levels is discussed. Perspectives are proposed with respect to the future directions of employing these composite materials in the recognition of pathological proteins. PMID:25474366

He, Xiao-Peng; Zang, Yi; James, Tony D; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong

2014-12-01

60

International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials  

CERN Document Server

The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study looks critically at the importance and significance of effective management of the most viable factors of production in the organisation-human resource or human capital as well as their interaction with the entrepreneurials in the capitalist economy. Towards the end, solutions were profered to the incessant distruption of production as a result of strike and or lock out to have a harmonious relationship between the workforce and the employer.

Olatunji Eniola Sule

2013-03-01

62

Structural and Radiation Shielding Properties of a Martian Habitat Material Synthesized From In-Situ Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2 primary requirements of a Martian habitat structure include sufficient structural integrity and effective radiation shielding. In addition, the capability to synthesize such building materials primarily from in-situ resources would significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth. To demonstrate the feasibility of such an approach we have fabricated samples in the laboratory using simulated in-situ resources, evaluated radiation shielding effectiveness using radiation transport codes and radiation test data, and conducted mechanical properties testing. In this paper we will present experimental results that demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with polyethylene as the binding material. Results from radiation transport calculations and data from laboratory radiation testing using a 500 MeV/nucleon Fe beam will be discussed. Mechanical properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition and processing parameters will also be presented.

Sen, S.; Caranza, S.; Bhattacharya, M.; Makel, D. B.

2006-01-01

63

Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

64

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

65

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions. PMID:23559176

Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

2012-01-01

66

Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool for the investigations on local electronic and vibrational properties of solids. On the other hand, the recently developing field of 'spintronics', where spins of conduction electrons play a key role for transport phenomena, is requiring to control the size and physical properties of materials in nanoscales. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy it becomes possible to investigate local magnetism and electron-spin polarization of materials, while can be important information for further development of spintronics. In this article, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials in the early stage after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance effect are outlined briefly, and then recent studies on Heusler-alloy-based layered structures are introduced topically. (author)

67

Covalently Bonded Carbon-Nitrides and Related Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of research on covalently bonded carbon nitrides and related materials is reviewed. (E. G. Wang, Prog. Mater. Sci., 1998 (in press).) Based on the early theoretical predictions by Cohen and his coworkers in 1985-1990, covalent carbon nitrides should be as hard as diamond. The high hardness, high wear resistance, and low friction coefficient make them attractive for industrial operation. The various empirical and ab initio theoretical results are summarized. Attention is paid to the film synthesis techniques and crystal characterizations, such as chemical, structural, electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties. I also describe some new carbon nitride and related material structures. Exciting recent results for boron carbonitrides and carbon-nitride/diamond multilayers on silicon are finally presented.

Wang, E. G.

1998-03-01

68

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2010-10-01

69

An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

70

Standard Terminology Relating to Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures  

CERN Document Server

1.1 These definitions cover generic optical terms which appear in one of more standards relating to aerospace transparent materials and enclosures. 1.2 The definitions cover, in most cases, special meanings used in the transparency industry. No attempt has been made to include common meanings of the same terms as used outside of the transparency industry. 1.3 Definitions included have, in general, been approved as standard.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01

71

Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4 Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7 from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air and water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 1611 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop – velocity relations for air 13 flow in 36 different Leca® particle size fractions (including the 14 used for water flow). The 14 measurements showed that it is indeed possible to predict the pressure drop – velocity relationship for 15 water flow from the corresponding relationship for air flow not only for a given particle size fraction 16 but also across different particle size fractions.

Andreasen, Rune RØjgaard; Canga, Eriona

2013-01-01

72

Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

73

Online biomedical resources for malaria-related red cell disorders.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Warnings about the expected increase of the global public health burden of malaria-related red cell disorders are accruing. Past and present epidemiological data are necessary to track spatial and temporal changes in the frequencies of these genetic disorders. A number of open access biomedical databases including data on malaria-related red cell disorders have been launched over the last two decades. Here, we review the content of these databases, most of which focus on genetic diversity, an...

Piel, Fb; Howes, Re; Nyangiri, Oa; Moyes, Cl; Williams, Tn; Weatherall, Dj; Hay, Si

2013-01-01

74

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

75

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

76

Peace Corps Close of Service Workshop. Trainer Guidelines and Workshop Materials. Core Curriculum Resource Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook provides a suggested outline for a 3-day close-of-service workshop to be delivered 2-to-3 months prior to the volunteers' termination date. The general purpose of the workshop is to prepare the Peace Corps Volunteer to depart the host country/Peace Corps and reenter the United States culture. Introductory materials include…

Razak, Bo

77

Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a literature review. The results show that buying behavior is much less rational than has been presumed. For example, it is revealed that a consultant’s personal relationships to customers can often compensate for the consultant’s lack of knowledge. This suggests that consultants’ developing long-term personal relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another importantresult that emerged from the study is customers’ specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services.

Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Hollensen, Svend

2013-01-01

78

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in pub...

Wyss Kaspar

2004-01-01

79

Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons  

CERN Document Server

Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a $^3\\mathrm{He}$ counter had a small sensitivity to high-energy gamma rays because of inelastic interaction with its cathode-tube materials (Al or stainless steel). A $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counter with the intrinsic small sensitivity, if surrounded by thick materials, would largely detect thunderstorm-related gamma rays rather than those neutrons produced via photonuclear reaction in the atmosphere. On the other hand, the counter, if surrounded by thin materials and located away from a gamma-ray source, would observe neutron signals with little gamma-ray contamination. Compared with t...

Tsuchiya, H

2014-01-01

80

Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Examination of amber and related materials by NMR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of the solid-state (13)C and solution (1)H NMR spectra of fossilized resins (ambers) has generated five groupings of materials based on spectral characteristics. The worldwide Group A is associated with the botanical family of the Araucariaceae. The worldwide Group B is associated with the Dipterocarpaceae. Baltic amber or succinite (Group C) is related to Group A but with a disputed conifer source. Amber from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa is associated with the Fabaceae, the genus Hymenaea in particular. The minor Group E contains the rare fossil polystyrene. The spectra of jet indicate that it is a coal-like material with a rank between lignite and sub-bituminous coal. PMID:25176402

Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Wu, Yuyang; Levy, Allison J

2015-01-01

82

Fluctuations relation and external thermostats: an application to granular materials  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we discuss a paradigmatic example of interacting particles subject to non-conservative external forces and to the action of thermostats consisting of external (finite) reservoirs of particles. We then consider a model of granular materials of interest for experimental tests that have recently attracted a lot of attention. This model can be reduced to the previously discussed example under a number of assumptions, in particular that inelasticity due to internal collisions can be neglected for the purpose of measuring the large deviation functional for entropy production rate. We show that if the restitution coefficient in the granular material model is close to one, then the required assuptions are verified on a specific timescale and we predict a fluctuation relation for the entropy production rate measured on the same timescale.

Bonetto, F.; Gallavotti, G.; Giuliani, A.; Zamponi, F.

2006-05-01

83

Fluctuations relation and external thermostats: an application to granular materials  

CERN Document Server

In this note we discuss a paradigmatic example of interacting particles subject to non conservative external forces and to the action of thermostats consisting of external (finite) reservoirs of particles. We then consider a model of granular materials of interest for experimental tests that had recently attracted lot of attentions. This model can be reduced to the previously discussed example under a number of assumptions which can be expected to hold only on a specific time scale: as a result we predict a fluctuation relation for the entropy production rate measured on the same time scale.

Bonetto, F; Giuliani, A; Zamponi, F

2006-01-01

84

Pfiesteria-related educational products and information resources available to the public, health officials, and researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public and political concerns about Pfiesteria from 1997 to the present vastly exceed the attention given to other harmful algal bloom (HAB) issues in the United States. To some extent, the intense focus on Pfiesteria has served to increase attention on HABs in general. Given the strong and continuing public, political, and research interests in Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and related organisms, there is a clear need for information and resources of many different types. This article provides information on Pfiesteria-related educational products and information resources available to the general public, health officials, and researchers. These resources are compiled into five categories: reports; website resources; state outreach and communication programs; fact sheets; and training manuals and documentaries. Over the last few years there has been rapid expansion in the amount of Pfiesteria-related information available, particularly on the Internet, and it is scattered among many different sources. PMID:11677177

Kleindinst, J L; Anderson, D M

2001-01-01

85

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model Law exists regionally to provide frameworks for how these resources are to be accessed and how the benefits obtained from their utilization should be allocated. As a signatory to the CBD, Ethiopia issued its ABS law in 2006. Ethiopia has signed material transfer agreements on teff (gluten free and nutritious and vernonia (the green chemical plant of the 21st Century with two European-based companies. This article seeks to interpret and discuss the terms of the agreements on teff and vernonia. Furthermore, it analyzes the implications of the terms of the agreement for the realization of the objective of the CBD (e.g. access, benefit sharing and conservation.

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-11-01

86

Cauchy-like relation between elastic constants in amorphous materials  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that in addition to the longitudinal modulus, viscoelastic liquids show a shear stiffness at sufficiently high probe frequencies due to structural relaxations. For probe frequencies that are large compared to the structural relaxation frequency, the measured elastic longitudinal and shear moduli become so-called clamped properties (c?11 and c?44, respectively). During freezing or polymerization of amorphous liquids, these clamped moduli behave in a strongly nonlinear fashion as a function of temperature or polymerization time. Based on Brillouin spectroscopy data we will show that there exists a linear relation between c?11 and c?44 over a large temperature or polymerization time range. Surprisingly, the parameters of this linear relation between the elastic moduli vary only little for different materials. Implications for the nonlinear elastic behavior at the glass transition will be discussed on the basis of mode Grüneisen parameters.

Krüger, J. K.; Baller, J.; Britz, T.; Le Coutre, A.; Peter, R.; Bactavatchalou, R.; Schreiber, J.

2002-07-01

87

Oral health-related resources - a salutogenic perspective on Swedish 19-year-olds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to explore health-oriented resources among 19-year-olds and, specifically, how these resources interact with oral health-related attitudes and behaviour. To represent individuals with various psychosocial environments and socioeconomic areas, the participants were selected from different geographical locations of the Public Dental Service clinics in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. A structured questionnaire was distributed, including the instrument 'sense of coherence', for description of the study group, followed by a semi-structured thematized interview. The qualitative method used for sampling and analyses was grounded theory. Data sampling and analysis were performed in parallel procedures and ended up in a sample of ten informants (five women). In the analysis of interview data, a core category was identified, 'Resources of Wealth and Balance in Life - a Foundation for Healthy Choices', describing the central meaning of the informants' perceptions of resources with an essential beneficial impact on oral health. The core category was built on five themes, which in turn had various subthemes, describing different dimensions of resources interacting with beneficial oral health-related attitudes and behaviour: 'Security-building Resources and Support', 'Driving force and Motivation', 'Maturity and Insight', 'Health Awareness' and 'Environmental influences.' The results elucidate personal and environmental health-oriented resources with influence on oral health-related attitudes and behaviours of young individuals. Such beneficial recourses should be recognized by dental personnel to promote oral health. PMID:25041137

Lindmark, U; Abrahamsson, Kh

2015-02-01

88

The influence of development of new technology and materials on resource of gas turbine engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In gas turbine engines the most loaded details, determining their resource, cost and effectiveness, are blades of the compressor and turbine. For manufacturing blades used heat resisting deformed titanium alloys, nickel base superalloys. In future we can use also lightweight TiAl intermetallic alloys. The equal channels angular pressing (ECAP) is a new technology allowing nanostructure and high strength of materials. The process of electrical upset forging (EUF) allows to increase of fatigue strength and elasticity of material and as result to increases resource of the gas turbine. Using for processing TiAl intermetallic method of impact fused-forging modeling (IFFM) allows to increase their technological, mechanical and operational characteristics. The greatest heat resisting of superalloys on nickel base ensures their monocrystalline structure received by casting method by directed crystallization in vacuum. The changes of structure and properties of metals have been characterized using the optical and electronic microscopes, XRD, EDS, HU and HV methods. (orig.)

Kommel, L. [Department of Materials Technology, Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

2001-07-01

89

Microstructure-fracture-permeability relations in cemented granular materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we investigate the relationships between the microstructure of cemented granular materials, morphology of cracks that may appear under tensile loading and their apparent permeability. In order to simulate the complexity of the multiphase heterogeneous structure of these materials, a numerical approach based on a lattice discretization was developed and used to study the mechanisms that control their behavior and rupture. Three distinct regimes of crack propagation were evidenced in terms of the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle/matrix adherence. In the context of nuclear safety and in view of analyzing cracked concrete tightness, a methodology is proposed for generating representative microstructures with controlled phase volume fractions and particle size distributions. The cracks obtained under tensile loading are analyzed and a relationship is obtained between the microstructure of concrete and the tortuosity of the cracks. The permeability of cracked numerical microstructures was obtained by the simulation of liquid flow through the cracks by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method. Finally, a microstructure-tortuosity-permeability relation is proposed. The modeling and analysis tools developed in this work are generic enough to be applied to other complex multiphase heterogeneous materials. (author)

90

Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

Dean Wesley R

2012-05-01

91

EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

Butler, Graham

2014-01-01

92

Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

Graham Butler

2014-06-01

93

Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs re

Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

2008-01-31

94

Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

Reed, B. Cameron

2011-02-01

95

Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

John P. Selegue

2011-11-17

96

Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

1983-01-01

97

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica

2013-01-01

98

[FIMA - Questionnaire for Health-Related Resource Use in an Elderly Population: Development and Pilot Study].  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to demographic trends towards an ageing population resource use of health care will increase. By collecting health-related costs via questionnaires, the impact of socio-economic variables and other medical factors can be examined. In addition, only patient reported resource use accounts for out-of-pocket payments. Thus, it is necessary to develop an appropriate tool to collect the health-related resource use in an elderly population.The development of the FIMA (questionnaire for the use of medical and non-medical services in old age) was carried out in 6 steps. These included the determination of necessary questionnaire contents based on a literature review and the wording and layout were defined. Finally the questionnaire was tested in a pilot study and was modified.All direct medical and non-medical resource use excluding transportation and time costs were recorded. Productivity losses were not included. The recall time frames differed according to resource categories (7 days, 3 months, 12 months). For the pilot study, 63 questionnaires were analysed. The response rate was 69%. The questionnaire took an average of 21?min to complete. Three quarters of respondents completed the questionnaire without help and 90% rated the difficulty as easy or even very simple. There was good agreement between self-reported health-related quality of life and the resource use of nursing and domestic help (phi coefficient values between 0.52 and 0.58).The FIMA is a generic questionnaire which collects the health-related resource use within the older population groups. PMID:24806594

Seidl, H; Bowles, D; Bock, J-O; Brettschneider, C; Greiner, W; König, H-H; Holle, R

2015-01-01

99

IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major interport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve and update the data base for impact velocities resulting from aircraft accidents. (authors)

100

Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

Irena SRDANOVI?

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of test conditions on relative toxicity rankings of fifteen materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of pyrolysis effluents, using different test conditions in the USF methodology. Wool fabrics were consistently among the most toxic materials, and polystyrene and polychloroprene flexible foam were consistently among the least toxic materials.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

102

First wall material issues and related activities at JET  

Science.gov (United States)

To close the JET tritium material balance a comprehensive programme to determine the tritium inventory in a selected poloidal set of JET tiles was initiated. First results strongly suggest that a significant fraction of the tritium remaining in the machine is immobilised in flakes accumulated in the sub-divertor region. Measurements performed with tiles and flakes retrieved from JET after the DTE1 campaign revealed a chronic tritium release at room temperature, possibly caused by a radiation-induced mechanism. Deposited films of the order of 5 ?m thick are found at the vertical surfaces of the inner divertor. Recent analysis of the distribution of beryllium across the divertor shows factors of ?10 higher beryllium concentrations (relative to carbon) in these deposits than found in the main camber walls. Very little beryllium is found on the outer divertor. Also no beryllium is detectable in the thick deposits accumulated in the shadowed regions of the inner divertor. These results suggest that in ITER migration of beryllium from the main chamber to the divertor surfaces could substantially reduce the chemical erosion and consequently the retention of tritium.

Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Ciattaglia, S.; Coad, P.; Penzhorn, R.-D.; Philipps, V.; EFDA-JET Fusion Technology Task Force; Task Force E

2002-12-01

103

Negative thermal expansion materials related to cubic zirconium tungstate  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-hydrolytic sol-gel method for the preparation of ZrW2O 8 was developed. A new trigonal polymorph was discovered, which is structurally related to trigonal ZrMO2O8 and MnRe2O 8 as evidenced by powder x-ray diffraction and EXAFS studies. Seeding of the starting mixtures with cubic ZrW2O8 promoted crystallization of the cubic phase instead of trigonal material. Dehydration of ZrW2O7(OH)2·2H 2O gave cubic ZrW2O8 at 650°C, and a modification of this route led to the discovery of the new NTE materials cubic ZrMo 2O8 and HfMo2O8. These compounds crystallize in the same temperature range as the more stable trigonal AMo2O 8 polymorphs. To facilitate preparation of phase pure cubic molybdates, the influence of precursor chemistry on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The synthesis was extended to the solid solution system ZrxHf 1-xMoyW2-yO8 (0 ? x ? 1, 0 ? y ? 2). All compounds showed negative thermal expansion between 77 and 573 K. High-pressure in situ diffraction experiments were conducted on several AM2O8 polymorphs. With the exception of monoclinic ZrMo2O8, all materials underwent at least one pressure induced phase transition. Quasi-hydrostatic experiments on cubic AMo 2O8 led to a reversible transition to a new high-pressure structure, while low-pressure amorphization was observed under non-hydrostatic conditions. Isothermal kinetic studies of the cubic to trigonal transformation for ZrMo2O8 were carried out on four samples. Apparent activation energies of 170--290 kJ/mol were obtained using an Avrami model in combination with an Arrhenius analysis. This corresponds to 5% conversion levels after one year at temperatures between 220 and 315°C. Ex situ studies showed that the conversion at lower temperatures was considerably slower than what would be expected from extrapolation of the kinetic data. Drop solution calorimetry was carried out on several polymorphs of ZrMo 2O8, HfMo2O8 and ZrW2O 8. Only monoclinic ZrMo2O8 was enthalpically stabilized with respect to the binary oxides. For all other polymorphs, the differences in enthalpies of formation from the binary oxides for each AM2O 8 system (A = Zr, Hf; M = Mo, W) were small. Attempts to synthesize new materials MIIRe2O 8 (M = Mg, Zn, Mn, Co) with the cubic ZrW2O8 structure from a hydrate precursor were not successful.

