WorldWideScience
 
 
1

A Guide to Law Related Education Materials in the Curriculum Resources Center. Bibliography Series 1991, No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed to enhance law-related education (LRE) programs, this annotated bibliography provides a partial list of materials available at the Curriculum Resources Center (CRC) at Rhode Island College. Materials listed include those books, curriculum guides, media kits, student texts and workbooks, and professional texts which deal directly with the…

Nutter, Lester A., Comp.; Woolman, David C., Ed.

2

Related Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Related Materials Press Materials NCI Press release: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/2011/NLSTprimaryNEJM NCI Q&A on NLST: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/qa/2002/nlstqaQA NCI Fast Facts on NLST: http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/pressreleases/2011/NLSTFastFacts

3

Space resources. Volume 3: Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

1992-01-01

4

Moon. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

2012-07-01

5

Resource materials for faculty development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Practical, well-designed, state-of-the-art resources are needed to help medical faculty enhance their skills as educators, researchers, administrators, and academics. Books, audio and video programs, CD-ROM-based programs, and interactive programs created for use on the Internet are needed for independent study, for peer learning, and for activities that are facilitated by faculty developers. The more pressure there is on faculty time, the more desirable becomes the availability of resources that can be used privately, flexibly, and in multiple locations (including home). In this paper, we 1) describe the strategies we used in identifying resources, 2) briefly describe some recently developed resources, 3) make observations about existing resources, and (4) make recommendations for the kinds of resources that need to be created and some criteria to consider when selecting and creating resources. The task of finding existing resources proved to be quite difficult, so as an outgrowth of the research done for this article, we created a Web site (http:@www.uchsc.edu/CIS) that provides a continually updated, annotated list of resources for faculty in the health professions and links to other sites with relevant information.

Westberg J; Whitman N

1997-04-01

6

Instructional Materials Vocational Related English.  

Science.gov (United States)

This preliminary draft of instructional materials for an English curriculum offering vocational preparation focuses on grammar concepts, selected vocational English topics, and the use of resource materials. The unit plans contain general and specific behavioral objectives, student activities, and teaching procedures. Information sheets, student…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

7

Plastics Resources for Educators Program (PREP) Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The Plastics Resources for Educators Program (PREP) was developed in response to a need within the plastics education industry for instructional materials, opportunities for faculty development, equipment acquisition, and collegial exchange. Illustrations and animations here include extrusion, injection molding, rotational molding, materials, blow molding, and thermoforming. Just click the links on the left to see more.

2008-11-14

8

PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

A. Alpatov

2012-01-01

9

Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

10

EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

Jablonská Jana; Orlitová Erika

1997-01-01

11

Technology Assessment of Solar-Energy Systems. Materials Resource and Hazardous Materials Impacts of Solar Deployment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compare...

Y. M. Schiffman J. E. Tahami

1982-01-01

12

Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe2O3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe2O3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO3 product of Merck, and BaCO4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH)max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH)max are relatively lower than commercial product.

2003-01-01

13

Exhaustible resources and secondary materials. A macroeconomic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we have developed an endogenous growth model to deal with exhaustible resources and secondary materials together, under the assumptions that these two inputs are, or are not, technologically perfect substitutes of each other, in order to compare the results obtained under both hypotheses. We highlight the implication of these two assumptions on the rate of growth of total output and upon the flow of exhaustible resources extracted. There are also some other interesting findings related to the spill-over on welfare of the waste recycling process, and the dynamics of shadow prices of both inputs considered. Finally, some implications on Hotelling's rule also emerge in our analytical framework. (author)

Di Vita, Giuseppe [Faculty of Law, University of Catania, 95124 Catania (Italy)

2007-06-15

14

Energy and material resources: attitudes, values, and public policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of public attitudes and values is essential to the formulation and implementation of government policies affecting energy and other natural resources, but it is difficult to obtain and use this knowledge, for the pertinent issues are complex and involve such difficult-to-define concepts as degree of acceptable risk for both present and future generations. Recently, survey researchers have attempted to measure and explain public attitudes related to energy and resource conservation. This volume examines what policymakers need to or would like to know about these attitudes, what kinds of results the researchers have been able to obtain, and the extent to which their results currently influence the policymaking process. In the introductory chapter, the editor, Dr. W. David Conn, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, first draws attention to the fact that terms such as attitudes, beliefs, and values are used differently by different people; next, he briefly reviews the kinds of information that are likely to be of interest to policymakers concerned with material and energy resources (with illustrations from the materials field); then, he identifies special problems faced by the policymakers; finally, he presents an overview of the 10 chapters that follow. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 chapters.

Conn, W.D. (ed.)

1983-01-01

15

Seabed material commodity and resource summaries. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report results from concentrated research conducted by a research team under the primary sponsorship of the National Sea Grant College Program. The report provides background documentation for the recent publication: J. M. Broadus, 1987, Seabed materials, Science 235(4791):853-860. It is organized to lead the user directly to sources that may provide further information on particular seabed materials. Several presentations of data in the report are of use in understanding the fundamentals of marine mineral markets including: descriptions of the size of the marine mineral resource base and the size of the markets for onshore and offshore sources of marine minerals; price series for minerals with prospective seabed sources; composite prices for four marine mineral types; consumption and price elasticities of mineral reserves; trends in mineral exploration inputs and U.S. federal government expenditures for marine nonfuel resources; maps of existing, proposed, or past entitlements for marine hard minerals; a list of known marine polymetallic sulfide (MPS) deposits and reported grades; world trade flows in zinc and copper; the value of apparent consumption in the United States in relation to imports and recycling; and a bibliography.

Hoagland, P.; Broadus, J.M.

1987-10-01

16

Personality as Relational Resource in Persuasion Settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study aims to show that, like speech acts, personality is also a social resource, the latter predisposes people to relate to each other in a preferential manner. Fifty-eight participants engaged in dyadic interactions in which they were required to defend their point of view. The translated version of the NEO-FFI was used to measure personality dimensions (McCrae, Costa & Yik, 1996), and the Verbal Response Mode (Stiles, 1992) was used for the coding of verbal behavior. The results show that people who have a high level of neuroticism handle their interpersonal relationships in a reflective manner by concealing their own opinions and focusing on the arguments of other people. The same people prefer to communicate by “mirroring” other people's utterances, irrespective of the role that was given to them in the study. The findings add to the body of knowledge on interpersonal dimensions and their relations with personality.

Kevin H. C. Cheng

2009-01-01

17

Materials preparation and characterization resources at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research is conducted in the BNL Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Energy and Environment, Nuclear Energy and Physics, and Medical Department. The Reactor Division, the National Synchrotron Light Source Division, and the Instrumentation Division are also closely associated with BNL research programs. The diverse requirements for special materials preparation and characterization within the Laboratory's many basic research programs have fostered a decentralized capacity to perform these tasks. Although the Instrumentation Division and the Metallurgy and Materials Science Division do provide certain basic services, such as thin-film deposition, metallography, and electron microscopy, these activities tend to supplement rather than replace the materials preparation and characterization skills developed in the scientific departments. Consequently, specific capabilities related to special classes of materials can be found throughout the Laboratory. Generally, these capabilities were initially developed for programmatic reasons, but subsequently some have been retained as continuing Laboratory-wide resources available on an informal basis to all scientific staff members. On the other hand, certain activities were specifically established ab initio to fulfill a service function. They are regularly made available to the non-Brookhaven research community by informal arrangements through members of the appropriate department or division on a cost recovery basis, if necessary.

Goland, A.N.; Suenaga, M. Strongin, M.; Cox, D.E.

1982-01-01

18

RELATIO: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONAL DIMENSION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indigenous traditions and values of African peoples have been viewed as being behind the times. Disregarding established, functioning systems of African resource allocation has led to a system of interaction out of touch with local cultural priorities. Through a review of literature, augmented by qualitative interviews and observational analysis, the evolutionary nature of rationality is revealed; demonstrating the necessity for our understanding of economic choice to be adjusted to involve broader conceptions of its constitution, restraints, and motivations. It is derived that two parallel systems for addressing basic questions of choice and resource management exist; a traditional “rational” Western system, and a “relational” African system. After establishing these intersecting systems, the value of African uniqueness is appreciated. This paper attempts to build upon the work of other economists in the addition of a “relational” component of rationality, informed by both social and material forms of capital.

