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Sample records for resource materials relating

  1. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  2. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  3. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  4. Bodily-material resources in CSCL

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation to...... communication, learning and collaboration and how they are used to organise intra- and inter-psychological processes. By presenting two short video excerpts of children working with the concept of scale around a touchscreen, we want to facilitate a discussion on what can be gained theoretically and...

  5. Resources: Student Friendly Modeling Materials

    Kelley, Todd R.; Berrett, Jared

    2007-01-01

    The article presents cost-effective materials for elementary classrooms that allow students to create models. These materials include card stock, clay, cable or zips ties, fasteners and bolts, and commercially manufactured building kits such as LEGOs, Erector Sets, Tinkertoys and K'Nex. In addition, the author asserts the importance of using such materials in promoting student learning of technology and engineering.

  6. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  7. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  8. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  9. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  10. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  11. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  12. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe2O3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe2O3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO3 product of Merck, and BaCO4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH)max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH)max are relatively lower than commercial product

  13. Languagesindanger.eu - Including multimedia language resources to disseminate knowledge and create educational material on less-resourced languages

    D. Jung; Klessa, K.; Duray, Z.; Oszkó, B.; Sipos, M.; Szeverényi, S.; Várnai, Z.; Trilsbeek, P.; Váradi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of the languagesindanger.eu interactive website as an example of including multimedia language resources to disseminate knowledge and create educational material on less-resourced languages. The website is a product of INNET (Innovative networking in infrastructure for endangered languages), European FP7 project. Its main functions can be summarized as related to the three following areas: (1) raising students' awareness of language endangerment a...

  14. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PROCUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF MATERIAL RESOURCES

    Gheorghe CÂRSTEA; Oana P?UN; Sorin P?UN

    2014-01-01

    Due to a dynamic and competitive environment, in which prices are subject to ever-increasing pressure, quality becomes a determining factor in the competitive struggle.Among the key processes of the quality management system, the process of procurement and management of material resources directly affects the quality of the final products, and therefore the performance of the organization. An efficient process of procurement and management of material resources based on good relationships wit...

  15. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  16. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  17. Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a...

  18. Rationing of material resources as a tool efficiency

    Klimuk Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    The author presents an analysis of the literature on the issue of the valuation of material resources. Identified shortcomings of existing methods of calculating consumption rates and provides a method of assessment based on the account level of scientific and technical state of the object under study, the level of waste and possible losses.

  19. Reuse and recovery of raw materials: Towards the achievement of a resource-efficient society

    Resource efficiency plays a key role in the transition from a linear to a circular economy system. During the last few decades a rapid growth in the number of materials used across complex products has occurred. Given the high economic importance of critical raw materials combined with relatively high supply risk, securing reliable and undistorted access of certain raw materials is of growing concern across the globe. Development of eco-innovative approaches devoted to closing the loop of resources is strongly needed, allowing the connection between production cycles and their territory.

  20. Informatics-based Learning Resources for Patients and their Relatives in recovery

    Moen, Anne; Smørdal, Ole

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe experiences from design of an informatics-based learning resource for patients and relatives. The prototype, REPARERE (learning REsource for PAtients and RElatives during REcovery), aims to support patients and their family recovering from heart surgery in meeting challenges in to daily living post discharge. Using recovery experiences and patient teaching material, REPARERE includes examples of textual information, video-clips, images and illustrations relevant to t...

  1. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-01-01

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space contro...

  2. Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth

    Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

  3. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  4. Resources

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  5. Resources

    ... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  6. Catalysis by ceria and related materials

    Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This book follows the 2002 edition of Catalysis by Ceria and Related Materials, which was the first book entirely devoted to ceria and its catalytic properties. In the ten years since the first edition a massive amount of work has been carried out in the field, and ceria has gained a prominent position in catalysis as one of the most valuable material for several applications. This second edition covers fundamental and applied aspects of the latest advances in ceria-based materials with a special focus on structural, redox and catalytic features. Special emphasis is given to nano-engineered an

  7. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a..., including tariffs, rate schedules, service agreements, and contracts, or parts thereof, and material...

  8. Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources

    Saphire-Bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M.; Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological resources—optimism, mastery, and self-esteem—buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the “A” allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-esteem, r...

  9. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  10. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  11. Catalysis by ceria and related materials

    Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    The use of CeO2-based materials in catalysis has attracted considerable attention in recent years, particularly in applications like environmental catalysis, where ceria has shown great potential. This book critically reviews the most recent advances in the field, with the focus on both fundamental and applied issues. The first few chapters cover structural and chemical properties of ceria and related materials, i.e. phase stability, reduction behaviour, synthesis, interaction with probe molecules (CO, O2, NO), and metal-support interaction - all presented from the viewpoint of catalytic appl

  12. Multifunctional Martian habitat composite material synthesized from in situ resources

    Sen, S.; Carranza, S.; Pillay, S.

    2010-09-01

    The two primary requirements for a Martian habitat structure include effective radiation shielding against the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment and sufficient structural and thermal integrity. To significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth, it is imperative that such building materials should be synthesized primarily from Martian in situ resources. This paper illustrates the feasibility of such an approach. Experimental results are discussed to demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene (PE) from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with PE as the binding material. The radiation shielding effectiveness of the proposed composites is analyzed using results from radiation transport codes and exposure of the samples to high-energy beams that serve as a terrestrial proxy for the GCR environment. Mechanical and ballistic impact resistance properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition, processing parameters, and thermal variations are also discussed to evaluate the multifunctionality of such in situ synthesized composite materials.

  13. Radiation effects on pharmaceuticals and related materials

    Radiation sterilization is the method of choice for many medical supplies and devices. However, because of the ionizing nature of gamma radiation, one must consider the effect of such radiation on the physical and chemical properties and on the biological behaviour of pharmaceutical and related materials before the feasibility of radiation sterilization for such products is established. The results of such feasibility studies can lead to an appropriate decision on the suitability of radiation sterilization for a particular pharmaceutical. (author)

  14. Adaptive differentiation of traits related to resource use in a desert annual along a resource gradient.

    Brouillette, Larry C; Mason, Chase M; Shirk, Rebecca Y; Donovan, Lisa A

    2014-03-01

    • Plant resource-use traits are generally hypothesized to be adaptively differentiated for populations distributed along resource gradients. Although nutrient limitations are expected to select for resource-conservative strategies, water limitations may select for either resource-conservative or -acquisitive strategies. We test whether population differentiation reflects local adaptation for traits associated with resource-use strategies in a desert annual (Helianthus anomalus) distributed along a gradient of positively covarying water and nutrient availability. • We compared quantitative trait variation (Q(ST)) with neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST)), in a common garden glasshouse study, for leaf economics spectrum (LES) and related traits: photosynthesis (A(mass), A(area)), leaf nitrogen (N(mass), N(area)), leaf lifetime (LL), leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf water content (LWC), water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated as δ(13)C) and days to first flower (DFF). • Q(ST)-F(ST) differences support adaptive differentiation for Amass , N(mass), N(area), LWC and DFF. The trait combinations associated with drier and lower fertility sites represent correlated trait evolution consistent with the more resource-acquisitive end of the LES. There was no evidence for adaptive differentiation for A(area), LMA and WUE. • These results demonstrate that hot dry environments can selectively favor correlated evolution of traits contributing to a resource-acquisitive and earlier reproduction 'escape' strategy, despite lower fertility. PMID:24325125

  15. NASA CORE (Central Operation of Resources for Educators) Educational Materials Catalog

    1998-01-01

    This educational materials catalog presents NASA CORE (Central Operation of Resources for Educators). The topics include: 1) Videocassettes (Aeronautics, Earth Resources, Weather, Space Exploration/Satellites, Life Sciences, Careers); 2) Slide Programs; 3) Computer Materials; 4) NASA Memorabilia/Miscellaneous; 5) NASA Educator Resource Centers; 6) and NASA Resources.

  16. Resource Letter EMAA-1: Educational Materials in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Berendzen, Richard; DeVorkin, David

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of selected articles on astronomy instruction at high school, college, and graduate levels, especially those for college nonscience majors. Besides teaching materials and aids, related societies, organizations, planetariums, and periodicals are incorporated as entries of primary sources. (CC)

  17. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications...

  18. Bodily-material resources in CSCL:Children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning of scale around touchscreens

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation to communication, learning and collaboration and how they are used to organise intra- and inter-psychological processes. By presenting two short video excerpts of children working with the concept of scale ...

  19. Relative prices and investment: an essay on resource allocation

    Keith Griffin

    2005-01-01

    In this essay the mainstream story about how resources are allocated in a market economy is challenged. The conventional view is that a change in relative prices leads to a change in the composition of output as a result of a reallocation of the stock of primary factors of production (land, labor and capital). No investment is required. This is possible, however, only if the primary factors of production are homogeneous and hence highly mobile. If land, labor and capital are heterogeneous and...

  20. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention. PMID:23394104

  1. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  2. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  3. Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources

    Rosati, A.

    2012-12-01

    Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

  4. Model Modification and Application on Carrying Capacity of Relative Resources

    Li Zehong; Dong Suocheng; Gao Dan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the retrospection of researches on carry-ing capacity, this article reviewed systematically the research progresses on carrying capacity of relative resources (CCRR).Then the viewpoint was put forward that CCRR is not an ap-propriate method of appraising the regional sustainability, but a sound way to obtain cognition for coordinating spatial loca-tion and flow of population and economy.However, as the most popular computing method of CCRR, the Weighting Linear Sum Model is defective in the random of weight choice and the neglect of matching among different resources.Therefore, this article established the Geometric Model on CCRR based on modifying Weighting Linear Sum Model, which can be used to appraise regions where resources are close matching.Em-ploying the Geometric Model, the article empirically analyzed the population and economic CCRR in Hubei Province from 1978 to 2006.The result indicates that the population in Hubei Province is overloading while the economic carrying capacity is abundant compared to the whole country, and the economic insufficiency restricts the population carrying capacity.In the future, Hubei Province will become one of the core developing zones which are characterized by economic conglomeration.

  5. Water Resources Council Proposed Principles and Standards for Planning Water and Related Land Resources. Notice of Public Review and Hearing.

    National Archives and Records Services (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of the Federal Register.

    Presented in this notice of a public review and hearing are the proposed Principles and Standards for planning water and related land resources of the United States. Developed by the Water Resources Council pursuant to the Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-80), the purpose is to achieve objectives, determined cooperatively,…

  6. Relations with People and Relations with Things: Management of Human Resources in African Companies

    Feijó, João

    2010-01-01

    This article intends to analyze the viability of a paternalistic human resources management model in companies of the formal sector, where a logic of profit maximization assumes a more demanding dimension. Paternalism is used as a metaphor to understand the relations between employers and employees as modelled on relations between parents and children. The concept demonstrates the transformation of exploitation and authoritarian relations, guided under the imperative of regulation an...

  7. Internet Resources: Designing and Critiquing Materials for Scientific Inquiry

    Gueudet, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    In twenty-first century science classrooms, teachers and students are frequently engaged with Internet resources: lesson plans, digital textbooks, various kinds of software, videos, and much more. There is, in particular, a profusion of online resources for the teaching and learning of science. This raises important questions about the design of online resources that are effective and engaging, and how educators can evaluate the quality of items they find. This entry discusses criteria for ev...

  8. PROMOTING HEALTH AND MOTIVATION AT WORK: THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF JOB DEMANDS, JOB RESOURCES AND PERSONAL RESOURCES

    von Krassow, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    While many employees are engaged in their jobs, others suffer from poor working conditions and impaired well-being. Research suggests that job demands may impair employee work attitudes and health while both job resources and personal resources can have positive effect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of job demands, job resources, and a personal resource (self-efficacy) for employees’ health and motivation at work. Questionnaire data were collected fro...

  9. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

  10. Out on the Web: The Relationship between Campus Climate and GLBT-Related Web-based Resources in Academic Libraries

    Ciszek, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the perceived campus environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students at colleges and universities and how academic libraries have deployed GLBT-related resources on the Web. Recommendations are made for increasing GLBT-related materials and information in academic libraries.…

  11. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally. PMID:26978979

  12. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  13. Analysis of functional relationships of integrated management system of material resources

    Степаненко, Тетяна Олегівна

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of improving the management of material resources of the enterprise in the current economic conditions. The article analyzes the functional structure of the integrated management оf material resources with the help of the functional review and method SIPOC. The methodical approach to the optimization was based on method reengineering.The need of research is due to a number of problems identified in the systems of material management of domestic enterprises:...

  14. Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources

    Bollinghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

  15. Selected Resource Materials for Teaching Urban Geography in Australian Schools

    Barlow, M. H.; Deer, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    This discussion of non-book materials available in Australia for secondary instruction in urban geography emphasizes their suitability for conveying particular concepts as well as appropriateness at particular curricular levels. (JH)

  16. “中国原材料案”对我国资源性商品出口管理的影响及应对%The Effect of China -Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials on the Export Administration of Resource Products and Countermeasures

    王宏瑞

    2014-01-01

    China ’ s resource products account for a large share of the world market , China has adopted export duty , export quota , export license and other measures on the export management of resource prod-ucts .The results of China -Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials had a tremen-dous impact on current resource products export management system .The study found that the application of export duty , export quota would be greatly limited;in addition , the procedures of export administration and discretion would have also to face a number of challenges .In this case , China should actively pro-mote the negotiations of the export duty schedule , optimize export quota and export management proce-dures, establish “three Elements and three -step” trade policy review mechanism and resource -based enterprises risks controlling mechanism .%我国是资源性商品的贸易大国,当前我国主要采取出口关税、出口配额、出口许可证等对资源性商品的出口进行管理,但是,“中国原材料案”的败诉结果势必对我国当前资源性商品出口管理体制产生巨大冲击。研究发现,今后我国出口税费、出口配额措施的适用将受到极大限制,出口管理程序、自由裁量权也将受到诸多挑战。在此情况下,我国应积极推动出口关税减让表谈判、优化出口配额及出口管理程序、建立“三要三步”的贸易政策合法性审查及资源型贸易企业出口风控专员机制。

  17. Molten salts and energy related materials.

    Fray, Derek

    2016-08-15

    Molten salts have been known for centuries and have been used for the extraction of aluminium for over one hundred years and as high temperature fluxes in metal processing. This and other molten salt routes have gradually become more energy efficient and less polluting, but there have been few major breakthroughs. This paper will explore some recent innovations that could lead to substantial reductions in the energy consumed in metal production and in carbon dioxide production. Another way that molten salts can contribute to an energy efficient world is by creating better high temperature fuel cells and novel high temperature batteries, or by acting as the medium that can create novel materials that can find applications in high energy batteries and other energy saving devices, such as capacitors. Carbonate melts can be used to absorb carbon dioxide, which can be converted into C, CO and carbon nanoparticles. Molten salts can also be used to create black silicon that can absorb more sunlight over a wider range of wavelengths. Overall, there are many opportunities to explore for molten salts to play in an efficient, low carbon world. PMID:27276650

  18. Resource planning of solid waste materials through process modelling as contribution to sustainable resource management; Ressourcenplanung fester Abfallstoffe mit Hilfe der Prozessmodellierung als Beitrag zum nachhaltigen Ressourcenmanagement

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Bremen Univ. (Germany). BIK, Institut fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung

    2010-10-15

    Raw materials are essential to satisfy our needs in energy and products. Many raw materials are restricted and far away from being endless available; therefore there is a strong intention of developing raw material- and energy-efficient production processes. Recycling processes provide a substantial contribution to sustainable resource management due to the supply of valuable secondary raw materials for new applications. Processing solid waste materials generate new secondary resources from residues as resources for new products. This saves primary resources and keeps up a long material life cycle. But material characterisation is an important issue to look at. Material properties ascertain the following application possibilities. It has to be noted that no processing technique can guarantee solely material flows with properties to substitute primary raw materials. There are always material flows that are of minor quality. This makes it difficult to assess the future potential of secondary raw materials to be available for following applications with specific quality demands. (orig.)

  19. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings. PMID:10427421

  20. KEY ISSUES RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NOWADAYS

    ARMENIA ANDRONICEANU

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of human resources motivation which is considered one of the most important ways for a sustainable organizational development. The author has conducted a special research on the topic and the main findings are presented and analyzed in the content of this paper. The objective of the research was to identify new possibilities for increasing the degree of human resources motivation for supporting a more sustainable organizational development. Based on ideas from c...

  1. Linking rates of diffusion and consumption in relation to resources.

    Avgar, Tal; Kuefler, Daniel; Fryxell, John M

    2011-08-01

    The functional response is a fundamental model of the relationship between consumer intake rate and resource abundance. The random walk is a fundamental model of animal movement and is well approximated by simple diffusion. Both models are central to our understanding of numerous ecological processes but are rarely linked in ecological theory. To derive a synthetic model, we draw on the common logical premise underlying these models and show how the diffusion and consumption rates of consumers depend on elementary attributes of naturally occurring consumer-resource interactions: the abundance, spatial aggregation, and traveling speed of resources as well as consumer handling time and directional persistence. We show that resource aggregation may lead to increased consumer diffusion and, in the case of mobile resources, reduced consumption rate. Resource-dependent movement patterns have traditionally been attributed to area-restricted search, reflecting adaptive decision making by the consumer. Our synthesis provides a simple alternative hypothesis that such patterns could also arise as a by-product of statistical movement mechanics. PMID:21750382

  2. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron

  3. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO2 and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of 10B2O3 processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide

  4. Research concerning the need of capitalizing on the material resources in sports marketing

    Laurentiu Gabriel TALAGHIR; Victoria GHEONEA; Gabriel Marian MANOLACHE

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is trying to increase awareness regarding the unexploited material resources that the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports owns. In the context of the increased interest in practicing sports, a better utilization would determine significant financial benefits

  5. Study and application on product design system orienting to optimal utilization of material resources

    YAN Chun-ping; XIONG Hong-ju; CAO Hua-jun; LIU Fei

    2006-01-01

    Product design plays a decisive role in material resource consumption in manufacturing systems. So it is significant to study optimal utilization of material resources of manufacturing system from the perspective of product design. This paper firstly defines concept of product design, then after an analysis of design objectives the author proposes a target system of product design with three subsystems: structural system, functional system, and technical system. Finally, a product design system on Architectural Metal Structure Enterprises is developed and used in light of the great consumption of material resources in Metal Structure Enterprises. The system has got an obvious effect on improving comprehensive optimal using rate of material resources of enterprises, reducing design cycle, improving management of enterprises.

  6. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  7. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral

  8. Evaluation of Structure Influence on Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Insulating Materials from Renewable Resources

    Jolanta VĖJELIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of new thermal insulation materials needs to evaluate properties and structure of raw material, technological factors that make influence on the thermal conductivity of material. One of the most promising raw materials for production of insulation material is straw. The use of natural fibres in insulation is closely linked to the ecological building sector, where selection of materials is based on factors including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low resource production techniques In current work results of research on structure and thermal conductivity of renewable resources for production thermal insulating materials are presented. Due to the high abundance of renewable resources and a good its structure as raw material for thermal insulation materials barley straw, reeds, cattails and bent grass stalks are used. Macro- and micro structure analysis of these substances is performed. Straw bales of these materials are used for determining thermal conductivity. It was found that the macrostructure has the greatest effect on thermal conductivity of materials. Thermal conductivity of material is determined by the formation of a bale due to the large amount of pores among the stalks of the plant, inside the stalk and inside the stalk wall.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.494

  9. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  10. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  11. Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy

    Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains α-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

  12. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  13. Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources (Revision 1) - June 1976

    In accordance with 10 CFR Part 51, Licensing and Regulatory Policy and Procedures for Environmental Protection, applicants are required to discuss any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in a proposed action, should it be implemented. The construction and operation of nuclear power stations involve commitments of such resources as water, fuel and materials. The guide presented identifies a report on material resources that forms a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for required discussions of irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources involved in the construction of a 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor. The guide describes numerical estimates useful in all such discussions. It also provides methods of computation that may be referenced

  14. Managing Human Resources and Industrial Relations in Nigeria

    Olatunji Eniola Sule

    2013-01-01

    This study looks critically at the importance and significance of effective management of the most viable factors of production in the organisation-human resource or human capital as well as their interaction with the entrepreneurials in the capitalist economy. Towards the end, solutions were profered to the incessant distruption of production as a result of strike and or lock out to have a harmonious relationship between the workforce and the employer.

  15. Fly ash: Perspective resource for geo-polymer materials production

    Kargin, Aleksey; Baev, Vladimir; Mashkin, Nikolay; Uglyanica, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The present paper presents the information about the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ash and slag and their amounts at the dumps of the thermoelectric plants located in the city of Kemerovo. It is known that about 85% of ash and slag from the thermoelectric plants in Russia are removed by means of the hydraulic sluicing systems and only about 15% - by the systems of pneumatic ash handling. Currently, however, the transition from the "wet" ash removal systems to the "dry" ones is outlined. This process is quite logical since the fly ash has the higher reactivity compared with the hydraulic sluicing ash and therefore it is of the great interest for recycling and use. On the other hand, the recent trend is the increased use of fly ash in the production of geo-polymers due to their availability, workability and the increased life of the final product. The analysis is carried out to check the possibility of using the fly ash from various Kemerovo thermoelectric plants as a raw material for the production of the alkali-activated binder.

  16. THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Rehana MASRUR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course, recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.

  17. NASA CORE: Central Operation of Resources for Educators-Educational Materials Catalog

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE), established in cooperation with Lorain County Joint Vocational School, serves as the worldwide distribution center for NASA-produced educational materials. For a minimal charge, CORE will provide a valuable service to educators unable to visit one of the NASA Educator Resource Centers by making NASA educational audiovisual materials available through its mail order service. Through CORE's distribution network, the public has access to more than 200 videocassette, slide, and CD-ROM programs, chronicling NASA!s state-of-the-art research and technology. Through the use of these curriculum supplement materials, teachers can provide their students with the latest in aerospace information. NASAs educational materials on aeronautics and space provide a springboard for classroom discussion of life science, physical science, astronomy, energy, Earth resources, environment, mathematics, and career education.