Lind, Cora

2001-12-01

104

The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes. PMID:25367477

Laugesen, Miriam J

2014-11-01

105

Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

2009-01-01

106

Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

Reed, B. Cameron

2005-09-01

107

Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

2010-01-01

108

Emissivity measurements and modeling of silicon related materials and structures  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the major issues concerning applications of pyrometry for applications in rapid thermal processing (RTP) of silicon related materials. The research highlights of this work are: (I) Establishment of spectral emissometry as a novel, reliable and reproducible technique for: (1) Determination of wavelength and temperature dependent reflectivity, transmissivity, emissivity and temperature, simultaneously, of silicon related materials and structures. The emissometer operates in the wavelength range of 1-20?m and temperature range of 300-1200K. (2) The analysis of the influence of morphological effects on the radiative properties by measurement of (a) front-smooth incidence versus backside-rough incidence of single-side polished silicon wafers and (b) single versus double-side polished wafers. This is the first time in the literature that such a study is devoted to detect differences in the optical properties of the same sample. Attempts have been made to verify the Vandenabeele-Maex one-parameter model against the experimentally obtained optical properties for rough surfaces. The model has been proven to be inaccurate and inadequate for simulating the measured properties. (II) Establishment of methodologies and schemes for deconvolution of the measured optical properties to yield the fundamental constants such as absorption coefficient /alpha. Effects of wavelength, temperature, the total available free carriers both by doping and thermal generation and doping types have been considered in the deconvolution process. Comparisons have been sought with the available knowledge of ? in the literature by the extensive use of the Multi-Rad model. This is a state of the art model that has been developed by MIT/SEMATECH. (III) The first detailed investigation of the radiative properties of SIMOX has been performed. (IV) The first detailed experimental measurements of the radiative properties of Si3N4 have been performed. The real part of the dielectric constant or refractive index has been deconvoluted from the measured properties in the near-mid IR. (V) A thorough testing of the models and simulation tools available to the industry has been made. The models have been utilized extensively in investigating the optical properties, and the effects of surface morphology. The models utilized in performing the simulations of the optical properties of ideally double-side polishes wafers agree in their basic mathematical approaches, i.e. the Abele's matrix theory and differ in the degree of complexity and number of parameters involved. The models utilized to achieve the surface effects task fall under two categories: simple approach that utilizes an extension of the equations that treat the parallel plane properties by relating the roughness effect linearly with the ideally polished plane surfaces, and the other proposed by NREL that utilizes a complex solid-state approach for the optical parameters and a statistical (e.g. Monte-Carlo) technique that tends to average the behavior of a photon incident on the textured surface over all the possible angles and wavelengths. (VI) Various approaches using wafer emissivity independent tools for non-contact temperature measurements are discussed with emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the technique.

Abedrabbo, Sufian M.

109

Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

110

Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering sites for Scaup in relation to available food resources. Data on the distribution of Scaup was obtained from annual aerial counts in January during 1999–2009. This data was related to benthos data...

Cervencl, A.; Fernandez, S. A.

2012-01-01

111

Theoretical Investigations of Boron Related Materials Using DFT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the history of Chemistry, materials chemists have developed their ideas mainly by doing experiments in laboratories. The underlying motivation for this laboratory work has generally been pure curiosity or the ambition to find a solution to a specific problem. Minor changes in the composition or structure of a material can cause major changes in its properties. The development of powerful computers has now opened up the possibility to calculate properties of new materials using quantum mech...

Arvidsson, Igor

2007-01-01

112

INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

113

The constitutive relation of silicone rubber soft active materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicone rubber is a common dielectric elastomer material. Actuators made from it show excellent activate properties including very large strains (up to 380%), high elastic energy densities (up to 3.4 J/g), high efficiency, high responsive speed, good reliability and durability, etc. When voltage is applied on the compliant electrodes of the dielectric elastomers silicone rubber, the polymer shrinks along the electric field and expands in the transverse plane. In this paper, a theoretical analysis is performed on the coupling effects of the mechanical and electric fields. A nonlinear field theory of deformable dielectrics and hyperelastic theory are adopted to analyze the electromechanical field behavior of these actuators. Applied elastic strain energy function is obtained from the representative Yeoh model. The electric energy function involves invariant and variable dielectric constant respectively. Then deduce the constitutive relation for the dielectric elastomer film actuator based on the selected function. Also the mechanical behavior of the dielectric elastomer silicone rubber undergoing large free deformation is studied. The constitutive modules of dielectric elastomer composite under free deformation and restrained deformation are derived. The Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) with high permittivity was incorporated into the raw silicone to fabricate a new dielectric elastomer, the experimental results that the elastic modulus and dielectric constant were significantly improved. Finally the Yeoh model was developed to characterize the elastic behavior of the new dielectric elastomer. The constitutive modules of dielectric elastomer composite under free deformation and restrained deformation are derived. This is a promising analysis method for the study of the coupled fields and mechanical properties of the dielectric film actuator.

Liu, Liwu; Sun, Shouhua; Zhang, Zhen; Yu, Kai; Yi, Guo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

2010-04-01

114

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

115

Material studies related to TFTR limiters and wall armor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Candidate materials for use as limiters and wall armor in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) device have been evaluated under heat flux conditions similar to those expected in TFTR. The materials were first screened for thermal shock resistance using an electron beam gun to irradiate small test samples of each material. The best materials from the thermal shock tests were then subjected to thermal fatigue tests of up to 5000 cycles. Most of the materials subjected to the fatigue tests were also prepared in a size comparable to TFTR limiter and wall armor designs and exposed to neutral beam bombardment to establish the validity of the small tests. The results indicate that moulded graphites and carbon based composites should be given serious consideration for limiter and wall armor applications. (orig.)

116

Broadband microwave measurements of relative permittivity and permeability of materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short review of modern techniques for broadband microwave measuring complex permittivity and permeability of materials at broadband microwave frequencies has been presented. Classification of type of the measurement methods to extract the complex permittivity and permeability of bulk materials has been done in this paper. Mathematical models of all the above-mentioned measurement types of methods are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of existing measurement devices/systems are described according to the classification made. A new design of test devices for the measurement system operating in broadband microwave frequency range has been proposed. Measurement system on the basis of the proposed device can be used for a measuring the ordinary bulk materials, ferrites (including fully magnetized) and magnetic materials but much cheaper then one to be made. The system is much cheaper than a free space measurement system. The approach to define the permeability tensor of magnetic materials using the test device is proposed as well. (author)

117

Physics Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of physics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including electromagnetism, classical mechanics, optics, oscillations and waves, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and other areas. Here may be found materials for physics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at physics research communities.

2008-03-14

118

Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

2001-07-01

119

Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

120

Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
121

222Rn indoor concentration levels related to construction materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work is dedicated to the procedure of measurements of average 222Rn concentration associated with civil construction materials and its infiltration shielding by masonry walls covering and painting. As a first step the instant measurements of 222Rn concentration associated with construction materials had been performed using ALPHA GUARD Professional Radon Monitor. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min and 222Rn concentration had been registered every 10 minutes. Among analyzed materials were sand, structure concrete blocks, granite and concrete paving stones, cement, etc. The samples were stored in an insulated acrylic chamber connected directly to ALPHA GUARD detector. Measured 222Rn concentrations were 90 ± 11 Bq/m3, 135 ± 20 Bq/m3, 154 ± 10 Bq/m3 and 281 ± 40 Bq/m3. Within the purpose to simulate residential and commercial environment and to associate 222Rn concentration with specific materials, wall size, room volume, etc., at the next step the measurements were performed using constructed cell chambers. During these measurements, different insulation layers, paintings as well as finishing materials have been tested. As it was reported previously, such extended measurements were performed using passive 222Rn detectors. The chemical development of alpha track detectors was made by two - step electrochemical etching technique. The lectrochemical etching technique. The alpha particle track identification and counting have been done using MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. (author)

122

Environmental impact of coal utilization (from raw material to waste resources): Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contains 27 papers presented at the conference on environmental impact of coal utilization from raw material to waste resources which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, during 14-15 January 1991. The conference was held as a follow-up of the research project to study the impact of coal utilization. The project was undertaken jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. The project was funded by the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). The principle themes of the conference were : occurrence of trace elements in coal, fate of trace elements during combustion of coal, characterisation of fly ash and its properties and utilization, and environmental impact of ash disposal. (M.G.B.)

123

Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

Peters, Dietmar

2010-11-17

124

Pfiesteria-related educational products and information resources available to the public, health officials, and researchers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public and political concerns about Pfiesteria from 1997 to the present vastly exceed the attention given to other harmful algal bloom (HAB) issues in the United States. To some extent, the intense focus on Pfiesteria has served to increase attention on HABs in general. Given the strong and continuing public, political, and research interests in Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder and related organisms, there is a clear need for information and resources of many different types. This...

Kleindinst, J. L.; Anderson, D. M.

2001-01-01

125

The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. PMID:25232097

Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

2015-01-28

126

Ecologization of intenational relations in the sphere of marine resources use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of ecologization of international relations, analyses trends and steps of ecologization and environmental law development. Special role of UN in global environmental problems solving is highlighted.Ecologization of international regulation of marine-related activities is considered as an extremely importantdue to marine resources degradation, marine transboundary pollution, human impact in the coastal zones, high level of uncertainty and risk of marine-related activities.Ecologization of international relations in the Black Sea basin is realized by mechanism of conventions, international programs and international projects. Special role of the Black Sea Commission and International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is emphasized. Recommendations for rasing the level of international relations ecologization in the Black Sea basin are made

Kateryna Stepanova

2013-05-01

127

Preparation of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline powdered alloys and related materials by mechanical activation  

Science.gov (United States)

A mechanochemical method is developed for preparing quasicrystalline powdered alloys in the Al-Cu-Fe system and related materials. Quasicrystals are designed and proposed for use in practice as filling materials for metal and polymer matrices. The structure and mechanical properties of the designed materials are described. The possible fields of application of the materials under consideration are discussed.

Kaloshkin, S. D.; Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Danilov, V. D.

2007-11-01

128

THE REUSE OF WASTE MATERIALS FOR SAVING RESOURCES AND ENERGY ON THE EXAMPLE IN KOROŠKA REGIJA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The waste is occurring everywhere. Our common task is to prevent their formation. Natural resources are increasingly exploited, and the recovery and reuse of waste materials is essential for our future. Waste management must take into account the fact that costs are not disproportionately higher than the cost of disposal. Disposal of waste from an environmental standpoint is the least desirable course of action, because it represents a burden and the loss of natural resources. Therefor...

Najz?ar, Andraz?

2013-01-01

129

Resource management performance in Bahrain: a systematic analysis of municipal waste management, secondary material flows and organizational aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a detailed review of municipal solid waste (MSW) and resource management in Bahrain, using the recently developed UN-Habitat city profile methodology. Performance indicators involve quantitative assessment of waste collection and sweeping, controlled disposal, materials recovery and financial sustainability together with qualitative assessment of user and provider inclusivity and institutional coherence. MSW management performance in Bahrain is compared with data for 20 other cities. The system in Bahrain is at an intermediate stage of development. A waste/material flow diagram allows visualization of the MSW system and quantifies all inputs and outputs, with the vast majority of MSW deposited in a controlled, but not engineered landfill. International comparative analysis shows that recycling and material recovery rates in Bahrain (8% wt. for domestic waste, of which 3% wt. due to informal sector) are generally lower than other cities, whereas waste quantities and generation rates at 1.1 kg capita(-1) day(-1)) are relatively high. The organic fraction (60% wt.) is comparable to that in middle- and low-income cities (50-80% wt.), although on the basis of gross domestic product Bahrain is classified as a high-income city, for which the average is generally less than 30% wt. Inclusivity in waste governance is at a medium stage as not all waste system stakeholders are considered in decision-making. While the system now appears to be financially stable, key pending issues are cost-effectiveness, improving the standards of disposal and deployment of extensive materials recovery/recycling services. PMID:22584268

Al Sabbagh, Maram K; Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2012-08-01

130

Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

1980-01-01

131

Simulation of water resource and its relation to urban activity in Dalian City, Northern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was applied to the Biliu River catchment, northern China, to estimate the carrying capacity of the water resource there. The model reproduced well the water and heat budgets after the construction of a reservoir in the middle reach of the river. It also correctly backcasted the degradation of water resources such as river discharge and groundwater after the completion of the reservoir. Calculation of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from satellite data clearly showed vegetation degradation downstream of the reservoir. Statistical analysis of a decoupling indicator based on the simulated water carrying capacity and on the satellite data of vegetation index indicated that water-related stress in Dalian city, where the economy has grown rapidly after the completement of the reservoir, has increased in accordance with the environmental degradation below the reservoir. The results indicate a close relationship between water resource and economic growth, which has greatly affected ecosystem degradation and its serious burden on the environment in the catchment. The simulated results highlight the linkage between urban development in Dalian and sustainable water resource management.

Nakayama, T.; Sun, Y.; Geng, Y.

2010-09-01

132

Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp) With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, L...

Nathan And Sw Rajamanoharane, Senthil K.

2013-01-01

133

Functionalization of biomedical materials using plasma and related technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma techniques are important to biomedical engineering and surface modification. By modifying selective surface characteristics, conventional materials can be designed with superior biological properties while the favorable bulk materials properties can be retained. In this mini-review, recent progress pertaining to surface modification of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials by plasma-based techniques such as gas or metal ion implantation, dual metal and gas ion implantation, as well as plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is described. Plasma-based surface modification is promising in elevating the cell biocompatibility, blood compatibility, and antibacterial properties of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials and expected to be extensively applied to biomaterials.

Zhao, Ying; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.

2014-08-01

134

Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

135

Near-field acoustic microscopy of ferroelectrics and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferroelectric ceramics and crystals, semiconductor on insulator material and MEMS device have been observed in scanning electron acoustic microscope. The images demonstrate the ability of the microscope to image surface texture, subsurface defect, domain structure and to penetrate opaque layers non-destructively. Ferroelectric domains viewed by scanning probe acoustic microscope based on atomic force microscope are also presented in order to compare both near-field acoustic techniques

136

Thermomechanical properties of polymeric materials and related stresses  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermomechanical properties of a number of widely used polymeric materials were determined by thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis. A combined profile of the coefficient of thermal expansion and the modulus change over a wide temperature range obtained by the analyses shows clearly the drastic effect of the glass transition on both the CTE and the modulus of a polymer, and the damaging potential due to such effect.

Lee, Sheng Yen

1990-01-01

137

Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry of polymers and related materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (cluster SIMS) has played a critical role in the characterization of polymeric materials over the last decade, allowing for the ability to obtain spatially resolved surface and in-depth molecular information from many polymer systems. With the advent of new molecular sources such as C(60)(+), Au(3)(+), SF(5)(+), and Bi(3)(+), there are considerable increases in secondary ion signal as compared to more conventional atomic beams (Ar(+), Cs(+), or Ga(+)). In addition, compositional depth profiling in organic and polymeric systems is now feasible, without the rapid signal decay that is typically observed under atomic bombardment. The premise behind the success of cluster SIMS is that compared to atomic beams, polyatomic beams tend to cause surface-localized damage with rapid sputter removal rates, resulting in a system at equilibrium, where the damage created is rapidly removed before it can accumulate. Though this may be partly true, there are actually much more complex chemistries occurring under polyatomic bombardment of organic and polymeric materials, which need to be considered and discussed to better understand and define the important parameters for successful depth profiling. The following presents a review of the current literature on polymer analysis using cluster beams. This review will focus on the surface and in-depth characterization of polymer samples with cluster sources, but will also discuss the characterization of other relevant organic materials, and basic polymer radiation chemistry. PMID:19449334

Mahoney, Christine M

2010-01-01

138

Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.

Shi-Xin Wang

2014-04-01

139

Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated

140

Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.

Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.

Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.

Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.

Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.

Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.

Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

How to cite this article:Ferreira, N., Basson, J., & Coetzee, M. (2010. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1, Art. #284, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.284

Melinde Coetzee

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

142

Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube production the first two methods were utilized mainly for the production of SWNTs while the third one produced mainly MWNTs. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. Single-walled (SWNT, multi-walled (MWNT and coiled carbon nanotubes are produced. In some case, interesting carbonaceous materials are formed during the synthesis process, such as bamboo-like tubes, onions, horn-like structures. In this paper, we refer to the progresses made in the field of the synthesis techniques of carbon nanotubes in the last decade.

Andrea Szabó

2010-05-01

143

Computational studies of bioceramic crystals and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing research to improve the foundations of knowledge concerning the human body requires a detailed understanding of the effects derived from atomic interactions. The details of these fundamental interactions will pave the way to the effective manipulation of macroscopic tissue. As a small step towards the realization of that goal the Orthogonalized Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (OLCAO) program suite has been applied to complex bioceramic crystals and other prototypes of hard tissue biological nanostructures. In addition, the OLCAO program suite has been further developed and extended in terms of efficiency, features, ease of use, and ease of maintenance such that even more complex systems and effects can be treated in the future. Through extensive OLCAO ab initio calculations on a collection of prototype bioceramic crystals the differences between them in terms of bonding, charge transfer, electronic structure, and spectroscopic properties have been detailed in an effort to lay the foundations of further research where interfaces, dopants, and defects are considered. In addition, inactive silicon defects that can be considered as prototypes for the complex environment in which bioceramic apatites exist have also been studied with the OLCAO program suite in an effort to expand the detection limit of small structures through spectroscopic means. With much effort, the OLCAO program suite has undergone a detailed conversion to a more modern programming language and programming style. A thorough review of the source code has accounted for many inaccuracies, corrected some programming errors, and removed various inefficient algorithmic bottlenecks. The generation of OLCAO input files, the execution of the components of the OLCAO suite, and the analysis of resultant data has been automated with numerous control scripts. Various external library packages have been instrumented for the benefit of profiling and resource efficiency in a high performance computing environment. The effect has been to significantly reduce the human time consumed at every stage of a project from the initial concept through to the creation of publication quality figures.

Rulis, Paul Michael

144

Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

145

Microdosimetric modelling of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry relies on evaluating the dose absorbed in the TL detector by measuring the light output by the detector, i.e. by the TL glow-curve analysis. However, the absolute efficiency of the TL light emission per unit dose of ionizing radiation absorbed in the detector is known to depend on the energy and quality (ionization density) of this radiation. Moreover, as the TL light is absorbed in the detector itself, the spatial distribution of energy deposition events inside the detector also needs to be considered. It is convenient to describe the response of the detector (TL output per unit dose) relative to that after a dose of sparsely ionizing reference radiation, such as 137Cs ?-rays, via relative efficiency, ?i?, defined as the TL light signal emitted by the TL detector per unit imparted energy of radiation of the type i, normalized to the signal per unit imparted energy of this reference radiation. Microdosimetric models have provided an insight as to the variation of ?i?, with the energy and ionization density, related to the spatial distribution of ionizations and excitations produced by the ionizing radiation in the detector, as well as some experimental factors related to the TL light transport within the detector. To study the variation of ?i? with LET in LiF:Mg, Ti detectors irradiated by heavy charged particles (high-LET radiation), the most successful approach was the track structusful approach was the track structure model, based on the radial distribution of dose (RDD) around the ion tracks. For low-LET radiation (photons, electrons) the microdosimetric model has been successfully applied to predict ?i? for LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaF2:Tm TL detectors, to explain the discrepancy between the measured and predicted photon-energy response of these detectors

146

31 CFR 500.550 - Transactions related to information and informational materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...related to information and informational materials. 500.550 Section 500.550 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations...Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.550 Transactions related to information and...