Kevin Sheneberger; Gertjan van Stam

2011-01-01

19

Resource convergence and resource power: towards new concepts for material efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Material efficiency is not a panacea, but it lies at the intersection of many problems of global sustainability. Reducing the usage of a single material in a value chain may require ingenuity and wide cooperation, but conceptually it is not a problem. When the problem stretches to several resources in changing circumstances, we have to understand the linkages between resources and the power, and the influence of each resource in decision-making in different settings. In this paper, we concisely go from the time dimension to a very short history of resource thinking, and then introduce our resource convergence concept. Using text mining on a sample of articles linking different resources, we show in a 'visual literature review' how resource convergence emerges from unrelated texts. To demonstrate one new method under the resource convergence umbrella, we use a case example with our Resource Power Index method. In our opinion, mastering complexity will be the key to solving the challenges we are facing, and mastering resource convergence and translating it into material efficiency is one of the central problems. What we show in this paper is a core framework and some details of the direction we see as worth pursuing. PMID:23359733

Vasara, Petri; Rouhiainen, Juulia; Lehtinen, Hannele

2013-01-28

20

Resource convergence and resource power: towards new concepts for material efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Material efficiency is not a panacea, but it lies at the intersection of many problems of global sustainability. Reducing the usage of a single material in a value chain may require ingenuity and wide cooperation, but conceptually it is not a problem. When the problem stretches to several resources in changing circumstances, we have to understand the linkages between resources and the power, and the influence of each resource in decision-making in different settings. In this paper, we concisely go from the time dimension to a very short history of resource thinking, and then introduce our resource convergence concept. Using text mining on a sample of articles linking different resources, we show in a 'visual literature review' how resource convergence emerges from unrelated texts. To demonstrate one new method under the resource convergence umbrella, we use a case example with our Resource Power Index method. In our opinion, mastering complexity will be the key to solving the challenges we are facing, and mastering resource convergence and translating it into material efficiency is one of the central problems. What we show in this paper is a core framework and some details of the direction we see as worth pursuing.

Vasara P; Rouhiainen J; Lehtinen H

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

2010-01-01

22

Information Resources for Coal Mining and Related Subjects. A Bibliographic Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This bibliography lists materials on coal mining and related resources contained in the library of Southeast Community College (Kentucky). The guide is organized in six sections. The first section lists reference materials and is annotated. The second section lists books. Subject headings include coal miners, mines, and trade; mine safety;…

Zhang, Sha Li, Comp.

23

Catalysis by ceria and related materials  

CERN Multimedia

This book follows the 2002 edition of Catalysis by Ceria and Related Materials, which was the first book entirely devoted to ceria and its catalytic properties. In the ten years since the first edition a massive amount of work has been carried out in the field, and ceria has gained a prominent position in catalysis as one of the most valuable material for several applications. This second edition covers fundamental and applied aspects of the latest advances in ceria-based materials with a special focus on structural, redox and catalytic features. Special emphasis is given to nano-engineered an

Trovarelli, Alessandro

2013-01-01

24

Modeling the role of natural resources in the economy: an extended materials-balance approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past few decades, economists have tried to incorporate physical and natural laws, particularly the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, into models of economic processes. Labeling this an extended materials-balance approach, this dissertation outlines some of its development and relations with resource economics. The implications of these two laws for resource availability and economic activity are used to explore a controversial issue in economics - the sufficiency of natural resources for economic growth. Models of the processes of production and growth consistent with an extended materials-balance approach are developed to analyze the optimal use of natural resources and the limits to growth which they may impose. Standard neoclassical analysis of the growth potential of an economy emphasizes the possibility of overcoming constraints imposed by the exhaustibility of resources. This is often proven with reference to a Cobb-Douglas production technology. To further contrast the nature of models using Cobb-Douglas versus materials-balance Cobb-Douglas production specifications, models of optimal control of consumption and resource depletion over time are analyzed and simulated.

Gross, L.S.

1987-01-01

25

Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

2013-01-01

26

Universal Scaling Relations in Strongly Anisotropic Materials  

CERN Document Server

We consider the critical temperature in strongly anisotropic antiferromagnetic materials, with weak coupling between stacked planes, in order to determine the interplane coupling constant from experimentally measured susceptibilities. We present theoretical arguments for a universal relation between interplane coupling and susceptibility shown numerically by Yasuda et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{94}, 217201 (2005). We predict a more general scaling function if the system is close to a quantum critical point, a similar relation for other susceptibilities than considered in Yasuda et. al., and the validity of these relations for more general phase transitions.

Hastings, M B

2006-01-01

27

Decision support system and related methods in water resource planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper deals with decision support systems and related methods in water resources planning. The various papers given for the session on economic quantification as a tool for decision making in water resources planning, reflect the change in emphasis from the quantity to quality viewpoint. Only a few of these papers deal with the economic aspects of water management from the quantitative viewpoint. The papers can be classified according to two main themes: the contribution of the feedback control theory, and of simulation and optimization models to decision making; the use of cost-benefit analysis or of benefit studies in decision making for water resources management in relation to environmental matters.

Potier, M.; Carlsen, A.J. (ed.)

1987-01-01

28

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated.

1980-11-10

29

Mechanochemistry of fullerenes and related materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The low or lack of solubility of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene/graphite in organic solvents and water severely hampers the study of their chemical functionalizations and practical applications. Covalent and noncovalent functionalizations of fullerenes and related materials via mechanochemistry seem appealing to tackle these problems. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive coverage on the mechanochemical reactions of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphite, including dimerizations and trimerizations, nucleophilic additions, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, Diels-Alder reactions, [2 + 1] cycloadditions of carbenes and nitrenes, radical additions, oxidations, etc. It is intriguing to find that some reactions of fullerenes can only proceed under solvent-free conditions or undergo different reaction pathways from those of the liquid-phase counterparts to generate completely different products. We also present the application of the mechanical milling technique to complex formation, nanocomposite formation and enhanced hydrogen storage of carbon-related materials.

Zhu SE; Li F; Wang GW

2013-09-01

30

Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply-and-demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: (1) although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) the postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; (3) the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; (4) however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

Schiffman, Y.M.; Tahami, J.E.

1982-04-01

31

Ways to save material resources in mine construction. Puti ekonomii material'nykh resursov v shakhtnom stroitelstve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of the problem of saving material resources in the construction of mining enterprises is stressed. The basic ways to save materials in building mines are shown in an example of the construction divisions of the Mosbassshakhtostroy association.

Kondratova, I.G.; Chernitskiy, S.L.

1983-01-01

32

MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

2010-12-13

33

??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Non-material resources influence to the manufacturing company cost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????????. ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????????????? ????????.The mutual relations diagrams of the different nonmaterial factors and growth factors of the company cost has been built. The methodic of numeric estimation of the non-material factors influence to the company cost has been proposed. The system of regression equations has been composed, the analytical changes of the manufacturing company cost dependencies on the intellectual improvement are built for the specific instance.

?. ?. ??????????; ?. ?. ??????; ?. ?. ??????????

2012-01-01

34

Study on fullerenes and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It has been suggested that metallofullerenes and carbon nanoparticles encaging metal or carbide would open great possibility to us in various field of nuclear fuel cycle. A macroscopic quantity of the metallofullerene has been first isolated in pure form from various hollow fullerenes by using an efficient HPLC system and selecting extract solvent, in spite it was considered difficult to take bulk purified metallofullerene for the overlap of metallofullerene and hollow fullerene in the retention time of HPLC previously. Furthermore magnetic property for this isolated metallofullerenes has been first studied. The preparation of carbon nanoparticles encaging actinide elements (U and Th) is first successful by adjusting the evaporating conditions in contact arc reactor. In this report, the review of the study on fullerenes and related materials including the above results has been introduced. (author)

1994-01-01

35

Study on fullerenes and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been suggested that metallofullerenes and carbon nanoparticles encaging metal or carbide would open great possibility to us in various field of nuclear fuel cycle. A macroscopic quantity of the metallofullerene has been first isolated in pure form from various hollow fullerenes by using an efficient HPLC system and selecting extract solvent, in spite it was considered difficult to take bulk purified metallofullerene for the overlap of metallofullerene and hollow fullerene in the retention time of HPLC previously. Furthermore magnetic property for this isolated metallofullerenes has been first studied. The preparation of carbon nanoparticles encaging actinide elements (U and Th) is first successful by adjusting the evaporating conditions in contact arc reactor. In this report, the review of the study on fullerenes and related materials including the above results has been introduced. (author).