  18. Uranium resources and production of nuclear fuel material in the world

    Data are summed up relating to uranium resources, the technology of nuclear fuel manufacture, the prices of U concentrate and the costs of the basic operations of the fuel cycle. Resources are sufficient for the needs of nuclear power production based on LWR's without closing the fuel cycle for at least up to the year 2010; in the subsequent period fuels of higher price categories would have to be used (> or approx. 130 $/kg U). The manufacture of U concentrate after culmination in the years 1979 to 1980 is declining as is its price. Fuel material on an operation scale (15a t/year and more) is now being manufactured in 11 countries, with the US leading followed by Canada and Japan. From the point of view of technology the following methods are interesting: processing complex ores (USSR), the use of wastes from the production of nuclear purity uranium in agriculture (Canada), single-stage reconversion of UF6 to UO2 (the so-called IDR process in the UK), chemical methods of uranium enrichment (France and Japan), etc. Great attention is being devoted to the design and construction of spent fuel reprocessing plants and thus the introduction of the closed fuel cycle which is the only way towards the full utilization of uranium, to the transition to fast reactors and the extended service life of nuclear power way into the next millenium. (author)

  19. NEW RELATIONS BETWEEN NATURAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    CRISTIAN SIMA; CĂTĂLINA BONCIU; MARIUS BULEARCA; GHEORGHE MARINESCU

    2012-01-01

    Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials) to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a develop...

  20. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  1. The Current State of China's Freshwater Resources and Related Suggestions

    Wu Ruijin

    2001-01-01

    China has many lakes, marshlands and rivers. Due to their uneven geographical distribution and varied degrees of salinity, their exploitable freshwater resources are limited. In the wake of the highspeed growth of national economy in recent years, human infringement upon their natural settings has been increasingly intense, leading to the degeneration of China's lacustrine ecosystems and the degradation of their surrounding environments. Lakes are shrinking and becoming more saline. In arid and semi-arid inland areas, some of them have even disappeared. In addition, lake water pollution and eutrophication in densely populated areas are getting worse, resulting in serious water shortages in some places. Silt deposition in lake basins, water surface shrinkage caused by hectic and irrational reclamation for farmland, the prevalence of flooding and water-logging calamities and ecosystem depletion caused by predatory exploitation of fishery resources, all of these have become restrictive factors in regional sustainable development. The author of this article suggests measures for the protection and sustainable exploitation of limnetic settings in China.

  2. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  3. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.1

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume One presents fundamental knowledge on ZnO-based materials and technologies. It covers the b

  4. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.2

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume Two focuses on devices and nanostructures created from ZnO and similar materials. The book

  5. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  6. Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials Research

    Lucarini, Valerio; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Vartiainen, Erik M

    2005-01-01

    This is the first one-volume work to provide a thorough and comprehensive description of the physical background, rigorous theory and applications of Kramers-Kronig relations in the fields of linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Currently, Kramers-Kronig relations have become basic tools in the investigation of the optical properties of materials. A brief presentation of the related data-retrieval technique, the maximum entropy method, is also given. The contents and style potentially make this a standard text for physicists, chemists and engineers interested in optical-materials research and development.

  7. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO2 emission by human breathing

  8. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  9. The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials

    DiCarlo, Joseph V; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P

    2000-01-01

    Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is: . The code instructs the browser to suppress the content...

  10. Material relation to assess the crashworthiness of ship structures

    Ehlers, Sören

    2009-01-01

    A ship collision accident can result in severe environmental damage and loss of life. Therefore the non-linear finite element method with shell elements is used to assess the crashworthiness of ship steel structures through collision simulations. However, a non-linear finite element-based benchmark revealed inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results of collision analysis using current material relations and failure criteria. To overcome these problems in this thesis, the steel material's...

  11. Socially poorer than peers? : Economic resources and school class friendship relations

    Hjalmarsson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    That a lack of economic resources negatively affects the social relations of children is often assumed, sometimes described, but rarely tested using methods allowing generalization. When addressing this issue, previous research has largely been limited to self-reported data on social relations. This thesis uses peer reported measures of social relations in combination with survey and register data to examine the effect of economic resources on the probability of social isolation and on the nu...

  12. PROTECTING GENETIC RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL FOREST RELATED KNOWLEDGE THROUGH FOREST CERTIFICATION

    Hin Fui Lim; Yusof Norshakila; Baharuddin Intan Nurulhani

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that there is a need to protect genetic resources and traditional forest related knowledge (TFRK) to enable sustainable management of natural resources, forest-dependent communities and development of value-added natural products. A number of international instruments are being implemented to ensure that genetic resources and TFRK are protected. Other than these international instruments agreed by the nation parties, the market-driven forest certification has eme...

  13. Relative Resources: Inequality in Ethnic Wars, Revolutions, and Genocides

    Marie L. Besançon

    2005-01-01

    Political scientists and economists have exhaustively examined the nexus between economic inequality and political conflict (EI-PC nexus) in aggregated civil wars. This article revisits the nexus and its related theories, empirically and parsimoniously testing the effects of inequality on disaggregated intrastate conflicts. The results buttress the notion that traditionally deprived identity groups are more likely to engage in conflict under more economically equal conditions, while class or ...

  14. Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control

    Larsgarrd L, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

  15. Where Is the Discourse of Desire? Deconstructing the Irish Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) Resource Materials

    Kiely, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by poststructuralist insights and the critical literature on the topic of school-based sexuality education, this paper is derived from a close examination of the Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) resource materials devised for teachers involved in delivering the programme in Irish schools. It seeks critically to uncover how…

  16. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  17. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some aircraft seat materials

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Fewell, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen samples of aircraft seat materials were evaluated for relative toxicity using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Nine samples were upholstery fabrics and nine samples were cushioning foams. Under these particular conditions of test, the aromatic phenolic and aromatic polyamide fabrics exhibited less toxicity than the samples of wool and wool/nylon fabrics, and the samples of neoprene foams exhibited less toxicity than the samples of polyurethane foams. These relative toxicity rankings were obtained using both apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals (ALC50), and time to death (Td) at a fixed weight of material.

  18. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials

    Lehmann Eberhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time.

  19. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials

    Lehmann Eberhard H.; Boillat Pierre; Kaestner Anders; Vontobel Peter; Mannes David

    2015-01-01

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging we give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully. These are in particular fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, but also some investigations with nuclear fuel components. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for ne...

  20. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The...

  1. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    2013-03-27

    ...Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines), dated March 10, 1983, consistent with several considerations enumerated in the Act. The revised Principles and Guidelines......

  2. Relation between call controll and resource control in B-ISDN

    Hou, Xinli; Niemegeers, Ignas G.

    1994-01-01

    The functional separation of call control and the control of network resources brings about the flexibility in provision of telecommunication services. This paper addresses the relation between call control and resource control in the B-ISDN signalling. The merits and drawbacks of two complementary

  3. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  4. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm;

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 16 11 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop...

  5. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  6. APPLICATION OF EMF SHF IN PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE MATERIAL AND SECONDARY RESOURCES

    Lisovoy V. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the proprietary methods of processing of vegetable raw materials and secondary resources with the use of electromagnetic fields (EMF SHF. Analysis of the database of Rospatent World Intellectual Property Organization led to the conclusion that EMF SHF used in the processing of vegetable raw materials in the following processes: drying, reduction of microbial contamination (decontamination, juice production and extraction. It is established that the application of EMF SHF is the most effective in preparation for drying a plant raw material and not directly at the stage of drying, thus reducing the loss of heat-labile active compound in the drying process, and therefore obtain a finished product of higher quality and nutritional value. The patented methods of extraction of vegetable raw materials extraction process performed that extracting directly EMF SHF does not allow pre-hold inactivate enzymes contained in the raw material and lead to undesirable oxidative and hydrolytic processes, and hence a decrease in the yield of extractable substances in the extract and the deterioration of its quality . Therefore, as in the case of drying plant material, EMF SHF can be more effectively used in preparation for an extraction process. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that the relevance of developments in the field of technologies of processing of vegetable raw materials and secondary resources using EMF SHF at the stage of their preparation for such basic processes - drying, extraction, etc.

  7. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  8. Quantum capacitance in monolayers of silicene and related buckled materials

    Nawaz, S.; Tahir, M.

    2016-02-01

    Silicene and related buckled materials are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit coupling and the buckled structure. These materials have potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit coupling. We present a theoretical realization of quantum capacitance which has advantages over the scattering problems of traditional transport measurements. We derive and discuss quantum capacitance as a function of the Fermi energy and temperature taking into account electron-hole puddles through a Gaussian broadening distribution. Our predicted results are very exciting and pave the way for future spintronic and valleytronic devices.

  9. Exergy analysis for resource conversion of the Chinese Society 1993 under the material product system

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q. [National Laboratory for Complex Systems and Turbulence, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The resource exergy conversion in Chinese society in 1993 under the material product system (MPS) was investigated. Major resources that entered the society were divided into subgroups and analyzed in detail. The end use was broken down into ten end-use sectors: the forestry industry, food industry, iron and steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, chemical industry, textile industry, transportation, households, commerce, other industry. The total exergy input was 62.9EJ, which was 53.3GJ/cap. The total exergy output contained 11.66EJ or 9.88GJ/cap, which was 19% of the total exergy input. One RMB (Chinese Renminbi) yuan ($ 0.17) corresponded to 3.37MJ resource exergy output. (author)

  10. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of...... efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity...... production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  11. Oral health-related resources - a salutogenic perspective on Swedish 19-year-olds.

    Lindmark, U; Abrahamsson, K H

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to explore health-oriented resources among 19-year-olds and, specifically, how these resources interact with oral health-related attitudes and behaviour. To represent individuals with various psychosocial environments and socioeconomic areas, the participants were selected from different geographical locations of the Public Dental Service clinics in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. A structured questionnaire was distributed, including the instrument 'sense of coherence', for description of the study group, followed by a semi-structured thematized interview. The qualitative method used for sampling and analyses was grounded theory. Data sampling and analysis were performed in parallel procedures and ended up in a sample of ten informants (five women). In the analysis of interview data, a core category was identified, 'Resources of Wealth and Balance in Life - a Foundation for Healthy Choices', describing the central meaning of the informants' perceptions of resources with an essential beneficial impact on oral health. The core category was built on five themes, which in turn had various subthemes, describing different dimensions of resources interacting with beneficial oral health-related attitudes and behaviour: 'Security-building Resources and Support', 'Driving force and Motivation', 'Maturity and Insight', 'Health Awareness' and 'Environmental influences.' The results elucidate personal and environmental health-oriented resources with influence on oral health-related attitudes and behaviours of young individuals. Such beneficial recourses should be recognized by dental personnel to promote oral health. PMID:25041137

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool for the investigations on local electronic and vibrational properties of solids. On the other hand, the recently developing field of 'spintronics', where spins of conduction electrons play a key role for transport phenomena, is requiring to control the size and physical properties of materials in nanoscales. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy it becomes possible to investigate local magnetism and electron-spin polarization of materials, while can be important information for further development of spintronics. In this article, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials in the early stage after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance effect are outlined briefly, and then recent studies on Heusler-alloy-based layered structures are introduced topically. (author)

  13. Work in the classrooms with European perspective: materials and resources for autonomus learning

    Manuela RAPOSO RIVAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key principles set forth in the bologna process is to focus teaching on students, by getting involved actively and independently in their learning process and in developing their skills. This requires the use of teaching and learning methods together with materials and resources to motivate and guide them. In this paper, we present three of them, from our experience in adapting the subject of «New Technologies Applied to education» to the ecTs system, which we have found useful for guiding and evaluating the learning process and promote the intended learning. These materials and resources are: «learning guides», the portfolio and the rubric.

  14. Neutron imaging methods for the investigation of energy related materials

    After a short explanation of the state-of-the-art in the field of neutron imaging, we compare X-ray scanning and neutron-imaging. Both imaging techniques are similar and complement each other well with advantages and drawbacks, individually different for each individual material. The interaction of X-rays is mainly with the electrons in the atomic shell, while neutrons deal mainly with the atomic nuclei. This gives the clear contrast differences in the transmission imaging: for X-rays the rule holds: the higher the atomic mass, the higher the contrast. This is not at all valid for the neutrons, where already some light elements (H, Li, B) interacts strongly while some heavy elements are transparent (Pb, Bi, U, Au). We give some examples how energy related materials can be studied successfully by neutron imaging. These materials are involved in fuel cell studies, battery research approaches, the storage of hydrogen, and in nuclear fuels. It is possible to derive the degree of enrichment of fresh fuel from neutron radiography data directly and with good accuracy and non-invasively. Neutron imaging technique allows also the study of neutron-caused embrittlement of fuel cladding Zr alloys. The high contrast for light isotopes like H-1, Li-6 or B-10 are used to trace low amounts of material even within compact sealing of metals which are relatively transparent for neutrons at the same time

  15. The EU Raw Materials Initiative and effects upon resource-based development: Lessons from Africa

    Küblböck, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In the context of a global surge in demand for commodities, increasing competition and rising prices, several industrialized countries including the European Union have adopted strategies to secure access to raw materials. At the same time, in resource-rich developing countries the debate has intensified about too little benefits from their mineral wealth and about a necessary greater contribution of the mining sector to economic transformation. Through Article 208 of the Lisbon Treaty the EU...

  16. Layered intercalated functional materials based on efficient utilization of magnesium resources in China

    David; G; EVANS

    2010-01-01

    Mg-based layered intercalated functional materials of the layered double hydroxide type are a significant class of magnesium compounds.Based on long-term studies of these materials in the State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering in Beijing University of Chemical Technology,two principles of "using the intended application of a material as a guide to its structure design and synthesis process" and "the design of controlled intercalation processes in the light of future production processing requirements" have been developed.To achieve these objectives,the composition of the host layers and guest interlayer anions was tailored at the microlevel,while the mesostructure and macrostructure were controlled to fabricate different kinds of Mg-based layered intercalated functional materials.These materials have diverse applications in key areas such as catalysis,the environment,and construction,and as polymer additives.Therefore,China’s magnesium resources may be utilized more efficiently for the benefit of society.

  17. Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties

    Jessica Vitak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies (ICTs challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.

  18. Dynamic Modelling of Material Flows and Sustainable Resource Use: Case Studies in Regional Metabolism and Space Life Support Systems

    Suomalainen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable resource use is one of the most important environmental issues of our times. It is closely related to discussions on the 'peaking' of various natural resources serving as energy sources, agricultural nutrients, or metals indispensable in high-technology applications. Although the peaking theory remains controversial, it is commonly recognized that a more sustainable use of resources would alleviate negative environmental impacts related to resource use. In this thesis, sustainable...

  19. Access to strategic resources through the relational network of the contractor and innovation of Tunisian SMEs

    Adel Ghodbane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is devoted to analyze the mediating effects of the access to strategic resources between the relational network of contractors and innovation in the specific case of Tunisian SMEs. The originality of this approach lies in the effort to show that the detention of a relational network is not synonymous with real access to strategic resources and the realization of benefits in terms of innovation. This finding is particularly important for SMEs which lack the means to profit from their own relational fabrics.

  20. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  1. Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment

    VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

    2012-01-01

    With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

  2. Lunar utilization. [materials resources and cislunar transportation considerations for space industrialization

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The resources, techniques, and purposes to which lunar materials could be put are discussed, with attention given to transporting lunar materials to cislunar space for the construction of space manufacturing and habitable facilities. A model molecule, demandite, which represents the mole fraction of all materials used in the U.S. in 1967, is used to assess the lunar resources defined during Apollo missions. It is shown that duplication of the same manufacturing, fuel, and life-support systems in space as those on earth would cost several orders of magnitude more if the materials originated on earth than on the moon. The demandite would be sent into cislunar orbit using linear electric motors. Lunar surface concentrations of pyroxenes, olivine, feldspars, ilmenite, basalts, anorthostatic rocks, and breccias are reviewed, noting that carbon in the regolith is solar-wind derived, while in lunar rocks the carbon is indigenous. Lunar mining techniques are envisioned, especially the capacity to move large masses at 1/6 the effort required on the earth.

  3. Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons

    Tsuchiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a $^3\\mathrm{He}$ counter had a small sensitivity to high-energy gamma rays because of inelastic interaction with its cathode-tube materials (Al or stainless steel). A $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counter with the intrinsic small sensitivity, if surrounded by thick materials, would largely detect thunderstorm-related gamma rays rather than those neutrons produced via photonuclear reaction in the atmosphere. On the other hand, the counter, if surrounded by thin materials and located away from a gamma-ray source, would observe neutron signals with little gamma-ray contamination. Compared with t...

  4. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs related to an assessment of the effects of oil and gas development. An overview of each presentation and the presentation materials used at the meeting are provided in the Planning Meeting report. The reader should refer to that report as well as to the information presented in the current report for a more complete understanding of each resource.

  5. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

  7. RELATIONAL NETWORK, ABSORPTION CAPACITY AND ACCESS TO EXTERNAL RESOURCES BY TUNISIAN CONTRACTORS

    Adel Ghodbane; Habib Affes

    2015-01-01

    This paper will try to analyze the impact of relational network characteristics on the absorption capacity and the external resources of contractors. The originality of our approach lies in the choice of the context in which our empirical analysis is applied, and relative to the Tunisian context. In addition, a range of theoretical approaches are integrated that have examined the links between absorption capacity and relational network.

  8. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  9. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  10. Coordination Mechanism of the Legal Protection of Resource Security with Its Relative Laws

    Chen Demin; Wang Huabing

    2008-01-01

    The basis of the legal protection of resource security is its relative laws, which have four main characteristics, which are foundational, divergent, comprehensive and of long-term social benefits in view. The coordination mechanism of the legal protection of resource security with its relative laws meets the needs of the sustainable development of the economy, society and environment. It also facilitates and is facilitated by the modern transformation of the legal system in China, and upholds the legal system as a logically self-perfecting entity. Furthermore, this coordination bears scientific feasibility.

  11. Resources.

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  12. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway......Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of...... efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity...

  13. Resources for Public Relations Teaching: Facilitating the Growth of Public Relations Education.

    Coombs, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses briefly events (including a 1998 summer conference, a report, and a 1999 Pre-Conference) leading up to this themed issue on public relations teaching. Introduces the seven remaining articles in the issue which represent six different content areas to be covered in a public relations curriculum, and which reflects recommendations for…

  14. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  15. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided. PMID:26865491

  16. Microstructure-fracture-permeability relations in cemented granular materials

    In this work, we investigate the relationships between the microstructure of cemented granular materials, morphology of cracks that may appear under tensile loading and their apparent permeability. In order to simulate the complexity of the multiphase heterogeneous structure of these materials, a numerical approach based on a lattice discretization was developed and used to study the mechanisms that control their behavior and rupture. Three distinct regimes of crack propagation were evidenced in terms of the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle/matrix adherence. In the context of nuclear safety and in view of analyzing cracked concrete tightness, a methodology is proposed for generating representative microstructures with controlled phase volume fractions and particle size distributions. The cracks obtained under tensile loading are analyzed and a relationship is obtained between the microstructure of concrete and the tortuosity of the cracks. The permeability of cracked numerical microstructures was obtained by the simulation of liquid flow through the cracks by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method. Finally, a microstructure-tortuosity-permeability relation is proposed. The modeling and analysis tools developed in this work are generic enough to be applied to other complex multiphase heterogeneous materials. (author)

  17. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  18. Work in the classrooms with European perspective: materials and resources for autonomus learning

    Raposo Rivas, Manuela; M.ª Carmen SARCEDA GORGOJO

    2011-01-01

    One of the key principles set forth in the bologna process is to focus teaching on students, by getting involved actively and independently in their learning process and in developing their skills. This requires the use of teaching and learning methods together with materials and resources to motivate and guide them. In this paper, we present three of them, from our experience in adapting the subject of «New Technologies Applied to education» to the ecTs system, which we have found useful for...

  19. Formation of Silicon Carbide Using Volcanic Ash as Starting Material and Concentrated Sunlight as Energy Resource

    Kensuke Nishioka; Junki Komori; Kouji Maeda; Yasuyuki Ota; Hiroshi Kaneko; Kosei Sato

    2015-01-01

    SiC was formed using volcanic ash as starting material and concentrated sunlight as energy resource. The solar furnace was composed of two parts: Fresnel lens and reacting furnace. The reacting furnace was composed of a cylindrical vacuum chamber and quartz glass plate functioning to guide the concentrated sunlight into the furnace and was placed at the focal point of the Fresnel lens. The sample was made from the mixture of silica formed from volcanic ash and graphite and placed in the carbo...

  20. Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: I.Metallurgical Slag

    XU Delong; LI Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to make an effectivily recycle use of iron and steel slags that are main industrial wastes generated in Chinese metallurgical industry,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as preparing cement-steel slag blended cement with steel slag after metal recovery,using the fine powder of blast furnace slag (BFS)for manufacturing slag cement and high performance concrete.A further research on using these available resources more efficiently were discussed.

  1. The role of material engineering within the concept of an integrated water resources management

    Breiner, Raphael; Müller, Harald S.

    2016-05-01

    By means of a case study, the successful implementation of a rheologically optimised cement-based mortar for the construction as well as for the rehabilitation of rain water cisterns is presented in this paper. The material was developed within the scope of a German-Indonesian joint project ["Integrated Water Resources Management" (IWRM)], funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Comprehensive rheological investigations are presented which provide the database for the optimization of the mortar with regard to its intended range of application. For the selection of the source materials, special emphasis was placed on the ready availability at low cost. The rheological properties of the fresh mortar allow an easy workability by hand while the hardened mortar shows a durable and tight appearance at the same time. The developed material can be used as a coating for walls, floors and ceilings of cisterns, for the local rehabilitation of damaged areas only or even as a construction material for complete new cisterns. The future multiplication of the IWRM project results within the region was assured by a local capacity development when the presented material concept was applied in practise in Indonesia for the construction of sustainable rain water cisterns in Gunung Kidul.

  2. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  3. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  4. Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

  5. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    2013-05-24

    ... Principles and Requirements into agency missions and programs. Per the March 27, 2013 notice, at 78 FR 18562... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Environmental Quality. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water...

  6. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    2012-11-09

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data and literature in... scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  7. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and... (Pub. L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and...

  8. Traditional and Health-Related Philanthropy : The Role of Resources and Personality

    Bekkers, René

    2006-01-01

    I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving: agr

  9. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  10. BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities

    Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

  11. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

  12. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  13. Controlling the Flow of Material Resources of Restructuring Actions of Enterprises in the Housing

    Vodovozov Yevgeniy N.

    2013-01-01

    The article elaborated methodological support to control the flow of material resources in the event of restructuring enterprises in the housing in terms of reforming the property. The model of flow control material resources of restructuring activities is proposed, that, unlike existing ones, can analyze all departures on schedule control and make changes to eliminate them.В статье разработано методическое обеспечение по контролю расхода материальных ресурсов на реструктуризационные мероприя...