2010-07-01

147

Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

2011-07-10

148

Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. ? The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. ? Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

149

Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

2010-05-01

150

Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

1980-01-01

151

The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

2008-01-01

152

The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and to facilitate investments. The UN Framework Classification provides information about: the stage of geological assessment, subdivided into: Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration; the stage of feasibility assessment, subdivided into: Geological Study, Prefeasibility Study and Feasibility Study/Mining Report; the degree of economic viability, subdivided into: Economic, Potentially Economic and Intrinsically Economic. The Mineral Reserve is defined as the economically extractable part of the Total Mineral Resource, demonstrated by feasibility assessment. A numerical codification of the eight resource classes available was introduced to facilitate the application. Due to many similarities to the classification of uranium resources used by the NEA and IAEA the new UN Framework Classification can be used to classify uranium resources. In general Reasonably Assured Resources of the lowest cost category (presently economically extractable amounts) are consistent with the UN term Proved Reserve. It is therefore hoped that the UN Framework, which now will be tested internationally for three years, will be accepted by all countries and for all mineral commodities including uranium. (author)

153

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the particle pressure,'' the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

1991-11-01

154

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the ``particle pressure,`` the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

1991-11-01

155

Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

2011-01-15

156

Raman spectroscopy of plutonium dioxide and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence to support the Raman assignments of the 1LO (578 cm-1) and 2LO (1158 cm-1) lattice vibrations for PuO2 material is presented. The T2g signal is established at 476 ± 2 cm-1 in agreement with literature values. An increase of the 1LO band and an increase of the unit cell lattice parameter with ageing in our samples are found not to be a consequence of PuO2+x formation but rather a result of simple lattice defects due to radiation damage. The Raman spectrum of AnO2(OH)2?xH2O (An = Np, Pu) and laser induced decomposition products suggest that the transition to AnO2 involves Np2O5 for neptunium but no such analogue could be detected for Pu. The presence of a band around 1150 ± 10 cm-1 for a range of MO2 fluorite structures (CeO2, ThO2, UO2, NpO2 and PuO2) suggests that this band is not derived from crystal field electronic f-f transitions as proposed previously and supports recent suggestions that it is the first overtone of the 1LO lattice vibration. The spectrum of PuO2 is taken across a wide wavenumber range (200-4000 cm-1) and additional signals (2116 and 2611 cm-1) not previously reported have been observed but are not yet assigned with confidence.

Sarsfield, Mark J.; Taylor, Robin J.; Puxley, Christopher; Steele, Helen M.

2012-08-01

157

Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

158

An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

Hanvoravongchai Piya

2012-12-01

159

Raman spectroscopy of plutonium dioxide and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evidence to support the Raman assignments of the 1LO (578 cm{sup -1}) and 2LO (1158 cm{sup -1}) lattice vibrations for PuO{sub 2} material is presented. The T{sub 2g} signal is established at 476 {+-} 2 cm{sup -1} in agreement with literature values. An increase of the 1LO band and an increase of the unit cell lattice parameter with ageing in our samples are found not to be a consequence of PuO{sub 2+x} formation but rather a result of simple lattice defects due to radiation damage. The Raman spectrum of AnO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} Dot-Operator xH{sub 2}O (An = Np, Pu) and laser induced decomposition products suggest that the transition to AnO{sub 2} involves Np{sub 2}O{sub 5} for neptunium but no such analogue could be detected for Pu. The presence of a band around 1150 {+-} 10 cm{sup -1} for a range of MO{sub 2} fluorite structures (CeO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, NpO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}) suggests that this band is not derived from crystal field electronic f-f transitions as proposed previously and supports recent suggestions that it is the first overtone of the 1LO lattice vibration. The spectrum of PuO{sub 2} is taken across a wide wavenumber range (200-4000 cm{sup -1}) and additional signals (2116 and 2611 cm{sup -1}) not previously reported have been observed but are not yet assigned with confidence.

Sarsfield, Mark J., E-mail: mark.sarsfield@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Taylor, Robin J. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Puxley, Christopher [AWE Plc., Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Steele, Helen M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

2012-08-15

160

Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ hardiness is increasingly recognised as an aspect of their well-being and feelings of career success. Psychological well-being and feelings of subjective career success have positive implications for the motivation, satisfaction, performance and commitment of young talented staff.Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field.Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment.Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

Nadia Ferreira

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

1980-01-01

162

The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation, a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

K. Bohn

2011-05-01

163

Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs : The case of a Southern Danish Firm Cluster  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities but at the same time highlight the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

2014-01-01

164

Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui illustrated regional sustainable development approach. In this study, to provide insight into spatial and dynamic analysis of region sustainable development, we calculated the relative carrying capacity of land resources and economical resources and synthetical carrying capacity of resources in different cities in Zhejiang, and geographic information system was carried out. The results showed that all cities but Hangzhou and Ningbo were ecologically sustainable, and relative carrying capacity of land resources in northern and eastern Zhejiang was larger than those in southern and western Zhejiang. The sampling years of Wenzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo contribution rates of land resource to synthetic carrying capacity were grouped into three stages, and there were two milestones trends and changes in 1996 and 2004, respectively. This study demonstrated that geographic information system and relative carrying capacity of resources are effective for assessment of region sustainable development, and provide policy guidelines for decision-making.

Haihu Ma

2011-03-01

165

A theory of economic growth with material/energy resources and dematerialization. Interaction of three growth mechanisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nature of energy and material resources in a non-optimizing growth theory framework is clarified. This involves two modifications of the conventional theory. Firstly, multiple feedback mechanisms or 'growth engines' are identified, such that the impact of the cost of production through demand on growth is accounted for. Secondly, a production function distinguishes between resource use, technical efficiency, and value creation. The resulting model is analytically solved under the condition of a constant growth rate. Given model complexity, numerical experiments are performed as well, providing relevant insights to the academic and political debates on 'environmental Kuznets curves' and 'dematerialization.'.

Ayres, Robert U. [Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden); Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and Institute for Environmental Studies, Free University, De Boelelaan 1105, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands)

2005-10-05

166

The effect of migraine prophylaxis on migraine-related resource use and productivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the US, it is estimated that up to 10% of men and 25% of women, particularly those aged 25-55 years, experience debilitating migraines, such that the condition presents an enormous economic burden for patients, health systems, employers and society. Migraine headache is a particularly prevalent condition associated with major reductions in patients' quality of life. From a payer perspective, the implementation of relevant programmes of migraine prophylaxis is highly desirable. Consistent evidence exists, from several randomized, controlled studies, of the efficacy of amitriptyline, divalproex sodium, propranolol, timolol and topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. Considering resource utilization, various studies suggest that migraine prophylaxis with antiepileptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers or calcium channel antagonists markedly reduces triptan use and visits to physician offices and emergency departments (EDs), without compromising quality of care or treatment outcomes. Over recent years, the effects of topiramate in reducing resource utilization in patients with migraine have been relatively widely studied. In US claims database analyses involving >4000 patients with migraine, topiramate significantly reduced triptan use by up to 20% in the 12-month period after starting treatment. Reductions were also noted in the numbers of ED visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital admissions and migraine-related hospitalization days. These long-term benefits of topiramate manifested without any increase in overall headache-related costs. Furthermore, in detailed modelling analyses based on UK and US data, topiramate-induced savings in acute medical services were estimated to offset about one-quarter of the monthly per patient cost of the topiramate regimen, which was shown to be a dominant cost-effective intervention relative to no preventive therapy: cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as pound 5728 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [2005 costings] and $US10 888 per QALY (2002 costings), respectively. Overall, there is a need to improve quality of care in migraine, and prophylactic therapy appears to be an effective option, particularly with respect to decreasing resource use and improving productivity. For both health-plan payers and employers, topiramate appears to be a cost-effective intervention for preventing migraine. PMID:19689164

Láinez, Miguel J A

2009-09-01

167

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. Conclusions Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development.

Wyss Kaspar

2004-07-01

168

Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark.

SØrensen, SØren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

2012-01-01

169

Assessment of the adequacy of materials-related R and D investment in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of R and D in national materials policy and the criteria for government investment in materials R and D are reviewed, and the adequacy of materials R and D investments in the United States is assessed. Although the data do not justify a rigorous analytical analysis, sufficient circumstantial and anecdotal evidence appears to exist to draw quantitative conclusions about the extent and distribution of materials R and D funding. Data from two previous studies showed that approximately 90% of both Federal and private R and D investment in materials is related to the materials utilization end of the cycle, leaving only about 10% for materials supply activities. The observed levels of funding are explained in terms of recently proposed models of industrial innovation and in terms of the present organization of government materials related programs. It is concluded that the U.S. underinvests relative to socially optimal levels of mineral and materials R and D. It is recommended that government expenditures for medium- to long-term R and D projects be increased in the areas of supply-related activities and environmental, health, and safety programs at all stages of the materials cycle. 13 references.

Clark, J.P.; Tuler, F.R.

1979-01-01

170

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model Law exists regiona...

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-01-01

171

A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

1988-09-01

172

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress. In this study, virtual water trade in relation to water resources availability has been assessed as a way of relaxing water stress in Iran. The results showed that from the 21 food products, cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are water-intensive crops according to their estimated virtual water content, while fruits, vegetables and industrial crops are not water-intensive. Considering the volume of virtual water entering the country through food imports, more water will be available for other essential uses. However, the virtual water trade has been developed rather unconsciously regarding water use and crop water productivity during the past two decades. For instance, wheat with a share of 58.5% in the virtual water import to Iran, was the dominant imported crop during 1983-2003. By importing 10.4 Mt of wheat, 11.6 BCM of water has been saved within the country during 1999-2003. However, Iran became self-sufficient in wheat production in early 2005. Consequently, this latest drive for self-sufficiency in the production of wheat, as a water-intensive crop, put tremendous pressure on domestic water resources. The trend in crop trade in terms of quantity and virtual water for other groups of crops has also been shown in the study. Seemingly, crop production and import have been greatly influenced by the weather conditions. With the increasing water scarcity, the role of virtual water in food security is expected to rise continuously in Iran. Thus, conscious virtual water trade as a policy measure in water management and judicious adjustment in agricultural structure will ensure sustainable food security and water availability in Iran.

N Rouhani

2009-01-01

173

Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

174

The Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz relation for lead-free solder and intermetallic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead-free solders are replacing lead-rich solders in the electronics industry. Due to the limitation of available experimental data for thermal conductivity of lead-free solder and intermetallic compound (IMC) materials, the Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz (WFL) relation is presented in this paper as a possible solution to predict thermal conductivity with known electrical conductivity. The method is based upon the fact that heat and electrical transport both involve free electrons. The thermal and electrical conductivities of Cu, Ni, Sn and different Sn-rich lead-free solder and IMC materials are studied by employing the WFL relation. Generally, analysis of the experimental data shows that the WFL relation is obeyed in both solder alloy and IMC materials, especially matching close to the relation for Sn, with a positive deviation from the theoretical Lorenz number. Thus, with the available electrical conductivity data, the thermal conductivity of solder and IMC materials can be obtained based on the proper WFL relation, and vice versa. A coupled thermal–electrical three-dimensional finite element analysis is performed to study the behavior of lead-free solder/IMC interconnects. Solder and IMC material properties predicted using the WFL relation are adopted in the computational model. By applying the WFL relation, the number of experiments required to determine the material properties for different lead-free solder/IMC interconnects can be significantly reduced, which can lead to pronounced savings of time and cost

175

School difficulties and role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods:...

Chau, K.; Baumann, Miche?le

2012-01-01

176

Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering sites for Scaup in relation to available food resources. Data on the distribution of Scaup was obtained from annual aerial counts in January during 1999-2009. This data was related to benthos data of regular shellfish surveys in the sublittoral part of the western Dutch Wadden Sea. Boosted regression tree models were applied to quantify the relative importance of different potential prey items to explain the presence of Scaup. Scaup preferred sites with high abundances of small sized Mya arenaria. A negative influence on Scaup preference for sites with high abundances M. arenaria was found when there was a high abundance of large Cerastoderma edule at the sites, which increased Scaup searching time for M. arenaria.

Cervencl, Anja; Alvarez Fernandez, Santiago

2012-10-01

177

Determination of Oxygen Transport Coefficients in Perovskites and Perovskite related Materials with mixed Conductivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perovskites and perovskite related materials are materials that are candidates for applications such as oxygen permeable membranes, cathodes for SOFC and high-temperature oxygen sensors. This arises from the potential high ionic conductivity and the chemical stability even at low partial pressures of oxygen. From an application point of view, it is important to have knowledge about the oxygen transport properties in these materials. Oxygen transport in mixed conducting oxides involves two inh...

Watterud, Geir

2005-01-01

178

Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

179

The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity : Ph.D.thesis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the investigation of the moisture buffering capacity of building materials is introduced, measuring the resulting flux in the system instead of the resulting relative humidity.

Padfield, Tim

1999-01-01

180

Enhanced priming for trauma-related material in posttraumatic stress disorder.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intrusive reexperiencing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to perceptual priming for trauma-related material. A prospective longitudinal study (N = 69) investigated perceptual priming for trauma-related, general threat, and neutral words in assault survivors with and without PTSD, using a new version of the word-stem completion task. Survivors with PTSD showed enhanced priming for trauma-related words. Furthermore, priming for trauma-related words measured soon after the...

Michael, T.; Ehlers, A.; Halligan, Sl

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

High throughput (combinatorial) materials science methodology is a relatively new research paradigm that offers the promise of rapid and efficient materials screening, optimization, and discovery. The paradigm started in the pharmaceutical industry but was rapidly adopted to accelerate materials research in a wide variety of areas. High throughput experiments are characterized by synthesis of a "library" sample that contains the materials variation of interest (typically composition), and rapid and localized measurement schemes that result in massive data sets. Because the data are collected at the same time on the same "library" sample, they can be highly uniform with respect to fixed processing parameters. This article critically reviews the literature pertaining to applications of combinatorial materials science for electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials. It is expected that high throughput methodologies will facilitate commercialization of novel materials for these critically important applications. Despite the overwhelming evidence presented in this paper that high throughput studies can effectively inform commercial practice, in our perception, it remains an underutilized research and development tool. Part of this perception may be due to the inaccessibility of proprietary industrial research and development practices, but clearly the initial cost and availability of high throughput laboratory equipment plays a role. Combinatorial materials science has traditionally been focused on materials discovery, screening, and optimization to combat the extremely high cost and long development times for new materials and their introduction into commerce. Going forward, combinatorial materials science will also be driven by other needs such as materials substitution and experimental verification of materials properties predicted by modeling and simulation, which have recently received much attention with the advent of the Materials Genome Initiative. Thus, the challenge for combinatorial methodology will be the effective coupling of synthesis, characterization and theory, and the ability to rapidly manage large amounts of data in a variety of formats.

Green, Martin L.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.

2013-06-01

182

Integrated Resource Management and Recovery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A significant part of the environmental consequences related to activities in society is associated with our consumption of resources. Modern products become more and more complex and rely on more complex sets of resources than before. This emphasizes the need for continuous access to high quality resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources. Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment of resource recovery as well as examples of recent research.

Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2014-01-01

183

Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies

184

White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products. PMID:25466819

Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Arola, Lluis; van Erk, Marjan; van Ommen, Ben; Radonjic, Marijana

2015-01-01

185

Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cluster initiatives are a popular instrument of public policy everywhere in the world. This development acknowledges that the organisational units that create added value are not isolated individual businesses, but networks of actors. Our research has the objective to better understand value creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

186

Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources is devided into the aspects of 1) geology, 2) potential energic mineral, 3) potential radioactive mineral, and 4) nuclear technigue application in exploration. Schematically, geology of Indonesia in composed by 1) mineralogical infertile area of subduction zone, 2) agricultural fertile land of volcanic arc, 3) possible nuclear energy resources area of old magmatic arc -metamorphic rock, and 4) tertiary basin sediment which is highly potential for oil, gas and coal. Considering its geologic and environmental components, there are 13 blocks which are potential for base metalic minerals, and all of the blocks exist in the magmatic belts. Based on their genetic environment, a base metal map could be made consisting of 1) acid igneous rock environment where Cu, Au and Pb metals could be obtained, 2) volcanic environmet, 3) ultra-basic rock environment where Ni, Co and Cr metals could be obtained, and 4) sediment rock environment where Cu, Au, Pb and Zn metals could be obtained. Radioactive minerals in Kalan (west Kalimantan) and Sumatra were formed in continental granite environment. Radioactive mineral survey on metamorphic rock in granitic belt had been done. Because of Australian plate which is rich of radioactive minerals is subducting under the east part of Maluku and Irian Jaya islands, it could be expected that those islands contain radioactive minerals. Nuclear technique in exioactive minerals. Nuclear technique in exploration has been used for 1) detecting of dam leakage, 2) logging in drilling for oil and coal, 3) determining the volcanic activity gradient using radioactive gas, 4) radioactive airbone survey for metallic mineral exploration, and 5) predicting earthquake caused by fault/volcano by measuring their radioactive gas released. (author). 1 refs, 2 figs

187

GaAs and related materials bulk semiconducting and superlattice properties  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the various material properties of bulk GaAs and related materials, and aspects of the physics of artificial semiconductor microstructures, such as quantum wells and superlattices, made of these materials. A complete set of the material properties are considered in this book. They are structural properties; thermal properties; elastic and lattice vibronic properties; collective effects and some response characteristics; electronic energy-band structure and consequences; optical, elasto-optic, and electro-optic properties; and carrier transport properties. This book attempts to

Adachi, Sadao

1994-01-01

188

Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are a substantial resource for molybdenum metal and may have anomalous concentrations of tungsten. The deposits contain low-grade ore (0.03-0.22 percent molybdenum) as molybdenite, but are large-tonnage, making them amenable to bulk mining open-pit techniques. The mineralizing system usually has fluorine contents of less than 0.1 percent. The cogenetic intrusion is a differentiated calc-alkaline granitoid, typically granodiorite to quartz monzonite in composition, with low rubidium and niobium, and moderate to high strontium concentrations. Metals and hydrothermal fluids are sourced from these intrusions, with an additional meteoric fluid component contributing to peripheral alteration but not adding more metal. The lithology of the surrounding country rocks is not important to the formation of these deposits, but a surrounding carbonate unit may be altered to skarn that contains economic mineralization. The creation of contact-metamorphosed hornfels adjacent to the intrusion is common. Formation of arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits typically occurs within a continental arc environment related to arc-continent or continent-continent collision and subduction. Few deposits are found in an island arc setting. Most classified arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are located in the western cordillera of North America, notably in British Columbia and Alaska. Hydrothermal alteration provides a key component to the identification of a deposit. Alteration usually is zoned from a core of potassic plus/minus silicic alteration outwards through phyllic to propylitic alteration. Argillic alteration may be irregular in shape and will overprint earlier hydrothermal alteration. Exploration should be limited to magmatic arc belts that have been unroofed and eroded to levels of a few kilometers depth. Important geological vectors toward areas of higher grade mineralization include intensity of hydrothermal alteration, veining, and faulting. Anomalous levels of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, lead, or zinc in soils, tills, stream sediments, and drainage waters may indicate the presence of an arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit. Geophysical exploration techniques have been met with minimal success because of the overall low concentration of associated sulfide and oxide minerals. Geoenvironmental concerns are generally low because of low volumes of sulfide minerals. Most deposits are marginally acid-generating to non-acid-generating with drainage waters being near-neutral pH because of the acid generating potential of pyrite being partially buffered by late-stage calcite-bearing veins. The low ore content results in a waste:ore ratio of nearly 1:1 and large tailings piles from the open-pit method of mining.

Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

2012-01-01

189

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

190

22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Security of certain information and material related...DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE...MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain information and material...

2010-04-01

191

Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

192

What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

2011-01-01

193

The Effect of Globalization, Labor Fexibilization and National Industrial Relations Systems on Human Resource Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes how changes to the global organization of capitalism have accompanied and intensified globalization as well as have affected the regulation of labor and employment relationship. One of the most significant of these changes has been the dramatic increase in the rate of cross-border merger and acquisition activity. Of equal significance, especially for the regulation of labor and the employment relationship, has been the pronounced tendency of global enterprises to transform themselves into coordinators and organizers of activities performed for them by contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers. Outsourcing and sub­contracting have allowed global enterprises to reduce and externalize the costs incurred from the direct employment of labor. This reorganization of the operations of global corporations has been greatly facilitated by the removal of barriers to trade and the global movement of capital, and labor market deregulation. Labor market deregulation has largely been brought about by the emasculation of national Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs in developed and developing nations alike. As national IRSs have been emasculated, so has the regulation of labor and the employment relationship increasingly been internalized in the firm by the use of Human Resource Management (HRM.

Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

2009-09-01

194

Parametric Optimization of Laser Engraving Process for different Material using Grey Relational Technique- A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser engraving process is non conventional machining process used for marking/engraving of almost each material which cannot be mark by conventional machining processes. In laser engraving process the surface of material is heat up and subsequently vaporize the material. With the use of laser engraving machine the marking/engraving is possible by using different input parameter as spot diameter, laser power, laser frequency, different wave length etc, and get the changes in output parameter like material removal rate, surface finish and indentation. To optimization of all these parameters with multiple performance characteristic based on the Grey relational analysis. Taguchi method of orthogonal array will be performed to determine the best factor level condition. By analyzing Grey relational grade, it will be observed that which parameter has more effect on responses of input parameter to the output parameter.

Dharmesh K. Patel*1

2014-04-01

195

Four Field-Related Educational Resources and Their Impact on Labor, Consumption, and Sociopolitical Orientation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposes that fields of study supply four types of resources to students: (1) cultural; (2) economic; (3) communicative; and (4) technical. Draws on data from a Dutch survey in which scales were developed to measure the prevalence of these types of resources across eleven fields of study. (CMK)

van de Werfhorst, Herman G.; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

2001-01-01

196

Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

2011-04-15

197

The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to respond to struggles collectively has been put at risk as well. Bi-lateral and multilateral agencies need to take into account local needs and demands, and implement policies in a manner that respects national laws, and protects both the physical and social well-being of individuals.

Tesler Laura E

2010-05-01

198

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

199

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

200

Advances in gas-mediated electron beam-induced etching and related material processing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron beam-induced etching (EBIE) has traditionally been used for top-down, direct-write, chemical dry etching, and iterative editing of materials. The present article reviews recent advances in EBIE modeling and emerging applications, with an emphasis on use cases in which the approaches that have conventionally been used to realize EBIE are instead used for material analysis, surface functionalization, or bottom-up growth of nanostructured materials. Such applications are used to highlight the shortcomings of existing quantitative EBIE models and to identify physicochemical phenomena that must be accounted for in order to enable full exploitation and predictive modeling of EBIE and related electron beam fabrication techniques.

Toth, Milos

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

202

Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC). The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitive...

Raskovic Matevz; Makovec Brencic Maja

2013-01-01

203

Liquid lithium cooled fission reactor for producing radioactive materials [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid lithium-cooled fission reactor optimized for producing radioactive materials. The reactor is designed to enhance the availability of rare radioactive materials that have significant value for national defense, industrial research, and medical care. This invention has tangible design attributes that can be tailored to create one or more scarce and valuable radioactive materials. In particular, the reactor design is optimized for low-cost production of large quantities of radioactive tritium needed in national-defense and fusion-breeder programs. There are four core designs applied to this invention, all of which produce tritium and surplus heat that can generate byproduct electricity, thereby reducing the cost of radioactive-material production. Three of the embodiments furnish radioactive fission products, such as molybdenum-99, that can be extracted with high efficiency and rapid processing, thus fulfilling a critical supply and price shortfall in radioisotopes used for medical diagnosis and treatment.

204

Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

Viswanathan, Tito

2014-02-11

205

Science Education Resource Assistant for Science Teachers. [CD- ROM].  

Science.gov (United States)

This CD-ROM provides a collection of Internet resources as well as K-16 related science materials and is divided into two sections. "Online Resources" includes information on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), National Standards, AAAS Project 2061 Resources, U.S. Department of Education, Third International Mathematics and…

ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Columbus, OH.

206

Science Education Resource Assistant for Researchers. [CD-ROM].  

Science.gov (United States)

This CD-ROM provides a collection of Internet resources as well as K-16 related science materials and is divided into two sections. "Online Resources" includes information on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), National Standards, AAAS Project 2061 Resources, U.S. Department of Education, Third International Mathematics and…

ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, Columbus, OH.

207

Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere. Hydrogeochemical conditions were defined on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 16 chemical parameters. Quite wide variations in geochemistry were encountered, with evolved groundwater types affected by cation exchange or mixing with sea water. Groundwater residence time can thus be quite long, which may be due to the relatively high porosity (5-10%) of the rock. Methane is of mixed origin and preferentially associated with evolved water types. SALTFLOW, a variable-density flow and mass transport simulator, was used to represent the peninsula as well as the adjacent highlands in a 2D vertical section model. The interaction of the highland and peninsula recharge leads to nested flow systems with converging-diverging flow conditions under the peninsula, with a relatively shallow active flow zone. The observed and simulated conditions support a conceptual model that can be used to infer the level of risk for groundwater quality related to oil and gas industry activities.

Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

2014-05-01

208

Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organization...

Fei Guan

2013-01-01

209

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress...

Rouhani, N.; Yang, H.; Amin Sichani, S.; Afyuni, M.; Mousavi, S. F.; Kamgar Haghighi, A. A.

2009-01-01

210

PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

211

PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during `lifetime`); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author) 2 refs.

Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T

1997-11-01

212

Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

1999-01-01

213

The Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and the related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper an attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in nonlinear optical compounds on the basis of a newly formulated electron energy spectrum taking into account the combined influences of the anisotropies in the effective electron mass and the spin orbit splitting constant together with the inclusion of crystal field splitting in the Hamiltonian within the framework of k.p formalism. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary types of optoelectronic materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. We have also studied the DMR in II-VI, Bi, IV-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various band models as applicable for such specialized materials. It has been found taking n-Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}, n-CdGeAs{sub 2}, n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg{sub 1-} {sub x} Cd {sub x} Te and n-In{sub 1-} {sub x} Ga {sub x} As {sub y} P{sub 1-} {sub y} lattice matched to InP, CdS, Bi, PbS, PbTe, PbSe and stressed InSb as examples of the aforementioned compounds that the DMR increases with increasing electron concentration in various manners and the rate of increase is greatly influenced by the presence of the different energy band constants of the said materials together with the fact that the rates of variation are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in degenerate samples having arbitrary dispersion laws has been suggested and the present simplified analysis is in agreement with the suggested relationship. In addition, the well-known results for nondegenerate wide gap materials have been obtained as special cases of our generalized theory under certain limiting conditions.

Sinha, A. [Department of Physics, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741 235 (India); Sharma, A.K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim737 132 (India); Barui, R. [Department of Electronic Science, The University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Ghatak, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier' s College, 30 Park Street, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, The University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)]. E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in

2007-03-15

214

Potent affinity material for tracing acetone and related analytes based on molecular recognition by halogen bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Affinity materials based on halogen bonds turned out to be a powerful tool for the molecular recognition of acetone or related carbonyl compounds in the presence of ubiquitous protic molecules. The superior selectivity and sensitivity were found by the gravimetric detection of volatile organic compounds by quartz crystal microbalances. PMID:25535842

Linke, Alexander; Jungbauer, Stefan H; Huber, Stefan M; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

2015-01-22

215

Relations between delta 18O values and material-structural parameters of silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A semiempirical formula has been developed for the description of the relation between delta 18O values and material-structural parameters (degree of cross-linking, aluminium content) of aluminosiliceous minerals. The formula has been testes for magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The results obtained are compared and discussed in terms of geochemical aspects

216

Field-flow fractionation: potential role in the analysis of energy related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principles and scope of field-flow fractionation (FFF) are presented with descriptions of individual FFF subtechniques and the macromolecular, colloidal, and fine particle systems to which they have been applied. Several specific examples of energy-related materials are presented for which FFF is expected to yield important analytical information

217

The relative sensitivity of thermoluminescent material to neutrons: a review of available data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review is intended as the basis for establishing the response of thermoluminescent (TL) materials to neutrons so that these materials can be used in the assessment of the gamma-ray dose in mixed neutron and gamma-ray fields. The relative tissue-kerma sensitivity, k, is defined as the ratio of the measured response of the TL material to neutrons to the measured response to 60Co gamma radiation relative to the tissue kerma for neutrons and gamma radiation, respectively. There are many factors which effect k including the TL material itself (its composition, dimensions and surrounding material), the characteristics of the TL reader, the irradiation conditions, batch to batch variations and environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, UV light and irradiation history. None of the data in the literature is produced under standard conditions and so a true comparison is not possible. However, it has been possible to eliminate the kerma dependent factors from k and so demonstrate that the efficiency of TL materials for detecting neutrons, etasub(n), relative to that for detecting 60Co gamma rays, etasub(s), is essentially constant for a given material for neutron energies from thermal to about 10 MeV. Above this energy, etasub(n)/etasub(s) increases significantly. The increase can be accounted for qualitatively by a reduction in LET at higher energies. There are large uncertainties in the data which could be reduced if standard conditions could be agreed internationally. However, following this Symposium, a full report of this study will be published by CENDOS with any more information that may be forthcoming

218

Social Sciences Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Social Sciences Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources devoted to the interplay of science and the social realm, as well as social-science materials that draw heavily upon or are closely related to the life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and/or technology: for example, archaeology, physical anthropology, economics, human geography, linguistics, and psychology. Here may be found materials for educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at research communities at the nexus of the social, physical, and life sciences.

2008-03-14

219

Adapting Instructional Materials for Mainstreamed Students. Abstract IX: Research & Resources on Special Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarized is a report by Jane Burnette titled "Adapting Instructional Materials for Mainstreamed Students," which describes federally sponsored projects to develop publishable supplements and adaptations of popular textbooks for use with mainstreamed handicapped students. The modifications were made to elementary curricula in science and social…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

220

Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

Engi, D.

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches. PMID:24144659

Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

2014-01-01

222

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

223

Research issues relating to material degradation mechanism in the aging management of cable insulating materials used in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymeric insulating materials used for safety related cables in nuclear power plants are subject to thermal and radiation environment. The durability of such materials has been confirmed through environmental qualification tests, but recently some international organizations have also mentioned the necessarily to develop condition monitoring methods for condition-based qualifications and plant aging management programs. Thanks to this trend and recent demands for scientific rationality, it is encouraged to carry out a research on understanding the difference of aging phenomena in actual environment and the ones in testing environment. Such research activities will also reflect the validation of testing manner used for environmental qualification. The present research completed a map of technological issues that still need to be solved for the management program. Each issue, found through a bibliographic survey, is categorized into the following three fields: 1) investigation of aging mechanism and development of degradation model, 2) development of condition monitoring methods for global inspection and/or mechanism-based analysis, and 3) concept and procedure of environmental qualification. The main goals of the management program may be accomplished thanks to a synergy of these three fields. An example of such goal is an assessment of remaining life based on condition monitoring. (author)

224

Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs2, n-Hg1-xCdxTe, n-In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

225

Potential uses of military-related resources for protection of the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its resolution 45/58 N of 4 December 1990, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to carry out a study on the potential uses of resources such as know-how, technology, infrastructure and production currently allocated to military activities for promoting civilian endeavors to protect the environment. The present study concentrates mainly on the possible environmental uses, through reorientation, redeployment or redirection of resources currently put primarily to military ends or those which may be released through arms reductions

226

Porous ovalbumin scaffolds with tunable properties: A resource-efficient biodegradable material for tissue engineering applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural materials are promising alternatives to synthetic materials used in tissue engineering applications as they have superior biocompatibility and promote better cell attachment and proliferation. Ovalbumin, a natural polymer found in avian egg white, is an example of a nature-derived material. Despite the availability and reported biocompatibility of ovalbumin, limited research has been carried out to investigate the efficacy of ovalbumin-based scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering applications. Hence, the current study was carried out to investigate the effect of different crosslinkers on ovalbumin scaffold properties as first step towards the development of ovalbumin-based scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering applications. In this study, highly porous three-dimensional scaffolds were fabricated by using three different crosslinkers: glutaraldehyde, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. Results showed that the overall scaffold properties such as morphology, pore size and mechanical properties could be modulated based on the type and concentration of crosslinkers used during the fabrication process. Subsequently, the efficacy of the different scaffolds for supporting cell proliferation was investigated. In vitro degradation was also carried on for the best scaffold based on the mechanical and cellular results. Overall, this study is a demonstration of the viability of ovalbumin-based scaffolds as cell carriers for soft tissue engineering applications. PMID:25158688

Luo, Baiwen; Choong, Cleo

2015-01-01

227

Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

2001-01-01

228

Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

Krupke, W.F.; Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Smith, L.K.

1991-12-31

229

Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design  

Science.gov (United States)

In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

2014-11-01

230

Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current conceptual design optimization of future spacecrafts as being coordinated by the Vehicle Analysis Branch where this research is being conducted.

Bao, Han P.

1995-01-01

231

Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

232

A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy  

Science.gov (United States)

An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

Leland, Anna E.

2009-11-01

233

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the 'ITER Materials R and D Data Bank' has been built up, with the use of ExcelTM spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

234

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

1998-01-01

235

Applying Semantic Web technologies to improve the retrieval, credibility and use of health-related web resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of health-related websites is increasing day-by-day; however, their quality is variable and difficult to assess. Various "trust marks" and filtering portals have been created in order to assist consumers in retrieving quality medical information. Consumers are using search engines as the main tool to get health information; however, the major problem is that the meaning of the web content is not machine-readable in the sense that computers cannot understand words and sentences as humans can. In addition, trust marks are invisible to search engines, thus limiting their usefulness in practice. During the last five years there have been different attempts to use Semantic Web tools to label health-related web resources to help internet users identify trustworthy resources. This paper discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied in practice to generate machine-readable labels and display their content, as well as to empower end-users by providing them with the infrastructure for expressing and sharing their opinions on the quality of health-related web resources. PMID:21712354

Mayer, Miguel A; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Kukurikos, Antonis; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Villarroel, Dagmar; Leis, Angela

2011-06-01

236

Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know” was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%, time spent receiving healthcare services (39%, regular medication currently taken (35% and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%. These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

Chernyak Nadja

2012-09-01

237

IAEA programme on fast reactor, related fuels, and structural materials technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For obvious sustainability reasons, spent fuel utilization and breeding are returning to centre stage, and with this the fast reactor as the necessary linchpin. The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term of fast reactors and the associated fuel cycles is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on research and technology development efforts. Achieving the full potential of fast neutron systems and closed fuel cycle technologies with regard to both efficient utilization of the fissile resources and waste management is conditional on continued advances in research and technology development to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The IAEA's fast reactor technology development activities are pursued within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Currently, the TWG-FR comprises 14 IAEA Member States, the European Commission (EC), the ISTC, and the OECD/NEA, as well as Belgium and Sweden as observers. The TWG-FR assists in the implementation of IAEA activities, and ensures that all technical activities performed within the framework of the IAEA project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems are in line with expressed needs from Member States. The scope of the TWG-FR is broad, covering all technical aspects of fast reactors and ll technical aspects of fast reactors and sub-critical systems, including: research and development, design, deployment, operation, and decommissioning. The TWG-FR has focused on experimental and theoretical aspects of fast reactor technology and safety. A benchmark test with experimental data was conducted to verify and improve the codes used for the seismic analysis of reactor cores. A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted to apply acoustic signal processing for the detection of boiling or sodium/water reactions in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Benchmark analyses addressed accident behaviour and design improvements of the Russian BN-800 reactor. In cooperation with the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety, assistance was provided to ensure safe operation during the remaining lifetime and the development of an effective decommissioning programme for the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan. A CRP is being conducted with the objective of reducing the calculational uncertainties of fast reactor reactivity effects. Another CRP is contributing to the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation (FRKP) initiative through bibliographic catalogues and synthesis (lessons learned) reports related to feedback from fast reactor operational experience in the areas of steam generators, fuel and blanket subassemblies, and structural materials. Advanced reactor technology options for effective utilization and transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is addressed in another CRP. Its focus is on the transient behaviour of advanced transmutation systems, both critical and sub-critical. An ongoing CRP is performing computational and experimental benchmarking of ADS and non-spallation neutron source driven sub-critical systems. Two new CRPs were initiated in 2009: the first one aiming at the validation of multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes based on thermal stratification measurements performed during the 1995 Monju start-up experiments; the second one performing blind benchmarking and post-experiment analyses for two Phenix end-of-life tests, viz. the Control Rod Withdrawal Test and the Sodium Natural Circulation Test. More CRPs are planned for 2010/2011 and beyond, e.g. on the estimation of the source term in a fast reactor for radioactivity release, and on thermal hydraulics code verification and validation of liquid metal and molten salt coolants. The IAEA maintains a database to foster information exchange in the field of advanced fast reactor technology development. It is planned to establish a 'living' (WWW-based) innovative fast reactor technology statu

238

Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust. PMID:24928383

Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

2014-10-01

239

Materiality of Code: Towards an understanding of socio-technical relations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper studies the source code of an artwork from a software studies perspective. By examining code that come close to the approach of critical code studies (Marino, 2006), I trace the network artwork, Pupufu (Lin, 2009) to better understand various real-time approaches to social media platforms (MSN, Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the code at the program level in order to trace the use of technological elements such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. This is a socio-technical study of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I explore the materiality of code, going beyond technical implementation, to consider how code has been socially inscribed. I argue that approaching code is a way to understand socio-technical relations.

Soon, Winnie

2014-01-01

240

Analyses of national uranium resources evaluation reference materials from New Brunswick Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of pitchblende ore, monazite sand and uranium oxide have been analyzed for uranium and thorium content by gamma-ray counting and delayed neutron counting. Relative and absolute concentrations were measured. The methods of analysis are described and the final results presented

 
 
 
 
241

NIR SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO THE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF PRE-TREATED MATERIALS FROM MULTIPLE LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESOURCES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) has been recognized as potential raw for bioethanol production. To facility LB bioconversion a pretreatment is applied, followed by simultaneous or separated saccharification and fermentation (SSF or SHF, respectively) steps. Characterization of pretreated materials, nee [...] ded to evaluate their ethanol yields, involves laborious and destructive methodologies. Therefore, saccharification is also time consuming and expensive step and some pretreated samples have not suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields. Since bioethanol production aims to be a multivariable process respect to lignocellulosic resources, this work attempts to use NIR spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize samples from multiple pretreatments and lignocellulosic resources simultaneously and estimate their ethanol yield after a SSF process using multivariate calibration. Selection of suitable samples to obtain high ethanol yields using a classification method is also evaluated. Partial least squares (PLS) and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA) were used as calibration and classification techniques, respectively. Results showed ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict the chemical composition of samples and their ethanol yields, even if different lignocellulosic materials were used in the models, with low prediction errors and high correlation coefficients with reference methods (r>0,96) in PLS models and low misclassification rates (20- 30%) in classification models. Use of these models could facility the fast selection of high number of samples with suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields and as predictive tool of these ethanol yields after a SSF process under controlled conditions.