Funasaka, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Takeshi (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works); Sakurai, Kozi; Ishiguro, Toshiaki; Kano, Yoshiharu

1994-09-01

36

Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention.

Holmes K; Winskell K

2013-02-01

37

Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention. PMID:23394104

Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

2013-02-11

38

Internal fields in diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this research was to develop the sensitive diagnostic method of Time Differential Perturbed Angular Distributions (TDPAD) using implanted fluorine (19F) as the nuclear probe, and apply it to defect and impurity studies of diamond crystals, by detecting the electric field gradient (efg) at the impurity sites. Defects and impurities can substantially determine and modify the electrical and physical properties of materials. Such studies lead to theoretical advances and new materials. Diamond presents a unique system in which to perform these studies. The related Muon Spin Rotation (MSR) technique, which detects the local magnetic field at the muon residence sites, was also used to study the behaviour of the implanted hydrogen-like impurity. The 19F is recoil implanted into the diamond by a 4 MeV pulsed proton beam from an accelerator. The parameters describing the local efg (magnitude, asymmetry, distribution and orientation) at the residence sites of the implanted 19F probes are measured by detecting the pertubed ?-ray angular distribution from the 19F de-excitation. The efg reflects the local microscopic structure and dynamic processes. Measurements were performed as a function of crystallographic orientation, diamond type (naturally present defects and impurities) and temperature. The accelerator pulsing facilities were improved by the stabilization of the chopper and the development of a buncher. Theoretical model functions were developed for the analysis of data for non-axially symmetric efg's in cubic single crystals. The 19F TDPAD method has matured during the course of this research into a sensitive diagnostic technique, and a consistent picture of the 19F impurity in diamond is emerging. The results are of importance to the general understanding of defects and impurities, especially in diamond, and interesting possibilities for future research are suggested

1988-01-01

39

Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction.

McCoy, H.E.; Griess, J.C.

1981-07-01

40

Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Creating e-learning material with optimal utilization of limited resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sri Lanka is a country with comparatively high standards of healthcare, but a poor distribution of resources. While gaining access to expert trainers is relatively easy in the western province, the same cannot be said of regions like the eastern and north central provinces.With access to broadband crossing all regional and geographic boundaries and an 84% penetration rate for mobile phones, internet access is becoming the one resource that is uniformly distributed across the island. An eLearning solution therefore is the only practical means to ensure that training resources are available to everyone, anytime, anywhere in the island.The paper proposes a hosted eLearning solution incorporating video based lessons supplemented by text, animations and voiceovers to provide postgraduate level training for medical personnel. The process of creating training material will be non intrusive and not require any additional time or expensive resources as it will be primarily based on capturing of actual cases including consultations, surgery and other day to day activities as videos. A simple webcam attached to a laptop or even a relatively high resolution mobile phone with sufficient storage capacity is all that is required to capture the core training content.Assembly of the training course using these videos can be done by eLearning domain specialists, along with instructional design and preparation of rich content such as animations; only the knowledge and information needs to be provided by subject matter experts.The proposed approach ensures that the most valuable resource consumed in this process, the time of the expert practitioner, is used optimally and in a manner that has the least impact on his or her primary responsibility, that of providing care to patients.

Channa Abeyweera Gunawardena; Aloka Pathirana

2012-01-01

42

Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

2008-01-01

43

Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

44

Material Resource Considerations for Ex Situ Carbon Sequestration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions of this report are: (1) There are enough ultramafic resources to sequester all the CO{sub 2} produced by coal-fired powerplants in the US; (2) Sequestering all the CO{sub 2} would require a significant increase in the mining of ultramafic minerals; (3) The increased mining will have an environmental cost; (4) Some man made by product minerals could contribute to CO{sub 2} sequestration although many of these resources are small; and (5) It may be possible in some cases to sequester CO{sub 2} and eliminate hazardous waste in the same ex situ process.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, Gilbert E.

2005-05-01

45

Online biomedical resources for malaria-related red cell disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Warnings about the expected increase of the global public health burden of malaria-related red cell disorders are accruing. Past and present epidemiological data are necessary to track spatial and temporal changes in the frequencies of these genetic disorders. A number of open access biomedical databases including data on malaria-related red cell disorders have been launched over the last two decades. Here, we review the content of these databases, most of which focus on genetic diversity, and we describe a new epidemiological resource developed by the Malaria Atlas Project. To tackle upcoming public health challenges, the integration of epidemiological and genetic data is important. As many countries are considering implementing national screening programs, strategies to make such data more accessible are also needed.

Piel FB; Howes RE; Nyangiri OA; Moyes CL; Williams TN; Weatherall DJ; Hay SI

2013-07-01

46

[Material related aspects of surface structured endoprostheses  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article technical problems of surface-structured endoprostheses for cementless implantation are discussed. On the basis of four prostheses (two hip and two knee endoprostheses) various different porous coating technologies are compared. One sintered sphere layer, a cast sphere layer, a cast layer with "spongy-bone" structure and a plasma sprayed coating were compared. The quality of the bonding between the prosthesis and the porous surface layer was examined metallographically using polished specimens, with additional investigation of fraction surfaces of special tension test specimens. Additional information is given on the notch effect of the different coatings, in terms of a reduction in fatigue strength. The notch sensitivity differs for each material, and the reduction in fatigue strength is discussed for different implant alloys and different technologies for surface structuring. The investigation shows that the present quality of surface-structured endoprostheses is not satisfactory. We would like to thank the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain Foundation for financial support of this research.

Tensi HM; Ascherl R; Gese H; Häusler K

1989-12-01

47

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS RELATED TO THE MEASUREMENT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention in some aspects relates to methods, devices and compositions for evaluating material properties, such as mechanical and rheological properties of substances, particularly biological substances, such as cells, tissues, and biological fluids. In some aspects, the invention relates to methods, devices and compositions for evaluating material properties of deformable objects, such as cells. In further aspects, the invention relates to methods, devices and compositions for diagnosing and/or characterizing disease based on material properties of biological cells.

SURESH SUBRA; HAN JONGYOON; BOW HANSEN; HUANG SHA; DIEZ SILVA MONICA; PIVKIN IGOR V; BERRIS MICHAL MICHELLE; DAO MING; KARNIADAKIS GEORGE E; CASWELL BRUCE; FEDOSV DMITRY; QUINN DAVID J; CHEN JIANZHU; CHANG IRENE YIN-TING; ALMEIDA CARVALHO PATRICIA MARIA

48

APS Archive of Teaching Resources: Dissemination: Strategies for Disseminating Your Materials and Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a powerpoint presentation from the 2009 Science Education Partnership Award Project Directors Meeting in St. Paul, MN. This presentation describes what digital resources are, and how to access these types of materials in the APS Archive.

Amy Feuerstein (The American Physiological Society Education)

2009-05-20

49

Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources  

CERN Document Server

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

Bollinghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

50

Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

Meinzinger, Franziska

2010-07-01

51

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO2 and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of 10B2O3 processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO2 and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

2010-09-03

52

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

2012-07-01

53

Analysis of material, social, and moral governance in natural resource management in southern Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In southern Namibia ineffective enforcement contributes to natural resource degradation. We analyse the root causes of ineffective enforcement applying diverse methods. In the first step we develop a conceptual framework distinguishing between moral, social, and material enforcement. In the second step we analyse water and rangeland management regulations through the filter of our conceptual framework. In the third step we conduct economic experiments in order to gain additional insights into the characteristics of selected elements of the framework. We observe that social enforcement has the strongest impact on encouraging cooperative behaviour. Water governance in our cases makes more direct use of social enforcement, which is one factor contributing to its relative success compared to rangeland governance. We draw the general conclusion that existing moral and social norms should be considered as starting points for the establishment of formal rules because norms are more costly to establish but cheaper to apply.