  14. Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources

    Landry Michel D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Methods Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. Results Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. Conclusion The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice.

  15. Geo-material microfluidics at reservoir conditions for subsurface energy resource applications.

    Porter, Mark L; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Martinez, Ricardo; McCulloch, Quinn; Carey, J William; Viswanathan, Hari S

    2015-10-21

    Microfluidic investigations of flow and transport in porous and fractured media have the potential to play a significant role in the development of future subsurface energy resource technologies. However, the majority of experimental systems to date are limited in applicability due to operating conditions and/or the use of engineered material micromodels. We have developed a high pressure and temperature microfluidic experimental system that allows for direct observations of flow and transport within geo-material micromodels (e.g. rock, cement) at reservoir conditions. In this manuscript, we describe the experimental system, including our novel micromodel fabrication method that works in both geo- and engineered materials and utilizes 3-D tomography images of real fractures as micromodel templates to better represent the pore space and fracture geometries expected in subsurface formations. We present experimental results that highlight the advantages of using real-rock micromodels and discuss potential areas of research that could benefit from geo-material microfluidic investigations. The experiments include fracture-matrix interaction in which water imbibes into the shale rock matrix from etched fractures, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) displacing brine in idealized and realistic fracture patterns, and three-phase flow involving scCO2-brine-oil. PMID:26329326

  16. INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development

    The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  17. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  18. Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Deng, Suxiang; Mauritz, Kenneth A.; Hassan, Mohammad K.; Gido, Samuel P.

    2011-11-22

    Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

  19. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Lars Bäckman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  20. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  1. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization related projects. [Article content in Chinese

  2. Incentive-Related Human Resource Practices for Substance Use Disorder Counselors: Salaries, Benefits, and Training

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with incentive-related human resource practices for substance use disorder counselors can help promote a stable workforce in this occupation. We examined three counselor incentives—salaries, benefits, training—and the link with organizational, counselor, and patient characteristics. Data were collected in 2007/08 via face-to-face interviews with 345 administrators/clinical directors in private treatment centers. Centers paid counselors an average of $38,800 an...

  3. Variabilities in the mortality-related resource utilisation for congenital heart disease

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kutty, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. Methods Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004–2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular sep...

  4. Use of blog as a supplementary study material resource in dentistry: An Indian experience

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social networking sites (SNS are emerging as an alternate teaching resource. The reach and access characteristics of SNS for a noninstitutional, academic blog in an Indian setting has not been documented and this manuscript aim to address this lacunae. Materials and Methods: A blog for oral histology, an integral basic dental subject and its Facebook promotional page was created. The access characteristics were observed using Google analytics. The Facebook promotional pages of the blog access characteristics are presented. Results: A total of 582 people visited the blog during the study period. Majority of them used Google Chrome from desktop/laptop to access the blog. There were 2723 page visits in all. Visitors from 36 countries and 99 cities across the globe accessed the blog. In all through Facebook, the promotional page reached 36,543 people. The total number of people engaged through Facebook promotion page was 10,757. Conclusion: Access characteristics of the noninstitutional, academic blog have been described for the first time in dentistry. The lessons learnt through this exercise would be helpful in designing e-mentoring courses as well promotional pages of such events in the future. The necessity of making the mentors and students to adapt to e-learning and digital learning resources before drawing such programs is highlighted.

  5. The availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming.

    Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui; Liu, Peng; Dai, Dongyang; Di, Meilin; Chen, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The current study investigated the role of attention in inhibitory processes (the inhibitory processes described in the current study refer only to those associated with masked or flanked priming) using a mixed paradigm involving the negative compatibility effect (NCE) and object-based attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that attention can be spread more easily within the same object, which increases the availability of attentional resources, than across different objects. Accordingly, we manipulated distractor location (with primes presented in the same object versus presented in different objects) together with prime/target compatibility (compatible versus incompatible) and prime-distractor stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 23 ms vs 70 ms). The aim was to investigate whether inhibitory processes related to weakly activated priming, which have been previously assumed to be automatic, depend on the availability of attentional resources. The results of Experiment 1 showed a significant NCE for the 70-ms SOA when the prime and distractor were presented in the same object (greater attentional resource availability); however, reversed NCEs were obtained for all other conditions. Experiment 2 was designed to disentangle whether the results of Experiment 1 were affected by the prime position, and the results indicated that the prime position did not modulate the NCE in Experiment 1. Together, these results are consistent with the claim that the availability of attentional resources modulates the inhibitory strength related to weakly activated priming. Specifically, if attentional resources are assigned to the distractor when it is presented in the same object as the prime, the strength of the inhibition elicited by the distractor may increase and reverse the activation elicited by the prime, which could lead to a significant NCE. PMID:27198916

  6. A comprehensive view of the web-resources related to sericulture

    Singh, Deepika; Chetia, Hasnahana; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Sharma, Swagata; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of sequencing and analysis has led to a tremendous spike in data and the development of data science tools. One of the outcomes of this scientific progress is development of numerous databases which are gaining popularity in all disciplines of biology including sericulture. As economically important organism, silkworms are studied extensively for their numerous applications in the field of textiles, biomaterials, biomimetics, etc. Similarly, host plants, pests, pathogens, etc. are also being probed to understand the seri-resources more efficiently. These studies have led to the generation of numerous seri-related databases which are extremely helpful for the scientific community. In this article, we have reviewed all the available online resources on silkworm and its related organisms, including databases as well as informative websites. We have studied their basic features and impact on research through citation count analysis, finally discussing the role of emerging sequencing and analysis technologies in the field of seri-data science. As an outcome of this review, a web portal named SeriPort, has been created which will act as an index for the various sericulture-related databases and web resources available in cyberspace. Database URL: http://www.seriport.in/

  7. A comprehensive view of the web-resources related to sericulture.

    Singh, Deepika; Chetia, Hasnahana; Kabiraj, Debajyoti; Sharma, Swagata; Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the field of sequencing and analysis has led to a tremendous spike in data and the development of data science tools. One of the outcomes of this scientific progress is development of numerous databases which are gaining popularity in all disciplines of biology including sericulture. As economically important organism, silkworms are studied extensively for their numerous applications in the field of textiles, biomaterials, biomimetics, etc. Similarly, host plants, pests, pathogens, etc. are also being probed to understand the seri-resources more efficiently. These studies have led to the generation of numerous seri-related databases which are extremely helpful for the scientific community. In this article, we have reviewed all the available online resources on silkworm and its related organisms, including databases as well as informative websites. We have studied their basic features and impact on research through citation count analysis, finally discussing the role of emerging sequencing and analysis technologies in the field of seri-data science. As an outcome of this review, a web portal named SeriPort, has been created which will act as an index for the various sericulture-related databases and web resources available in cyberspace.Database URL: http://www.seriport.in/. PMID:27307138

  8. Ecologization of intenational relations in the sphere of marine resources use

    Kateryna Stepanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of ecologization of international relations, analyses trends and steps of ecologization and environmental law development. Special role of UN in global environmental problems solving is highlighted.Ecologization of international regulation of marine-related activities is considered as an extremely importantdue to marine resources degradation, marine transboundary pollution, human impact in the coastal zones, high level of uncertainty and risk of marine-related activities.Ecologization of international relations in the Black Sea basin is realized by mechanism of conventions, international programs and international projects. Special role of the Black Sea Commission and International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is emphasized. Recommendations for rasing the level of international relations ecologization in the Black Sea basin are made

  9. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically the...... creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...

  10. IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material

    The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve

  11. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  12. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  13. The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification

    Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and

  14. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  15. iAIDS: HIV-related internet resources for the practicing clinician.

    Krakower, Douglas; Kwan, Candice K; Yassa, David S; Colvin, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    In this review, we collate 25 clinically useful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Web sites to facilitate efficient access to online resources according to themes of clinical inquiry: (1) comprehensive clinical information, (2) opportunistic infections, (3) antiretroviral drug interactions, (4) care of HIV-infected women and children, and (5) continuing medical education. We evaluated these Web sites for clinical content and quality using criteria including the currency of information, inclusion of references, sponsors, whether the site is useful in resource-limited settings, ease of navigation, and content specific for each theme. Using the specified criteria, we provided overall ratings for each Web site. We conclude that the Web sites listed in this review can help extend knowledge about best practices and provide real-time patient care support to clinicians. PMID:20738185

  16. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.; Raats, Monique M.;

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own...... food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but...... also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals....

  17. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  18. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  19. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Lagged effects of family-supportive organization perceptions and supervision in relation to generalized work-related resources.

    Matthews, Russell A; Toumbeva, Tatiana H

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, grounded in organizational support and social exchange theory, the dynamic lagged interplay between family supportive supervision (FSS), family supportive organization perceptions (FSOP), perceived organizational support (POS), and leader-member exchange (LMX) was examined. Data were collected from 435 respondents over 3 time points with 6-week lags between assessments. Consistent with theory, FSS had a significant lagged effect on FSOP, whereas the reverse relationship was not supported. Interestingly, contrary to conservation of resources theory, we did not find significant lagged effects between POS and FSOP. Results further indicated that LMX and FSS were reciprocally related over time, suggesting the potential for a dynamic, mutually beneficial exchange relationship between subordinates and supervisors. Theoretical implications and considerations for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25402223

  1. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  2. Description of water-resource-related data compiled for Reno County, south-central Kansas

    Hansen, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resource-related data for sites in Reno County, Kansas were compiled in cooperation with the Reno County Health Department as part of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment's Local Environmental Protection Program (LEPP). These data were entered into a relational data-base management system (RDBMS) to facilitate the spatial analysis required to meet the LEPP goals of developing plans for nonpoint-source management and for public- water-supply protection. The data in the RDBMS are organized into digital data sets. The data sets contain the water-resource-related data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for 958 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 3,936 wells; by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment for 51 wells, 18 public-water-supply distribution systems, and 7 streams; by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 643 wells and 23 streams or surface-water impoundments; and by well-drilling contractors and the Kansas Geological Survey for 96 wells. The data in these five data sets are available from the Reno County Health Department in Hutchinson, Kansas. (USGS)

  3. Algorithms for Relative Radiometric Correction in Earth Observing Systems Resource-P and Canopus-V

    Zenin, V. A.; Eremeev, V. V.; Kuznetcov, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper has considered two algorithms of the relative radiometric correction of information obtained from a multimatrix imagery instrument of the spacecraft "Resource-P" and frame imagery systems of the spacecraft "Canopus-V". The first algorithm is intended for elimination of vertical stripes on the image that are caused by difference in transfer characteristics of CCD matrices and CCD detectors. Correction coefficients are determined on the basis of analysis of images that are homogeneous by brightness. The second algorithm ensures an acquisition of microframes homogeneous by brightness from which seamless images of the Earth surface are synthesized. Examples of practical usage of the developed algorithms are mentioned.

  4. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  5. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  6. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Highlights: → Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. → The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. → Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  7. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  8. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  9. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authorita...

  10. Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp) With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions

    Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

    2013-01-01

    The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, L...

  11. Human Resource Management & Knowledge-Based Management -- A study of HR practices in performance-related knowledge management

    Huang, Keke

    2007-01-01

    Human resource management has increasingly become to a significant part of organizational management. The existing literatures related to Strategic HRM currently are closely referred to the resource-based view of the firm to explain and analyze the correlation between human capital and the sustention of competitive advantage. In view of resource-based development under the competitive dynamic environment, the economy has changed from the product-based to mainly knowledge-based. Knowledge-rela...

  12. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

  13. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Egni Malo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authoritarian regimes of communism that gave it a face of their own, any more than has traditional conservatism been dependent on social Darwinism, racist or/and aggressive regimes. Beyond this indication we argue of the possibility that historical materialism can be recognised as explanatory system, as one that in derivation and maturity has as its focus of analysis and particularly lays emphasis on what more than ever before governs our social world today, capitalism. The cold war proved the ground or rather the fit for concealing the social and economic divide and made that division namely in competing strategic interest: with the failure of communism and the freeing of historical materialism itself, IR might as well accept the degree to which socio-economic issues determined its agenda and policy of the west.

  14. Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials

    Leschine, Susan; Warnick, Thomas A.

    2010-03-23

    Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

  15. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.-----V tem članku raziskujemo prisotnost kolokacijskih odnosov v sistemih za računalniško podprto učenje in drugih jezikovnih virov za japonski jezik, na eni strani, in v materialih za učenje japonskega jezika za tujce, na drugi strani. Najprej predstavimo pomembnost učenja kolokacij v učenju tujega jezika, na kar preučimo njihov obseg v različnih virih za japonski jezik. Še posebej se osredotočimo na nekaj besednih zvez na začetniški ravni in pokažemo, kako so obravnavani v vsakem od virov. Posebna pozornost je namenjena nepredvidljivosti kolokacij, ki je povezana z večjim bremenom pri učenju tujih jezikov kot je to v primeru kolokacij, ki so učencem predvidljivi.  

  16. Unconformity-related uranium-gold deposits of northern Australia: Resources, genesis and exploration

    Australia has a uranium resource of 370 kt U3O8 (313 kt U) contained in unconformity-related deposits. Over 85% of this resource is located in the Alligator Rivers Province of the Northern Territory. In addition to uranium, several of the deposits here contain economic gold (38t have so far been delineated) and two contain major amounts of platinum-group metals. Uranium-gold deposits of the Alligator Rivers Provinces are in many ways similar to deposits of the Athabasca Basin in Saskatchewan (Canada). They are located at the unconformity between Mid Proterozoic clastic rocks and older metamorphic basement. Ore is associated with fault zones which in some cases transgress and offset the unconformity. Ore is enveloped by intense clay-sized phyllosilicate alteration haloes. Differences (i.e. lower grade, no ore in sandstone, no Ni-Co-As ore) can largely be attributed to the effects of extensive erosion and weathering which has exposed the Alligator Rivers deposits, and overall lack of exploration in areas of thick sandstone cover. All the known deposits in the Alligator Rivers Province were discovered by relatively simple airborne or ground radiometric surveys. Modern, geophysical methods as are routinely employed in Saskatchewan (such as airborne TEM), have not been tried in the Alligator Rivers Province. There has been a paucity of exploration in the Alligator Rivers Province in the past 15 years, as a result of creation of a national park over the most prospective area. (author). 31 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  18. The role of human resource management in open innovation: exploring the relation between HR practices and OI

    Paul, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    How do human resource practices strengthen open innovation activities? This inductive study of six cases led to propositions exploring that question. I thereby investigated the role of human resource management in open innovation, specifically the relation between HR practices and an employee's willingness to embrace open innovation.

  19. Technology-Related Research in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Publications: A Review between 2000 and 2004

    Githens, Rod P.; Dirani, Khalil; Gitonga, Jacqueline; Teng, Ya-Ting; Benson, Angela D.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of technology has influenced human resource development (HRD) practitioners to embrace technology for both training and non-training interventions. This study examined technology-related articles in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) publications in order to understand what these articles address and the future needs of…

  20. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. PMID:25363638

  1. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling

  2. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org . PMID:27083180

  3. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  4. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated

  5. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  6. Changing Hydrological Cycle in Asian Monsoon Region in Relation to Water Resources

    Kabat, P.

    2006-12-01

    Water is a key resource for sustainable development in the Monsoon Asian Region. Frequent occurrence of flood disasters related to increasing Asian monsoon climate variability, progressing land degradation associated with anomalous monsoon dry climate and land overexploitation, increasing water use due to rapid social/economic development, and water pollution under the development of industrialization, urbanization and intensive agriculture, all pose fundamental questions about mid- and long term future carrying capacity of water systems in this key-region of the globe. We review some of the most recent data and methodological insights about how the hydrological cycle and hydroclimate in monsoon Asia is changing or has already changed in association with the global warming (GHG increase). Next,we analyze how regional-scale anthropogenic impacts such land cover/use changes, forest fire, dust increase, affect the hydrological cycle and water resources in the monsoon Asia and Northern China. The issues addressed in the presentation include: (i)the current regional hydrological cycle, especially causal chains leading to observable changes in droughts and floods;(ii)how the water cycle and the extremes may respond to future drivers of global change;(iii) feedbacks in the coupled system as they affect the hydrological cycle; (iv)the uncertainties in the predictions of coupled climate-hydrological- land use models and (v)the future vulnerability of water as a resource. We argue for a substantial increase of international collaborative research efforts into integrated impact assessment of climate change and human activity on water systems in this region.

  7. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  8. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

  9. Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    which is tied up with a principle of immanence which is crucial for the understanding of Bourriaud's and many of his related artists' sense of utopia and avant-garde. Setting off from an analysis of the concept of model in RA, I would like to demonstrate the relationship between relational form, model......, and utopia, and how this surprisingly lead to an ideal yet immanent conception of art. To contextualise and exemplify my analysis, I shall draw on my collaboration-based study of art collective Superflex as well as Bourriaud's later writings on post-production and alter-modernism....

  10. Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report.

    Dimba, Eao; Yengopal, V; Joshua, E; Thavarajah, R; Balasundaram, S

    2016-04-01

    With advancement of medical interventions, the lifespan of people living with HIV has increased globally. However, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) which bear the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic face a constant challenge in addressing the treatment needs of immune-suppressed patients. An analysis of the current management protocols and access to medication in resource-poor settings was conducted at this workshop, with emphasis on the situation in resource-poor settings. The participants developed a consensus document based on the need to respond to the constantly changing HIV pandemic. Provision of oral health care must be guided by interconnecting principles based on population based strategies that address upstream determinants of health. Basic oral health coverage in developing countries can only be realized with a strong foundation at the primary health level. Early diagnosis of HIV-related comorbidities including the adverse effects of ARVs is essential for the improvement of treatment outcomes. Standardization of oral health care delivery mechanisms will facilitate evaluation at national and regional levels. Oral health care workers have a moral obligation to participate in sustained campaigns to reduce the social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS in their work places at every stage of the referral chain. Future research also needs to realign itself towards prevention using the common risk factor approach, which has a broader impact on non-communicable diseases, which are increasingly affecting patients with HIV/AIDS as their life expectancies increase. PMID:27109288

  11. Fusion Material Studies Relating to Safety in Russia in 2002

    B. N. Kolbasov; M. I. Guseva; B. I. Khripunov; Y. V. Martynenko; P. V. Romanov; S. A. Lelekhov; S. A. Bartenev

    2004-01-01

    The paper is a summary of Russian material studies performed in frames of activities aiming at substantiation of safety of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) after 2001. Subthreshold sputtering of tungsten by 5eV deuterons was revealed at temperatures above 1150rm oC. Mechanism of globular films formation was further studied. Computations of tritium permeation into vacuum vessel coolant confirmed the acceptability of vacuum vessel cooling system for removal of the decay heat. The most dangerous accident with high-current arc in toroidal superconducting magnets able to burn out a bore up to 0.6 m in diameter in the cryostat vessel was determined. Radiochemical reprocessing of V-Cr-Ti alloy and its purification from activation products down to a contact dose rate of ~10muSv/h was developed.

  12. A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.

    Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

    1988-09-01

    Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

  13. ARE OPPORTUNITIES DEMANDS AND RESOURCES RELATED TO STRESS ? A CRITICAL STUDY

    Harish .K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are aware that employee stress is an increasing problem in organizations. Friends tell us they’re stressed out from greater workloads and having to work longer hours because of downsizing at their company. Parents talk about the lack of job stability in today’s world and reminisce about a time when a job with a large company implied lifetime security. We read surveys in which employees complain about the stress created in trying to balance work and family responsibilities. We’ll look at the causes and consequences of stress, and then consider what individuals and organizations can do to reduce it. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

  14. 29 CFR 1208.5 - Material relating to mediation function-confidential.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to mediation function-confidential. 1208.5 Section 1208.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.5 Material relating to mediation function—confidential. (a) All...

  15. Is Melatonin Protective in Contrast Material Related Renal Failure?

    Ozum Tuncyurek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the renal injury resulting from radiocontrast media and myoglobinuria in male Wistar albino rats. Material and Method: 50% glycerol at equal amounts was intramuscularly administered to both hind legs of all animals under ether anesthesia at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Three hours later, the groups were administered the following: Group I (number:7: Iopromide(Ultravist -300® at the dose of 2 ml/kg (intracardiac; Group II (number:7: Iopromide(Ultravist -300® and intraperitoneally administered Melatonin at the dose of 10 mg/kg (Melatonin was dissolved in 7.5% absolute ethanol and further dilutions were made in saline.; and Group III (number:7: 2 ml/kg of sterile physiologic saline (Control group. The levels of Uurea, Ccreatinine and Ccystatin C were studied on the blood samples collected. The renal samples were evaluated by 2two distinct pathologists who did not know the protocol. Results: There was no difference in the values of Creatinine and cystatin c between Groups 2 and 3 (p=0.9; 0.2. Discussion: In conclusion, we evaluated the possible prevention of contrast-induced oxidative stress in the kidney with using melatonin. However, additional clinical studies are needed to evaluate the role of preventive melatonin treatment in humans.

  16. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-03-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  17. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-04-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  18. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  19. Services of radiological protection: as sizing the human and material resources

    Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)

  20. Carbon and related materials for thermal and electrical applications

    Aoyagi, Yasuhiro

    High thermal stability has been attained in polyol ester by using a sterically half-hindered phenolic primary antioxidant and a thiopropionate secondary antioxidant. Carbon black and boron nitride (BN) serve as antioxidants in the presence of either primary antioxidant or secondary antioxidant at 200°C. BN paste shows an estimated 100°C lifetime of 19 years, compared to 1.3 years for the carbon black paste and 0.10 year for commercial silver paste. Phase-change materials (PCMs) with high thermal stability and high heat of fusion have been attained by using antioxidants (mainly hydrocarbons with linear segments). Their heat of fusion is much higher than those of commercial PCMs. The use of 98.0 wt.% thiopropionate antioxidant with 2.0 wt.% half-hindered phenolic antioxidant as the matrix and 16 vol.% BN particles gives 100°C lifetime indicator 5.3 years, in contrast to 0.95 year or less for the commercial PCMs. Carbon-based films with thickness 1-13 mum, electrical resistivity 6 x 10-4 - 3 O.cm, and strong bonding to alumina, have been attained through the use of EPON SU 2.5 epoxy and an amine curing agent as the carbon precursor, and a carbonization temperature of 650°C. Nickel nanoparticles (filamentary) are more effective for enhancing the conductivity than silver nanoparticles (not filamentary) at the same volume fraction. Even the combined use of carbon nanotube and silver is less effective than nickel. A three-dimensional microstructure in the form of a microscale bridge on alumina has been attained by using a novel low-cost process that involves thermoplastic spacer (wax) evaporation during pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coats the spacer and a part of the substrate. Multiwalled carbon nanotube as a filler is effective for reducing cracking during pyrolysis. A bridge with a girder of length 90-300 microm, separated from the substrate by a height of 5-15 mum, has been attained.