ROSABIO DEL P, CASTIIIO; CABOIINA, PABBA; EDUABDO, TBONCOSO; HEBIBEBTO, FBANCO; SAMUEL, PEÑA; JUANITA, FBEEB.

2347-23-01

242

Material Property Measurements Related to Engineering Design Optimization Guidelines and Spacecraft Charging  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the study framework for material property measurements related to spacecraft charging, methods, and measurement results. This work specifically addresses analyses and measurements of surface resistivity, volume resistivity, and the dielectric constant. We also explain measurements of secondary electron and photoelectron emissions in this framework. This review is based on joint experimental studies conducted for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), at the Musashi Institute of Technology and at the Saitama University to investigate the relation to spacecraft charging. This report introduces a summary of some typical measurement results following a brief explanation of the measurement project.

Nitta, Kumi; Miyake, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masato

2009-01-01

243

Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in Hemodialysis-Related Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC) and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC) were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample ...

Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Masood Yunesian; Hamid Rajlani; Shahrokh Nazmara; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Noushin Rastkari; Hossain Jabbari; Mostafa Hosseini; Simin Naseri

2012-01-01

244

Theoretical studies of graphene and graphene-related materials involving carbon and silicon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The structural and electronic properties of graphene and graphene-related materials have been intensively investigated using the plane wave based periodic density func- tional theory (DFT). The Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) code employing the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange correlation potential was used. In all calculations, the geometry optimization option was employed in allow- ing the structure to fully relax. Hydrogen ad...

Mapasha, Refilwe Edwin

2011-01-01

245

Magnetoelectric response of multiferroic BiFeO3 and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a first-principles scheme for computing the magnetoelectric response of multiferroics. We apply our method to BiFeO3 (BFO) and related compounds in which Fe is substituted by other magnetic species. We show that under certain relevant conditions -- i.e., in absence of incommensurate spin modulation, as in BFO thin films and some BFO-based solid solutions -- these materials display a large linear magnetoelectric response. Our calculations reveal the atomistic origi...

Wojdel, Jacek C.; Iniguez, Jorge

2009-01-01

246

Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

247

Sinks as limited resources? A new indicator for evaluating anthropogenic material flows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Besides recyclables, the use of materials inevitably yields non-recyclable materials such as emissions and wastes for disposal. These flows must be directed to sinks in a way that no adverse effects arise for humans and the environment. The objective of this paper is to present a new indicator for the assessment of substance flows to sinks on a regional scale. The indicator quantifies the environmentally acceptable mass share of a substance in actual waste and emission flows, ranging from 0% as worst case to 100% as best case. This paper consists of three parts: first, the indicator is defined. Second, a methodology to determine the indicator score is presented, including (i) substance flows analysis and (ii) a distant-to-target approach based on an adaptation of the Ecological Scarcity Method 2006. Third, the metric developed is applied in three case studies including copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the city of Vienna, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Switzerland. The following results were obtained: in Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to geogenic and anthropogenic sinks are acceptable when evaluated by the distant-to-target approach. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters are beyond the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, and 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The examples demonstrate the need (i) for appropriate data of good quality to calculate the sink indicator and (ii) for standards, needed for the assessment of substance flows to urban soils and receiving waters. This study corroborates that the new indicator is well suited as a base for decisions regarding the control of hazardous substances in waste and environmental management. PMID:25368543

Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Chen, Sih-Rong

2014-11-01

248

Proceedings of Seminar on Water Resources and Environment: application of nuclear and related technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope techniques have been used in solving problems in the fields of hydrology and environment since 1950s. It is acknowledged that of all the methods used to understand hydrologic processes, applications of tracers in particular have been the most useful in terms of providing new insights into the processes. Isotope techniques have been applied in the investigation of seepage losses from dams and canals, coastal sediment dynamics, surface water and groundwater resources, groundwater age dating, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, sediment movement and transport pathways, streamflow measurements, pollution transport behaviour and others. A total of sixteen papers were presented by Malaysian researchers involved in the field. The papers covered areas in dam surveillance, river management, water resources and stream flow measurement, estuary and coastal studies and slope stability investigations

249

PPRS: Production skills and their relation to product, process, and resource  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To model increasingly adaptive production systems, skills are used to describe generic capabilities of the system components. In this paper, the authors extend the well-known division of production entities into product, process, and resource (PPR) with a skill definition. There are two main advantages for this approach: First, using PPR for the skill definition allows easy integration into existing models and tools. Second, there is a natural tendency to define very generic skills to capture...

Pfrommer, J.; Schleipen, Miriam; Beyerer, Ju?rgen

2013-01-01

250

The Potential of European Biomass Resources and Related Costs in the EU-27 and the Ukraine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the European biomass resource potential is assessed, distinguishing between; dedicated bio-energy crops, forestry residues and agricultural residues. A scenario driven assessment was used to calculate available arable and pasture land for the EU-27 and the Ukraine for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. A bio-energy crop productivity and cost model estimate the potential yields and production cost. Three scenarios have been used for the calculation, each with a different rational of ...

Faaij, A. P. C.; Wit, M. P.; Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; Velthuizen, Harrij

2007-01-01

251

Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M), cow pea sole crop (C), within row intercropping (I1), row intercropping (I2) and mix cropping (I3). The density of intercropping w...

Eskandari, Hamdollah; Kazemi, Kamyar

2011-01-01

252

Treatment, Material, Care, and Patient-Factors in Contact Lens-Related Dry Eye  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. METHODS The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). RESULTS Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (OR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), and currently worn materials including FDA group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not significant. CONCLUSIONS The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, while care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations. PMID:18677240

Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Nichols, Jason J.

2009-01-01

253

Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

1993-01-01

254

Taking Design Games Seriously : Re-connecting Situated Power Relations of People and Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting to relate research on various PD techniques and power issues more directly.

Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva

2014-01-01

255

PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions, 'Boron chemistry' and 'Superconductivity', were also held at the symposium. The session on Boron chemistry was planned to honor the scientific work in boron chemistry of Professor J Bauer on the occasion of his retirement. Many recent results were discussed in the session, and Professor Bauer himself introduced novel rare-earth-boron-carbon compounds RE10B7C10 (RE = Gd - Er) in his lecture. In the latter session, on the basis of recent discoveries of superconductivity in MgB2 and in ?-boron under high pressure, the superconductivity of boron and related materials was discussed and the superconductivity of boron-doped diamond was also addressed. More than 120 participants from 16 countries attended the ISBB 2008, and active presentations (22 invited, 33 oral and 68 posters) and discussions suggest that research on boron and borides is entering a new phase of development. This volume contains 46 articles from 52 submitted manuscripts. The reviewers were invited not only from symposium participants but also from specialists worldwide, and they did a great job of evaluating and commenting on the submitted manuscripts to maintain the highest quality standard of this volume. Recent discoveries of superconductivity in boron under high pressure, synthesis of a new allotrope of boron and of various boron and boride nanostructures will lead this highly interdisciplinary field of science, which will further grow and gain attention in terms of both basic and applied research. In this context, we are very much looking forward to the next symposium, which will be held in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011, organized by Professor Onuralp Yucel, Istanbul Technical University. Turkey currently has the world highest share of borate production and is expected to be involved more in boron-related research. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the style improvement by Dr K Iakoubovskii, and sincerely thank Shimane Prefecture and Matsue City for their financial support. The symposium was also supported by Tokyo University of Science, Suwa and foundations including, the Kajima Foundat

Tanaka, Takaho

2009-07-01

256

Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost comparison of the central plant option and DG in meeting additional load demand. The economic analysis for a twenty-year planning horizon is carried out in this study using present worth factor. The results obtained with a 30-bus test radial distribution network using MATPOWER show the economic viability of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered. ©2010 IEEE.

Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.

2010-01-01

257

Nickel hydroxides and related materials: a review of their structures, synthesis and properties  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article summarizes the last few decades of research on nickel hydroxide, an important material in physics and chemistry, that has many applications in engineering including, significantly, batteries. First, the structures of the two known polymorphs, denoted as ?-Ni(OH)2 and ?-Ni(OH)2, are described. The various types of disorder, which are frequently present in nickel hydroxide materials, are discussed including hydration, stacking fault disorder, mechanical stresses and the incorporation of ionic impurities. Several related materials are discussed, including intercalated ?-derivatives and basic nickel salts. Next, a number of methods to prepare, or synthesize, nickel hydroxides are summarized, including chemical precipitation, electrochemical precipitation, sol–gel synthesis, chemical ageing, hydrothermal and solvothermal synthesis, electrochemical oxidation, microwave-assisted synthesis, and sonochemical methods. Finally, the known physical properties of the nickel hydroxides are reviewed, including their magnetic, vibrational, optical, electrical and mechanical properties. The last section in this paper is intended to serve as a summary of both the potentially useful properties of these materials and the methods for the identification and characterization of ‘unknown’ nickel hydroxide-based samples. PMID:25663812

Hall, David S.; Lockwood, David J.; Bock, Christina; MacDougall, Barry R.

2015-01-01

258

Facilitating Effects of Nanoparticles/Materials on Sensitive Immune-Related Lung Disorders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles/materials have been proposed and are being clarified, their facilitating effects on preexisting pathological conditions have not been fully examined. In this paper, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles/materials as an aggravating factor in hyper susceptible subjects, especially those with immune-related respiratory disorders using our in vivo experimental model. We first exhibit the effects of nanoparticles/materials on lung inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS) in vivo as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrated that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Secondly, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles/materials on allergic asthma in vivo as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and showed that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic airway inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological inflammatory conditions in the lung via both innate and adaptive immunological abnormalities.

259

Einstein's Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

These web pages contain material explaining Einstein's general and special theories of relativity. Gravity and warped spacetime are included, along with explanations of the impact on observational astronomy. This is part of Astronomy Notes, an educational resource for introductory astronomy classes.

Strobel, Nick

2004-06-13

260

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references.

Campbell, D.K.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

262

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

263

Kaynak Ba??ml?l??? Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizli?i ve Mü?teri -Tedarikçi Aras?ndaki ?li?kisel De?i?ime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

Gürhan UYSAL

2008-01-01

264

Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

Alexandre Bec

2012-07-01

265

Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

2003-01-01

266

Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

Jones, F. H.

2001-05-01

267

Relative importance of grain boundaries and size effects in thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical model for describing effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of nanocrystalline materials has been proposed, so that the ETC can be easily obtained from its grain size, single crystal thermal conductivity, single crystal phonon mean free path (PMFP), and the Kaptiza thermal resistance. In addition, the relative importance between grain boundaries (GBs) and size effects on the ETC of nanocrystalline diamond at 300 K has been studied. It has been demonstrated that with increasing grain size, both GBs and size effects become weaker, while size effects become stronger on thermal conductivity than GBs effects.

Dong, Huicong; Wen, Bin; Melnik, Roderick

2014-11-01

268

DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials  

Science.gov (United States)

High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

2002-05-14

269

The influence of illness-related variables, personal resources and context-related factors on real-life functioning of people with schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In people suffering from schizophrenia, major areas of everyday life are impaired, including independent living, productive activities and social relationships. Enhanced understanding of factors that hinder real-life functioning is vital for treatments to translate into more positive outcomes. The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of real-life functioning in people with schizophrenia, and to assess their relative contribution. Based on previous literature and clinical experience, several factors were selected and grouped into three categories: illness-related variables, personal resources and context-related factors. Some of these variables were never investigated before in relationship with real-life functioning. In 921 patients with schizophrenia living in the community, we found that variables relevant to the disease, personal resources and social context explain 53.8% of real-life functioning variance in a structural equation model. Neurocognition exhibited the strongest, though indirect, association with real-life functioning. Positive symptoms and disorganization, as well as avolition, proved to have significant direct and indirect effects, while depression had no significant association and poor emotional expression was only indirectly and weakly related to real-life functioning. Availability of a disability pension and access to social and family incentives also showed a significant direct association with functioning. Social cognition, functional capacity, resilience, internalized stigma and engagement with mental health services served as mediators. The observed complex associations among investigated predictors, mediators and real-life functioning strongly suggest that integrated and personalized programs should be provided as standard treatment to people with schizophrenia. PMID:25273301

Galderisi, Silvana; Rossi, Alessandro; Rocca, Paola; Bertolino, Alessandro; Mucci, Armida; Bucci, Paola; Rucci, Paola; Gibertoni, Dino; Aguglia, Eugenio; Amore, Mario; Bellomo, Antonello; Biondi, Massimo; Brugnoli, Roberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; De Ronchi, Diana; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Fagiolini, Andrea; Marchesi, Carlo; Monteleone, Palmiero; Oldani, Lucio; Pinna, Federica; Roncone, Rita; Sacchetti, Emilio; Santonastaso, Paolo; Siracusano, Alberto; Vita, Antonio; Zeppegno, Patrizia; Maj, Mario

2014-10-01

270

Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find that relative erodibility (for fixed erosive forcing and variable rock type) is well-predicted by power functions of tensile strength and grain size for each of the erosional processes studied. This result is consistent with fracture mechanics theory applied to brittle materials subjected to low (sub-ballistic) velocity impacts or collisions. Theory suggests that absolute erodiblity can be quantified as the impact kinetic energy required to detach a unit volume of material, which can be parameterized as a power function of tensile strength, elastic modulus and grain size. Theory also helps explain the high degree of correlation among many of the rock material properties we measured, an attribute of the data set that can be used to develop other predictive relations using more-easily measured rock attributes such as dry bulk density or Schmidt hammer rebound number. These relationships can be used for temporal scaling where weak materials are used in the laboratory to accelerate erosion processes that are much slower in strong rocks in the field, and for collapsing field and lab erosion rate measurements collected across multiple rock types. The community would benefit from a shared database of linked measurements of rock material properties, erosion rates, and details of erosion dynamics for a variety of rock detachment mechanisms.

Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

2012-12-01

271

Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species. PMID:24523893

Rivers, James W; Johnson, J Matthew; Haig, Susan M; Schwarz, Carl J; Glendening, John W; Burnett, L Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

2014-01-01

272

Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

Hall, L.

1982-01-01

273

Water Resources Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

274

Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

275

Creating organizational cultures : Re-conceptualizing the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine NØrholm

2012-01-01

276

Creating Organizational Cultures : Re-Conceptualizing the Relations Between Rhetorical Strategies and Material Practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

Mouton, Nico; Just, Sine NØrholm

2012-01-01

277

A semi-empirical model relating micro structure to acoustic properties of bimodal porous material  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex morphology of open cell porous media makes it difficult to link microstructural parameters and acoustic behavior of these materials. While morphology determines the overall sound absorption and noise damping effectiveness of a porous structure, little is known on the influence of microstructural configuration on the macroscopic properties. In the present research, a novel bimodal porous structure was designed and developed solely for modeling purposes. For the developed porous structure, it is possible to have direct control on morphological parameters and avoid complications raised by intricate pore geometries. A semi-empirical model is developed to relate microstructural parameters to macroscopic characteristics of porous material using precise characterization results based on the designed bimodal porous structures. This model specifically links macroscopic parameters including static airflow resistivity ( ? ) , thermal characteristic length ( ? ' ) , viscous characteristic length ( ? ) , and dynamic tortuosity ( ? ? ) to microstructural factors such as cell wall thickness ( 2 t ) and reticulation rate ( R w ) . The developed model makes it possible to design the morphology of porous media to achieve optimum sound absorption performance based on the application in hand. This study makes the base for understanding the role of microstructural geometry and morphological factors on the overall macroscopic parameters of porous materials specifically for acoustic capabilities. The next step is to include other microstructural parameters as well to generalize the developed model. In the present paper, pore size was kept constant for eight categories of bimodal foams to study the effect of secondary porous structure on macroscopic properties and overall acoustic behavior of porous media.

Mosanenzadeh, Shahrzad Ghaffari; Doutres, Olivier; Naguib, Hani E.; Park, Chul B.; Atalla, Noureddine

2015-01-01

278

Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study...

Charlesworth B.; Pilling C; Chadwick P; Butcher M

2014-01-01

279

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

280

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-11-15

 
 
 
 
281

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

2002-02-26

282

Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidatiodreduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation shows that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LO1 stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Si&icant bias also requires that UO1 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U30s clsning LO1 testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on wellestablished literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LO1 weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confum these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LO1 oxidatiodreduction biases. LO1 bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Stakebake, J. L. (Jerry L.); Cooper, T. D. (Thruman D.)

2001-01-01

283

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temng LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable

284

Review on electrode-electrolyte solution interactions, related to cathode materials for Li-ion batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we review some critical aspects related to interactions between cathode materials and electrolyte solutions in lithium-ion batteries. Previous results are briefly summarized, together with the presentation of new results. This review deals with the basic anodic stability of commonly-used electrolyte solutions for Li-ion batteries (mostly based on alkyl carbonate solvents). We discuss herein the surface chemistry of the following cathode materials: LiCoO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4}, LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, and LiFePO{sub 4}. The methods applied included solution studies by ICP, Raman, X-ray photoelectron and FTIR spectroscopies, and electron microscopy, all in conjunction with electrochemical techniques. General phenomena are the possible dissolution of transition metal ions from these materials, which leads to changes in the active mass and a retardation in the electrode kinetics due to the formation of blocking surface films. These phenomena are significant mostly at elevated temperatures and in electrolyte solutions containing acidic species. Water-contaminated LiPF{sub 6} solutions can reach a high concentration of acidic species (e.g., HF), which is detrimental to the performance of materials such as LiCoO{sub 2} and LiFePO{sub 4}. Both LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} and LiMn{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}, even when used as nanomaterials, show a high stability in commonly-used electrolyte solutions at high temperatures. This stability is attributed to unique surface chemistry that is correlated to the presence of Ni ions in the lattice. (author)

Aurbach, Doron; Markovsky, Boris; Salitra, Gregory; Markevich, Elena; Talyossef, Yossi; Koltypin, Maxim [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nazar, Linda; Ellis, Brian [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Kovacheva, Daniella [IGIC, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2007-03-20

285

Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. In this paper the relative TL and OSL efficiencies to protons of various dosimetric materials were investigated using three different proton beam energies (58.7, 27 and 6.5 MeV). The result demonstrated that in the case of CW-OSL signal from Al2O3:C, the shape of decay curves depends on proton energy (decay shows a decreased rate as the energy increases). For other OSL detectors, BeO and LiAlO2, these effects are not clearly visible. The factor R, parameterizing decay-curve shape, for Al2O3:C shows an increase with increasing LET. For the remaining OSL materials, an increase of factor R seems to be also present, but it is much less pronounced. The relative luminescence efficiency for all investigated OSL detectors increases with an increasing energy. For 58.7-MeV protons, OSL detectors exhibit the highest efficiency (from 1.12 for Al2O3:C to 1.22 for LiAlO2). (authors)

286

Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

Raskovic Matevz

2013-03-01

287

Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

2009-09-08

288

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2012-05-01

289

Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

290

Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P = 0.005 and publicity material (P = 0.04 is associated with moderate rate of condom use (condom use often. Conclusions Although the prevalence of HIV infection is low among MSM in Heilongjiang province, the situation that the risk behaviors were frequent in the population is alarming. The study suggests that some strategies like condom use and education intervention are practical approaches and need to be strengthened.