Thomas Falk; Bjoern Vollan; Michael Kirk

2012-01-01

54

Expansion of raw material resources in gasoline production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methyl-ter-butyl ester is discussed as a high-octane component of motor vehicle gasolines. Less energy is required to produce methyl-ter-butyl ester than other high-octane components. The advantages of using methyl-ter-butyl ester and in combination with secondary butanol are compared. More efficient use of petroleum raw material in gasoline production is possible by using these compounds.

Englin, B.A.; Radchenko, Y.D.; Yemel' yanov, V.Y.; Levinson, G.I.

1980-11-01

55

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

1993-01-01

56

Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

2012-01-01

57

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citati...

DiCarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

58

Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism.

Banerjee R; Dittmar H

2008-01-01

59

Individual differences in children's materialism: the role of peer relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between materialism and peer relations are likely to exist in elementary school children but have not been studied previously. The first two studies introduce a new Perceived Peer Group Pressures (PPGP) Scale suitable for this age group, demonstrating that perceived pressure regarding peer culture (norms for behavioral, attitudinal, and material characteristics) can be reliably measured and that it is connected to children's responses to hypothetical peer pressure vignettes. Studies 3 and 4 evaluate the main theoretical model of associations between peer relations and materialism. Study 3 supports the hypothesis that peer rejection is related to higher perceived peer culture pressure, which in turn is associated with greater materialism. Study 4 confirms that the endorsement of social motives for materialism mediates the relationship between perceived peer pressure and materialism. PMID:17989212

Banerjee, Robin; Dittmar, Helga

2007-11-07

60

Useful (energy) resources from the pyrolysis of polymeric materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymeric materials were pyrolyzed in a sieve-tray reactor at 300-500 degrees. The pyrolysis of polystyrene gave high yields of styrene monomer while under the same conditions a catalyst (Pt supported on zeolites) was needed for polyethylene and polypropylene to obtain medium light oils free from S. The pyrolysis of scrap tires at 500 degrees gave a liquid oil product with characteristics similar to those of fuel oils with very low S content and a char which shows very interesting adsorption properties.

Lucchesi, A.; Giusti, P.; Maschio, G.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid) course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course), recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.

Rehana MASRUR

2010-01-01

62

Issues related to the inter-utility transfer of material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An option that utilities have for obtaining material is to procure the desired item(s) from another utility. There are several reasons utilities choose another utility as the procurement source including item obsolescence, prohibitive cost on the commercial market, and excessive lead time. This document provides information on the technical, quality, and commercial issues which utilities may need to address when selling material to or procuring material from other utilities. This report provides suggested approaches for each of the following technical and quality issues: Design considerations; item acceptability considerations; original supplier considerations; commercial grade item dedication considerations; reportability considerations; packaging, shipping, and storage considerations; documentation considerations; receipt inspection considerations. The information is provided primarily for the inter-utility transfer of safety-related material. Several of the topics, however, may also apply to the transfer of non-safety-related material. The report also provides considerations on commercial issues which may be addressed during the inter-utility transfer of materials.

1993-01-01

63

Defect-related luminescent materials: synthesis, emission properties and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescent materials have found a wide variety of applications, including information displays, lighting, X-ray intensification and scintillation, and so on. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials so far. In the past decade, defect-related luminescent materials have inspired intensive research efforts in their own right. This kind of luminescent material can be basically classified into silica-based materials, phosphate systems, metal oxides, BCNO phosphors, and carbon-based materials. These materials combine several favourable attributes of traditional commercially available phosphors, which are stable, efficient, and less toxic, being free of the burdens of intrinsic toxicity or elemental scarcity and the need for stringent, intricate, tedious, costly, or inefficient preparation steps. Defect-related luminescent materials can be produced inexpensively and on a large scale by many approaches, such as sol-gel process, hydro(solvo)thermal reaction, hydrolysis methods, and electrochemical methods. This review article highlights the recent advances in the chemical synthesis and luminescent properties of the defect-related materials, together with their control and tuning, and emission mechanisms (solid state physics). We also speculate on their future and discuss potential developments for their applications in lighting and biomedical fields. PMID:23019577

Zhang, Cuimiao; Lin, Jun

2012-12-01

64

The ideal usage of sustainable materials and local resources of the interior space design in Jordan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large amount of waste is generated by buildings over their life cycle, from construction and operation to destruction. Sustainable design principles and recycling programs in buildings can help moderate this waste. The simplest way is directly through the materials used in the building's construction. The materials and resources used should focus on the health and productivity consequences for the building's inhabitants and its environmental, social and economic impacts. This aim of this study is to make certain recommendations with respect to the use of sustainable building materials and resources in indoor spaces in Jordan. A general overview of collection and storage of recyclable materials, waste management, material reuse, and green and rapidly renewable materials is given. Sustainable material usage in the elements of interior design in Jordan is also discussed in two case studies. A set of indicators is proposed which identify the ideal sustainable materials and resources for use in interior design in Jordan to provide a healthy living environment.

Fahmi Hussien, Mayyadah [Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Architect and Art, Petra University (Jordan)], Email: Mayada19732004@yahoo.com

2011-07-01

65

Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.1  

CERN Multimedia

Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume One presents fundamental knowledge on ZnO-based materials and technologies. It covers the b

Feng, Zhe Chuan

2012-01-01

66

Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.2  

CERN Multimedia

Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume Two focuses on devices and nanostructures created from ZnO and similar materials. The book

Feng, Zhe Chuan

2012-01-01

67

Material properties and fracture mechanics in relation to ceramic machining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Material removal rate, surface finish, and subsurface damage are largely governed by fracture mechanics and plastic deformation, when ceramics are machined using abrasive methods. A great deal of work was published on the fracture mechanics of ceramics in the late 1970s and early 1980s, although this work has never resulted in a comprehensive model of the fixed abrasive grinding process. However, a recently published model describes many of the most important features of the loose abrasive machining process, for example depth of damage, surface roughness, and material removal rate. Many of the relations in the loose abrasive machining model can be readily discerned from fracture mechanics models, in terms of material properties. By understanding the mechanisms of material removal, from a material properties perspective, we can better estimate how one material will machine in relation to another. Although the fracture mechanics models may have been developed for loose abrasive machining, the principles of crack initiation and propagation are equally valuable for fixed abrasive machining. This report provides a brief review of fracture in brittle materials, the stress distribution induced by abrasives, critical indenter loads, the extension of cracks, and the relation of the fracture process to material removal.

Griffith, L.V.

1993-12-02

68

Valuation and development of deep geothermal resources - materials subtask update of IEA research collaboration program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep-seated geothermal reservoirs (>3000 m) have been identified as a viable source of energy within existing and new geothermal fields. Drilling and proposals for utilization of these resources are increasing. The discharge water and steam chemistries of deep-seated geothermal production wells are expected to contain significant concentrations of aggressive species CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and HCl for example and may be of high salinity (high Cl) and low pH (high SO{sub 4}). The corrosion properties of these fluids have not been fully defined and there is a need to collect and evaluate materials results and experience relevant to the selection of materials for deep-seated geothermal developments. The Materials Subtask of the IEA Deep Geothermal Resources Program was initiated in March 1997 to encourage information exchange and collaborative research activities on materials, corrosion chemistry, corrosion control and process development for aggressive deep-seated environments.

Sanada, Norio; Kurata, Yoshiaki [Tohoku National Industrial Research Institute, Miti (Japan); Lichti, K.A. [Industrial Research Ltd. (New Zealand)

1997-12-31

69

Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

Mancinelli RL; Marshall JR; White MR

1992-01-01

70

Common Waste and Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

71

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions. PMID:23559176

Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes

72

[Costs and consumption of material resources in pediatric intensive and semi-intensive care units].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions.