  1. School difficulties and role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.

    Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Background: School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods:...

  2. Failure of school project: the role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.

    Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Youth context require social-material-behavioral-mental resources to realize school achievement and their community participation, but they are lacking or altered for many adolescents. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of these factors with repeating a school year, low school-performance, and quitting-school thinking at 16 years. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including: sex, age, family st...

  3. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  4. Bibliography of Multi-Ethnic and Sex-Fair Resource Materials.

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Equal Educational Opportunities.

    This annotated bibliography lists both nondiscriminatory instructional materials (largely audio-visual) for classroom use and works for teachers' use that promote multi-ethnic and sex fair education. The materials listed include films, filmstrips, slide presentations and video tapes, bibliographies of curriculum materials, books, handbooks and…

  5. Long-term relationships of major macro-variables in a resource-related economic model of Australia

    The paper reports the results of a simple cointegration analysis applied to bivariate causality models using data on resource output, oil prices, terms of trade, current account and output growth to investigate the long-term relationships among these major macroeconomic aggregates in a resource-related economic model of Australia. For the period 1960-1990, the empirical evidence indicates that these five macro-variables, as formulated in our model, are not random walks. In addition, resource production and oil prices are significantly cointegrated, and they are also significantly cointegrated with the current account, terms of trade and economic growth. These findings provide support to the long-term adjustments foundation of our resource-related model. (author)

  6. Arousal Cues Arousal-Related Material in Memory: Implications for Understanding Effects of Mood on Memory.

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses research showing that material people learn when in a high arousal state and material they learn when in a normal arousal state is subsequently best recalled when they are in a similar arousal state. Speculates that this effect may partially underlie mood cuing, mood-related material from memory. (EKN)

  7. Using closely-related language to build an ASR for a very under-resourced language: Iban

    Juan, Sarah Samson; Besacier, Laurent; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Tien Ping, Tan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our work on automatic speech recognition system (ASR) for an under-resourced language, Iban, a language that is mainly spoken in Sarawak, Malaysia. We collected 8 hours of data to begin this study due to no resources for ASR exist. We employed bootstrapping techniques involving a closely-related language for rapidly building and improve an Iban system. First, we used already available data from Malay, a local dominant language in Malaysia, to bootstrap grapheme-to-phoneme...

  8. BioCreative V CDR task corpus: a resource for chemical disease relation extraction.

    Li, Jiao; Sun, Yueping; Johnson, Robin J; Sciaky, Daniela; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Wiegers, Thomas C; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Community-run, formal evaluations and manually annotated text corpora are critically important for advancing biomedical text-mining research. Recently in BioCreative V, a new challenge was organized for the tasks of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. Given the nature of both tasks, a test collection is required to contain both disease/chemical annotations and relation annotations in the same set of articles. Despite previous efforts in biomedical corpus construction, none was found to be sufficient for the task. Thus, we developed our own corpus called BC5CDR during the challenge by inviting a team of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexers for disease/chemical entity annotation and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) curators for CID relation annotation. To ensure high annotation quality and productivity, detailed annotation guidelines and automatic annotation tools were provided. The resulting BC5CDR corpus consists of 1500 PubMed articles with 4409 annotated chemicals, 5818 diseases and 3116 chemical-disease interactions. Each entity annotation includes both the mention text spans and normalized concept identifiers, using MeSH as the controlled vocabulary. To ensure accuracy, the entities were first captured independently by two annotators followed by a consensus annotation: The average inter-annotator agreement (IAA) scores were 87.49% and 96.05% for the disease and chemicals, respectively, in the test set according to the Jaccard similarity coefficient. Our corpus was successfully used for the BioCreative V challenge tasks and should serve as a valuable resource for the text-mining research community.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-3-cdr/. PMID:27161011

  9. The Relative Richness of the Poor? Natural Resources, Human Capital and Economic Growth

    Bravo-Ortega, Claudio; De Gregorio, José

    2005-01-01

    What is the role of natural resources in economic performance? Are there any special conditions in which natural resources can act as the engine of growth? Are natural resources a curse? In this paper we present a model where natural resources have a positive effect on level of income and a negative effect on its growth rate. However, we show that this effect can be ameliorated by having a large level of human capital. We test our model using panel data for the period 1970-1990. We extend the...

  10. A matrix model for valuing anesthesia service with the resource-based relative value system

    Sinclair DR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Sinclair,1 David A Lubarsky,1 Michael M Vigoda,1 David J Birnbach,1 Eric A Harris,1 Vicente Behrens,1 Richard E Bazan,1 Steve M Williams,1 Kristopher Arheart,2 Keith A Candiotti1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to propose a new crosswalk using the resource-based relative value system (RBRVS that preserves the time unit component of the anesthesia service and disaggregates anesthesia billing into component parts (preoperative evaluation, intraoperative management, and postoperative evaluation. The study was designed as an observational chart and billing data review of current and proposed payments, in the setting of a preoperative holing area, intraoperative suite, and post anesthesia care unit. In total, 1,195 charts of American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status 1 through 5 patients were reviewed. No direct patient interventions were undertaken. Results: Spearman correlations between the proposed RBRVS billing matrix payments and the current ASA relative value guide methodology payments were strong (r=0.94–0.96, P<0.001 for training, test, and overall. The proposed RBRVS-based billing matrix yielded payments that were 3.0%±1.34% less than would have been expected from commercial insurers, using standard rates for commercial ASA relative value units and RBRVS relative value units. Compared with current Medicare reimbursement under the ASA relative value guide, reimbursement would almost double when converting to an RBRVS billing model. The greatest increases in Medicare reimbursement between the current system and proposed billing model occurred as anesthetic management complexity increased. Conclusion: The new crosswalk correlates with existing evaluation and management and intensive care medicine codes in an

  11. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  12. Health-related quality of life in psoriasis: important role of personal resources.

    Miniszewska, Joanna; Juczyński, Zygfryd; Ograczyk, Alicja; Zalewska, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Many patients with psoriasis demonstrate psychological disturbances, including decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected personal resources and HRQoL in 168 in-patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The following questionnaires were used: Skindex-29, General Health Questionnaire, Coping with Skin Disease Scale, Acceptance of Illness Scale, Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. It was demonstrated that younger patients experienced fewer problems in psychosocial functioning, and that they showed a correlation between worse HRQoL and both external powerful others and external chance domains in locus of health control. Subjective self-evaluation of health correlated with HRQoL irrespective of patient's age. Coping with stress strategies hopelessness/helplessness and distraction/catastrophization correlated with worse overall HRQoL, whereas fighting spirit strategy correlated with better overall HRQoL. Hopelessness/helplessness coping strategy, somatic symptoms, disease acceptance, psoriasis severity and patient's age explained 61% of overall HRQoL variance. Psychomedical interventions designed for psoriatic patients should take into account the above variables. PMID:23407910

  13. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the environmental consequences related to activities in society is associated with our consumption of resources. Modern products become more and more complex and rely on more complex sets of resources than before. This emphasizes the need for continuous access to high quality...... resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society......, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  14. Innovative Resources Based on ICTs and Authentic Materials to Improve EFL Students' Communicative Needs

    González Otero, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Our global society and our current communication needs have put a strain on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching, since common resources such as textbooks may fail to adapt to the needs and interests of our students. The present action research study aims at identifying EFL students' communicative needs and developing their oral skills…

  15. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  16. The relevance of the psychometrist category as a professional resource: Training-related issues

    René van Eeden

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The professional status of psychometrists places them in a position where they can provide a specialist function independently and their services should therefore be relevant to a variety of settings.Research purpose: The aim was to explore if the training of student psychometrists contributes to the relevance of this category in terms of the demographic profile of student psychometrists, the scope of services potentially provided by them and the content of training programmes.Motivation for the study: There is a paucity of research on training in the psychometrist category.Research design, approach and method: Data were obtained from the files of a cohort of student psychometrists who were registered in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Africa (UNISA. Follow-up surveys on training and work contexts were conducted amongst these students and their in-practice supervisors to confirm and supplement the data. In addition, a survey on the national availability of training programmes for psychometrists was conducted at South African universities.Main findings: Gender and racial skewness in terms of the demographic profile of the UNISA students seemed to reflect a national trend. In terms of the scope of services, training opportunities and perceived job opportunities for psychometrists seemed limited and despite the utilisation of the skills area in all the applied contexts, concerns related to the sectors being served were identified. With regard to the content of the training programmes, students and in-practice supervisors expressed a need for greater preparation in test use before related practical experience takes place. The importance of the university’s involvement during the practicum was also emphasised.Practical/managerial implications: Recommendations are made regarding the structure and content of training programmes. This information could be applied in adapting existing programmes and in developing

  17. Variabilities in the mortality-related resource utilisation for congenital heart disease

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kutty, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. Methods Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004–2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV). There were no interventions but diagnosis, institution (and volume), age, length of hospitalisation, billed charges and deaths were recorded. The main outcome measure was MRRUF, the ratio of investments during hospitalisations ending in fatality to investments during all hospitalisations. Results There were 50 939 admissions, 1711 deaths, 703 383 inpatient days, and $10 182 000 000 billed charges. MRRUF varied widely by diagnosis: highest in HLHS (21%), but present in ASD (2%) and VSD (4%). Highest among the very young, MRRUF also increased in HLHS and SV during adolescence. MRRUF increased with hospitalisation duration. MRRUF had no relation to institutional volume, and was static over the decade studied. Conclusions Even in the modern era we invest heavily in inpatient CHD care that does not produce the desired outcome. Although its magnitude varies by lesion and age, MRRUF is not limited to complex disease in the very young. MRRUF is not decreasing, and is not isolated to high or low volume institutions. PMID:27175289

  18. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Tesler Laura E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded

  19. Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Frigaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency...... of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark....

  20. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Salmah B. Karman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast, and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Biosorption-based biosynthesis is proposed as a means of removing heavy metals from wastewaters and soils as it aids the development of heavy metal nanoparticles that may have an application within the technology industry. Phytomining provides a further green method of managing the metal content of wastewater. These approaches represent a viable means of removing toxic chemicals from the effluent produced during the process of manufacturing, and the bioremediation process, furthermore, has the potential to save metal resources from depletion. Biomimetic resource management comprises bioremediation, biosorption, biosynthesis, phytomining, and further methods that provide innovative ways of interpreting waste and pollutants as raw materials for research and industry, inspired by materials, structures, and processes in living nature.

  1. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  2. Inventory and analysis of natural vegetation and related resources from space and high altitude photography

    Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    A high altitude photomosaic resource map of Site 29 was produced which provided an opportunity to test photo interpretation accuracy of natural vegetation resource features when mapped at a small (1:133,400) scale. Helicopter reconnaissance over 144 previously selected test points revealed a highly adequate level of photo interpretation accuracy. In general, the reasons for errors could be accounted for. The same photomosaic resource map enabled construction of interpretive land use overlays. Based on features of the landscape, including natural vegetation types, judgements for land use suitability were made and have been presented for two types of potential land use. These two, agriculture and urbanization, represent potential land use conflicts.

  3. RCRA Sustainable Materials Management Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a broad variety of documents, descriptive data, technical analyses and guidance materials relative to voluntary improvements in resource...

  4. Relative Abundance of Renewable Resources in Asia and Europe and the Future Demand for Renewable Technologies

    Danielsson, Peter [European Renewable Energies Federation (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In Europe and in many other parts of the world, energy consumption has reached unsustainable levels. As such, efforts must be made both to expand the use of renewable energy and to reduce the total level of energy consumption. If there are any pertinent driving forces for this, they would be the need to reduce harmful emissions; to increase sustainable energy supply, security, poverty, eradication and access to dignity for billions of people - the ending of a vicious circle of exploitation of scarce natural resources for inefficient energy use. Most European nations belong to the relatively small group of wealthy countries enjoying a comparatively high standard of living. They comprise of approximately 20% of the world's population, producing 80% of the world's GNP, while at the same time, consuming 60% of the world's energy, Ironically, more than half of the world's population, or close to 3 billion people, have almost no access to energy services - 1.2 billion live in Asia. There is, however, enough renewable energy flow worldwide to meet all demands. Renewable energies in general now provide some 14% of the world's primary energy and is mostly covered by traditional biomass. In the field of electricity, where renewables account for 20% worldwide, it is mostly hydropower which is used as source. We need a rapid and courageous worldwide change towards an energy-efficient, Renewable Energy Systems powered energy. Asia already offers a set of successful initiatives and examples of how renewables can be promoted. Some countries have set national targets for the future share of renewable energy. Targets are an excellent strategy to demonstrate political willingness and create a stimulating investment climate for the private sector. Financing schemes, adapted to regional situations, in particular microfinance systems, demonstrate how small-scale installations of renewables could become affordable to the population.

  5. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  6. Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran

    N Rouhani; Yang, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Physics Department, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China); S Amin Sichani; M. Afyuni; S.F Mousavi; A. A. Kamgar Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress...

  7. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere

  8. Uncertainty relations and topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials

    Uncertainty relations are studied for a characterization of topological-band insulator transitions in 2D gapped Dirac materials isostructural with graphene. We show that the relative or Kullback–Leibler entropy in position and momentum spaces, and the standard variance-based uncertainty relation give sharp signatures of topological phase transitions in these systems. (paper)

  9. Measuring the Value of Library Resources and Student Academic Performance through Relational Datasets

    Margie Jantti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article describes a project undertaken by the University of Wollongong Library (UWL to identify whether a correlation exists between usage of library resources and academic performance.Methods – A multidimensional approach to systems design was implemented, requiring collaboration between among the library, university administration, Performance Indicator Project team (PIP, and information technology services. The project centers on the integration and interrogation of a series of discrete datasets containing student performance, attrition, demographic, borrowing, and electronic resources usage data. PIP built a cube for the library that links usage of library resources to student demographic data and academic performance (the “Library Cube”. Other cubes will be linked later.Results – While initial reports are rudimentary and do not yet incorporate data on e-resource usage, results are favourable in demonstrating the value of using the library information resources in coursework. Based on the data generated to date, students who borrow library resources do outperform students who do not. Early trend data shows up to a 12-point difference in grades.Conclusion – The Library Cube signals a new milestone in the UWL’s quality assessment journey. Well-established measures of effectiveness and efficiency will be further complemented by measures of impact and value, allowing the library to step even closer to the goal of having effective and valued partnerships with the university community to realize teaching, learning, research, and internalization goals.

  10. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  11. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some materials used in home furnishings

    Hilado, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1976-01-01

    Seventy samples of cushioning and upholstery materials used in home furnishings were evaluated for relative toxicity by means of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test. The materials were variably toxic under pyrolysis conditions, and this test appeared suitable for discriminating among them on the bases of time to incapacitation and time to death. The addition of fire retardants to these materials to comply with flammability regulations either had no significant effect on toxicity, or resulted in a reduction in relative toxicity. The modification of materials to comply with California upholstered furniture flammability regulations appears to have resulted in desirable limitations on toxicity. Fifty percent of the 70 materials tested caused incapacitation earlier than did the materials in compliance, and 30 percent caused death earlier.

  12. Vector of development of prospecting branch in the conditions of exhaustion of raw material resources

    Andrei Zastypov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustion of oil resources in many oil-extracting regions staticizes a problem of development of mechanisms of economic incentives of activity of the prospecting companies, effective regulation of tax system and its adaptation to needs of development of oil-extracting and prospecting branches. Offers on rational use of investment means in geological exploration and to justification of administrative decisions are considered. The main questions of tax and investment incentives of activity in the subsurface use sphere in the conditions of insufficiency of financing of prospecting works are taken up.

  13. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues

    The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

  14. 76 FR 62694 - Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources

    2011-10-11

    ... appeal rule at 36 CFR part 251, subpart C (54 FR 3362) (the 251 Appeal Rule). The 251 Appeal Rule set... Forest Service 36 CFR Parts 212, 214, 215, 218, 222, 228, 241, 251, 254, and 292 RIN 0596--AB45 Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources AGENCY: USDA,...

  15. Influence of surface chemistry on the electronic properties of graphene related carbon materials

    Chutia, Arunabhirm; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Miyamotob, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study on the influence of organic functional groups on the electronic properties of graphene related carbon materials was carried out. Here we report, using density functional theory and tight-binding approach, that the best candidates for conducting supramolecular devices can be obtained by engineering the surface chemistry and stacking conformation of these materials.

  16. The Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: II.Fly Ash and Coal Waste

    LI Hui; XU Delong

    2009-01-01

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation,removal of carbon remains and fine comminution,calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology,and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  17. Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.

    Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches. PMID:24144659

  18. Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials

    Green, Martin L.; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.

    2013-06-01

    High throughput (combinatorial) materials science methodology is a relatively new research paradigm that offers the promise of rapid and efficient materials screening, optimization, and discovery. The paradigm started in the pharmaceutical industry but was rapidly adopted to accelerate materials research in a wide variety of areas. High throughput experiments are characterized by synthesis of a "library" sample that contains the materials variation of interest (typically composition), and rapid and localized measurement schemes that result in massive data sets. Because the data are collected at the same time on the same "library" sample, they can be highly uniform with respect to fixed processing parameters. This article critically reviews the literature pertaining to applications of combinatorial materials science for electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials. It is expected that high throughput methodologies will facilitate commercialization of novel materials for these critically important applications. Despite the overwhelming evidence presented in this paper that high throughput studies can effectively inform commercial practice, in our perception, it remains an underutilized research and development tool. Part of this perception may be due to the inaccessibility of proprietary industrial research and development practices, but clearly the initial cost and availability of high throughput laboratory equipment plays a role. Combinatorial materials science has traditionally been focused on materials discovery, screening, and optimization to combat the extremely high cost and long development times for new materials and their introduction into commerce. Going forward, combinatorial materials science will also be driven by other needs such as materials substitution and experimental verification of materials properties predicted by modeling and simulation, which have recently received much attention with the advent of the Materials Genome

  19. Insomnia, Health-Related Quality of Life and Healthcare Resource Consumption: A Study of Managed-Care Organisation Enrollees

    Hatoum, Hind T; Kong, Sheldon X; Christopher M. Kania; Josephine M. Wong; Mendelson, Wallace B.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Insomnia is a prevalent sleep complaint which has been reported to be greatly associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and increased healthcare resource use. This study documents the prevalence of insomnia, and its impact on patients' HR-QOL and healthcare resource use in managed-care settings in the US. Design and Setting: A multi-site survey of 5 American Medical Group Association(R) (AMGA) clinics was conducted. Each clinic mailed questionnaires to 1100 ra...

  20. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  1. Nuclear power plant life management: Materials and components, research, human resource, radwaste and regulatory aspects

    Aspects concerning nuclear power plant (NPP) life management (PLiM) programmes are examined. The objectives of PLiM and their influence on safety and operation are presented in terms of potential gains in safety, reliability and performance of systems, structures and components (SSCs) by giving due emphasis to social and economic considerations. A nuclear plant implementing a PLiM programme needs state of science and technology information and approaches as well as availability of well trained personnel in sufficient numbers to achieve safe and optimized operating life of the NPP. Accordingly, the importance of succession planning for assuring trained human resources, knowledge management and the need for continued research in all fields of nuclear power generation are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  2. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  3. Determining Optimal Nursing Resources in Relation to Functions During the Oulu University Hospital Nurse Staffing Management Project.

    Liljamo, Pia; Lavander, Päivi; Kejonen, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    The Oulu University Hospital's staffing management project sought information on the number of nursing staff in relation to treatment days and visits, using existing indicators to describe the activities involved. The retrospective data obtained was compared to human resources and the personnel structure. On this basis an optimal number of staff was determined for the units, taking account of a range of explanatory indicator data. The project made use of the computational model for nurse staffing and the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method. The project provided extensive information on human resources issues within the units. Its results indicated the differences between wards with respect to the number and structure of resources. In addition, the nurse administrators lacked skills in gathering and using data from administrative datasets. This information will provide support for the further development of nursing operations and nursing management decision-making. PMID:27332151

  4. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status ...

  5. Lab Manual & Resources for Materials Science, Engineering and Technology on CD-Rom

    Jacobs, James A.; McKenney, Alfred E.

    2001-01-01

    The National Educators' Workshop (NEW:Update) series of workshops has been in existence since 1986. These annual workshops focus on technical updates and laboratory experiments for materials science, engineering and technology, involving new and traditional content in the field. Scores of educators and industrial and national laboratory personnel have contributed many useful experiments and demonstrations which were then published as NASA Conference Proceedings. This "out poring of riches" creates an ever-expanding shelf of valuable teaching tools for college, university, community college and advanced high school instruction. Now, more than 400 experiments and demonstrations, representing the first thirteen years of NEW:Updates have been selected and published on a CD-ROM, through the collaboration of this national network of materials educators, engineers, and scientists. The CD-ROM examined in this document utilizes the popular Adobe Acrobat Reader format and operates on most popular computer platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the second edition of Experiments in Materials Science, Engineering and Technology (EMSET2) CD-ROM, ISBN 0-13-030534-0.

  6. Relations between Faculty Use of Online Academic Resources and Student Class Attendance

    Kinlaw, C. Ryan; Dunlap, Linda L.; D'Angelo, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated connections between faculty use of online resources and student class attendance. Of particular interest was whether online submission of course assignments is detrimental to attendance. Students and faculty at a small, liberal arts college completed surveys about student attendance patterns, student reasons for non-attendance,…

  7. Coping strategies in relation with personality resources of resilience and possibilities of intervention in adolescents

    Karaffová, Eva

    Oslo: NPA, 2009. s. 1-1. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 14.07.2009-17.07. 2009, Oslo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : prevention of stress * personality resources * coping strategies Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Legal issues related to geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 1

    1979-07-01

    The legal aspects of geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are discussed. Many of the legal issues associated with geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are unsettled and represent areas of developing policy and law. Lawsuits can be expected either before or shortly after the first commercial development of geopressured-geothermal resources.

  9. A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy

    Leland, Anna E.