Yao Songpo

2010-05-01

291

Arts Education Advocacy: The Relative Effects of School-Level Influences on Resources for Arts Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate advocacy influences that may impact school arts programs using data from the 2009-10 National Center for Education Statistics elementary and secondary school surveys on arts education. Regression models were employed to assess the relative effectiveness of variables representing community support,…

Miksza, Peter

2013-01-01

292

New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

2008-01-01

293

Health inequalities in Japan: the role of material, psychosocial, social relational and behavioural factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent that risk factors, identified in Western countries, account for health inequalities in Japan remains unclear. We analysed a nationally representative sample (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions surveyed in 2001 (n = 40,243)). The cross-sectional association between self-rated fair or poor health and household income and a theory-based occupational social class was summarised using the relative index of inequality [RII]. The percentage attenuation in RII accounted for by candidate contributory factors - material, psychosocial, social relational and behavioural - was computed. The results showed that the RII for household income based on self-rated fair or poor health was reduced after including the four candidate contributory factors in the model by 20% (95% CI 2.1, 43.6) and 44% (95% CI 18.2, 92.5) in men and women, respectively. The RII for the Japanese Socioeconomic Classification [J-SEC] was reduced, not significantly, by 22% (95% CI -6.3, 100.0) in men in the corresponding model, while J-SEC was not associated with self-rated health in women. Material factors produced the most consistent and strong attenuation in RII for both socioeconomic indicators, while the contributions attributable to behaviour alone were modest. Social relational factors consistently attenuated the RII for both socioeconomic indicators in men whereas they did not make an independent contribution in women. The influence of perceived stress was inconsistent and depended on the socioeconomic indicator used. In summary, social inequalities in self-rated fair or poor health were reduced to a degree by the factors included. The results indicate that the levelling of health across the socioeconomic hierarchy needs to consider a wide range of factors, including material and psychosocial factors, in addition to the behavioural factors upon which the current public health policies in Japan focus. The analyses in this study need to be replicated using a longitudinal study design to confirm the roles of different factors in health inequalities. PMID:24581079

Hiyoshi, Ayako; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Shipley, Martin J; Brunner, Eric J

2014-03-01

294

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Federal and State Materials and Environmental [[Page 69139...amounts of radioactive material involved, the environmental impacts of the proposed...of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management...

2010-11-10

295

Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

1993-12-01

296

Chemistry, materials and related problems in steam generators of power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operational reliability and availability of power plants are considerably influenced by chemical factors. Researches all over the world indicate that several difficulties in power plants can be traced to off-normal or abnormal water chemistry conditions. Whatever the source of energy, be it fossil fuel or nuclear fuel, the ultimate aim is steam generation to drive a turbine. It is, therefore, natural that problems of water chemistry and material compatibility are similar in thermal and nuclear power stations. The present paper discusses various types of problems in the form of corrosion damages, taking place in the boiler-turbine cycles and describes different types of boiler feed water/boiler water treatments that have been in use both in nuclear and thermal power stations. Current positions in relation to requirements of boiler feed water, boiler water and steam quality have been described

297

Parallel adaptive computation of some time-dependent materials-related microstructural problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some materials-related microstructural problems calculated using the phase-field method are presented. It is well known that the phase field method requires mesh resolution of a diffuse interface. This makes the use of mesh adaptivity essential especially for fast evolving interfaces and other transient problems. Complex problems in 3D are also computationally challenging so that parallel computations are considered necessary. In this paper, a parallel adaptive finite element scheme is proposed. The scheme keeps the level of node and edge for 2D and level of node and face for 3D instead of the complete history of refinements to facilitate derefinement. The information is local and exchange of information is minimized and also less memory is used. The parallel adaptive algorithms that run on distributed memory machines are implemented in the numerical simulation of dendritic growth and capillary-driven flows. (authors)

298

Analysis of CdTe solar cells in relation to materials issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By now, extensive experimental research is available on thin film solar cells based on CdTe and on CIGS, and their electrical and optical behaviour is characterised by a multitude of diverse characterisation techniques. At the same time, numerical simulation programmes have matured and are available to the research community to assist in interpreting these measurements consistently. Once multiple measurements are (more or less) quantitatively described, the numerical simulation can be used to explore the effect of a variation of materials parameter (e.g. the presence or absence of a property, or variation in a range of values) to the final solar cell characteristics. Examples of such analysis for CdTe solar cells are shown. In CdTe cells, much research has been devoted to the activation treatment of the absorber, and to the technology of the back contact. Analysis of ample measurements has evidenced the crucial role of the profile of the (effective) doping density through the device. It will be illustrated how this relative simple (but hardly mastered) materials property has a far reaching influence to the cell characteristics such as roll-over and cross-over of I-V curves, also in dependence on illumination and voltage, conventional and apparent quantum efficiency, and finally fill factor and efficiency

299

Proceedings of low temperature (LT) GaAs and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book discusses low temperature (LT) GaAs and Related Materials. The gradual and incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for the remarkable properties of these materials have produced a confusion of names. At time the common phrase low temperature or LT GaAs was adopted reluctantly. In doing so, it was realized that this phrase is misleading and inaccurate. More appropriate are two other phrases: GaAs with arsenic precipitates or GaAs: As and low temperature grown or LTG GaAs. This issue of terminology remains to be resolved. More basic issues than terminology continue as challenges. The most important of these is the understanding of the roles played by deep level defects (found in unprecedented samples). The presentation of the two main points of view on this matter is handicapped by the absence of two key papers read at the meeting. However, the papers in Parts I and II provide a good background and list the key references. The potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications of LTG GaAs is made apparent by the papers in Part III. An excellent introduction is provided by the Overview paper by Frank Smith, one of the originators of this subject. It is interesting that at least one company has incorporated LTG GaAs buffer layers in commercial products at this early stage of understanding

300

The relation between magnetic and material arms in models for spiral galaxies  

CERN Document Server

Context. Observations of polarized radio emission show that large-scale (regular) magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are not axisymmetric, but generally stronger in interarm regions. In some nearby galaxies such as NGC 6946 they are organized in narrow magnetic arms situated between the material spiral arms. Aims. The phenomenon of magnetic arms and their relation to the optical spiral arms (the material arms) call for an explanation in the framework of galactic dynamo theory. Several possibilities have been suggested but are not completely satisfactory; here we attempt a consistent investigation. Methods. We use a 2D mean-field dynamo model in the no-z approximation and add injections of small-scale magnetic field, taken to result from supernova explosions, to represent the effects of dynamo action on smaller scales. This injection of small scale field is situated along the spiral arms, where star-formation mostly occurs. Results. A straightforward explanation of magnetic arms as a result of modulation of th...

Moss, D; Sokoloff, D; Stepanov, R; Krause, M; Arshakian, T G

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in the supercooled liquid state of phase change materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of amorphous chalcogenide alloys as data-storage media relies on their ability to undergo an extremely fast (10-100 ns) crystallization once heated at sufficiently high temperature. However, the peculiar features that make these materials so attractive for memory devices still lack a comprehensive microscopic understanding. By means of large scale molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the supercooled liquid of the prototypical compound GeTe shows a very high atomic mobility (D {proportional_to}10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) down to temperatures close to the glass transition temperatures. This behavior leads to a breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation between the self-diffusion coefficient and the viscosity in the supercooled liquid. The results suggest that the fragility of the supercooled liquid is the key to understand the fast crystallization process in this class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Sosso, G.C.; Bernasconi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Behler, J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

2012-10-15

302

Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting. Methods A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity. Results Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach’s alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors. Conclusion The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool. PMID:22536080

Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Abebe, Lakew; Girma, Eshetu; Woldie, Mirkuzie

2012-01-01

303

Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV

Feyissa GT

2012-03-01

304

Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

2010-01-01

305

Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

306

A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2 While innovative differentiation orientates establishmentstowards participative management, empowerment, and proactive selection and placement policies, competitivedifferentiation influences only the empowerment factor in a sense of a provision of initiative. The cost leadershipstrategy does not have any meaningful effect on HR policies. The only meaningful influence of the focusstrategy on the HR policies is on the proactive selection and placement policies, and this influence is a negativeone. (3 When the results related with the harmony between the competitive strategy and the HR architecture areexamined, it turns out that the participative management, the long term training policies, the proactive HRpolicies, and partly the generous compensation policies are more successful even under different strategies incomparison with the dictating, short term, reactive and ungenerous HR policies. In terms of quantitativeperformance, to select a differentiation strategy and apply HR policies that are participative, proactive andgenerous is much more effective than to look for the perfect harmony between strategy and HR policies.

Binali Dogan

2014-02-01

307

Non-fatal violence-related injuries in Kingston, Jamaica: a preventable drain on resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data for a one-year period from the Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) in Jamaica, we describe patterns of non-fatal violence-related injuries, and carry out simulation analysis to estimate rates of hospital admission under various injury reduction scenarios, and the potential savings that can be realized by reducing violent crimes. In this period there were 6107 registered violence-related visits to the KPH representing 11.5% of all recorded visits. Of these 16.6% (1001) were admitted. The most common methods of inflicting injury was by stabbing (52.1%), blunt injuries (37.9%) and gunshot wounds (7.3%). Multivariate analyses indicated that gunshot injuries, stab injuries, being male between the ages of 15 and 44 years, receiving the injury in November or December, and being injured by a stranger or unknown assailant, were significant correlates of a higher probability of admission. Simulation analysis with various injury reduction scenarios indicated decreases in the probability of admission ranging from 12% to 44%, with estimated savings of up to 31% of the annual supplies budget of KPH. PMID:12613105

Zohoori, Namvar; Ward, Elizabeth; Gordon, Georgiana; Wilks, Rainford; Ashley, Deanna; Forrester, Terrence

2002-12-01

308

The relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation in human cortical bone tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation investigates the relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation of human cortical bone tissue. Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth of microcracks were examined experimentally and material property degradation was examined through theoretical modeling. To investigate the contribution of microdamage to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted in the transverse and longitudinal directions to the osteonal orientation of normal bone tissue. Damage accumulation was monitored by acoustic emission during testing and was spatially observed by histological observation following testing. The results suggested that the propagation of the main crack involved weakening of the tissue by diffuse damage at the fracture plane and by formation of linear microcracks away from the fracture plane for the transverse specimens. For the longitudinal specimens, growth of the main crack occurred in the form of separations at lamellar interfaces. Acoustic emission results supported the histological observations. To investigate the contribution of ultrastructure to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted after altering the collagen phase of the bone tissue by gamma radiation. A significant decrease in the fracture toughness, Work-to-Fracture and the amount damage was observed due to irradiation in both crack growth directions. For cortical bone irradiated at 27.5kGy, fracture toughness is reduced due to the inhibition of damage formation at and near the crack tip. Microcrack fatigue crack growth and arrest were investigated through observations of surface cracks during cyclic loading. At the applied cyclic stresses, the microcracks propagated and arrested in less than 10,000 cycles. In addition, the microcracks were observed not to grow beyond a length of 150mum and a DeltaK of 0.5MNm-3/2, supporting a microstructural barrier concept. Finally, the contribution of linear microcracks to material property degradation was examined by developing a theoretical micromechanical damage model. The model was compared to experimentally induced damage in bone tissue. The percent contribution of linear microcracks to the total degradation was predicted to be less than 5%, indicating that diffuse damage or an unidentified form of damage is primarily responsible for material property degradation in human cortical bone tissue.

Akkus, Ozan

309

Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. PMID:24036656

S?del, M; Bilski, P; Swako?, J

2014-10-01

310

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

311

Readability and quality assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to laryngeal cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Patients are increasingly using the Internet to access health-related information. The aim of this study was to assess the readability and quality of laryngeal cancer-related websites. Methods Patient education materials were identified by performing an Internet search using three search engines. Readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and Gunning Fog Index (GFI). The DISCERN instrument was utilised to assess quality of health information. A total of 54 websites were included in the analysis. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 48.2 (95% CI 44.8 - 51.6); FKGL, 10.9 (95% CI 10.3 - 11.5); GFI 13.8 (95% CI 11.3 - 16.3). These scores suggest that, on average, online laryngeal cancer patient information is written at an advanced level. The mean DISCERN score was 49.8 (95% CI 45.4 - 54.2), suggesting that online information is of variable quality. Conclusion Our study suggests much of the laryngeal cancer information available online is of suboptimal quality and written at a level too difficult for the average adult to read comfortably. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25491544

Narwani, Vishal; Nalamada, Keerthana; Lee, Michael; Kothari, Prasad; Lakhani, Raj

2014-12-01

312

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 25 October 2004 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

313

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

314

On the photoemission from III-V, ternary and quaternary materials: Simplified theory and relative comparison  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study theoretically the electron energy spectrum and the photoemission from III-V, ternary and quaternary materials in the presence of light waves, whose unperturbed energy band structures are defined by the three-band model of Kane. The band gap of semiconductors increases as a consequence of incident light waves and we have suggested two new experimental methods of determining the band gap of semiconductors in the presence of photoexcitations. The solution of the Boltzmann transport equation on the basis of this newly formulated electron dispersion law will introduce new physical ideas and experimental findings in the presence of external photoexcitation. It has been found taking n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg1-xCdxTe and n-In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, as examples that the photoemission increases with the increase in electron concentration and decreases in increasing intensity, wavelength and alloy composition, respectively, in various manners. The numerical values of the photoemission in the presence of light waves is less than that of the same for unperturbed three- and two-band models of Kane together with parabolic energy bands for all types of external variables. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the dispersion relation of the conduction electrons, which is in contrast when compared with the corresponding bulk spen compared with the corresponding bulk specimens for the unperturbed band models. The rate of change is totally band structure dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of the different energy band constants. The well-known result of the photoemission from non-degenerate wide gap materials has been obtained as a special case of the present analysis under certain limiting conditions and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. Besides, we have suggested six important applications of our results in this context

315

Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is primarily concerned with Section 11 of INFCIRC/153 which provides for the possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material in question has been consumed, has been diluted, or has become practicably irrecoverable. Two distinctly different categories of nuclear material have been suggested for possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material has become practicably irrecoverable: One relates to a variety of low concentration waste materials, meaning thereby materials which the State or plant operator considers to be of questionable economic recoverability and the other relates to the spent fuel placed in facilities described as ''permanent repositories'' which are at least claimed to represent ''final disposal'' facilities and are candidates for a possible determination of practicably irrecoverable. 26 refs, tabs

316

Material-related measuring methods for the nanotechnology; Materialspezifische Messverfahren fuer die Nanotechnologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimization of functionalities of nanoscale systems required a comprehensive knowledge of material properties. Besides the material and product development the quality and production control needs measuring methods that are adjusted to the respective dimensions. The measuring methods require calibration standards and nanoscale reference materials. The article describes the material-specific measuring methods for the nanotechnology developed by PTB, that allow the determination of relevant material characteristics without reference materials. The article covers the following topics: X-ray spectrometry using synchrotron radiation, contamination control, elemental analysis, depth profiles and chemical binding state, micro- and nanoforce measuring technique for scanning force microscopy and nanoindentation.

Beckhoff, Burkhard; Hoenicke, Philipp; Kolbe, Michael; Mueller, Matthias; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Reinhardt, Falk; Weser, Jan [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Roentgenspektrometrie' ; Brand, Uwe; Nesterov, Vladimir [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Nanokraftmesstechnik' ; Herrmann, Konrad [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Haerte- und Schichtdickenmesstechnik'

2011-06-15

317

Electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide related materials and first-principles theory of electrochromism  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungsten trioxide WO3 is an interesting semiconductor with a wide-range of potential applications. One important property of WO 3 is its electrochromic behavior, which has generated significant research interest. Electrochromic materials exhibit reversible and persistent changes of the optical properties, hence their color, upon applying an electrical pulse. The applications of the electrochromic WO3 range from information display, light shutters, to energy efficient smart windows. Although there are many materials that exhibit electrochromic behavior, tungsten trioxide is one of the most extensively studied ones due to its superior coloration efficiency, short response time and reversibility. Enhanced electrochromic properties in WO3 nanowires have been reported recently. Despite much research effort, a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in this material has not emerged. In this work, we establish a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in NaxWOx, which is also able to explain the electrochromism in WO3. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to electrochromism in WO3 and related materials. In Chapter 2, we summarize the theories and computational methods used in this work including the local density approximation (LDA) within density functional theory (DFT), pseudopotential planewave formalism and the GW approximation. We study the crystal and electronic structures of WO3 in Chapter 3. WO3 has a basic octahedron structure. From -140 ˜ 830°C, the crystal structure changes from monoclinic to triclinic, again monoclicnic, then successively orthorhombic, tetragonal, and again tetragonal. Several groups have investigated the electronic structure of WO3 within DFT, but the band gap is severely underestimated compared with experiment. We have carried out quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. The calculated band gap is much closer to experimental results. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 discuss the optical properties and coloration mechanism of WO3 upon charge insertion. The calculated dielectric functions, reflectance, transmission and absorption coefficient agree very well with experiments. Our results explain the systematic change in color of Na3WO3 from blue to golden-yellow with increasing sodium concentration x. We find that proper accounts for the free-carriers contribution to the optical response are critical for a quantitative understanding of the coloration mechanism in this system. Besides WO3, we have studied another "smart material", VO2. The results are reported in chapter 6. The most interesting property of VO2 is its metal-insulator transition (MIT) at T c=340 K. The crystal structure changes from a high-temperature rutile phase to a low-temperature monoclinic phase at Tc. The MIT in VO2 has led to many practical applications such as thermocoatings, optical switching devices etc. However, it has long been a controversial issue regarding the mechanism behind the MIT. It is still not clear whether the insulating behavior is driven by the electron correlation or structural distortions. In this work, we perform first-principles electronic structure calculation using both LDA and LDAU method. It is found that the correlation effect is very important to explain the insulating phase of VO2. However, correlation effects alone cannot help open a band gap for the insulating phase of VO2. Structural distortion also plays an important role. It seems that it is the subtle interplay between the electron-electron correlation and electron-lattice interaction that ultimately drives the development of an insulating gap.

Xue, Yu

318

Assessing the Educational Needs of Tomorrow's "Ideal" Corporate Communicators: Should Public Relations and Human Resource Development Programs Form a "Strategic" Merger?  