Zuliani LL; Jericó Mde C; de Castro LC; Soler ZA

2012-11-01

73

Evaluation of health care related web resources based on web citation analysis and other quality criteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Automatic system for ranking of educational health care related web resources based on quality criteria was developed. Automatic retrieval of new web resources from well-known directories followed by their automatic evaluation is a keystone of the system. The system provides this information: a) location of the resource and its author, b) number of back links to the resource, c) checks presence of electronic labels of quality. Currently the system encompasses more than 500 links to educational web resources divided into 47 medical specialities. The resources in all categories are ranked according to their link popularity, the electronic labels of quality are presented. History of link popularity is recorded and might be displayed at every resource. There are 2 language editions. The system operates automatically, the editors check and correct the retrieved values. The described system adds to webcite indexing criteria for objective evaluation of quality of webpages. It is useful for the selection of optimum education resources in health care.

Kasal P; Janda A; Feberova J; Adla T; Hladikova M; Naidr JP; Potuckova R

2005-01-01

74

Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

75

The relative tissue kerma sensitivity of thermoluminescent materials to neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review is intended as the basis for establishing the response of thermoluminescent (TL) materials to neutrons. There are many factors which affect the relative tissue kerma sensitivity, K, including the TL material itself; the characteristics of the TL reader; the irradiation conditions; batch to batch variations; and environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, UV light and irradiation history. Most of the data in the literature are produced under different conditions and so a true comparison is not valid. However, it has been possible to eliminate the kerma-dependent factors from k and so demonstrate that the efficiency of TL materials for detecting neutrons, etasub(n), relative to that for detecting 60Co gamma rays, etasub(s), is essentially constant for a given material for neutron energies from thermal to about 10 MeV. Above this energy, etasub(n)/etasub(s) increases significantly for some TL materials. The increase can be accounted for qualitatively by a reduction in LET at higher energies. There are large uncertainties in the data which could be reduced if they are produced under well defined conditions. The main objective of this review is to provide the neutron relative sensitivity for several TL materials which may be used for assessing the gamma ray dose in a mixed field. (author).

1986-01-01

76

Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice.

2005-03-01

77

Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice. PMID:15887634

2005-03-01

78

A relation to describe rate-dependent material failure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The simple relation OmegaOmega-alpha = 0, where Omega is a measurable quantity such as strain and A and alpha are empirical constants, describes the behavior of materials in terminal stages of failure under conditions of approximately constant stress and temperature. Applicable to metals and alloys, ice, concrete, polymers, rock, and soil, the relation may be extended to conditions of variable and multiaxial stress and may be used to predict time to failure.

Voight B

1989-01-01

79

Diamond and related nanostructures (carbon materials: chemistry and physics)  

CERN Multimedia

Diamond and Related Nanostructures focuses on the advances in the area of diamond-like carbon nanostructures (hyper-structures built from fullerenes and/or carbon nanotube junctions) and other related carbon nanostructures. Each chapter contributes to the topic from different fields, ranging from theory to synthesis and properties investigation of these new materials. This volume brings together the major findings in the field and provides a source of inspiration and understanding to advanced undergraduates, graduates, and researchers ...

2013-01-01

80

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model Law exists regionally to provide frameworks for how these resources are to be accessed and how the benefits obtained from their utilization should be allocated. As a signatory to the CBD, Ethiopia issued its ABS law in 2006. Ethiopia has signed material transfer agreements on teff (gluten free and nutritious) and vernonia (the green chemical plant of the 21st Century) with two European-based companies. This article seeks to interpret and discuss the terms of the agreements on teff and vernonia. Furthermore, it analyzes the implications of the terms of the agreement for the realization of the objective of the CBD (e.g. access, benefit sharing and conservation).

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Solar radiation dependent degradation of solar energy related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are reported of investigations to determine the basic underlying physical causes of optical and structural degradation in solar energy related materials under high temperatures, in reactive environments and under intense solar and solar simulated irradiation. Research on problems principally in the area of solar absorbing materials are studied with specific interest in electrodeposited solar selective black chrome coatings. Experimentally determined optical constants of black chrome are presented. Results of studies on the role of the substrate in the definition of the optical stability of black chrome as well as the stability under high flux are presented.

Ignatiev, A.

1983-01-01

82

Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

1984-01-01

83

Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

2006-01-01

84

Summary of Technical resource document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Technical Resource Document on Solidification/Stabilization and Its Application to Waste Materials (TRD) is a technical resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future applications of S/S processes. A potential hurdle for any S/S project is the fact that although the standard bulk materials handling and mixing equipment processes used in S/S processes make the technology appear simple, there are significant technical challenges to the successful application of S/S processes. In order to help users meet such challenges, the TRD describes technology screening procedures and summarizes the status of S/S processes to assist users and reviewers in their selection, planning, and application of S/S technology.

Means, J.L.; Smith, L.A.; Nehring, K.W.; Brauning, S.E. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (BMI), Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Technology Dept.; Mashni, C.I.; Wiles, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

85

78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines), dated March 10, 1983, consistent with several considerations enumerated in the Act. The revised Principles and Guidelines......

2013-03-27

86

Material resources and population health: disadvantages in health care, housing, and food among adults over 50 years of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We examined associations between material resources and late-life declines in health. METHODS: We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of declines in self-rated health and incident walking limitations associated with material disadvantages in a prospective panel representative of US adults aged 51 years and older (N = 15,441). RESULTS: Disadvantages in health care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23, 1.58), food (OR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.29, 2.22), and housing (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.35) were independently associated with declines in self-rated health, whereas only health care (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.29, 1.58) and food (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.31, 2.05) disadvantage predicted incident walking limitations. Participants experiencing multiple material disadvantages were particularly susceptible to worsening health and functional decline. These effects were sustained after we controlled for numerous covariates, including baseline health status and comorbidities. The relations between health declines and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, poverty, marital status, and education were attenuated or eliminated after we controlled for material disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: Material disadvantages, which are highly policy relevant, appear related to health in ways not captured by education and poverty. Policies to improve health should address a range of basic human needs, rather than health care alone.

Alley DE; Soldo BJ; Pagán JA; McCabe J; DeBlois M; Field SH; Asch DA; Cannuscio C

2009-11-01

87

Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

1988-01-01

88

Holdup - related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants.

Pillay, K.K.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (US))

1988-07-01

89

Holdup - related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants.

1988-01-01

90

Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1988-03-01

91

Standard Terminology Relating to Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures  

CERN Document Server

1.1 These definitions cover generic optical terms which appear in one of more standards relating to aerospace transparent materials and enclosures. 1.2 The definitions cover, in most cases, special meanings used in the transparency industry. No attempt has been made to include common meanings of the same terms as used outside of the transparency industry. 1.3 Definitions included have, in general, been approved as standard.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2005-01-01

92

Material culture: the concrete dimension of social relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By investigating the emergence, maintenance and transformation of sociocultural systems, Archaeology basically works with three closely inter-related dimensions: space, time, and form. The latter has seen the greatest diversity in approaches over the course of Archaeology's construction as a discipline. This article presents the conceptions of material culture developed by various schools of archaeological thought. Wrongly understood until the 1980s as an unproblematic dimension, a passive reflection of human behavior, some authors since then have explored its active and transformative role in social negotiations, making it the concrete dimension of relations inside the society.

Tania Andrade Lima

2011-01-01

93

Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4 Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7 from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air and water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 1611 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop – velocity relations for air 13 flow in 36 different Leca® particle size fractions (including the 14 used for water flow). The 14 measurements showed that it is indeed possible to predict the pressure drop – velocity relationship for 15 water flow from the corresponding relationship for air flow not only for a given particle size fraction 16 but also across different particle size fractions.

Andreasen, Rune RØjgaard; Canga, Eriona

2013-01-01

94

Rig for testing the relative wear resistance of materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have developed a simple and compact rig for studying the relative wear resistance of materials subjected to mechanical abrasion and friction. The rig has an electronic control system. It was used to test the relative wear resistance of a wide range of superhard and brittle materials under mechanical abrasion against a counterbody. The counterbody was made of modified iron and the test medium was a diamond suspension in oil. The results showed that specimen wear exhibits a linear relationship with abrasion time (in the range of 0.5-20 min.) at unit pressure from 0.01 to 0.10 MPa. That a standard wear pattern exists within a wide range of parameters indicates that abrasive conditions are highly stable and makes it possible to control conditions. The rig was used to establish the relative wear resistance of several abrasives, minerals, and refractory compounds. The very large difference (15.2 times) between the most and least-resistant materials (tungsten carbide and fluoride) illustrates the sensitivity of the methodology.