    2009-11-01

    An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

  10. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland

    R.C. Gorter; R. Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To investigate the psychological health - in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress - among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Methods:  Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the weste

  11. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher's Efficiency within Schools: A Co-Relational Study

    Hashmi, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers' efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a…

  12. Energy resources impact on economy development and international relations in Kazakhstan

    Xi, Chen

    2007-01-01

    In the project Kazakhstan has been chosen as a case area to analyze the significance of energy resources mainly on oil and natural gas that possessed in the country towards its economy development and its international relationship with other countries over the world.

  13. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study

    Nadia Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

  14. Marine Resource Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: The Traditional Hawaiian System in Relation to the Western Approach

    P. L. Jokiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important component of the system. Over the past two centuries a “Western system” gradually replaced much of the traditional Hawaiian system. There are major differences between the two systems in the areas of management practices, management focus, knowledge base, dissemination of information, resource monitoring, legal authority, access rights, stewardship and enforcement. However, there is a recent shift toward incorporating elements of the traditional scheme using methods and terminology acceptable and appropriate to present day realities. This trend is exemplified by the management plan for the newly formed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This is one of the largest protected areas in the world and is being managed with a focus on Native Hawaiian cultural values in relation to conservation, ecological, historical, scientific, and educational resource protection.

  15. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study

    This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

  16. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  17. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  18. Climate related projections on future water resources and human adaptation in the Great Ruaha River Basin in Tanzania

    Liwenga, Emma; Pauline, Noah; Tumbo, Madaka;

    season. - The overall climate related effect on water resources is a status quo. - Increased rainy season rainfall offers opportunities for rain fed agriculture and water storage for hydro-power and irrigation. - Local governments are already effectively dealing with these climate related impacts......- Temperatures will likely increase by 1-2 degrees by the middle of the century and 3-4 degrees by the end of the century. - A likely overall increase in precipitation and larger seasonal variation might lead to water related stress during a prolonged dry season and flood risks during the wet...

  19. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  20. Participation in voluntary associations: relations with resources, personality, and political values

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    Participation in voluntary associations is explained by different theories in sociology, psychology and political science. Sociologists have emphasized the effects of resources such as human and social capital. Psychologists have demonstrated the role of empathy and extraversion as aspects of personality. Political scientists have considered political values and attitudes. This paper investigates the predictive value of personality characteristics, political values and social conditions for c...

  1. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher’s Efficiency within Schools: A Co-relational Study.

    Kiran Hashmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers’ efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a simple theoretical and conceptual framework where the effectiveness of HRMD strategies in educational leadership were studied to explore their impa...

  2. The Relative Importance of Human Resource Management Practices for a Firm’s Innovation Performance

    Arvanitis, Spyridon; Seliger, Florian; Stucki, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Human resource management (HRM) practices are generally expected to stimulate a firm's innovation performance. However, which of these practices do really pay off? Based on a unique dataset that includes detailed information for both a firm's innovation activities and different types of HRM practices we find that primarily new workplace organization practices seem to enhance a firm's innovation activities. Flexible practices of working time management and incentive payment schemes show only s...

  3. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants comp...

  4. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-01-01

    With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization ...

  5. All in transition - Human resource management and labour relations in the Chinese industrial sector

    Yu, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper is a literature study reviewing the development of human resource management in China, with a particular focus (where possible) on the automobile industry. It presents the Chinese context for HRM discussing the normative debate about the adaptation of Western management methods and the heritage of Chinese philosophy and values, and it describes the economic, cultural, and transition-specific factors which influence HRM in China. In more detail, the paper deals with work ...

  6. Resources Sharing and Access Control in Group-oriented Networks: Fednet and Related Paradigms

    Ibrohimovna, K.M.; Heemstra de Groot, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Personal Network (PN) is a network composed of devices of a person that can communicate with each other independently from their geographical location. Extra functionality in PNs enables the cooperation amongst different persons forming a group-oriented network called a Federation of Personal Networks (Fednet). A Fednet is a secure, opportunity or purpose driven ad-hoc network for sharing personal resources. A Fednet can be composed for applications in different areas, e.g. education, enter...

  7. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  8. Natural Resources – Food Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and producti...

  9. Natural Resources - Food Nexus: Food-related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    Cosimo eLacirignola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN and Global Footprint Network were used to analyse the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges e.g. land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon and water footprints of consumption and unfavourable national virtual water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterised by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW. In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy and inputs (fertilisers. Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the

  10. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  11. Hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials and relative strains as a new macroscopic variable

    Menzel, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotat...

  12. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  13. Practicing Human Resource strategy: Understanding the relational dynamcis in strategic HR work by means of a narrative approach

    Kaudela-Baum, Stephanie; Endrissat, Nada

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative research project aimed at examining how Human Resource (HR) practitioners interpret HR strategy and strategic change. We will illustrate how they develop HR strategy by relying on a system of shared practices which, in turn, constitute the underlying relational dynamics. We argue that HR strategy is embedded in a (rhetorical) network of middle and top managers from HR departments and corresponding operational departments. This implies that HR...

  14. PWR composite materials use: A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    The major decision taken by EDF to use composites on safety-related circuits (for example: Essential Service Water System) at the CIVAUX nuclear power plant, shows the interest that EDF takes in the development of these new materials (in this instance, for corrosion resistance). This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants

  15. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  16. Application of the maximum relative entropy method to the physics of ferromagnetic materials

    Giffin, Adom; Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the Maximum relative Entropy (MrE) method can be used to both update and approximate probability distributions functions in statistical inference problems. In this manuscript, we apply the MrE method to infer magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. In addition to comparing our approach to more traditional methodologies based upon the Ising model and Mean Field Theory, we also test the effectiveness of the MrE method on conventionally unexplored ferromagnetic materials with defects.

  17. Applying Semantic Web technologies to improve the retrieval, credibility and use of health-related web resources.

    Mayer, Miguel A; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Kukurikos, Antonis; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Villarroel, Dagmar; Leis, Angela

    2011-06-01

    The number of health-related websites is increasing day-by-day; however, their quality is variable and difficult to assess. Various "trust marks" and filtering portals have been created in order to assist consumers in retrieving quality medical information. Consumers are using search engines as the main tool to get health information; however, the major problem is that the meaning of the web content is not machine-readable in the sense that computers cannot understand words and sentences as humans can. In addition, trust marks are invisible to search engines, thus limiting their usefulness in practice. During the last five years there have been different attempts to use Semantic Web tools to label health-related web resources to help internet users identify trustworthy resources. This paper discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied in practice to generate machine-readable labels and display their content, as well as to empower end-users by providing them with the infrastructure for expressing and sharing their opinions on the quality of health-related web resources. PMID:21712354

  18. MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data

    The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to

  19. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

  20. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a...... static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et...

  1. Medical Communication-related Informational Need and Resource Preferences Among Family Caregivers for Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Longacre, Margaret L; Galloway, Thomas J; Parvanta, Claudia F; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in treatment, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often experience considerable functional impairment during and following treatment. As a result, family caregivers are essential in a patient's recovery; however, few caregivers are well-prepared to handle the extensive caregiving needs of this patient population. To date, little is known about HNC caregivers' informational needs in this role. Thus, we surveyed a sample of HNC caregivers about their informational needs including those related to interacting in the medical context as a caregiver and meeting patient needs. We also asked these caregivers their preferences for obtaining caregiving information. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 59 family caregivers for HNC patients who had completed radiation therapy at a comprehensive cancer center. The majority of caregivers (74.6%) reported having high informational need at diagnosis related to interacting as a caregiver. Although the need for such information decreased over time, over half still had a high need for information at treatment end. Importantly, caregivers who desired information about reducing patient pain and distress also reported having greater informational needs on issues related to interacting in the medical context. Further, the caregivers most often preferred to receive information from health-care professionals as a first source. However, preferring an informal (e.g., Internet) resource at first was significantly associated with needing information on how to talk to a doctor or nurse. The development of evidence-based resources and tools for HNC caregivers as well as clinicians may help caregivers more effectively manage patient symptoms and warrants further attention. Further, Internet resources may represent an effective resource for providing caregivers with strategies toward enhancing communication with healthcare professionals. PMID:25893922

  2. Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource

    Alexandre Bec

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

  3. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nano materials

    In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nano technology which is called carbon-related nano materials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nano materials. Carbon nano materials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nano materials such as zero-dimensional carbon nano materials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nano diamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nano materials (including carbon nano fibers and carbon nano tubes), and two-dimensional carbon nano materials (including graphene and carbon nano walls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nano materials.

  4. World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses: Utilizing a Vast Genetic Resource

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that may exist in the Saccharum germplasm. Two collections of genetic material potentially useful to sugarcane br...

  5. Optimisation of sinter plant operating conditions and BF burden material resources using advanced multivariate statistics

    Kitson, P.; Mochon, J.; Saxen, H. (and others) [Corus UK, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The project has demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between the effects of sinter blend, plant, process operations and their resultant effects on quality and productivity. This has enabled an improved window for process operation and blend optimisation to be defined. Developments related to blast furnace requirements have established the effects that sinter of different physical, mineralogy and chemistry and coke have on its operation. Defining the sinter and coke requirements for the blast furnace operating regime sinter quality, coke quality and productivity have been optimised as a function of cost and energy usage. The classification of sintering ores demonstrated by use of data clustering techniques gives the ability and confidence to assess new ores without undertaking pilot or plant based assessments. Tools developed and deployed for improved monitoring of sinter plant and blast furnace operation give permanent monitoring and provide a facility to identify deviations in performance. The tools meet the need of providing complex analysis and model development to plant technologists without having to have extensive knowledge of the underlying principles. Techniques applied including genetic algorithms, fuzzy systems, have been linked to traditional statistical techniques to refine the accuracy of the models. Reverse engineering of models has been developed to enable predict of the inputs, to achieve a required process output. The methods employed are transferable to other production facilities, or similar design and capacity. Where plant configurations are different, data associated with normal plant operations will have to be used to tune the models. 79 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T

    1997-11-01

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during `lifetime`); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author) 2 refs.

  7. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

  8. Strain-displacement relations for strain engineering in single-layer 2d materials

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Lewenkopf, Caio H.; Croy, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the electromechanical coupling in single-layer 2d materials. For non-Bravais lattices, we find important corrections to the standard macroscopic strain-microscopic atomic-displacement theory. We put forward a general and systematic approach to calculate strain-displacement relations for several classes of 2d materials. We apply our findings to graphene as a study case, by combining a tight binding and a valence force-field model to calculate electronic and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under strain. The results show good agreement with the predictions of the Dirac equation coupled to continuum mechanics. For this long wave-limit effective theory, we find that the strain-displacement relations lead to a renormalization correction to the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields. A similar renormalization is found for the strain-induced band-gap of black phosphorous. Implications for nanomechanical properties and electromechanical coupling in 2d materials are discussed.

  9. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Robert Pitz-Paal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

  10. Space Exploration Initiative Fuels, Materials and Related Nuclear Propulsion Technologies Panel

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

  11. Functional Thermoplastic Materials from Derivatives of Cellulose and Related Structural Polysaccharides

    Yoshikuni Teramoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys advances in the development of various material functionalities based on thermoplastic cellulose and related structural polysaccharide derivatives. First, the dependence of thermal (phase transition behavior on the molecular composition of simple derivatives is rationalized. Next, approaches enabling effective thermoplasticization and further incorporation of material functionalities into structural polysaccharides are discussed. These approaches include: (a single-substituent derivatization, (b derivatization with multi-substituents, (c blending of simple derivatives with synthetic polymers, and (d graft copolymerization. Some examples addressing the control of supramolecular structures and the regulation of molecular and segmental orientations for functional materials fabrication, which have especially progressed over the past decade, are also addressed. Attractive material functions include improved mechanical performance, controlled biodegradability, cytocompatiblity, and optical functions.

  12. TPV energy conversion: A review of material and cell related issues

    Bhat, I.B.; Borrego, J.M.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ostrogorsky, A.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronic Manufacturing

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion using low band gap semiconductor photovoltaic cells. Physics of PN junctions related to TPV cells is described and the factors that affect overall cell efficiencies are outlined. Current status of bulk and epitaxial growth of TPV materials and cell fabrication issues are also described.

  13. Application of Grey Relational Cluster Method in Muon Tomography for Materials Detection

    2011-01-01

    When the number of particles is small, We try to use grey system theory better in dealing the work which has little sample and incomplete information. Grey relational cluster method is applied for materials detection of the research of Muon tomography

  14. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the...

  15. 77 FR 12202 - Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations

    2012-02-29

    ... Register (72 FR 45394-01) on August 14, 2007. One comment was received from the public in response to the... status filed by the political organization shall be open to public inspection. (c) Letters or documents... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BG60 Public Inspection of Material Relating to...

  16. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  17. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  18. BioCreative V CDR task corpus: a resource for chemical disease relation extraction

    Li, Jiao; Sun, Yueping; Johnson, Robin J.; Sciaky, Daniela; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Community-run, formal evaluations and manually annotated text corpora are critically important for advancing biomedical text-mining research. Recently in BioCreative V, a new challenge was organized for the tasks of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. Given the nature of both tasks, a test collection is required to contain both disease/chemical annotations and relation annotations in the same set of articles. Despite previous efforts...

  19. Some suggestions related to the harmonization of uranium resource classification. Summary

    The B and C1 categories of uranium reserves that are characteristic for Uzbekistan can probably be compared to the explored reserves based on IAEA classification. The first (B) category, in deposits of the sandstone type, are from areas where full scale exploration (geotechnological) programme has been carried out (using drill hole grid of 50x25 m). The C1 category, also in deposits of the sandstone type, are from areas where the drill hole grid are of 200x50 to 100 m and sometimes as close as 100x25 to 50 m. Reserves of C2 category, referred to as preliminary estimated reserves, are found in sandstone type deposits where drilling programme followed a 400x50 to 100 m grid and sometimes a 200x50 to 100 m grid in the case where the deposit has a more complex morphology. According to the stages accepted in the Republic, the stage of preliminary estimate is followed by detailed estimate. The advisability of conducting detailed estimate is governed by the result of works in the previous stage. From this explanation it would be appropriate to classify the reserves of C2 category as a preliminary estimated additional reserve of category I (''PODZ-I'' in Russian), although a large part of C2 reserves was already included in the explored reserves. For the preliminary estimated additional reserves of category II (''PODZ-II'' in Russian) it is suggested to include P1 category, which is the predicted resources in areas that are under current exploration activities. It is further suggested to include P2 resources into category of prospective deposits (''PZ'' in Russian), that might occur in area within known uranium districts where new reserves of specific types of deposits might be found or in new areas with similar geological environment that is known to contain uranium deposits. For the technical and economic evaluation (called ''TEO'' in Russian) it is advisable to conduct the required works and prepare a preliminary ''TEO'', which was used in the former USSR, and is still

  20. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    Hussaini, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  1. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy...

  2. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  3. The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains

    The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

  4. Hydrodynamic description of elastic or viscoelastic composite materials: Relative strains as macroscopic variables

    Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to adjust material properties to a specific need is to embed units of one substance into a matrix of another substance. Even materials that are readily tunable during operation can be generated in this way. In (visco)elastic substances, both the matrix material as well as the inclusions and/or their immediate environment can be dynamically deformed. If the typical dynamic response time of the inclusions and their surroundings approach the macroscopic response time, their deformation processes need to be included into a dynamic macroscopic characterization. Along these lines, we present a hydrodynamic description of (visco)elastic composite materials. For this purpose, additional strain variables reflect the state of the inclusions and their immediate environment. These additional strain variables in general are not set by a coarse-grained macroscopic displacement field. Apart from that, during our derivation, we also include the macroscopic variables of relative translations and relative rotations that were previously introduced in different contexts. As a central point, our approach reveals and classifies the importance of a macroscopic variable termed relative strains. We analyze two simplified minimal example geometries as an illustration.

  5. Human Development as semiotic-material Ordering: Sketching a Relational Developmental Psychology?

    Michalis Kontopodis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented here is an attempt at casting human development as a semiotic-material phenomenon which reflects power relations and includes uncertainty. On the ground of post-structuralist approaches, development is considered here as a performative concept, which does not represent but creates realities. Emphasis is put on the notions of ‘mediation’, ‘translation’ and ‘materiality’ in everyday practices of students and teachers in a concrete school setting, where I conducted ethnographical research for one school year. The analysis of discursive research material of teachers’ discussions and interviews with students proves the developmental discourse to be interrelated to teachers’ and students’ positioning in the school; the developmental discourse orders ongoing interaction and enables students and teachers to perform the past and witness the future in a way which corresponds with dominant values and state social/educational policies. By translating a variety of events into a line moving from the past to the future as well as by materializing this line as diagrams and other semiotic-material objects, development becomes a technology of the self of (late modernity which implies power relations and supports the maintenance of the modern order. On these grounds, a relational approach to development is suggested, which raises methodological and political issues.

  6. New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge

    Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

  7. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    James W Rivers

    Full Text Available Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas. Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection and negative (avoidance effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development. Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize

  8. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  9. Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer

    Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

    1993-12-01

    Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

  10. A relation to predict the failure of materials and potential application to volcanic eruptions and landslides

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Lu, Chunsheng; Elsworth, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of a time-to-failure relation is presented, with this relationship then used to describe the failure of materials. This provides the potential to predict timing (tf − t) immediately before failure by extrapolating the trajectory as it asymptotes to zero with no need to fit unknown exponents as previously proposed in critical power law behaviors. This generalized relation is verified by comparison with approaches to criticality for volcanic eruptions and creep failure. A new relation based on changes with stress is proposed as an alternative expression of Voight’s relation, which is widely used to describe the accelerating precursory signals before material failure and broadly applied to volcanic eruptions, landslides and other phenomena. The new generalized relation reduces to Voight’s relation if stress is limited to increase at a constant rate with time. This implies that the time-derivatives in Voight’s analysis may be a subset of a more general expression connecting stress derivatives, and thus provides a potential method for forecasting these events.

  11. A relation to predict the failure of materials and potential application to volcanic eruptions and landslides

    Hao, Shengwang; Liu, Chao; Lu, Chunsheng; Elsworth, Derek

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical explanation of a time-to-failure relation is presented, with this relationship then used to describe the failure of materials. This provides the potential to predict timing (tf ‑ t) immediately before failure by extrapolating the trajectory as it asymptotes to zero with no need to fit unknown exponents as previously proposed in critical power law behaviors. This generalized relation is verified by comparison with approaches to criticality for volcanic eruptions and creep failure. A new relation based on changes with stress is proposed as an alternative expression of Voight’s relation, which is widely used to describe the accelerating precursory signals before material failure and broadly applied to volcanic eruptions, landslides and other phenomena. The new generalized relation reduces to Voight’s relation if stress is limited to increase at a constant rate with time. This implies that the time-derivatives in Voight’s analysis may be a subset of a more general expression connecting stress derivatives, and thus provides a potential method for forecasting these events.

  12. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.;

    2006-01-01

    . Intercropped pea did not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake...... expected proportions sown; however, at high density the suppression of barley strongly increased the proportion of pea in the final grain yield. Weed infestation levels decreased as density was raised and the suppressing effect of density was clearly stronger the greater the frequency of pea in the crop...... competitiveness towards weeds or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative...

  13. The contribution of renewable resources in meeting Turkey's energy-related challenges

    The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of renewable energy as a key way for resolving the Turkey's energy-related challenges. As a consequence of economic and social development, Turkey's energy consumption has risen dramatically over the past three decades. At present, fossil fuels account for more than 90% of the total energy consumption in the country. Turkey has no large oil and natural gas reserves and it import nearly all of these fossil fuels. Turkey's current energy mix is not likely to support development of sustainable energy. The energy mix shows a relatively small contribution from renewable energy sources in the country. They have the potential to make a large contribution to Turkey's sustainable and independent energy future. In particular they can help to reach the environmental goals of Turkey and to increase the security of energy supply by reducing the dependence on imported-fuel supplies. (author)

  14. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elemen...

  15. A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations

    Binali Dogan; Ata Özdemirci; Nese Güngör

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR) management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1)The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2) While...

  16. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Tesler Laura E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community du...

  17. Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank

    Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

  18. Transportation safety aspects of ore and related material - inconsistencies in current exemption values

    The IAEA's system for exemption of material from the transport regulations is based on the fundamental principle that exemption values should be commensurate with the risk posed by the material, as represented by effective dose and skin dose. Important departures from that principle as well as inconsistencies between exemption values for different radionuclides have resulted from special provisions for natural materials that depend on their intended use, and from exposure scenarios and other assumptions and rules used in the derivation of exemption values. This paper examines the sources and extent of inconsistencies in exemption values for transport, particularly as they relate to naturally occurring radionuclides, and suggests ways to achieve greater internal consistency in exemption values as well as greater consistency with the fundamental principle underlying the current system

  19. Identification of defect-related emissions in ZnO hybrid materials

    ZnO hybrid materials with singly precipitated ZnO nanocrystals embedded in the glass surface were fabricated by melt-quenching method followed by the annealing process. A series of samples containing different densities and species of intrinsic defects were obtained under different annealing conditions in a controllable manner, which was an ideal platform to identify the complicated defect origins. By employing photoluminescence (PL), excitation-dependent PL, PL excitation (PLE), and Raman spectroscopy, the radiative transitions of visible emission bands at around 401, 490, and 528 nm were unambiguously involved with zinc interstitial-related defect levels as initial states, and the corresponding terminal states were suggested to be valence band, oxygen vacancies, and zinc vacancies, respectively. This study may deepen the fundamental understanding of defect-related emissions and physics in ZnO and benefit potential applications of ZnO hybrid materials in optoelectronics

  20. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  1. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  2. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  3. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness

    Raskovic Matevz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

  4. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    silicon oxycarbide material can provide potential applications of the Eu luminescent materials to challenging conditions like high temperatures or aggressive environments where the silica has weaknesses. In some approaches, silicon rich silicon oxide that contain silicon nanoclusters emit red to near infrared luminescence due to quantum confinement effects while luminescence at shorter wavelength is difficult due to the interplay of defects and quantum confinement effects. In addition it is applicable as low-k dielectric, etch-stop and passivation layers. It also has an optical band-gap that is smaller than that of SiO2 which may facilitate carrier injection at lower voltages that is suitable for optoelectronics. From materials perspective of emerging materials, it seems distant to consider system related issues. The future demands on communication and lighting devices require higher information flows in modernized optical devices, for example by replacing electrical interconnects with their optical counterparts and tunable backgrounds filters for integrated optics or photonics applications. However, there are materials issues related to such device performance, for example by a non-linearity, that provide the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths using hetero structures in which one side of the structure enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of long and medium wavelength channels and diminish others, and an opposite behavior in other face of the structure. Certainly materials may be applied in various innovative ways to provide new performances in devices and systems. In any materials and device evaluation, reliability issues in passivation and packaging of semiconductor device structures provide a base knowledge that may be used to evaluate new concepts. Fundamental aspects of dielectric constant, bandgap and band offsets between the valence and conduction band edges between the passivation layer and the semiconductor create a foundation for

  5. Planning the new medical school library in relation to local and regional information resources.

    Bishop, D

    1971-04-01

    The first relationship of a new medical school library with local and regional medical libraries is one of dependence. This must change, as the new library grows, to a continuing state of interdependence. To accomplish this, the new library must thoughtfully design its collections and services, and must prepare for an extramural as well as an intramural clientele. Relationships with Regional Medical Library services and with Regional Medical Programs must be carefully planned. So too must be the adoption of EDP and related procedures where future compatability is important. Any new medical school library must have strength, but must never forget the need for true cooperation to give it viability. PMID:5582095

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  7. Evaluation of the chemical compatibility of plastic contact materials and pharmaceutical products; safety considerations related to extractables and leachables.