Science.gov (United States)

A study assessed the specific courses and educational needs professionals considered important in the proper undergraduate preparation of future public relations practitioners. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 human resource managers and public relations practitioners from the national membership of two professional…

Thomsen, Steven R.; And Others

319

Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the annihilation radiation whose momentum density distribution has its own peculiarities, different from the ones to be detected for defect-'free' crystal structure. Being a 'fingerprint' of a certain type of defects these peculiarities make it possible the nondestructive characterization of the heterostructures and superlattices by means of the positron particle microprobe. (author)

320

The effect of broadening the definition of generalized anxiety disorder on healthcare resource utilization and related costs in outpatient psychiatric clinics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are among the highest users of healthcare resources. The broadening of the DSM-IV criteria for GAD has been a subject of controversy in the literature, but its consequences have not been analyzed to date. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze how the broadening of the DSM-IV criteria affects healthcare resource utilization and related costs. Methods: A multicentre...

Javier Rejas; Olivares, Jose? M.; Vanessa López-Gómez; María Perez; Enrique Álvarez; Carrasco, Jose? L.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, U.S...Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs. [FR...

2011-10-24

322

Nonlinear calculations for concrete structures related to prediction of crack propagation and material removal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some German nuclear facilities have reached the end of their design service lives or have discontinued operation as a result of licensing authority or owner decisions. In such cases dismantling all the structures and recultivating the sites is intended. One possible method of dismantling contaminated structures of nuclear facilities involves the use of the shothole blasting technique. From the cost and radiation viewpoints this dismantling technique seems to be superior to most other techniques available. The experimental optimization and definition of the parameters governing the detonation configuration entail high costs and the performance of a large number of timeconsuming blasting tests. With the state of the art in the field of nonlinear concrete analysis methods it is possible, using qualified computer codes, to determine in advance the internal stresses as well as the processes involved in crack propagation and removal of the contaminated layers for different detonation parameters as well as concrete and reinforcement properties. Based on the analytical calculations performed for a reinforced concrete test slab typical results will be shown and the effectiveness of this method related to the prediction of crack propagation and material removal will be illustrated. (orig.).

Krutzik, N.J.; Freiman, M.; Tropp, R. (Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Offenbach am Main (Germany, F.R.))

1989-12-01

323

Nonlinear calculations for concrete structures related to prediction of crack propagation and material removal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some German nuclear facilities have reached the end of their design service lives or have discontinued operation as a result of licensing authority or owner decisions. In such cases dismantling all the structures and recultivating the sites is intended. One possible method of dismantling contaminated structures of nuclear facilities involves the use of the shothole blasting technique. From the cost and radiation viewpoints this dismantling technique seems to be superior to most other techniques available. The experimental optimization and definition of the parameters governing the detonation configuration entail high costs and the performance of a large number of timeconsuming blasting tests. With the state of the art in the field of nonlinear concrete analysis methods it is possible, using qualified computer codes, to determine in advance the internal stresses as well as the processes involved in crack propagation and removal of the contaminated layers for different detonation parameters as well as concrete and reinforcement properties. Based on the analytical calculations performed for a reinforced concrete test slab typical results will be shown and the effectiveness of this method related to the prediction of crack propagation and material removal will be illustrated. (orig.)

324

Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP in Hemodialysis-Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh

2012-07-01

325

Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability. PMID:23559495

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

2013-10-01

326

Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects  

CERN Document Server

This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

Winget, Megan A

2008-01-01

327

On the photoemission from III-V, ternary and quaternary materials: Simplified theory and relative comparison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study theoretically the electron energy spectrum and the photoemission from III-V, ternary and quaternary materials in the presence of light waves, whose unperturbed energy band structures are defined by the three-band model of Kane. The band gap of semiconductors increases as a consequence of incident light waves and we have suggested two new experimental methods of determining the band gap of semiconductors in the presence of photoexcitations. The solution of the Boltzmann transport equation on the basis of this newly formulated electron dispersion law will introduce new physical ideas and experimental findings in the presence of external photoexcitation. It has been found taking n-InAs, n-InSb, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te and n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, as examples that the photoemission increases with the increase in electron concentration and decreases in increasing intensity, wavelength and alloy composition, respectively, in various manners. The numerical values of the photoemission in the presence of light waves is less than that of the same for unperturbed three- and two-band models of Kane together with parabolic energy bands for all types of external variables. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the dispersion relation of the conduction electrons, which is in contrast when compared with the corresponding bulk specimens for the unperturbed band models. The rate of change is totally band structure dependent and is significantly influenced by the presence of the different energy band constants. The well-known result of the photoemission from non-degenerate wide gap materials has been obtained as a special case of the present analysis under certain limiting conditions and this compatibility is the indirect test of our generalized formalism. Besides, we have suggested six important applications of our results in this context.

Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, The University of Calcutta, 92, Achryya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)], E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in; Bhattacharya, S. [Department of Computer Science, St. Xavier' s College, 30, Park Street, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Singh, K.M.; Choudhury, S. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim 737 132 (India); Pahari, S. [Administration Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India)

2008-06-01

328

Study of fiber materialization from unutilized cellulose and fungal chitosan resources; Miriyo cellulose oyobi biseibutsu chitosan shigen no sen`i sozaika no kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unutilized cellulose and fungal chitosan resources were examined from the viewpoints of resource protection and effective utilization. As for Hevea brasilliensis wastes (by-product of natural rubber extraction) and Leucaena latisliqua timber, it is difficult to reduce them into fibrils because their fibers are short and thick, and therefore they are not fit for treatment by pulping machines. In this study, they were subjected to the CTMP (chemi-thermomechanical pulp) method which employs alkaline sulphites in the pre-treatment, and the result was a fibril longer per average weight, flexible and strong enough to be pulp for newsprint paper. A sheet making use of alkali-insoluble cell walls (hollow filament) of Rhizopus acetoinus containing chitinous substances, chitosan in particular, and a sheet utilizing this material and natural pulp fiber, were also studied. Optimal conditions were identified under which fungi containing more chitosan in their cell walls could be cultured en masse with ease. The sheets using this hollow filament material adsorbed heavy metal. This will make a fine material for functional sheets if allowed to adsorb functional materials before fabrication into sheets. 72 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs.

Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Yoshihira, K.; Nishiyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Akamatsu, I.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kimura, Y. [Shikoku National Industrial Research Institute, Kagawa (Japan)

1996-06-25

329

Development of ion beam techniques for the study of special nuclear materials related problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scientific objective of this project was to develop the ion beam techniques for the characterization of actinides and their effects on other materials. It was designed to enhance their ability to quantitatively understand the oxidation, corrosion, diffusion, stability, and radiation damage of actinides and the materials with which they are in contact. The authors developed and applied several low-energy nuclear techniques (resonant and nonresonant backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle-induced x-ray emission) to the quantitative study of the near surfaces of actinide and tritide materials, and determined the absolute accuracy and precision of ion beam measurements on these materials. They also demonstrated the use of variable-energy alpha beams for the study of accelerated aging of polymeric materials in contact with actinide materials

330

Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

Kotter, Dale K

2014-12-02

331

NEW BIO-BASED MATERIALS FROM SOYBEAN OIL: HYDRAZINE AND RELATED DERIVATIVES  

Science.gov (United States)

Soybean oil is a renewable natural resource and is an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based products. The major components of soybean oil (SBO) are triacylglycerols with a mixture of fatty acids moieties (typically 51% linoleic acid, 25% oleic acid, 10% palmitic acid, 7% linolenic...

332

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

333

Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

334

Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

2014-12-30

335

Metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of indium phosphide and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface chemistry of indium phosphide and related compound semiconductors during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been investigated. In particular, the group V precursor chemistry, indium phosphide (001) atomic structure and the InP oxidation process have been examined. The properties of the semiconductors were studied using infrared spectroscopy, molecular cluster calculations, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflectance difference spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Indium phosphide, gallium arsenide phosphide, and aluminum indium phosphide have been deposited by MOVPE using tertiarybutylphosphine and tertiarybutylarsine. Minimum incorporation in InP was observed at 565°C and a V/III ratio of 32. In this case, the material contained a background carrier concentration of 2.7 x 1014 cm-3, and the Hall mobilities were 4,970 and 135,000 cm2/V·s at 300 and 77 K. The oxygen contamination in AlInP was found to be only 9.0 x 10 15 cm-3 for deposition at 650°C and a V/III ratio of 35. The relative distribution of arsenic to phosphorus in GaAs yP1-y was determined at temperatures between 525 and 575°C. The distribution coefficient [(NAs/ NP)film/(PTBAs /PTBP)gas] ranged from 25.4 to 8.4, and exhibited an Arrhenius relationship with an apparent activation energy of 1.2 eV. The surface structure of the indium phosphide (001)-(2 x 1) reconstruction has been clarified in this thesis. Infrared spectra collected during atomic deuterium titration of the (2 x 1) surface revealed a sharp P-H stretching mode at 2308 cm-1. Based on theoretical cluster calculations using density functional theory, this mode was due to a single hydrogen atom bonded to one end of a buckled phosphorus dimer. These results confirmed that the (2 x 1) structure was stabilized by hydrogen. Indium phosphide oxidation has been found to be an activated process and strongly structure sensitive. The In-rich (2 x 4) surface reacted with oxygen at 300 K and above. X-ray photoemission spectra revealed that the O 2 dissociatively chemisorbed onto the (2 x 4), inserting into the In-In dimer and In-P back bonds. By contrast, the P-rich (2 x 1) reconstruction did not absorb oxygen up to 5 x 105 L at 300 K. Above 455 K, oxygen reacted with the (2 x 1) inserting preferentially into the In-P back bonds and to a lesser extent into the phosphorus dimer bonds.

Chen, Gangyi

336

Recent Developments in Raman spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raman scattering is among the few experimental techniques which are sensitive to the local atomic-site coordination. Recent resonant Raman scattering experiments on oxygen-deficient YBa2Cu3O7-? single crystals has given an evidence that the scattering volume contains a mixture of three phases: OI(?=0), OII(?=0.5) and T(?=1). These and other less stable phases coexist in quenched samples (? ?0.5) and their transformation into the stable OII phase during the room temperature annealing can be monitored. The cation substitution in the oxygen-rich R1237 (R=Y, rare earth) results in a micro-phase separation. In particular, such a separation takes place in the R0.5Pr0.5Ba2Cu3O7 systems characterized by larger difference ?r of the ionic radii of R and Pr. The latter explains the slower decrease of Tc with x for the R1-xPrx1237 systems with larger ?r. Among the recent results in the Raman spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors and related materials it is emphasized on the observation of Fano effect of the Ba(xx,Ag) phonon for both superconducting and nonsuperconducting R0.5Pr0.5Ba2Cu3O7, including Pr1237. The role of the 'lain' bands of mainly O4-character in the vicinity of the S-point of the Brillouin zone to the electron-phonon interaction is discussed. The direct obseron is discussed. The direct observation of f-electron field transitions in Nd2CuO4 is also discussed. 36 refs. (orig.)

337

The relation between maternal phenotype and offspring size, explained by overhead material costs of reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in offspring size with female size and other aspects of the maternal phenotype is commonly observed and taxonomically widespread. However, life history theory predicts that optimal offspring size should not depend on maternal size or total reproductive effort. This incongruity persists despite various modifications to theory, that nonetheless, either are limited in their applicability or fail to alter the prediction of fixed offspring size. I demonstrate that the persistence of this theoretical outcome stems from an ideal assumption that reproductive effort relates only to direct material costs, and therefore, equal or proportional to clutch mass or the product of offspring size and number. A major innovation in my study is to explicitly distinguish between direct and overhead components of the costs of reproduction. When overhead energetic costs of reproduction are explicitly incorporated, I readily obtain variation in optimal offspring size with maternal phenotype. This consequence of overhead costs of reproduction has not been demonstrated before. I identify functional forms of such overhead costs that facilitate variation in optimal offspring size. In particular, costs that are more sensitive to offspring size than to offspring number are most effective in causing variation in offspring size. The novelty of the model lies in succeeding to resolve the above incongruity both within the framework of traditional models of optimal offspring size and within more dynamic description of the lifecycle (addressing simultaneously both offspring and maternal performance), including stochastic effects, difference between reserves and structural components of size, and distinction between starvation and extrinsic mortality. My predictions explain several patterns of variation in size and body composition of offspring, with respect to both environmental conditions and maternal phenotype. PMID:25219621

Filin, Ido

2015-01-01

338

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (? 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap ? in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

339

Human resources handbook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

340

QTL for traits related to humoral immune response estimated from data of a porcine F2 resource population.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to humoral innate immune defence. Therefore, haemolytic complement activity in the alternative and the classical pathway, serum concentration of C3c and of haptoglobin (HP) were measured in blood samples obtained from F2 piglets (n = 457) of a porcine F2 resource population before and after Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky's disease virus (Suid herpesvirus I, SuHVI) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age. Animals were genotyped at 88 autosomal markers. QTL analysis was performed under the line cross and the half sib. Phenotypic data were adjusted for systematic effects by mixed models with and without repeated measures statement. In total, 46 and 21 estimated QTL positions were detected with genome-wide significance at the 0.05 and 0.01 level, respectively. The proximal region of SSC2 (orthologous to HSA11 0-70 Mb), the distal region of SSC4 (HSA1 95-155 Mb), and the intermediate region of SSC16 (HSA5 0-73 Mb and 150-174 Mb) showed a clustering of estimated QTL positions for complement activity based on the different models. A common genetic background, i.e. a single true QTL, might underlie these QTL positions for related traits. In addition, QTL for antibody titres were detected on SSC1, 2, 6 and 7. With regard to number and magnitude of their impact, QTL for humoral innate immune traits behave like those for other quantitative traits. Discovery of such QTL facilitates the identification of candidate genes for disease resistance and immune competence that are applicable in selective breeding and further research towards improving therapeutic and prophylactic measures. PMID:19490209

Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Schellander, K; Ponsuksili, S

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

Orellana, Jose Luis

342

Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

343

New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food packaging application as no significant growth was seen within 28 d of incubation at 30 degreesC.

Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

2002-01-01

344

Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern  

Science.gov (United States)

Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

2008-01-01

345

Supports filmiques transversaux en pratique de la langue : document authentique ou authentiquement intéressant ? Transversal film resources for language practice : authentic or authentically interesting materials ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une réflexion sur les supports filmiques dans l’enseignement des langues, nous nous proposons de revisiter la notion de document authentique pour apporter une contribution théorique à l’appréhension de l’attractivité d’une ressource filmique et à l’appréhension de la nature de l’acte pédagogique que représente l’utilisation de ces ressources. Des exemples de vidéos disponibles sur Internet montrent que l’opposition entre le didactique et l’authentique laisse place à la transversalité des thématiques, fédér??es par le concept de « question socialement vive ».Si les ressources filmiques n’ont pas le monopole des questionnements éthiques, le « regarder ensemble pédagogique » en fait un vecteur privilégié pour aborder les questions vives.Avec ces ressources capables de générer une « écoute engagée », la langue devient le vecteur d’une modification d’un système de connaissances, au-delà de la poursuite d’objectifs langagiers mis au service d’une interpellation citoyenne.As part of a reflection on films and videos for language teaching, this paper re-examines the notion of authentic material and presents a theoretical contribution to understanding a video resource’s attractiveness, and to understanding what pedagogical act is represented by the use of such resources. Examples of videos from the Internet show that the traditional opposition between didactic and authentic documents is replaced by the transversal nature of certain topics, connected through the controversies they can generate.While it is true that films and videos are not the only resource allowing one to tackle ethical issues, watching them as a group in class makes them a most adequate vector for work on controversial topics.With these resources capable of triggering engagement in the process of listening, language becomes the way to challenge a knowledge system, far beyond linguistic objectives that are used to serve a wider questioning by the citizen.

Joséphine Rémon

2012-05-01

346

Rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression materials before mixing and during setting related to handling characteristics  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the handling and rheological properties of polyvinylsiloxane impression pastes before mixing and during setting, and to investigate the effect of its constituents on the properties of the materials. Five polyvinylsiloxane impression materials (Examixfine, Extrude, Honigum, Imprint II, and Express) were used. A flow test and a drip test were performed to determine the handling characteristics. The rheological properties of each impression material prior to mixing (shear stress, viscosity) and during setting (storage modulus G'), loss modulus G?), loss tangent tan?) were measured with a stress-controlled rheometer at 25°C and 32°C, respectively. Inorganic filler content of each impression material was measured and observed with a SEM. The molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix was determined with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Express and Honigum display lower flow compared to the other materials, due to their high yield-stress values. Examixfine exhibits the greatest flow. All materials display pseudoplastic behavior, excluding the Examixfine catalyst. The viscosities at low shear rate are greatest for Express and Honigum; however, under high shear conditions, the viscosities of Extrude and Honigum are the lowest. Following mixing, each material show an increase in G', finally reaching a plateau, and the tan? rapidly decreases with time. Imprint II shows the highest final G' as well as the most rapid decrease in tan?. Express and Imprint II present the highest filler content and rough filler surface, while Honigum shows the lowest filler content and small filler particles. Most products are composed of polymers over 30 kDa and oligomers less than 1 kDa. Each impression material possesses different rheological properties, which significantly affect the handling characteristics. The yield stress of the impression material minimizes unnecessary flow prior to and after seating. Viscoelastic change during setting of each impression material determines the setting time and the stiffness after setting. These rheological properties of impression materials are affected by the filler content and molecular weight distribution of polymer matrix.

Lee, Hyang-Ok; Lee, In-Bog

2012-09-01

347

NA Departmental Activities Related to Nuclear Materials for Advanced Reactor Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overview of completed and ongoing coordinated research projects which address the following issues: (1) Better understanding of radiation effects and mechanisms of material damage and basic physics of accelerator irradiation under specific conditions, (2) Improvement of knowledge and data for the present and new generation of structural materials, (3) Contribution to developmental of theoretical models for radiation degradation mechanism, (4) Fostering of advanced and innovative technologies by support of Round Robin testing, collaboration and networking

348

Materials Research Related to LMFBR Safety at the JRC Ispra. Recent Results and Future Plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the contribution of the JRC Ispra in two areas: dynamic material properties and fracture mechanics. Hundreds of dynamic stress-strain curves have been measured on various LMFBR structural materials, mainly AISI 304L and 316L, at strain rates ranging from 10-2 to 500 s-1. At LMPBR working temperature, increasing strain rate has little effect on the stress-strain curve for virgin material but produces a detrimental effect for welded and irradiated materials. High strain rates lead in particular to a drastic decrease of ductility on irradiated materials. Recent work on fracture mechanics has included an experiment on crack initiation and growth in stainless steel tubes under violent thermal shocks in sodium and an investigation on the fracture toughness of AISI 304 and 316 steels irradiated to 2.2 dpa. The combined effect of temperature and irradiation on welds produced drastic reductions in COD or J at the onset of stable crack growth, however the overall behaviour remained ductile. Future activities on dynamic materials properties will be extended to other parameters: stress state, strain and strain rate history, prior damage, size of the components . In the fracture mechanics area, new investigations on the effect of irradiation on fracture toughness, and a work on dynamic fracture mechanics are prepared. (author)

349

Concise polymeric materials encyclopedia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive, accessible resource abridges the ``Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia'', presenting more than 1,100 articles and featuring contributions from more than 1,800 scientists from all over the world. The text discusses a vast array of subjects related to the: (1) synthesis, properties, and applications of polymeric materials; (2) development of modern catalysts in preparing new or modified polymers; (3) modification of existing polymers by chemical and physical processes; and (4) biologically oriented polymers.