Berdikov, V.F.; Diulin, A.I.; Efimchuk, V.P.; Pushkarev, O.I.; Finogenov, G.P.

1987-01-01

95

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

96

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

97

An agenda for energy and material efficiency policy - an element of technology policy for a more sustainable use of natural resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussions about the future options of the energy systems of industrialised countries are held almost exclusively in terms of alternative resources of energy supply and related technologies. This paper tries to broaden the view of the technological options by focusing on the technical and theoretical potentials of a more efficient use of energy and materials. Such options are generally overlooked since a more efficient use of energy resources tends to be assessed by its economic potential. This analysis starts from the basic human needs of an industrialised country which lead to the material and energy services that influence energy-related drivers. The analysis of the energy system's losses, from useful energy to final and primary energy and the analysis of a more efficient use of materials hint at huge technical and theoretical potentials for more efficient use of energy. This new agenda of the technology-based research of resource efficiency is labelled as the vision of the 2000 Watt per capita society. It may not only influence energy and material research and policy agendas, but also transform the present rather narrow-minded understanding of energy policy into a resource efficiency concept as part of an innovation policy oriented towards sustainable development. From this perspective, suggestions are made to extend the R and D energy and material policy agendas. (orig.)

Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (CH). Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE)

2005-03-01

98

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

Tonini, Davide; Sanchez, Veronica Martinez

2013-01-01

99

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

Tonini D; Martinez-Sanchez V; Astrup TF

2013-08-01

100

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2013-07-25

 
 
 
 
101

[Interdisciplinary home hospitalization program of Marilia-SP: material resource costs].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study estimated the mean total direct cost of some production factors (material resources), including consumption materials, diets, medication and solutions used by two patient groups during hospitalization in the Interdisciplinary Home Hospitalization Program (PROIID) of Marília-SP, Brazil. The sample consisted of 27 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and 18 with Neoplasm. Data were collected from the moment of hospitalization until the patients left the program. The mean total direct cost amounted to R$ 52.72 for each patient with CVA and of R$ 65.13 for those with Neoplasm. For both patient groups, the sub-category of material--diets accounted for the highest percentage of costs.

Mesquita SR; Anselmi ML; Santos CB; Hayashida M

2005-07-01

102

Geometrical and topological aspects of graphene and related materials  

CERN Document Server

Graphene, a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms, provides a new and unexpected bridge between low and high-energy physics. The field has evolved very fast and very good reviews are already available in the literature. Graphene constitutes a condensed matter realization of lower dimensional quantum field theory models that were proposed to confront important -- still unresolved -- puzzles of the area: Chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The new materials named topological insulators, closely related to graphene, are physical realizations of topological field theory. This article reviews some of these topics with the aim of bridging the gap and making these condensed matter issues accessible to high energy readers. The electronic interactions in the monolayer are analyzed with special emphasis on the recent experimental confirmation of some theoretical predictions. The issue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the model materials is also reviewed. Finally we give an extensive descrip...

Cortijo, Alberto; Vozmediano, Maria A H

2011-01-01

103

Fluctuations relation and external thermostats: an application to granular materials  

CERN Multimedia

In this note we discuss a paradigmatic example of interacting particles subject to non conservative external forces and to the action of thermostats consisting of external (finite) reservoirs of particles. We then consider a model of granular materials of interest for experimental tests that had recently attracted lot of attentions. This model can be reduced to the previously discussed example under a number of assumptions which can be expected to hold only on a specific time scale: as a result we predict a fluctuation relation for the entropy production rate measured on the same time scale.

Bonetto, F; Giuliani, A; Zamponi, F

2006-01-01

104

An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010), and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer). Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill).

Wen-Tien Tsai

2012-01-01

105

Evaluation of health care related web resources based on web citation analysis and other quality criteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic system for ranking of educational health care related web resources based on quality criteria was developed. Automatic retrieval of new web resources from well-known directories followed by their automatic evaluation is a keystone of the system. The system provides this information: a) location of the resource and its author, b) number of back links to the resource, c) checks presence of electronic labels of quality. Currently the system encompasses more than 500 links to educational web resources divided into 47 medical specialities. The resources in all categories are ranked according to their link popularity, the electronic labels of quality are presented. History of link popularity is recorded and might be displayed at every resource. There are 2 language editions. The system operates automatically, the editors check and correct the retrieved values. The described system adds to webcite indexing criteria for objective evaluation of quality of webpages. It is useful for the selection of optimum education resources in health care. PMID:17282717

Kasal, P; Janda, A; Feberova, J; Adla, T; Hladikova, M; Naidr, J P; Potuckova, R

2005-01-01

106

Microstructure-fracture-permeability relations in cemented granular materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this work, we investigate the relationships between the microstructure of cemented granular materials, morphology of cracks that may appear under tensile loading and their apparent permeability. In order to simulate the complexity of the multiphase heterogeneous structure of these materials, a numerical approach based on a lattice discretization was developed and used to study the mechanisms that control their behavior and rupture. Three distinct regimes of crack propagation were evidenced in terms of the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle/matrix adherence. In the context of nuclear safety and in view of analyzing cracked concrete tightness, a methodology is proposed for generating representative microstructures with controlled phase volume fractions and particle size distributions. The cracks obtained under tensile loading are analyzed and a relationship is obtained between the microstructure of concrete and the tortuosity of the cracks. The permeability of cracked numerical microstructures was obtained by the simulation of liquid flow through the cracks by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method. Finally, a microstructure-tortuosity-permeability relation is proposed. The modeling and analysis tools developed in this work are generic enough to be applied to other complex multiphase heterogeneous materials. (author)

2012-01-01

107

Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs re

Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

2008-01-31

108

BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

2006-01-01

109

Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  This paper seeks to contribute to the development of socio-aesthetics by analysing the notion of model established in the discourse of relational art--that is of course with special reference to French art critic Nicolas Bourriad's theoretical writings. His seminal book, Relational Aesthetics (RA), is crucial for the understanding of contemporary, socially and politically oriented fine art of the mid-1990 and onwards and its challenge of established aesthetic conceptions within art as well as theory. The concept of model is a reoccurring figure in RA and connects to a widespread "lab" (laboratory) metaphor where social reality is staged and facilitated in order to document and present its development. At the same time however, the notion of model is difficult to dissociate from Bourriaud's materialism which draws on such different figures as the late Althusser, Lucretius, and Deleuze and which is tied up with a principle of immanence which is crucial for the understanding of Bourriaud's and many of his related artists' sense of utopia and avant-garde. Setting off from an analysis of the concept of model in RA, I would like to demonstrate the relationship between relational form, model, and utopia, and how this surprisingly lead to an ideal yet immanent conception of art. To contextualise and exemplify my analysis, I shall draw on my collaboration-based study of art collective Superflex as well as Bourriaud's later writings on post-production and alter-modernism.

Degn Johansson, Troels

110

Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

Dean Wesley R; Sharkey Joseph R; Johnson Cassandra M; John Julie

2012-01-01

111

Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. METHODS: Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. RESULTS: Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women's gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. CONCLUSIONS: This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

Dean WR; Sharkey JR; Johnson CM; St John J

2012-01-01

112

CHEMRAWN III - world conference on resource material conversion: (Bio-) chemical process bridges to meet future needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents perspectives and recommendations from the CHEMRAWN III conference, the theme of which was developing more cost effective and efficient methods for conversion of organic raw materials into feedstocks, intermediates and high technology chemicals. Recommendations are presented for: technology; resource/industrial development; industrial/science policies of governments; education; and developing countries. A number of papers are included covering: the outlook for process technologies for producing chemicals; chemical research in the 1980's; emerging technologies in the 1990's and the role of chemists and chemical engineers; the oil and gas situation in the far east and its role in the global context; options for diversification in industries based on coal as a raw material; heterogeneous catalysis of the production of base chemicals from synthesis gas.