    Jenke, Dennis

    2007-10-01

    A review is provided on the general topic of the compatibility of plastic materials with pharmaceutical products, with specific emphasis on the safety aspects associated with extractables and leachables related to such plastic materials. PMID:17701994

  8. Relations between Environmental Right for Citizens and the Right to Use Environmental Resources owned by Company and Enterprise

    Li Yinquan

    2005-01-01

    From angles of administrative law and private law, the article analyzes relations between environmental right for citizens and the right to use environmental resources owned by company and enterprise and points out three principles to balancing two relations: A principle of equal protection, a principle that general interest is superior to special interest as well as taking an account for special interest, in specific circumstances, for example, in the circumstance that clashes between environmental and economic interests can not be avoided, policy makers can put an emphasis on more important social interest according after considering weight of each interest. Finally, the article reaches a conclusion that China should establish system of environmental right for citizens from legislative and administrative levels so that a harmonious society can be constructed with guarantee.

  9. Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in Hemodialysis-Related Materials

    Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Masood Yunesian; Hamid Rajlani; Shahrokh Nazmara; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Noushin Rastkari; Hossain Jabbari; Mostafa Hosseini; Simin Naseri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC) and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC) were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample ...

  10. Metallorganic precursors route for high Tc superconducting materials and related phases

    The adequacy of the precursors approach for high Tc superconducting materials is validated by means of three examples of a new synthesis of mixed oxides which are directly related to the high Tc superconductors. The synthesis temperature is lowered significantly, and the need for extending the classic 'building block' approach is shown. The hypothesis that topochemical reactions from molecular to extended solids are posssible is proven. 28 refs

  11. Taken for Granted: Material Relations Between Disability and Codes/Guidelines

    Janice Rieger; Megan Strickfaden

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of the taken for granted nature of the codes/guidelines used towards the creation of designed spaces, their social relations with designers, and their agency in designing for people with disabilities. We conducted case studies at three national museums in Canada where we began by questioning societal representations of disability within and through material culture through the potential of actor-network theory where non-human actors have considerable...

  12. Carbon-related materials for electrochemical and high-temperature structural applications

    Wang, Andi

    The processing, structure and properties of carbon-related materials for structural and electrochemical applications have been addressed. In relation to the structural materials, a new material, namely a nanostructured ceramic-carbon hybrid that is prepared by hot-pressing organobentonite particles is provided. In addition, carbon-carbon (C/C) composites that have been improved by filler incorporation, with the fillers including organobentonite and fumed alumina, are provided. In relation to the electrochemical electrode materials, which include various types of particulate carbons, a new method of electrical characterization of such materials in the absence of an electric double layer is provided, thereby enabling for these materials the first determination of (i) the relative dielectric constant, (ii) the effect of the electrolyte on the relative dielectric constant and the volumetric electrical resistivity, (iii) the specific capacitance and areal electrical resistivity of the interface between the electrode and its electrical contact, and (iv) the specific capacitance and areal resistivity of the interface between the electrode and the electrolyte. The need for densification (thereby decreasing the fabrication cost) has been reduced by the incorporation of a particulate filler (fumed alumina or organoclay) during the C/C fabrication. Fumed alumina is in the form of aggregates of nanosize alumina particles. Due to this structure, it is highly deformable (squishable). The squishability enables conformability, which is attractive for the filler to fill the space between the carbon fibers in C/C. Partly due to the presence of the organic component in organoclay, it is possible to use the organoclay both as a binder and a reinforcing filler in C/C. Also partly due to the organic component in organoclay, it is possible to consolidate organoclay particles by the application of heat and pressure, thereby forming a monolith in the absence of a binder and providing a new

  13. Material-Model-Based Determination of the Shock-Hugoniot Relations in Nanosegregated Polyurea

    Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.

    2013-10-01

    Previous experimental investigations reported in the open literature have indicated that applying polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can substantially improve ballistic penetration resistance and blast survivability of buildings, vehicles, and laboratory/field test-plates, as well as the blast-mitigation capacity of combat helmets. The protective role of polyurea coatings/linings has been linked to polyurea microstructure, which consists of discrete hard-domains distributed randomly within a compliant/soft matrix. When this protective role is investigated computationally, the availability of reliable, high-fidelity constitutive models for polyurea is vitally important. In the present work, a comprehensive overview and a critical assessment of a polyurea material constitutive model, recently proposed by Shim and Mohr (Int J Plast 27:868-886, 2011), are carried out. The review revealed that this model can accurately account for the experimentally measured uniaxial-stress versus strain data obtained under monotonic and multistep compressive loading/unloading conditions, as well as under stress relaxation conditions. On the other hand, by combining analytical and finite-element procedures with the material model in order to define the basic shock-Hugoniot relations for this material, it was found that the computed shock-Hugoniot relations differ significantly from their experimental counterparts. Potential reasons for the disagreement between the computed and experimental shock-Hugoniot relations are identified.

  14. Forest Resources

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources.

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin's gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5-24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin's gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  17. Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizliği ve Müşteri -Tedarikçi Arasındaki İlişkisel Değişime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier

    Gürhan UYSAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

  18. Aging Chart: a community resource for rapid exploratory pathway analysis of age-related processes.

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690

  19. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  20. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Highlights: • We created brazed joints between tungsten and EUROFER 97, Cu and SS316L with Au80Cu19Fe1 filler. • No elemental transitions were detected between the W and the AuCuFe filler in either direction. • Transition regions between filler to EUROFER97/316L showed similar elastic modulus and hardness to the filler. • Smooth elemental and mechanical properties transition were detected between the filler and Cu. - Abstract: In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported

  1. [Deficiencies and resources of working population in relation to age: a multidisciplinary approach].

    Volkoff, S

    2000-01-01

    The aging of the population as a whole and the later age at which young people start work are increasing the percentage of older employees. In situations where the working conditions are highly demanding, as in shiftwork, time-pressure jobs, and adaptation to modern technology or skill diversification, this demographic trend may cause serious problems. The way in which job constraints and demands are withstood at various ages should be considered in relation to health, which is often, whether implicitly or explicitly, a selection criterion in the work place. The connection between work and health can rarely be described by a single causal relationship and requires specific epidemiological methods. Moreover, a health problem linked to age can have a feedback effect on the manner in which a job is performed. While these problems do indeed arise in the areas of work and health, they are nonetheless usually symptoms of modifications that have taken place in the work activity itself. The ergonomic approach nevertheless allows us to improve our understanding of changes in work behavior as age increases, as experience is gained, and as skills are acquired. Men and women on the job are not passive spectators of the good or poor fit between the characteristics of their jobs and their own functional state. Consciously or unconsciously, they modify their operating modes (movements, work pace, posture, etc.), reduce their effort level in some subtasks, make more plans to avoid emergency situations, check the outcome of their actions so as to reduce errors that would be costly to correct, and adjust the distribution of tasks in cooperative and collective work situations. But these strategies can only be implemented if the work conditions and organization foster and promote them. PMID:11098595

  2. Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China

    Yao Songpo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P

  3. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as

  4. Post operation recurrence of inguinal hernia in children and its relation with suture material

    Omid Amanollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using non-absorbable suture in children hernia repair to decrease of recurrence is recommended in the most pediatric surgery centers. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between kind of suture material and rate of hernia recurrence. Methods: In this clinical trial 200 children (age 1-5 years with inguinal hernia who operated in Imam-Reza Hospital (kermanshah –Iran Between April 2007 until April 2008 enrolled into the study. Cases were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into two groups (100 cases per group and operated with absorbable (silk 3-0 and non-absorbable (vicryli 3-0 suture material. Following period was 12 months after operation and collected data analyzed by statistical software. Emergency operations were excluded from the study.Results: 83% of patients were boy and 17% were girl. %53 showed right side inguinal, 29% left side and %18 were bilateral hernia. After one year follow up only one case of recurrence was observed in each group.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that recurrence of inguinal hernia in children after surgery, is not related to kind of suture material (absorbability and we didn’t find any significant difference. Other factors than suture material may influence recurrence rate of hernia operation in children.

  5. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  6. Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

  7. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  8. 试论建筑材料资源的可循环利用%On recycled utility of architectural material resources

    施怡

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the necessity for the recycled utility of architectural materials,analyzes the utility of the architectural material re-sources in current stage,and researches the recycled utility methods for the architectural material resources,so as to provide some reference for the architectural construction industry in China.%对建筑材料资源可循环利用的必要性进行了探讨,并对现阶段建筑材料资源的可循环利用情况进行了分析,从而研究了建筑材料资源的可循环利用方法,为国内建筑施工行业提供一些参考建议。

  9. Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials

    In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

  10. Age-related differences in the course of cognitive skill acquisition: the role of regional cortical shrinkage and cognitive resources.

    Head, Denise; Raz, Naftali; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Williamson, Adrienne; Acker, James D

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the impact of age-related differences in regional cerebral volumes and cognitive resources on acquisition of a cognitive skill. Volumes of brain regions were measured on magnetic resonance images of healthy adults (aged 22-80). At the early stage of learning to solve the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, speed and efficiency were associated with age, prefrontal cortex volume, and working memory. A similar pattern of brain-behavior associations was observed with perseveration measured on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. None of the examined structural brain variables were important at the later stages of skill acquisition. When hypertensive participants were excluded, the effect of prefrontal shrinkage on executive aspects of performance was no longer significant, but the effect of working memory remained. PMID:11931289

  11. Criticality safety studies related to advisory material for the IAEA regulations

    Criticality safety studies are reviewed related to Advisory Material for 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Criticality calculations based on the perturbation theory are given with and without small variations in fuel concentrations for UO2-H2O and PuO2-H2O. They show that variations in fuel concentrations of 5% can give at most a 0.4% Δk/k increase in the neutron multiplication factor. Heterogeneity effect of fuel is examined for arrays of low-enriched UO2 fuel particles immersed in water. In case of fuel particles having a diameter of 50 μm, the relative increase in the neutron multiplication factor is shown to be less than 0.1% Δk/k. Isolation thickness of water is discussed in term of the Reflector Factor, which is defined as a relative increase in the neutron multiplication factor of fuel with finite thick isolator to that with infinite thick isolator. Thirty cm is regarded as a practical value for isolation thickness of water. (authors)

  12. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  13. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  14. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  15. Productive extension of semantic memory in school-aged children: Relations with reading comprehension and deployment of cognitive resources.

    Bauer, Patricia J; Blue, Shala N; Xu, Aoxiang; Esposito, Alena G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated 7- to 10-year-old children's productive extension of semantic memory through self-generation of new factual knowledge derived through integration of separate yet related facts learned through instruction or through reading. In Experiment 1, an experimenter read the to-be-integrated facts. Children successfully learned and integrated the information and used it to further extend their semantic knowledge, as evidenced by high levels of correct responses in open-ended and forced-choice testing. In Experiment 2, on half of the trials, the to-be-integrated facts were read by an experimenter (as in Experiment 1) and on half of the trials, children read the facts themselves. Self-generation performance was high in both conditions (experimenter- and self-read); in both conditions, self-generation of new semantic knowledge was related to an independent measure of children's reading comprehension. In Experiment 3, the way children deployed cognitive resources during reading was predictive of their subsequent recall of newly learned information derived through integration. These findings indicate self-generation of new semantic knowledge through integration in school-age children as well as relations between this productive means of extension of semantic memory and cognitive processes engaged during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253263

  16. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    Desmare, Gabriel W.; Cates, Dillard M.

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  17. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  18. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  19. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  20. Ab initio study of the unusual thermal transport properties of boron arsenide and related materials

    Broido, D. A.; Lindsay, L.; Reinecke, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, using a first principles approach, we predicted that zinc blende boron arsenide (BAs) will have an ultrahigh lattice thermal conductivity, κ, of over 2000 Wm-1K-1 at room temperature (RT), comparable to that of diamond. Here, we provide a detailed ab initio examination of phonon thermal transport in boron arsenide, contrasting its unconventional behavior with that of other related materials, including the zinc blende crystals boron nitride (BN), boron phosphide, boron antimonide, and gallium nitride (GaN). The unusual vibrational properties of BAs contribute to its weak phonon-phonon scattering and phonon-isotope scattering, which are responsible for its exceptionally high κ. The thermal conductivity of BAs has contributions from phonons with anomalously large mean free paths (˜2 μm), two to three times those of diamond and BN. This makes κ in BAs sensitive to phonon scattering from crystal boundaries. An order of magnitude smaller RT thermal conductivity in a similar material, zinc blende GaN, is connected to more separated acoustic phonon branches, larger anharmonic force constants, and a large isotope mixture on the heavy rather than the light constituent atom. The striking difference in κ for BAs and GaN demonstrates the importance of using a microscopic first principles thermal transport approach for calculating κ. BAs also has an advantageous RT coefficient of thermal expansion, which, combined with the high κ value, suggests that it is a promising material for use in thermal management applications.

  1. Study on relation between tectonic stress and coal-mining subsidence with similar material simulation

    XIA Yu-cheng; ZHI Jian-feng; SUN Xue-yang

    2005-01-01

    Using a minitype and stress-type test device for similar material simulation of coal-mining subsidence, the relation between tectonic stress and coal-mining subsidence was successfully simulated, furthermore, the test period of similar material simulation was obviously shortened and the test process was more dexterous and convenient. To do similar material simulation with the minitype and stress-type test device was feasible and high-efficient. Bringing two models with the same geological and mining conditions to bear lateral compressive stress and tensile stress respectively and simulating the process of underground mining, the test results indicate that: under the compressive stress, the collapse of the coal roof occurs belatedly and the damaged range in cover of coal seam is smaller, therefore the movement and deformation of the cover and its damage to the ground geological environment are not evident; whereas under tensile stress, the situation is contrary to which mentioned above. A conclusion was obtained from the test that the ground environment hazards in coal mining areas were controlled by the regional geological tectonic stress field.

  2. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  3. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

  4. Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material

    Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

    2009-04-01

    For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with

  5. Taken for Granted: Material Relations Between Disability and Codes/Guidelines

    Janice Rieger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical examination of the taken for granted nature of the codes/guidelines used towards the creation of designed spaces, their social relations with designers, and their agency in designing for people with disabilities. We conducted case studies at three national museums in Canada where we began by questioning societal representations of disability within and through material culture through the potential of actor-network theory where non-human actors have considerable agency. Specifically, our exploration looks into how representations of disability for designing, are interpreted through mediums such as codes, standards and guidelines. We accomplish this through: deep analyses of the museums’ built environments (outdoors and indoors; interviewed curators, architects and designers involved in the creation of the spaces/displays; completed dialoguing while in motion interviews with people who have disabilities within the spaces; and analyzed available documents relating to the creation of the museums. Through analyses of our rich data set involving the mapping of codes/guidelines in their “representation” of disability and their contributions in “fixing” disability, this paper takes an alternative approach to designing for/with disability by aiming to question societal representations of disability within and through material culture.

  6. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  7. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  8. An assessment of global resources of rocks as suitable raw materials for carbon capture and storage by mineralisation

    Bide, T.P.; Styles, M. T.; Naden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage by mineralisation (CCSM) is a method proposed for capturing CO2 by reacting it with magnesium in ultramafic rocks to form carbonate minerals and silica. Large quantities of magnesium silicate rocks are required for this process and to demonstrate the feasibility, and adequately plan for the development and supply of mineral resources, their locations and quantities must be known. This study attempts to globally define the spatial extent and quantity of resources tha...

  9. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. PMID:25247662

  10. Interaction of graphene-related materials with human intestinal cells: an in vitro approach

    Kucki, M.; Rupper, P.; Sarrieu, C.; Melucci, M.; Treossi, E.; Schwarz, A.; León, V.; Kraegeloh, A.; Flahaut, E.; Vázquez, E.; Palermo, V.; Wick, P.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml-1) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone.Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell

  11. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

  12. Hospital Resource Utilization and Treatment Cost of Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Metastatic Breast or Prostate Cancer: Estimation for the Portuguese National Health System

    Félix, J; Andreozzi, V; M. Soares; Borrego, P; Gervásio, H.; A. Moreira; Costa, L.; F. Marcelo; Peralta, F; Furtado, I.; Pina, F.; Albuquerque, C.; Santos, A.; Passos-Coelho, JL; Portuguese Group for the Study of Bone Metastases

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skeletal-related events (SREs) occur frequently in patients with bone metastases as a result of breast (BC) and prostate (PC) cancers. They increase both morbidity and mortality and lead to extensive health-care resource utilization. METHODS: Health care resource utilization by BC/PC patients with at least one SRE during the preceding 12 months was assessed through retrospective chart review. SRE-treatment costs were estimated using the Portuguese Ministry of Health cost ...

  13. Teachers' planning and preparation of teaching resources and materials in the implementation of Form 4 Physical Education curriculum for physical fitness strand

    SYED ALI, Syed Kamaruzaman bin; ZAHIDI, Muhammad Akbar bin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the level of teachers’ preparation of teaching resources and materials in the implementtaion of Form 4 Physical Education for physical fitness strand. As a descriptive study, the location was selected in the district of Gombak, Selangor. Respondents who were involved in this study consisted of 50 teachers with Physical Education option and are teaching Form 4 students. The instrument employed to collect data was in the form of structured checklist and inte...

  14. Marine Resource Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: The Traditional Hawaiian System in Relation to the Western Approach

    P. L. Jokiel; K. S. Rodgers; Walsh, W. J.; Polhemus, D. A.; Wilhelm, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important componen...

  15. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  16. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  17. Microanalytical and structural characterization of optical materials by electron microscopy and related spectroscopies

    The fine probe forming capabilities of an analytical electron microscope combined with the development of related spectroscopies, diffraction and imaging techniques, makes it possible to obtain structural and chemical information from multiphase materials at high spatial resolution. These microanalytical methods are described with relevant examples from our studies of compounds in the Al2O3-AIN pseudo binary system, a potential window material, low-pressure synthesized diamond, diamond-like carbon and hydrocarbon films. A comprehensive example of the characterization of a novel AlON poltypoid structure (32H), level of resolution and the need to employ all the complementary methods of analysis, is discussed. Efforts to characterize a variety of diamond-like carbon films by the measurements of both the low-loss plasmon resonances and the fine structure in the core-loss edges observable in the energy-loss spectrum, to obtain sp3/sp2 ratios are outlined. The electronic structure of thin film diamonds, synthesized by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, has been shown to be in agreement with band structure calculations

  18. Analysis of CdTe solar cells in relation to materials issues

    By now, extensive experimental research is available on thin film solar cells based on CdTe and on CIGS, and their electrical and optical behaviour is characterised by a multitude of diverse characterisation techniques. At the same time, numerical simulation programmes have matured and are available to the research community to assist in interpreting these measurements consistently. Once multiple measurements are (more or less) quantitatively described, the numerical simulation can be used to explore the effect of a variation of materials parameter (e.g. the presence or absence of a property, or variation in a range of values) to the final solar cell characteristics. Examples of such analysis for CdTe solar cells are shown. In CdTe cells, much research has been devoted to the activation treatment of the absorber, and to the technology of the back contact. Analysis of ample measurements has evidenced the crucial role of the profile of the (effective) doping density through the device. It will be illustrated how this relative simple (but hardly mastered) materials property has a far reaching influence to the cell characteristics such as roll-over and cross-over of I-V curves, also in dependence on illumination and voltage, conventional and apparent quantum efficiency, and finally fill factor and efficiency

  19. Age related differences in mechanical demands imposed on the lower back by manual material handling tasks.

    Shojaei, Iman; Vazirian, Milad; Croft, Emily; Nussbaum, Maury A; Bazrgari, Babak

    2016-04-11

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) increases with age, yet the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this remains unclear. To explore the role of biomechanical factors, we investigated age-related differences in lower-back biomechanics during sagittally-symmetric simulated manual material handling tasks. For each task, trunk kinematics and mechanical demand on the lower back were examined, from among 60 participants within five equal-sized and gender-balanced age groups spanning from 20 to 70 years old. The tasks involved lowering a 4.5kg load from an upright standing posture to both knee height and a fixed height and then lifting the load back to the initial upright posture. During these tasks, segmental body kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected using wireless inertial measurement units and a force platform. Overall, older participants completed the tasks with larger pelvic rotation and smaller lumbar flexion. Such adopted trunk kinematics resulted in larger peak shearing demand at the lower back in older vs. younger participants. These results suggest that older individuals may be at a higher risk for developing lower back pain when completing similar manual material handling tasks, consistent with epidemiological evidence for higher risks of occupational low back pain among this cohort. PMID:26556714

  20. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinia doped ceria in its doped or strained form is considered to be an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The simulation of the defect processes in these materials is complicated by the random distribution of the constituent atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure (SQS) approach as a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature of the local cation environment and the distribution of the oxygen vacancies. We have generated two 96-atom SQS cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of the local environment around a Y dopant in Y-codoped gadolinia doped ceria. It is energetically favourable if Y is not close to Gd or an oxygen vacancy. Moreover, Y-O bonds are found to be weaker than Gd-O bonds so that the conductivity of O ions is improved. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  1. The relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation in human cortical bone tissue