Salamone, J.C. [ed.

1999-01-01

350

Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel (AGM-660)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advisory Group was asked to advise the Agency on the circumstances under which the Agency might logically implement Section 11 of INFCIRC/153, or the comparable Section 26c of INFCIRC/66/rev2, which provides for a determination that nuclear material is 'practicably irrecoverable', and that therefore safeguards could be terminated. This advice was sought, and in the paragraphs that follow is given, in two areas. One relates to 'waste', which the Group understands as referring to material which contains nuclear material that the State/facility operator believes has no economically recoverable value and for which no further use is foreseen. The other relates to spent fuel, which in some cases may be placed in geological 'permanent repositories'

351

Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

1992-04-01

352

Composite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

353

Relative status regulates risky decision-making about resources in men: Evidence for the co-evolution of motivation and cognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relative social status strongly regulates human behavior, yet this factor has been largely ignored in research on risky decision-making. Humans, like other animals, incur risks as they compete to defend or improve their standing in a social group. Among men, access to culturally important resources is a locus of intrasexual competition and a determinant of status. Thus, relative status should affect men’s motivations for risk in relevant domains. Contrasting predictions about such effects w...

Ermer, Elsa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

2008-01-01

354

Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

355

Resources efficiency in milling of dies and molds with various hard coating materials and modified machine dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complexity of highly loaded molds and dies with increased demands for lifetime and resources efficiency combined with requirements for higher performance, improved economy and better ecological behaviour makes it necessary to use new hard coating technologies. A complete or a partial hard layer coating of a component offers huge economic potentials, but requires an additional finish milling process. The investigations refer to milling of Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA)-welded Cobalt alloys (Ste...

Neugebauer, Reimund; Wertheim, R.; Ho?sel, D.; Hochmuth, C.; Georgi, R.

2011-01-01

356

Engineering Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource includes a syllabus, homework assignments, and references to other course materials used to teach an introductory engineering materials class to manufacturing students. Engineering materials such as metals, plastics, and composites are examined in this course material. Processing for the optimization of material properties is covered extensively, as is material cost estimation for manufacturing.These resources can be followed by any knowledgeable manufacturing educator as long as the equipment to conduct the experiments is readily available.Use Click here to acquire materials below for a preview of the syllabus from this course.

Manohar, Priyadarshan

357

Resources and Vectors  

This theme will explore the current and future roles of different resources and \\energy vectors in the UK energy system. Its scope includes renewable and non-\\renewable resources: fossil fuels, critical materials and renewable ... Connect \\with us.

358

Material interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in a geologic repository will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. These materials are the steel canister that holds the glass, the steel overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and last, the repository host rock. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g., oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interaction(s) is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. Repository relevant interactions testing that requires further study before long-term predictions can be made are noted. 62 refs

359

Experience gained from some incidents related to the shipment of radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of accidents occurring during shipment of dangerous materials in France varies between 200 and 250 each year. Those concerning radioactive materials represent one or two events per year. Six incidents or accidents recorded these last few years have been selected as particularly significant; they include not only events on public highways but also events on nuclear sites relevant to transportation safety. These events are summarized together with corrective actions engaged after analysis of the causes of the events. Finally, more general conclusions drawn from these abnormal events are presented from the point of view of emergency preparedness

360

Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

Temmerman, G. De

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

The material footprint of nations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metrics on resource productivity currently used by governments suggest that some developed countries have increased the use of natural resources at a slower rate than economic growth (relative decoupling) or have even managed to use fewer resources over time (absolute decoupling). Using the material footprint (MF), a consumption-based indicator of resource use, we find the contrary: Achievements in decoupling in advanced economies are smaller than reported or even nonexistent. We present a time series analysis of the MF of 186 countries and identify material flows associated with global production and consumption networks in unprecedented specificity. By calculating raw material equivalents of international trade, we demonstrate that countries' use of nondomestic resources is, on average, about threefold larger than the physical quantity of traded goods. As wealth grows, countries tend to reduce their domestic portion of materials extraction through international trade, whereas the overall mass of material consumption generally increases. With every 10% increase in gross domestic product, the average national MF increases by 6%. Our findings call into question the sole use of current resource productivity indicators in policy making and suggest the necessity of an additional focus on consumption-based accounting for natural resource use. PMID:24003158

Wiedmann, Thomas O; Schandl, Heinz; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Suh, Sangwon; West, James; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

2013-09-01

362

Importance of sampling in relation to the gamma spectroscopic analysis of NORM and TENORM material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the developments over the past 25 years of low background gamma spectroscopic analysis of NORM and TENORM materials to a state-of-the-art semi-automatic gamma analysis system. The developments were initiated in the early 1980s in order to be able to measure low specific activities in fly ash samples. The developments involved modifications and improvements of commercially available hardware, auxiliary equipment, improvement and development of analyzing software, correction software and processing software to a semi-automatic reporting of the analysis results. The effort summarized above has led to detection limits of 238U: 3 Bq/kg, 235U: 0.3 Bq/kg, 226Ra: 5 Bq/kg, 210Pb: 30 Bq/kg, 40K: 60 Bq/kg, with a measuring time of 70,000s using a specially tuned gamma spectroscopy system for NORM and TENORM materials. These low detection limits show the need to set up representative sampling procedures for NORM and TENORM materials. It is not possible to define a sampling procedure that would be valid for all types of sampling. Therefore it is advised that, where sampling is expected to be performed at regular times, a sampling procedure for the materials being dealt with should be set-up and validated. The procedure has to be based on an existing national or international standard. (author)

363

Scoring Rubrics and the Material Conditions of Our Relations with Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the use of scoring rubrics in the context of deteriorating material conditions of writing instruction. The author hopes to offer a consideration of rubrics that enables a revision of rubric designs, in order to facilitate teacher response to student writing, and that offers suggestions for uses of rubrics that account for…

Martins, David

2008-01-01

364

An Assessment of Factors Related to the Diffusion Strategy for Simulation Training Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was prompted by the lack of a well developed strategy for the diffusion of simulation training materials developed by the Center for Vocational and Technical Education at the Ohio State University for use in vocational leadership development programs. Specifically, the study sought to: (1) describe the strategy employed to diffuse the…

McCutcheon, James Randall

365

The Belgoprocess Strategy Relating to the Management of Materials from Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Belgium started its nuclear program quite early. The first installations were constructed in the fifties, and presently, more than 55 % of the Belgian electricity production is provided by nuclear power plants. After 30 years of nuclear experience, Belgium started decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the eighties with two main projects: the BR3-PWR plant and the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The BR3-decommissioning project is carried out at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, while the decommissioning of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant is managed and operated by Belgoprocess n.v., which is also operating the centralized waste treatment facilities and the interim storage for Belgian radioactive waste. Some fundamental principles have to be considered for the management of materials resulting from the decommissioning of nuclear installations, equipment and/or components, mainly based on the guidelines of the ''IAEA-Safety Fundamentals. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F, IAEA, Vienna, 1995'' with respect to radioactive waste management. Two of the fundamental principles indicated in this document are specifically dealing with the strategy for the management of materials from decommissioning, ''Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to the minimum practicable'' (seventh principle), and ''Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that it will not impose undue burdens on future generations'' (fifth principles on future generations'' (fifth principle). Based on these fundamental principles, Belgoprocess has made a straightforward choice for a strategy with minimization of the amount of materials to be managed as radioactive waste. This objective is obtained through the use of advanced decontamination techniques and the unconditional release of decontaminated materials. Unconditionally released materials are recycled, such as i.e., metal materials that are removed to conventional melting facilities, or are removed to conventional industrial disposal sites if they have no remaining value. In order to achieve these objectives, Belgoprocess uses techniques and equipment that enable the high degrees of decontamination to be obtained, while based on commercially available technology. As an example, for concrete surfaces, where the contamination has not penetrated deeply, significant improvement in operation efficiency was achieved when developing dry hand held and automated floor and wall shaving systems as an alternative for scabbling. As it was also shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, an industrial automated dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. Moreover, a specific facility was developed and operations started for taking representative samples and monitoring concrete material in view of the final demolition and unconditional release of remaining structures of buildings after completing all dismantling and decontamination work

366

Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page, "Reference…

Kitao, Kenji

2002-01-01

367

Study on photon sensitivity of silicon diodes related to materials used for shielding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large area silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X- and gamma-rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diode's active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 ?m thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon-induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low-energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to loher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X- and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter. (author)

368

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

2012-01-01

369

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

370

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Plot of cos ? versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos ? rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: ? cos ? of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. ? Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. ? Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. ? Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. ? Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effectes. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

371

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-12-15

372

High density carbon materials obtained at relatively low temperature by spark plasma sintering of carbon nanofibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphitic materials obtained at low temperatures are interesting for a wide range of industrial applications including bipolar plates. In this work, graphite based nanocomposites have been obtained starting from carbon nanofibers and a mixture of carbon nanofibers with 20 vol.% of alumina nanopowders. High density carbon components were obtained by using Spark Plasma Sintering at temperatures as low as 1500-1800 C for this kind of materials. The effect of spark plasma sintering parameters on the final density, and the mechanical and electrical properties of resulting nanocomposites have been investigated. Pure carbon nanofibers with around 90% of theoretical density and fracture strength of 60 MPa have been obtained at temperatures as low as 1500 C applying a pressure of 80 MPa during sintering. It has been proved that attrition milling is a suitable method for preparing homogeneous mixtures of carbon nanofibers and alumina powders. (orig.)

Borrell, Amparo; Torrecillas, Ramon [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Univ. de Oviedo, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Merino, Cesar [Grupo Antolin Ingenieria, Burgos (Spain)

2010-01-15

373

Selection and qualification of materials for relative motion and electrical isolation in a vacuum environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coefficient of friction and wear rate were determined under conditions of reciprocative sliding in vacuum for a number of state-of-the-art hard coatings, including oxides, nitrides and carbides. These materials were tested in contact with one another and against the alloys Inconel 718 and Nitronic 60. For some selected conditions, similar tests were conducted in air to enable environmental influence to be assessed. The program also investigated cyclic compression loading of coated surfaces against uncoated Inconel 718. The results are reported and were used to select and qualify coating materials for limiter component applications that operate both in vacuum and in low pressure hydrogen at elevated temperature in the tokamak fusion test reactor. (Auth.)

374

Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth.

Jäckle, Markus; Groß, Axel

2014-11-01

375

Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:24342561

Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

2014-05-01

376

Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

1995-03-01

377

Design status and development strategy of China liquid lithium-lead blankets and related material technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of fusion reactors (named FDS series) have been designed and assessed in China, with four types of liquid lithium lead blankets including the RAFM steel-structured He-cooled quasi-static LiPb tritium breeder (SLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled (DLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured refractory material thermally-insulated high temperature LiPb (HTL) hydrogen production blanket and the RAFM steel or optionally the austenitic stainless steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled high level waste transmutation (DWT) blanket. To demonstrate and validate the feasibility of the candidate blankets for fusion energy application, the three-phases-strategy of TBM (test blanket module) development, i.e. material R&D and out-of-pile experimental mockup, EAST-TBM and ITER-TBM have been proposed. A brief overview of the four types of LiPb blanket designs and their goals are given. Material technology requirement and development strategy are also presented in this paper.

Wu, Y.; FDS Team

2007-08-01

378

31 CFR 515.545 - Transactions related to information and informational materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01...Section 515.545 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...marketing of manuscripts, books, journals and newspapers, see §...

2010-07-01

379

77 FR 12202 - Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

...application for exemption from Federal income tax and supporting documents that will...applications for exemption from Federal income tax and supporting documents, see...written determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and...

2012-02-29

380

EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage leve [...] l process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

Gilson, Morales; Antonio Edésio, Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel, Klein; Juliana, Guarda.

1511-15-01

 
 
 
 
381

Key issues on materials compatibility and related technologies for transmutation systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: An optimized management of high level nuclear waste, using, e.g. the so-called Partitioning and Transmutation strategies, has the objective to reduce the burden on a geological repository. This issue has been addressed in Europe through several projects aiming to investigate the different technical issues and scientific challenges as, e.g., the partitioning of the different elements in the spent fuel as unloaded from the currently operating light water reactors, the development of appropriate fuels and the design of dedicated burner reactors. As far as the dedicated burners, during the last ten years, an important effort has been devoted in Europe to the development of fast neutron spectrum sub-critical accelerator driven systems (ADS). The main components of an ADS are a) the sub-critical core, b) a neutron spallation target and c) a proton accelerator of high intensity. As preferred coolant option, both for the core and the spallation target, heavy liquid metals (lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and Pb) have been considered. The aim of this keynote lecture is to address the criteria used to select the structural and clad materials for the ADS, the experimental program (executed in the frame of the DEMETRA domain of the European Commission Project EUROTRANS) and main experimental results. The experimental results will be discussed taking into account design and safety considerations of the ADS system. The selected structural materials chatem. The selected structural materials characterised are the 9Cr ferritic/martensitic steel T91 and the austenitic steel AISI316L. Moreover, an important effort has been dedicated to the development of corrosion protection barrier obtained with the GESA technology. Both the bare and coated materials are tested in flowing liquid metal within a wide temperature, flow velocity and oxygen concentration range. In particular, the effect of oxygen has been carefully evaluated, due to the formation of oxides on the steel structure which can have under certain conditions a corrosion protection effect. In addition to corrosion mechanism and rate studies, mechanical tests in the liquid metal have been as well performed. The results obtained from the mechanical tests (tensile, fracture toughness, creep-to-rupture, etc.) have shown that there are specific conditions for which the T91 steel is sensitive and changes its mechanical features. The same has not been observed with the AISI316L steel. Finally, the combination of the results obtained from the corrosion and the mechanical tests performed in the liquid metal, make it is possible to give a feedback to the design and safety performance of the ADS components. In this respect, the example of the clad and the heat exchanger material assessment will be discussed

382

The Belgoprocess Strategy Relating to the Management of Materials from Decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Belgium started its nuclear program quite early. The first installations were constructed in the fifties, and presently, more than 55 % of the Belgian electricity production is provided by nuclear power plants. After 30 years of nuclear experience, Belgium started decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the eighties with two main projects: the BR3-PWR plant and the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The BR3-decommissioning project is carried out at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, while the decommissioning of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant is managed and operated by Belgoprocess n.v., which is also operating the centralized waste treatment facilities and the interim storage for Belgian radioactive waste. Some fundamental principles have to be considered for the management of materials resulting from the decommissioning of nuclear installations, equipment and/or components, mainly based on the guidelines of the ''IAEA-Safety Fundamentals. The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. Safety Series No. 111-F, IAEA, Vienna, 1995'' with respect to radioactive waste management. Two of the fundamental principles indicated in this document are specifically dealing with the strategy for the management of materials from decommissioning, ''Generation of radioactive waste shall be kept to the minimum practicable'' (seventh principle), and ''Radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that it will not impose undue burdens on future generations'' (fifth principle). Based on these fundamental principles, Belgoprocess has made a straightforward choice for a strategy with minimization of the amount of materials to be managed as radioactive waste. This objective is obtained through the use of advanced decontamination techniques and the unconditional release of decontaminated materials. Unconditionally released materials are recycled, such as i.e., metal materials that are removed to conventional melting facilities, or are removed to conventional industrial disposal sites if they have no remaining value. In order to achieve these objectives, Belgoprocess uses techniques and equipment that enable the high degrees of decontamination to be obtained, while based on commercially available technology. As an example, for concrete surfaces, where the contamination has not penetrated deeply, significant improvement in operation efficiency was achieved when developing dry hand held and automated floor and wall shaving systems as an alternative for scabbling. As it was also shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, an industrial automated dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. Moreover, a specific facility was developed and operations started for taking representative samples and monitoring concrete material in view of the final demolition and unconditional release of remaining structures of buildings after completing all dismantling and decontamination work.

Teunckens, L.; Lewandowski, P.; Walthery, R.; Ooms. B.

2003-02-27

383

"Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes.Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, developed the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

Sonia Maria Figueira Mano

2009-01-01

384

"Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde / "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da [...] Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes. Abstract in english Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, d [...] eveloped the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

Sonia Maria Figueira, Mano; Fabio Castro, Gouveia; Virgínia Torres, Schall.

385

Model development of SAS4A and investigation on the initiating phase consequences in LMFRs related with material motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on an analytical aspect of the initiating phase scenario and consequences of postulated core disruptive accident in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. An analytical code, SAS4A, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, and introduced to PNC. Improvement and validation effort have been performed for the mixed-oxide version of SAS4A at PNC. This paper describes firstly recent development of SAS4A's material motion related models briefly. A fission gas mass transfer model and solid fuel chunk jamming model are developed and introduced to SAS4A, and validated using CABRI-2 E13 experimental data. Secondly, an investigation of the mechanism of energetics in the initiating phase of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident has identified major control parameters which are intimately related to core design parameters and material motion phenomena. (author)

386

?????????????????????????????? | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.

???9-18

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2007-10-01

387

EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

2010-01-01

388

Issues relating to the disposal of removal soil containing radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, soil contamination by radioactive materials has occurred in various parts of Japan. However, the method of disposal of contaminated soil has not been clarified yet by the government. Recently, description of the study to confirm the safety of excavation without timbering disposal have been implemented by the Ministry of the Environment. Regardless of geological conditions are also important, but it is not considered when making the selection of disposal sites. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the geological vulnerability to contaminants. In this paper, we discuss the scientific issues of this exercise. (author)

389

Hydrological dispersion of radioactive material in relation to nuclear power plant siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide discusses the dispersion of normal and accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants into surface water, including the washout of airborne radionuclides, and gives recommendations on information to be collected during the various stages of the siting procedure, a minimum measurement programme and the selection and validation of appropriate mathematical models for predicting dispersion. Guidelines are also provided for the optimal use of models for a specific site situation and for defining the necessary input parameters. Results of existing validation studies are given

390

A Study of Selected Properties and Applications of AlMgB14 and Related Composites: Ultra-Hard Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research presents a study of the hardness, electrical, and thermal properties AlMgB{sub 14} containing Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel. This research also investigated how much Al{sub 2}MgO{sub 4} spinel consistently forms with AlMgB{sub 14}, if AlMgB{sub 14} materials can be produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), what effects TiC and TiB{sub 2} have on this composite material, and the importance of mechanical alloying. Included also is a study of the variation in hardness measurements and how they relate to SI units. Heretofore, all ultra-hard materials (hardness > 40 GPA) have been found to be cubic in structure, electrical insulators, and expensive; the behavior of AlMgB{sub 14}, which in certain specimens and compositions can have hardness values greater than 40 GPa, is therefore quite unusual since it is non-cubic, conductive, and moderate in cost. This offers an opportunity to investigate the relationship between hardness, thermal, and electrical properties from a new perspective. The main purpose of this project was to characterize the different properties of the AlMgB{sub 14} materials and to demonstrate that this material can be made in bulk. The technologies used for this study include microhardness measurement techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy at different temperatures, optical microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, differential thermal analysis, 4-point probe resistivity, density techniques, Seebeck Effect, and Hall Effect. This research may lead to use of this material for applications where high abrasion resistance along with electrical conduction is needed. Also this research gave more information about a material that could have a great impact on industrial applications.

Theron L. Lewis