Beek, W.J. (ed.)

1984-01-01

113

State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

NONE

2007-09-15

114

Relative fracture toughness of bis-acryl interim resin materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Fracture of the interim partial denture may cause patient discomfort and result in unplanned appointments and expense. At present, limited information is available concerning the fracture toughness of bis-acryl interim resins, especially immediately following fabrication. PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relative fracture toughness and Weibull parameters of 4 commercial chemically polymerized (Protemp Garant 3, Perfectemp II, Integrity, Temphase) and 1 dual polymerizing (Luxatemp Solar) bis-acryl interim resin materials with various filler loading after 1 hour and 24 hours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk-shaped, mini-compact test specimens (8.20 × 1.85 mm thick, n=18) with introduced pre-cracks were prepared in a pre-heated split-mold and maintained at 37°C for 5 minutes during polymerization to simulate clinical conditions. Polymerization temperature was measured using an infrared digital thermometer. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C after which the peak load to fracture was recorded at 1 and 24 hours and the fracture toughness (K(1c)) was calculated. An overall Weibull analysis of the fracture toughness was performed incorporating the fracture toughness data with factors polymerization method, time of testing and filler load of the resin. Weibull analysis was performed at (? =.05). Fracture surfaces of representative specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The overall Weibull analysis results showed significant differences (P<.001) in fracture toughness between the times of testing (1 and 24 hours), polymerization method, and as a function of filler loading. The results of the individual Weibull survival analyses showed a significant increase in Weibull Characteristic Strength (?o) values between 1 and 24 hours for all materials. The Weibull moduli (m) for the interim resins ranged between 5.8 and 10.3. SEM analysis of fractured surfaces revealed that crack propagation occurred primarily through the resin matrix between filler particles. CONCLUSIONS: Post-gelation polymerization has an important role in determining the fracture properties of both chemical and dual-polymerized bis-acryl interim materials within the first 24 hours. For the materials tested, the higher the filler load, the lower the fracture toughness.

Knobloch LA; Kerby RE; Pulido T; Johnston WM

2011-08-01

115

Fabrication of autoclavable bacteriologic loops for handling Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from recycled materials in a resource poor setting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In resource limited settings, the appropriation of scarce resources during research efforts can be daunting. Sourcing for disposable plastic bacteriological loops for manipulating M. tuberculosis had been eating into the research budget. In an attempt to reduce cost, an alternative and more cost effective way of obtaining autoclavable bacteriologic inoculation loops from used materials in the laboratory was employed. Autoclave resistant loops were prepared from polypropylene automatic pipette tips and platinum wires from electric stoves. The loop volume, when desired, was calculated using a simple mathematical equation after several passes in weighted water. Laboratories in resource poor settings could also save on inoculating loops by adopting such pragmatic approaches using recycled materials.

Ochang EA

2013-01-01

116

Related Resources  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

metadata made simpler: a guide for libraries. gail hodge. 2001. (www.niso.org) dublin core metadata element set (std.) (www.niso.org) crossref and reference linking (www.crossref.org) digital object identifier (www.doi.org) ...

117

Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

John P. Selegue

2011-11-17

118

INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

2011-01-01

119

Geometrical and topological aspects of graphene and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphene, a two-dimensional crystal made of carbon atoms, provides a new and unexpected bridge between low- and high-energy physics. The field has evolved very quickly and there are already a number of good reviews available in the literature. Graphene constitutes a condensed-matter realization of lower dimensional quantum field theory models that were proposed to confront important—still unresolved—puzzles in the area: chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement. The new materials named topological insulators, closely related to graphene, are physical realizations of topological field theory. This article reviews some of these topics with the aim of bridging the gap and making these condensed-matter issues accessible to high-energy readers. The electronic interactions in the monolayer are analyzed with special emphasis on the recent experimental confirmation of some theoretical predictions. The issue of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the model materials is also reviewed. Finally we give an extensive description of some recent topological properties of graphene that allow us to understand the main aspects of topological insulators. (topical review)

2012-09-28

120

Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the {open_quotes}foreseeable future{close_quotes} is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an {open_quotes}explorationist perspective{close_quotes} of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository.

Miklas, M.P. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Lefevre, H.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Human resources and their level of competence relating to engagement into economy and society development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is sure that the human resources have been the main drive of the economic development in times of globalization and general reforms. The productivity of labour has been based on the men-power as capital. Therefore, concept and process of staff training have been valid only based on clearly determined structure and strategy of the new informative technologies. The term 'human resources'' means aggregate spiritual and physical potential, both latent and used. Knowledge (intellectual capital) is becoming more and more important resource as it directly creates surplus value. The competence and use of the human resources have been considered in that spirit since it is condition to occupy better position in adjoining and creating the rational relation towards European Union.

Zjali? Ljubica M.

2009-01-01

122

Improvements in or relating to the drying of gel materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the drying of a gel material, comprising mixing together steam and gas in controlled amounts to form a mixture, feeding the mixture to a gel material to be dried thereby to contact the gel material with an atmosphere containing steam and gas in controlled amounts and thereby dry the gel material. One application of the process is in the production of ceramic particles for nuclear fuels. (author)

1981-01-01

123

IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve and update the data base for impact velocities resulting from aircraft accidents. (authors)

Blalock, L.G.; Rawl, R.R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

1998-07-01

124

R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

NONE

2007-07-01

125

Traditional and Health-Related Philanthropy: The Role of Resources and Personality  

Science.gov (United States)

|I study the relationships of resources and personality characteristics to charitable giving, postmortem organ donation, and blood donation in a nationwide sample of persons in households in the Netherlands. I find that specific personality characteristics are related to specific types of giving: agreeableness to blood donation, empathic concern…

Bekkers, Rene

2006-01-01

126

Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

2009-01-01

127

Physics Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of physics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including electromagnetism, classical mechanics, optics, oscillations and waves, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and other areas. Here may be found materials for physics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at physics research communities.

2008-03-14

128

Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Human resources for rehabilitation are often a neglected component of health services strengthening and health workforce development. This may be partly related to weaknesses in the available research and evidence to inform advocacy and programmatic strategies. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe the global situation in terms of supply of and need for human resources for health-related rehabilitation services, as a basis for strategy development of the workforce in physical and rehabilitation medicine. METHODS: Data for assessing supply of and need for rehabilitative personnel were extracted and analyzed from statistical databases maintained by the World Health Organization and other national and international health information sources. Standardized classifications were used to enhance cross-national comparability of findings. RESULTS: Large differences were found across countries and regions between assessed need for services requiring health workers associated to physical and rehabilitation medicine against estimated supply of health personnel skilled in rehabilitation services. Despite greater need, low- and middle-income countries tended to report less availability of skilled health personnel, although the strength of the supply-need relationship varied across geographical and economic country groupings. CONCLUSION: The evidence base on human resources for health-related rehabilitation services remains fragmented, the result of limited availability and use of quality, comparable data and information within and across countries. This assessment offered the first global baseline, intended to catalyze further research that can be translated into evidence to support human resources for rehabilitation policy and practice.

Gupta N; Castillo-Laborde C; Landry MD

2011-01-01

129

Resources of raw materials for ceramics, binder and glass - from the north-east part of Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Romania, in the north - east part (Suceava, Boroshani, Neamt, Iashi, Bacau, Vaslui, Vrancea, Galati and Buzau counties) possesses a number of 280 mineral deposits used for the building materials industry. The research works carried out in the last years by the PROCEMA with regard to the resources of row materials for building materials aimed at developing some centralized and updated data bases an the present situation of useful resources in this field necessary for future leases or investments. The most important and significant resources are the clay deposits used in traditional ceramics, the gypsum deposits for cement and binder, the sandstone deposits for buildings and glasses, limestone deposits for cement and quartz sands deposits with great concentration of SiO{sub 2} for high purity glasses and subordinately for foundries, metallurgy, abrasives. (orig.)