    Akkus, Ozan

    This dissertation investigates the relation of microdamage to fracture and material property degradation of human cortical bone tissue. Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth of microcracks were examined experimentally and material property degradation was examined through theoretical modeling. To investigate the contribution of microdamage to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted in the transverse and longitudinal directions to the osteonal orientation of normal bone tissue. Damage accumulation was monitored by acoustic emission during testing and was spatially observed by histological observation following testing. The results suggested that the propagation of the main crack involved weakening of the tissue by diffuse damage at the fracture plane and by formation of linear microcracks away from the fracture plane for the transverse specimens. For the longitudinal specimens, growth of the main crack occurred in the form of separations at lamellar interfaces. Acoustic emission results supported the histological observations. To investigate the contribution of ultrastructure to static fracture resistance, fracture toughness tests were conducted after altering the collagen phase of the bone tissue by gamma radiation. A significant decrease in the fracture toughness, Work-to-Fracture and the amount damage was observed due to irradiation in both crack growth directions. For cortical bone irradiated at 27.5kGy, fracture toughness is reduced due to the inhibition of damage formation at and near the crack tip. Microcrack fatigue crack growth and arrest were investigated through observations of surface cracks during cyclic loading. At the applied cyclic stresses, the microcracks propagated and arrested in less than 10,000 cycles. In addition, the microcracks were observed not to grow beyond a length of 150mum and a DeltaK of 0.5MNm-3/2, supporting a microstructural barrier concept. Finally, the contribution of linear microcracks to

  2. Silver nanoparticle toxicity is related to coating materials and disruption of sodium concentration regulation.

    Kwok, Kevin W H; Dong, Wu; Marinakos, Stella M; Liu, Jie; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Wiesner, Mark R; Chernick, Melissa; Hinton, David E

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been increasingly commercialized and their release into the environment is imminent. Toxicity of AgNP has been studied with a wide spectrum of organisms, yet the mechanism of toxicity remains largely unknown. This study systematically compared toxicity of 10 AgNPs of different particle diameters and coatings to Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae to understand how characteristics of AgNP relate to toxicity. Dissolution of AgNPs was largely dependent on particle size, but their aggregation behavior and toxicity were more dependent on coating materials. 96 h lethal concentration 50% (LC50) values correlated with AgNP aggregate size rather than size of individual nanoparticles. Of the AgNPs studied, the dissolved Ag concentration in the test suspensions did not account for all of the observed toxicity, indicating the role of NP-specific characteristics in resultant toxicity. Exposure to AgNP led to decrease of sodium concentration in the tissue and increased expression of Na(+)/K(+ )ATPase. Gene expression patterns also suggested that toxicity was related to disruption of sodium regulation and not to oxidative stress. PMID:27345576

  3. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  4. Synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene and graphene-related materials

    Gurunathan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jin-Hoi Kim Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and since its development it has been applied in many novel ways in both research and industry. Graphene possesses unique properties, and it has been used in many applications including sensors, batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, transistors, components of high-strength machinery, and display screens in mobile devices. In the past decade, the biomedical applications of graphene have attracted much interest. Graphene has been reported to have antibacterial, antiplatelet, and anticancer activities. Several salient features of graphene make it a potential candidate for biological and biomedical applications. The synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene are fundamental issues that require thorough investigation in any kind of applications related to human welfare. Therefore, this review addresses the various methods available for the synthesis of graphene, with special reference to biological synthesis, and highlights the biological applications of graphene with a focus on cancer therapy, drug delivery, bio-imaging, and tissue engineering, together with a brief discussion of the challenges and future perspectives of graphene. We hope to provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress in research on graphene, from synthesis to applications. Keywords: biomedical applications, cancer therapy, drug delivery, graphene, graphene-related materials, tissue engineering, toxicity 

  5. Dante, Seventh Centennial, 1265-1965: Resource Materials for Teachers. Curriculum Bulletin, 1965-66 Series, Number 16.

    Cavicchia, Gida; Costadasi, Virginia

    A two-part curriculum bulletin pays tribute to the life and works of Dante Alighieri during the 700th annivarsary of his birth. Part One includes his biography, a discussion of his minor works, a summary of "The Divine Comedy", Dante's impact on other lands, and Dantean thought. Suggestions for teaching a resource unit for elementary and junior…

  6. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized

  7. Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study

    Bondevik Margareth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61 and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28. These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

  8. The causal relation between children’s life satisfaction and materialism and the role of advertising exposure

    S.J. Opree; M. Buijzen

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal survey study was designed to determine the causal direction of the relation between materialism and life satisfaction among children. We tested the hypothesis that life satisfaction negatively affects materialism. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that this effect would be mode

  9. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  10. Electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide related materials and first-principles theory of electrochromism

    Xue, Yu

    Tungsten trioxide WO3 is an interesting semiconductor with a wide-range of potential applications. One important property of WO 3 is its electrochromic behavior, which has generated significant research interest. Electrochromic materials exhibit reversible and persistent changes of the optical properties, hence their color, upon applying an electrical pulse. The applications of the electrochromic WO3 range from information display, light shutters, to energy efficient smart windows. Although there are many materials that exhibit electrochromic behavior, tungsten trioxide is one of the most extensively studied ones due to its superior coloration efficiency, short response time and reversibility. Enhanced electrochromic properties in WO3 nanowires have been reported recently. Despite much research effort, a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in this material has not emerged. In this work, we establish a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in NaxWOx, which is also able to explain the electrochromism in WO3. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to electrochromism in WO3 and related materials. In Chapter 2, we summarize the theories and computational methods used in this work including the local density approximation (LDA) within density functional theory (DFT), pseudopotential planewave formalism and the GW approximation. We study the crystal and electronic structures of WO3 in Chapter 3. WO3 has a basic octahedron structure. From -140 ˜ 830°C, the crystal structure changes from monoclinic to triclinic, again monoclicnic, then successively orthorhombic, tetragonal, and again tetragonal. Several groups have investigated the electronic structure of WO3 within DFT, but the band gap is severely underestimated compared with experiment. We have carried out quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. The calculated band gap is much closer to experimental results. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 discuss the optical properties and

  11. Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials

    The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the

  12. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 28 February 2003 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Note Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  13. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 25 October 2004 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  14. Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2008-10-31

    Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

  15. Evaluation of Historic Indo-Pak Relations, Water Resource Issues and Its impact on Contemporary Bilateral Affairs

    Muhammad Tayyab Sohail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Being developed countries both Pakistan and India are striving for the economic development. Pakistan and India share a 1610 km long border. They share same language, dress and culture and also six watercourses, namely the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas, along with their numerous tributaries. Pakistan, like other countries of the region depends heavily on agriculture, with the greater part of the population relying on it for livelihood. As a result, water is not only vital for everyday needs, but a critical source for economic development. Water is a resource on which there is dependency of economy and no substitute. Pakistan and India are close neighbors and lied in South East of Asia. Apart from sharing border and history both the countries have various same customs and traditions.Both countries gained independence in 1947 from British Government, from the day of independence Pakistan has been facing lots of internal and external challenges. Apart from other conflicts, water issues also exist between Pakistan and India. After the nine years negotiation with the help of World Bank, they solved this issue but after some time it started again. Some kind of historical issues including water issues has been discussed in this paper. To judge the public opinion of the both countries, an interview survey was conducted by some international expert and from the people who are directly involved in these kind of profession of Indo-Pak relation. Analyses of interview with some statistic information and on the behalf of history some conclusions and suggestions were including at the end of this study.

  16. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Karman, Salmah B.; S. Zaleha M. Diah; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast), and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Bio...

  17. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  18. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well...

  19. Study and possible middle-term developments of the Albanian legislation relevant to Access and Benefit Sharing Related to Animal Genetic Resources

    Andon Kume

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Albanian legislation shows that when addressing issues relevant to Conservation, Sustainable Economic Development and use of Farm Animal Genetic Resources, no attention is paid for issues related to access and benefit sharing.By signing the Nagoya Protocol on February, 28, 2013, Albania is obliged to draft legislation in accordance and pursuant to the requirements of this Protocol.The middle term process of legislation development should treat with priority issues related to (iaccess to Animal Genetic Resources; (ii sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of such resources; (iii access to traditional knowledge associated with AnGR and (iv sharing of benefits arising from utilization of such knowledge.Through the comparative analysis of EU and other countries legislation, this paper seeks to elaborate ideas and explicate ways of addressing these issues.

  20. Human resource development formulation and evaluation in an Iranian Petrochemical Company using ANP and grey relational analysis

    Ahmad Reza Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, human capital is considered a key factor of achieving the competitive advantage in different industries. The present study, as an applied and descriptive research, aims at providing formulation and evaluation of human resource development of an Iranian Petrochemical Company (APC. The human resource experts and managers of APC together with university professors of human capital and familiar with local conditions of Khuzestan province, Iran, made up the statistical population of this research. In this connection, first the internal factors (including advantages and disadvantages were identified using human resource excellence indicators. Then, the opportunities and threats of human resource system were found via PESTEL approach. In the next step, the primary strategies were formulated using the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT Matrix. The next phases of the study were included evaluation and ranking of human resource development strategies based on analytical network process (ANP multi-criteria decision making method and grey systems theory. According to results of the research, defensive strategies (WT are suggested as the best and most appropriate strategies in human resource area. In other words, the internal and external factors of APC are problematic. Accordingly, APC is expected to adopt WT strategy, minimize the weaknesses, and avoid threats. Subsequent to the above policy, the strategies of WO, ST, and SO are advised to employ.

  1. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  2. Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel

    The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

  3. A model-reduction approach in micromechanics of materials preserving the variational structure of constitutive relations

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Suquet, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    In 2003 the authors proposed a model-reduction technique, called the Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA), based on a decomposition of the local fields of internal variables on a reduced basis of modes, to analyze the effective response of composite materials. The present study extends and improves on this approach in different directions. It is first shown that when the constitutive relations of the constituents derive from two potentials, this structure is passed to the NTFA model. Another structure-preserving model, the hybrid NTFA model of Fritzen and Leuschner, is analyzed and found to differ (slightly) from the primal NTFA model (it does not exhibit the same variational upper bound character). To avoid the "on-line" computation of local fields required by the hybrid model, new reduced evolution equations for the reduced variables are proposed, based on an expansion to second order (TSO) of the potential of the hybrid model. The coarse dynamics can then be entirely expressed in terms of quantities which can be pre-computed once for all. Roughly speaking, these pre-computed quantities depend only on the average and fluctuations per phase of the modes and of the associated stress fields. The accuracy of the new NTFA-TSO model is assessed by comparison with full-field simulations. The acceleration provided by the new coarse dynamics over the full-field computations (and over the hybrid model) is then spectacular, larger by three orders of magnitude than the acceleration due to the sole reduction of unknowns.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP in Hemodialysis-Related Materials

    Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

  5. Fuel rod and core materials investigations related to LWR extended burnup operation

    Kolstad, Erik; Vitanza, Carlo

    1992-06-01

    The paper deals with tests and recent measurements related to extended burnup fuel performance and describes test facilities and results in the areas of waterside cladding corrosion and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Fuel temperature data suggest a gradual degradation of UO 2 thermal conductivity with exposure in the range 6-8% per 10 MWd/kgUO 2 at temperatures below 700°C. The effect on the fuel microstructure of interlinkage and resintering phenomena is shown by measuring the surface-to-volume ( S/ V) ratio of the fuel. Changes in S/V with burnup are correlated to power rating and fuel operating temperature. No evidence was found of enhanced fission gas release during load-follow operation in the burnup range 25-45 MWd/kgUO 2. The effect of high lithium concentration (high pH) on the corrosion behaviour of pre-irradiated high burnup Zircaloy-4 fuel rods subjected either to nucleate boiling or to one-phase cooling conditions was studied. The oxide thickness growth rates measured at an average burnup up to 40 MWd/kgUO 2 are consistent with literature data and show no evidence of corrosion enhancement due to the high lithium content and little effect of cooling regime. A test facility for exploring the effects of environmental variables on IASCC behaviour of in-core structural materials is described.

  6. Biological availability of energy related effluent material in the coastal ecosystem

    In order to make the predictions necessary to forecast the ecological consequences of an energy-related technology, there must be an understanding of: the biogeochemical processes involved in the natural system; the manner in which an energy technology affects these processes and how, in turn, this affects the ecosystem as a whole. Direct biological effects such as lethality, behavioral changes, and physiological changes, are being studied under the program previously discussed. The biological availability and impact studies are investigating: the chemical, physical, and biological processes that occur in the natural marine ecosystem; how energy effluents affect these processes; and the factors involved in regulating the bioavailability of effluent material. This past year's effort has centered on defining the quantities and forms of metals and radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluent streams, the chemical forms present in bioassay systems, the chemical and microbial processes controlling the forms of metals available from the sediments, and the uptake and control of copper in shrimp. In addition, several sites in Sequim Bay have been monitored for potential use in field verification studies

  7. Selective epitaxy of gallium nitride and related materials by metal-organic chemical vapor depostion

    Kapolnek, David Joseph

    1999-11-01

    Selective epitaxy has been applied to many semiconductor materials for a variety of applications. We have developed basic selective epitaxy processes for Gallium Nitride, an important wide band gap semiconductor. This work has revealed that in many respects, GaN behaves similarly to other semiconductors. This makes possible such applications as regrown FET contacts and other three-dimensional device structures. In addition, selective growth using relatively small mask openings results in highly anisotropic growth that is exploited for a number of other applications. GaN pyramids grown using circular mask openings are ideal structures for GaN electron field emission devices. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth grown with linear mask openings is an exciting process that has recently been used for both GaN dislocation reduction and for buried structures in GaN epitaxial films. The discovery of GaN LEO has resulted in an explosion of research and has been applied in commercial GaN laser diodes. The fundamentals of Gallium Nitride selective epitaxy and the most important applications are contained in this dissertation.

  8. Reduced thermal budget processing of high Tc superconducting thin films and related materials by MOCVD

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper the authors report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) on MgO, SrTiO3, and YSZ substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. Some preliminary results are also presented for the deposition of BaF2, Y2O3 and MgO on silicon substrates. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N2O and O2 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower the overall thermal budget for processing of YBCO films

  9. Overview of recent magnetic studies of high Tc cuprate parent compounds and related materials

    Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below ∼ 300 K towards the Neel temperature TN=257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K2NiF4-type spin 1/2 model compound Sr2CuO2Cl2 will be described. The spin 1/2 linear chain compound Sr2CuO3, the parent of the Sr2CuO3+δ oxygen-doped superconductors, is found to exhibit classic Bonner-Fisher magnetic behavior, with a large antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange coupling constant. Studies of the evolution of La2-xSrxCuO4 with Sr doping in the insulating regime (x 2.1, a copper-oxygen cluster compound, exhibits ferromagnetic rather than antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange interactions. Finally, a summary of the magnetic properties of single crystals of the recently discovered RNi2B2C layered structure superconductors will be given. (orig.)

  10. Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects

    Winget, Megan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

  11. Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials

    Bilan, Yaroslav

    Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.

  12. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  13. Assessment of the Adequacy of Instructional Resources in Business Education Programmes Relative to NCCE Standards for Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…

  14. Associations among Risk Factors, Individual Resources, and Indices of School-Related Asthma Morbidity in Urban, School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Mitchell, Daphne Koinis; Adams, Sue K.; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model including examples of risk and resource factors associated with indices of school-related asthma morbidity (eg, missed sleep, participation in activities, school absences) in a group of urban, school-aged children with asthma from ethnic minority backgrounds. Specifically, the current longitudinal study…

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPbmSbTem+2), LASTT-m-x (AgPbm-xSnxSbTem+2), LABST-m-x (AgPbmSb1-xBixTem+2), doped LAST-m and (PbTe)m(M152Te3) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic precipitates and crystal defects the

  16. Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network). PMID:23467581

  17. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  18. Federal Sector Labor-Management Relations: A Guide to Decisional Materials Relating to Title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978.

    Wilson, Karen A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides overview of federal agencies administering Title VII of Civil Service Reform Act (1978) and a 22-item annotated bibliography of selected federal and commercial publications on decisional materials relating to Title VII. Sources for administrative agency rulings and arbitration awards, citators, digests, indexes, online databases, and…

  19. Bond strengths of New Carbon-nitride-Related material C2N2(CH2)

    A new carbon-nitride-related material C2N2(CH2) nanopletelet was synthesized by subjecting a precursor C3N4HxOy+Au in a laser-heating diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) to the pressure of 40 GPa and the temperature of 1200-2000 K. The synthesized C2N2(CH2) was accordingly found to be an orthorhombic unit cell of the space group Cmc21 with lattice constants a = 7.625Å, b = 4.490Å, and c = 4.047Å. The bulk modulus B0 was determined to be B0 = 258 ± 3.4 GPa, only the 60 % that of the diamond. C2N2(CH2) consists of the tetrahedrally coordinated C with three C-N single bond and the one C-C single bond, and the bridging carbon with the C-CH2-C bond. The C-N single bond length of the tetrahedron ranges from 1.444 to 1.503 Å. This bond length is close to the C-N single bond of 1.447 to 1.458 Å in the superhard β-C3N4. The compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of C2N2(CH2) ranges from 0.976 to 0.982 with the pressure of 30 GPa. These values are very close to the compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of 0.978 to 0.982 in β-C3N4, cubic-C3N4, and diamond.

  20. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  1. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (∼ 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap Δ in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum

  2. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05–0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  3. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.

  4. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report

  5. Student Reactions to Materials Relating to the Social Sciences in a Third Semester College Spanish Class.

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The problem of evaluating instructional materials in foreign language courses in terms of educational relevance is examined in this survey of a third-semester, college, Spanish class. Students were given reading materials in the social sciences in lieu of the more traditional literary selections and asked to evaluate them through an attitudinal…

  6. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  7. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  8. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  9. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  10. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  11. The Role of Job Resources in the Relation between Perceived Employability and Turnover Intention: A Prospective Two-Sample Study

    De Cuyper, Nele; Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Makikangas, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that the relationship between perceived employability (PE) and turnover intention is stronger when job resources (job control, social support from the supervisor and colleagues) are low. Results from a prospective study one year apart were similar in samples of Finnish university (N = 1314) and hospital workers (N = 308). The…

  12. Hydrography - Water Resources

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  13. The role of thermal analysis for characterization of nuclear fuels and related materials

    The increasing demand of new materials with desired properties has accelerated the growth of materials for advanced applications in areas like nuclear, space, defense, health, aviation and transport. Thermal analysis and thermo-chemistry plays a pivotal role in materials development and is interdisciplinary in nature. The use of thermal analysis techniques in thermochemical and thermophysical property investigations, thermodynamics and phase diagram studies have contributed significantly to the research in nuclear energy program. UO2 or (U,Pu)O2/(U,Th)O2 are used as a potential nuclear fuels for thermal or fast breeder reactors, respectively

  14. Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

  15. 重庆市工业固体废物的建材资源化%Utilizing Industry Solid Wastes as Resource of Building Material in Chongqing

    敬相海; 罗晖

    2001-01-01

    工业固体废物的简单填埋或直接堆放,不仅占用大量土地,而且严重污染周围的环境,因此工业固体废物的资源化利用是实现城市可持续性发展的关键环节之一。在多年的应用研究和广泛调查的基础上,本文介绍了重庆市的主要工业固体废物粉煤灰、脱硫石膏、矿渣、铬渣等的产生情况,以及它们在重庆建材行业的应用和研究情况,对重庆市工业固体废物的建材资源化过程中存在的问题和对策及工业固体废物建材资源化前景进行了探讨。%To embed or heap industry solid wastes somewhere will occupy the earth and pollute the environment seriously. So utilizing the industry solid wastes as regeneration resource is important for sustainable development of city. Based on application and research for years in utilizing industry wastes and widely investigation, the produce status of industry solid wastes in Chongqing such as fly ash, desulfuration gypsum, blastfurnace slag and chromium slag are introduced. At the same time,this paper introduces application and research on these wastes in field of building material in Chongqing. Analyze problems and countermeasures during utilizing industry solid wastes as regeneration resource in Chongqing. As a further the prospect of utilizing industry solid wastes as regeneration resource of building material is discussed.

  16. Resource planning for internal logistics : A tool designed for the material handling department at Scania Axles and Gearboxes

    Axin, Kajsa; Jonzon, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is performed at Scania Axles and Gearboxes, a production plant located in Södertälje. Within the plant axles, gearboxes as well as central gears are assembled from components to finished products. All production is conducted on production lines, with a pre-determined rate, which is supplied with components by the material handling department. Since the production quantity and the mix of product variants produced on the production line is customer order-based, the number and...

  17. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well as...... a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food...... packaging application as no significant growth was seen within 28 d of incubation at 30 degreesC....

  18. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Borislav Bogdanović; Michael Felderhoff

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  19. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Borislav Bogdanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  20. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  1. Scaling Relation in Fracture of the Materials with Elastoplastic Response Inaccessible by Scaling Laws

    Soné, Naomi; Mori, Marie; Okumura, Ko

    2012-07-01

    Strong materials and a solid method of estimating their toughness are important for manufacturing materials valuable for human life, such as rubber and plastic. Such strong materials often exhibit a complex response to external force, which resists description by simple scaling laws. In addition, even for simple nonlinear materials, no theoretical or experimental reports have been available on a clear scaling law between fracture stress and crack size, which would, if available, provide a solid test for toughness. Here, we perform experiments on thin sheet samples to make important length scales well-separated. This practically suppresses all the finite-size effects so that we succeed in finding a clear scaling law for fracture (that between failure stress and crack size) by studying nonlinear polymer sheets. This leads to plausible estimates of the fracture toughness. Remarkably, we experimentally find the scaling law even though the nonlinearity in force response is not so simple as described by power laws. The fracture scaling can be explained by a theory developed here for simple nonlinear materials and we expect that this theory will be valid for many other materials with a complex nonlinearity, as demonstrated here. This clarifies the advantage of testing thin sheets. The scaling law established here can be regarded as a nonlinear extension of the Griffith's formula and holds also for thick samples: the nonlinear Griffith's formula is also applicable to three-dimensional bulk objects.

  2. Relation of historical quarrying, material utilization and performance on buildings in Eastern Finland

    Luodes, Nike M.; Pirinen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Finland might seem to have lower stone heritage compared to other southern European countries, but it has been the main exporter of dimension stone to the majestic buildings that made St.Petersburg a recognized cultural heritage. In Finland, though, the stone seems undervalued. The only dramatic and predominant stone buildings are those of agencies and administrations located in the towns, where the stone has been used to impress and symbolize value. Romantic style used massive bossy stone in building's full height and created fine traditional carvings. Otherwise the communities have mainly built settlements in contact with the nature, with materials easily available and of low cost, following architectonical trends of the periods and producing interesting stone details. During the past years, research has been conducted on historical buildings interconnecting scientific and artistic approach to evaluate material durability and cultural relevance of the artifacts. Generally until mid 20th century the stone has been traditionally used massive for basements and walls. The materials still present good mechanical characteristics and most often the weathering level after hundreds of years of exposure had reached only the first millimeters from the curst. Instead the old methodology for deposit exploitation has left visible signs on the buildings. Some examples are visible from Kuopio. The exploitation of small, easy-to-reach surface deposits, even if planned by local experts, has affected quality and appearance of historical buildings. As an example the excavation of shallow quarries where also weathered crop was kept as a product has characterized the basement of the Niirala school that presents change in colors due to original material more than to weathering on site. Fissuring is also visible on a couple of blocks while marks on the rocks depict the old excavation method. Most often the deposits had been in the vicinities, frequently hidden by further construction

  3. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Aida Idris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.

  4. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution–related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution–related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S.Implications: Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in

  5. The Norwegian preeclampsia family cohort study: a new resource for investigating genetic aspects and heritability of preeclampsia and related phenotypes

    Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; Fenstad, Mona Høysæter; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Solberg, Per; Tappert, Christian; Araya, Elisabeth; Bærheim, Gunhild; Lyslo, Ingvill; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication without curative treatment available. A Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort was established to provide a new resource for genetic and molecular studies aiming to improve the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Methods Participants were recruited from five Norwegian hospitals after diagnoses of preeclampsia registered in the Medical birth registry of Norway were verified according to the study’s inclusion crit...

  6. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Soliman, Amr S.; Johnson, Norman J.; Altekruse, Sean F.; Kathy Welch; Mousumi Banerjee; Kendra Schwartz; Sofia Merajver

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal ...

  7. Development of a complex groundwater model to assess the relation among groundwater resource exploitation, seawater intrusion and land subsidence

    Hsi Ting, Fang; Yih Chi, Tan; Chen, Jhong Bing

    2016-04-01

    The land subsidence, which is usually irreversible, in Taiwan Pintung Plain occurred due to groundwater overexploitation. Many of the land subsidence areas in Taiwan are located in coastal area. It could not only result in homeland loss, but also vulnerability to flooding because the function of drainage system and sea wall are weakened for the lowered ground surface. Groundwater salinization and seawater intrusion could happen more easily as well. This research focuses on grasping the trend of environmental change due to the damage and impact from inappropriate development of aquaculture in the last decades. The main task is developing the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and complex numerical model for conjunctive use of surface and groundwater which is composed of a few modules such as land use, land subsidence, contamination transportation and etc. An approach based on self-organizing map (SOM) is proposed to delineate groundwater recharge zones. Several topics will be studied such as coupling of surface water and groundwater modeling, assessing the benefit of improving groundwater resources by recharge, identifying the improper usage of groundwater resources, and investigating the effect of over-pumping on land subsidence in different depth. In addition, a complete plan for managing both the flooding and water resources will be instituted by scheming non-engineering adaptation strategies for homeland planning, ex. controlling pumping behavior in area vulnerable to land subsidence and increasing groundwater recharge.

  8. The Road to MOF-Related Functional Materials and Beyond: Desire, Design, Decoration, and Development.

    Chen, Junying; Li, Yingwei

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are known as a class of porous coordination polymers, have proven to be of great significance to manifold applications, owing to their fascinating topology, ultrahigh porosity, enormous internal surface area, and the combination of being as rigid as inorganic materials and as flexible as organic materials . In this review, we give a concise history of the development of MOFs as functional materials prior to our entry into this area in 2006, then a summary of our road to participate in and extend the outline of the research in MOFs chemistry, as well as the challenge in further designing applicable functional materials. We describe not only the road of evolution from the past, present, and future of this chemistry, but also the road to finalize a functional material from the desire to the design, synthesis, and postmodification of a MOF. Throughout the review, we particularly emphasize the improvements in the application of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts, such as employing MOFs as one component for the construction of composites, and their extended scope in tough catalytic reactions. Examples of applications in gas storage and separation, small molecular sensing, and our perspectives for future applications triggered by MOFs, are also introduced. PMID:27185058

  9. Details of criminological investigations of large-valued thefts related to nuclear materials (diversion safeguards program)

    Studies were made of five areas of criminology which have great similarity to the case of nuclear materials. Actual cases of crimes were analyzed by experts in law enforcement and criminal justice. To identify fields of analogous criminology, possible characteristics of nuclear material thefts were considered: total value, high unit cost, limited marketability, special technology for handling, and licensing. The items considered to be analogous to nuclear materials in these aspects were: narcotics, data (as exists in computer memories, tapes, or discs), precious metal and gems, objects of art, and weapons. A criminology survey was conducted in which 509 individuals received one or more questionnaires soliciting opinion responses. Sixty-five questionnaires were returned. Eighty-four individuals replied by letter indicating inadequate knowledge of the crimes being surveyed. The questionnaire was supplemented by 18 interviews with criminal justice and industry personnel for more definitive information on diversion problems. Results of this survey are reported

  10. EFFICIENCY OF RELATIONS BETWEEN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS AND BUSINESS-WORLD ON IMPROVING SKILLED HUMAN RESOURCES: A RESEARCH ON BOLU VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL INTERNSHIPS STUDENTS

    Necmettin ÖZEL; İbrahim KARAGÖZ

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to detect relations between vocational high schools and business world on development and employment of skilled human resources. A Questionnaire was administrated to 104 students who have completed their internships. Questionnaire rendered a 85% of reliability. Items means of questionnaire showed that participants perceived that internships experiences motivate to learn new things (3.29); knowledge, however, gained in school aren’t satisfactory in respect of workplace expectat...

  11. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed

  12. Fabrication and properties of ZAO powder, sputtering target materials and the related films

    Wei Shao; Ruixin Ma; Bin Liu

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al), abbreviated as ZAO, is a novel and widely used transparent conductive material. The ZAO powder was synthesized by chemical coprecipitation. The ZAO ceramic sputtering target materials were fabricated by sintering in air, and ZAO transparent conductive films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. XRD proved that such films had an orientation of (002) crystal panel paralleled to the surface of the glass substrate. The average transmittance of the films in the visible region exceeded 80%.

  13. On the relation between strength properties of carbon materials and total porosity following neutron irradiation

    Correlation of compression strength and flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus with the general porosity of carbon materials irradiated with neutrons is considered. The syntactic foam and fine-grain graphite on the base of non-calcinated oil coke with pitch binding have been used as samples for investigations. The irradiation is carried out by neutron fluence of 1.3x1021 neutr/cm2. It is shown that the above correlation as well as in non-irradiated materials is approximated satisfactorily by the exponential equation. Besides the character of the interaction of filler grains between themselves and with the binding, has not changed

  14. Films and Disperse Materials Based on Diamond-Like and Related Structures

    Gun'ko, V. M.; Mikhalovsky, S. V.; Mikhalovska, L. I.; Tomlins, P.; Field, S.; Teer, D. G.; Fitzgerald, S.; Fucassi, F.; Bogatyrev, V. M.; Semikina, T. V.; Turanska, S. P.; Borysenko, M. V.; Turov, V. V.; Gorbyk, P. P.

    Structural, adsorption, mechanical and other properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, ultradisperse diamonds and porous diamond compacts were studied in comparison with Ti, TiO X , TiN X , TiC, Zr, ZrO X , ZrN X , ZrC, SiO2, graphite-like carbon film and graphitised carbon black. Control of the properties of DLC materials by doping or surface modification, high mechanical characteristics and tribological behaviour, chemical passivity, biocompatibility and nontoxicity allow the use of these materials in industry and medicine.

  15. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  16. A simple experiment highlighting data treatment techniques: the determination of the relative dielectric constant of a material

    A simple and inexpensive experiment requiring nonlinear data transformation for straightforward fitting gives a complete overview of basic data treatment techniques in a way suitable for a beginners on a physics laboratory course. A satisfactory estimate of the relative dielectric constant of a material is thereby obtained. Methodological issues and pedagogical aspects of the experiment are discussed in detail. (paper)

  17. 26 CFR 301.6104(a)-2 - Public inspection of material relating to pension and other plans.

    2010-04-01

    ... pension and other plans. 301.6104(a)-2 Section 301.6104(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6104(a)-2 Public inspection of material relating to pension and...— (i) A pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan under section 401(a), (ii) An annuity plan...

  18. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  19. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA)

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  20. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 1. Bottom-up Scenarios

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in the main report. This report (part 1) presents scenarios for future biomass use for energy and materials, and analyses the consequences on energy supply, chemical productions, costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a bottom-up approach. The bottom-up projections, as presented in this report, form the basis for modelling work using the top-down macro-economic model (LEITAP) to assess the economic impact of substituting fossil-based energy carriers with biomass in the Netherlands. The results of the macro-economic modelling work, and the linkage between the results of the bottom-up and top-down work, will be presented in the top-down economic part and synthesis report of this study

  1. Importance of sampling in relation to the gamma spectroscopic analysis of NORM and TENORM material

    This paper describes the developments over the past 25 years of low background gamma spectroscopic analysis of NORM and TENORM materials to a state-of-the-art semi-automatic gamma analysis system. The developments were initiated in the early 1980s in order to be able to measure low specific activities in fly ash samples. The developments involved modifications and improvements of commercially available hardware, auxiliary equipment, improvement and development of analyzing software, correction software and processing software to a semi-automatic reporting of the analysis results. The effort summarized above has led to detection limits of 238U: 3 Bq/kg, 235U: 0.3 Bq/kg, 226Ra: 5 Bq/kg, 210Pb: 30 Bq/kg, 40K: 60 Bq/kg, with a measuring time of 70,000s using a specially tuned gamma spectroscopy system for NORM and TENORM materials. These low detection limits show the need to set up representative sampling procedures for NORM and TENORM materials. It is not possible to define a sampling procedure that would be valid for all types of sampling. Therefore it is advised that, where sampling is expected to be performed at regular times, a sampling procedure for the materials being dealt with should be set-up and validated. The procedure has to be based on an existing national or international standard. (author)

  2. Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising

    S.J. Opree; M. Buijzen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to t

  3. Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials

    Jiang, Hongxing [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lin, Jingyu [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-01-22

    Among the members of the III-nitride material system, boron-nitride (BN) is the least studied and understood. Its extraordinary physical properties, such as ultra-high chemical stability, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, band gap (Eg ~ 6 eV), and optical absorption near the band gap make hexagonal BN (h-BN) the material of choice for emerging applications such as deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. Moreover, h-BN has a close lattice match to graphene and is the most suitable substrate and dielectric/separation layer for graphene electronics and optoelectronics. Similar to graphene, low dimensional h-BN is expected to possess rich new physics. Other potential applications include super-capacitors and electron emitters. However, our knowledge concerning the semiconducting properties of h-BN is very scarce. The project aims to extend our studies to the “newest” family member of the III-nitride material system, h-BN, and to address issues that have not yet been explored but are expected to profoundly influence our understanding on its fundamental properties and device applications. During the supporting period, we have improved the growth processes of h-BN epilayers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), investigated the fundamental material properties, and identified several unique features of h-BN as well as critical issues that remain to be addressed.

  4. Study on Photon Sensitivity of Silicon Diodes Related to Materials Used for Shielding

    Large area Silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X and gamma rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diodes active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since Silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 μm thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter. (author)

  5. Study on photon sensitivity of silicon diodes related to materials used for shielding

    Large area silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X- and gamma-rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diode's active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 μm thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon-induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low-energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X- and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter. (author)

  6. Alternative approaches of SiC and related wide bandgap materials in light emitting and solar cell applications

    silicon oxycarbide material can provide potential applications of the Eu luminescent materials to challenging conditions like high temperatures or aggressive environments where the silica has weaknesses. In some approaches, silicon rich silicon oxide that contain silicon nanoclusters emit red to near infrared luminescence due to quantum confinement effects while luminescence at shorter wavelength is difficult due to the interplay of defects and quantum confinement effects. In addition it is applicable as low-k dielectric, etch-stop and passivation layers. It also has an optical band-gap that is smaller than that of SiO2 which may facilitate carrier injection at lower voltages that is suitable for optoelectronics. From materials perspective of emerging materials, it seems distant to consider system related issues. The future demands on communication and lighting devices require higher information flows in modernized optical devices, for example by replacing electrical interconnects with their optical counterparts and tunable backgrounds filters for integrated optics or photonics applications. However, there are materials issues related to such device performance, for example by a non-linearity, that provide the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths using hetero structures in which one side of the structure enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of long and medium wavelength channels and diminish others, and an opposite behavior in other face of the structure. Certainly materials may be applied in various innovative ways to provide new performances in devices and systems. In any materials and device evaluation, reliability issues in passivation and packaging of semiconductor device structures provide a base knowledge that may be used to evaluate new concepts. Fundamental aspects of dielectric constant, bandgap and band offsets between the valence and conduction band edges between the passivation layer and the semiconductor create a foundation for

  7. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  8. Microscopic properties of lithium, sodium, and magnesium battery anode materials related to possible dendrite growth

    Lithium and magnesium exhibit rather different properties as battery anode materials with respect to the phenomenon of dendrite formation which can lead to short-circuits in batteries. Diffusion processes are the key to understanding structure forming processes on surfaces. Therefore, we have determined adsorption energies and barriers for the self-diffusion on Li and Mg using periodic density functional theory calculations and contrasted the results to Na which is also regarded as a promising electrode material in batteries. According to our calculations, magnesium exhibits a tendency towards the growth of smooth surfaces as it exhibits lower diffusion barriers than lithium and sodium, and as an hcp metal it favors higher-coordinated configurations in contrast to the bcc metals Li and Na. These characteristic differences are expected to contribute to the unequal tendencies of these metals with respect to dendrite growth

  9. High density carbon materials obtained at relatively low temperature by spark plasma sintering of carbon nanofibers

    Borrell, Amparo; Torrecillas, Ramon [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Univ. de Oviedo, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Merino, Cesar [Grupo Antolin Ingenieria, Burgos (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Graphitic materials obtained at low temperatures are interesting for a wide range of industrial applications including bipolar plates. In this work, graphite based nanocomposites have been obtained starting from carbon nanofibers and a mixture of carbon nanofibers with 20 vol.% of alumina nanopowders. High density carbon components were obtained by using Spark Plasma Sintering at temperatures as low as 1500-1800 C for this kind of materials. The effect of spark plasma sintering parameters on the final density, and the mechanical and electrical properties of resulting nanocomposites have been investigated. Pure carbon nanofibers with around 90% of theoretical density and fracture strength of 60 MPa have been obtained at temperatures as low as 1500 C applying a pressure of 80 MPa during sintering. It has been proved that attrition milling is a suitable method for preparing homogeneous mixtures of carbon nanofibers and alumina powders. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear fuel and its radioactive materials. Related with Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident

    The Great East Japan earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011. It caused serious accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) leading to release of large amount of radioactive materials into the environment. By this accident, people really felt fear of reactor accidents. However, they didn't have enough information about nuclear fuel and nuclear power and seemed to misunderstand to some extent. This article introduced mechanism of nuclear fuel and release of radioactive materials into the environment caused by the accident. Nuclear fuel produced fission products and actinides with operating period of nuclear power. Decay heat of fission products decreased with time but must be cooled for a long time. Total amount of iodine 131 and cesium 137 released into the environment was estimated about 2% and less than 1% of the core inventory. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Neutron irradiation effects in fusion or spallation structural materials: Some recent insights related to neutron spectra

    A review is presented of recent insights on the role of transmutation in the development of radiation-induced changes in dimension or radiation-induced changes in physical or mechanical properties. It is shown that, in some materials and some neutron spectra, transmutation can significantly affect or even dominate a given property change process. When the process under study is also sensitive to displacement rate, and especially if it involves radiation-induced segregation and precipitation, it becomes much more difficult to separate the transmutation and displacement rate dependencies. This complicates the application of data derived from 'surrogate' spectra to predictions in other flux-spectra environments. It is also shown in this paper that one must be sensitive to the impact of previously -ignored 'small' variations in neutron spectra within a given reactor. In some materials these small variations have major consequences. (author)

  12. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Roeb, Martin; Neises, Martina; Monnerie, Nathalie; Call, Friedemann; Simon, Heike; Sattler, Christian; Schmücker, Martin; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox mater...

  13. Ecotoxicological effects of selected engineered nano-materials to aquatic organisms in relation to their physicochemicalcharacteristics

    Wong, Wing-yu.; 黃詠如.

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (NMs), defined as artificially made particles possessing at least one dimension within 1 – 100 nm range, have different physical and biological properties from bulk materials of the same chemistry due to their increased surface areas. Their novel properties have facilitated the prolific growth of commercial NM-incorporating products. NMs may be leached into the aquatic environment during the product life-cycle, but their ecological impacts on marine ecosystems are cu...

  14. Cloud point curve of nonionic surfactant related to the structures of mesoporous materials.

    Blin, J L; Bleta, R; Stébé, M J

    2006-08-15

    We have investigated the phase behavior of a fluorinated surfactant R(7)(F)(EO)(7) in water. The cloud point is situated at 19 degrees C for 2 wt% of surfactant. Using this surfactant, mesoporous materials have been synthesized with micellar solution prepared either at 10 degrees C (below the cloud point) or at 40 degrees C (above the cloud point). Results show that whatever the syntheses conditions, only wormhole-like structure is recovered. The effect of perfluorodecalin addition on the fluorinated surfactant/water system was also investigated. Swollen micelles, microemulsion, and lamellar (L(alpha)) liquid crystals were identified. When perfluorodecalin is added, the cloud point is shifted toward higher temperature. As regards the mesoporous syntheses, perfluorodecalin plays a dual role. First, incorporation of perfluorodecalin leads to the formation of well ordered materials. Secondly, the pore size enlargement occurs when perfluorodecalin is added. Our results evidence that the ratio between the volume of the hydrophilic headgroup (V(H)) and the hydrophobic part (V(L)) of the surfactant is not an efficiency parameter to explain the ordering improvement of mesoporous materials and that we should rather consider the existence of the cloud point curve, which disturbs the cooperative templating mechanism (CTM). PMID:16677667

  15. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  16. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    The INEX series of international nuclear emergency exercises, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving the arrangements for responding to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies at the national and international level. Previous INEX exercises focussed largely on national and international aspects of early phase management of emergencies at nuclear power plants and more recently, in INEX 4, on issues in consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. Since the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, it has been recognised that notification, communication, and identifying and obtaining resources during catastrophic events can be difficult and the need for established protocols, policies, and procedures among and between country entities is critical for minimizing negative impacts. Therefore, the benefit and goal of INEX 5 is to provide a basis for enhancing national and international emergency management arrangements related to notification, communication and obtaining resources through the exchange of exercise outcomes and experiences from participating countries, in order to identify good practice and common issues to be addressed. INEX 5 will address emergency management aspects of notification, communication and interfaces between and among country and international organizations. INEX 5 is set up as a table top exercise with three levels of discussion for participants (prior to a release, recognizing/validating a release, and impacts to the radiological event from a catastrophic natural event). Countries can develop additional materials to expand this table top to a full field exercise if preferred. Prior to initiation of the table top, participants will be provided clear guidance about how the exercise will be conducted. Because this exercise may involve government agencies and

  17. Post-September 11 responses in US regulatory practice affecting the export and import of radioactive materials and related equipment

    This paper discusses certain significant changes in the US laws and regulations in the post-September 11 era regarding the export and import of nuclear and other radioactive materials, as well as related equipment. These changes demonstrate the US Government's growing vigilance concerning the movement and end-user of such materials and equipment in light of the intensified threat of their diversion to terrorist activities. In particular, both the congress and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have recently devoted particular attention to the transportation, storage, use and disposition of radioactive sources. Meanwhile, the NRC has made it easier to import major nuclear reactor components. (author)

  18. Thermal neutron activation investigation of raw materials and related final products involved in the iron making process

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to investigate some samples of raw and auxiliary materials (sinter, pellets, coke) and related final products (cast iron, slag, blast-furnace flue dust) involved in the iron making process in the SIDEX Iron and Steel Works at Galati, Romania. A series of elements were determined in the analyzed samples: Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, V and W. We sought for the transfer of As, Cu, K, Na, V and W from auxiliary materials to cast iron during the blast furnace process. (authors)

  19. Natural resource mitigation, adaptation and research needs related to climate change in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert

    Hughson, Debra L.; Busch, David E.; Davis, Scott; Finn, Sean P.; Caicco, Steve; Verburg, Paul S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report synthesizes the knowledge, opinions, and concerns of many Federal and State land managers, scientists, stakeholders, and partners from a workshop, held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on April 20-22, 2010. Land managers, research scientists, and resource specialists identified common concerns regarding the potential effects of climate change on public lands and natural resources in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert and developed recommendations for mitigation, adaptation, and research needs. Water and, conversely, the effects of drought emerged as a common theme in all breakout sessions on terrestrial and aquatic species at risk, managing across boundaries, monitoring, and ecosystem services. Climate change models for the southwestern deserts predict general warming and drying with increasing precipitation variability year to year. Scientists noted that under these changing conditions the past may no longer be a guide to the future in which managers envision increasing conflicts between human water uses and sustaining ecosystems. Increasing environmental stress also is expected as a consequence of shifting ecosystem boundaries and species distributions, expansion of non-native species, and decoupling of biotic mutualisms, leading to increasingly unstable biologic communities. Managers uniformly expressed a desire to work across management and agency boundaries at a landscape scale but conceded that conflicting agency missions and budgetary constraints often impede collaboration. More and better science is needed to cope with the effects of climate change but, perhaps even more important is the application of science to management issues using the methods of adaptive management based on long-term monitoring to assess the merits of management actions. Access to data is essential for science-based land management. Basic inventories, spatial databases, baseline condition assessments, data quality assurance, and data sharing were identified as top

  20. Phthalocyanines and Related Compounds: Subunits for the Preparation of Molecular Materials

    Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, A.; GOULOUMIS, A.; MAYA, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The design, synthesis, structural and physical characterization and engineering, and the study of the electrical conductivity and the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and molecular substances related to them, such as subphthalocyanines, hemiporphyrazines and triazolephthalocyanines were reviewed.