Cetan, V.; Marica, S.; Ciornei, N. [Bucharest Univ. (Romania)

2002-07-01

130

Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale).Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.How to cite this article:Ferreira, N., Basson, J., & Coetzee, M. (2010). Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1), Art. #284, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.284

Nadia Ferreira; Johan Basson; Melinde Coetzee

2010-01-01

131

Opportunities and support resources for minority businesses in energy related enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small, minority-owned businesses confront traditional and special problems in developing and maintaining an energy related enterprise. To help these businesses overcome these problems, the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact recently asked the Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Guidebook to identify supporting resources and organizations that can help minority businesses transform an idea for an energy related business opportunity into a commercially viable product or service. By utilizing these available resources, the minority entrepreneur's chances of developing a successful energy related business can be improved. Based on the Guidebook this paper describes the nature of such opportunities and identifies the types of assistance available to commercialize, finance and market the minority-owned energy business.

Levine, E.P.

1985-01-01

132

Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases related health resources allocation in hunan province of china.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China. METHODS: We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs) at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs) who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs' educational levels. RESULTS: Spirometers equipped ratio in 3(rd) level PHs was much higher than 1(st), 2(nd) PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) levels PHs. No 1(st) level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2(nd) level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3(rd) level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3(rd) levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs' knowledge of COPD of 3(rd) levels PHs was much better than of 1(st) levels PHs and 2(nd) levels PHs. CONCLUSION: The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1(st) and 2(nd) levels PHs should be improved.

Bei C; Hu A; Liu H; Chen P; Jia X; Zhou G; Cai S

2013-01-01

133

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

1981-08-01

134

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

1981-01-01

135

Broadband microwave measurements of relative permittivity and permeability of materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A short review of modern techniques for broadband microwave measuring complex permittivity and permeability of materials at broadband microwave frequencies has been presented. Classification of type of the measurement methods to extract the complex permittivity and permeability of bulk materials has been done in this paper. Mathematical models of all the above-mentioned measurement types of methods are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of existing measurement devices/systems are described according to the classification made. A new design of test devices for the measurement system operating in broadband microwave frequency range has been proposed. Measurement system on the basis of the proposed device can be used for a measuring the ordinary bulk materials, ferrites (including fully magnetized) and magnetic materials but much cheaper then one to be made. The system is much cheaper than a free space measurement system. The approach to define the permeability tensor of magnetic materials using the test device is proposed as well. (author)

2007-01-01

136

The role of religiosity as a coping resource for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critical care hospitalisation is emotionally overwhelming for the relatives of patients. Research has shown that religiosity is an effective coping resource for people with health related problems and has been correlated with better health outcomes. However the processes by which religiosity is utilized and its effects on relatives of critically ill patients have not been adequately explored. This article presents relatives' experiences and processes of religiosity; it is part of a wider grounded theory study on the experiences of critically ill patients' relatives in Greece. Twenty-five relatives of patients in the intensive care units of three public general district hospitals in Athens, Greece, participated in 19 interviews. Religiosity was found to be the main source of hope, strength and courage for relatives and was expressed with church/monastery attendance, belief in God, praying, and performing religious rituals. Health care professionals should pay attention and understand these aspects of coping. PMID:21955270

Plakas, Sotirios; Boudioni, Markella; Fouka, Georgia; Taket, Ann

2011-08-01

137

Material flow account and analysis of environmental load from import of resources; Material furo kantei to shigen yunyu no kankyo fuka bunseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material flow account (MFA) for Japan was prepared on a trial basis in accordance with the MFA having been studied at the Wuppertal Institute. The MFA identifies both of flow amount of materials inputted from the Ecosphere into the Technosphere areas and flow amount of emission therefrom in the reverse direction, as well as balance between them. Other than solids flow, gaseous and aqueous flows are also dealt with. With regard to imported raw materials including minerals, an indirect MFA generated during a period from when these materials are taken out from natural environment in the exporting countries until when they are exported are added as an ecological rucksack. The MFA for Japan in fiscal 1990 was about 2.2 billion tons in an input total summing the imported resources and domestically available resources. Such construction materials as gravels and crushed stones occupy about half of the amount. The MFA in the exporting countries for which the imported resources of about 700 million tons were put into the `rucksack` is estimated about 2.4 billion tons. A rucksack for agricultural and forest products would also reach about 200 million tons. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Moriguchi, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-01-30

138

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work continued on heat transfer of particulate materials. In this quarter, we have been continuing with the dry granular shear cell experiments and have extended our previous results to different materials. We are also continuing with the development of a new particle pressure probe, but ran into drift problems in the calibration, which we hope have been resolved. Thermal conductivity measurements are described. 9 figs.

Campbell, C.S.

1990-10-01

139

Bisphenol A and related compounds in dental materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in childhood dentistry. Evidence is accumulating that BPA and some BPA derivatives can pose health risks attributable to their endocrine-disrupting, estrogenic properties. OBJECTIVES: To systematically compile and critically evaluate the literature characterizing BPA content of dental materials; to assess BPA exposures from dental materials and potential health risks; and to develop evidence-based guidance for reducing BPA exposures while promoting oral health. METHODS: The extant toxicological literature and material safety data sheets were used as data sources. RESULTS: BPA is released from dental resins through salivary enzymatic hydrolysis of BPA derivatives, and BPA is detectable in saliva for up to 3 hours after resin placement. The quantity and duration of systemic BPA absorption is not clear from the available data. Dental products containing the bisphenol A derivative glycidyl dimethacrylate (bis-GMA) are less likely to be hydrolyzed to BPA and have less estrogenicity than those containing bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bis-DMA). Most other BPA derivatives used in dental materials have not been evaluated for estrogenicity. BPA exposure can be reduced by cleaning and rinsing surfaces of sealants and composites immediately after placement. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the proven benefits of resin-based dental materials and the brevity of BPA exposure, we recommend continued use with strict adherence to precautionary application techniques. Use of these materials should be minimized during pregnancy whenever possible. Manufacturers should be required to report complete information on the chemical composition of dental products and encouraged to develop materials with less estrogenic potential.

Fleisch AF; Sheffield PE; Chinn C; Edelstein BL; Landrigan PJ

2010-10-01

140

Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

(Price and availability of isotope materials and related services)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler participated in the Fourteenth World Conference of the INTDS in Darmstadt, Germany. As president of the Society, the traveler conducted a Board meeting before the beginning of the Conference, gave the opening remarks to officially begin the Conference, and conducted the biennial business meeting of the Society during the Conference. The Fourteenth INTDS Conference was held jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency- International Nuclear Data Committee (IAEA-INDC). The traveler participated in IAEA-INDC advisory group meetings and gave a paper entitled Examples of Problems Caused by Impurities in Targets and/or Research Samples.'' The traveler reviewed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Isotope Distribution Program (IDP) with the IAEA-INDC participants to inform them what materials and services were available through this program. The traveler visited installations in Germany and England to meet with users of the enriched stable and radioactive materials and services provided by the ORNL IDP. The purpose of the visits was to determine their future needs for the materials and services provide by the ORNL IDP. The purpose of the visits was to determine their future needs for the materials and services provided by the ORNL program, to update our existing or potential future customer on materials and services presently available from the program, and to discuss any possible problems the customers may be experiencing in obtaining materials and services from the ORNL IDP. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Adair, H.L.

1988-09-26

142

Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

2010-05-01

143

Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

2011-01-15

144

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

Friege H

2012-09-01

145

Material related aspects of density control in JET plasma discharges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of density control in JET has revealed that dynamic retention in the beryllium surface of the first wall is an important factor in controlling recycling. A self-consistent global particle balance model that simulates the recycling in JET has been devised. The assumption is that particle transport is effectively diffusive in the materials encompassing the plasma and particle release is by recombination to molecules. The effect of neutral particle screening in the plasma edge is also globally taken into account. Comparison with experimental results of discharges of normal duration (20 s) shows good agreement. Discrepancies appear for 60 s long discharges, suggesting changes of material properties. (orig.).

Ehrenberg, J.; Andrew, P.; Horton, L.; Janeschitz, G.; De Kock, L. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)); Philipps, V. (Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, KFA Juelich, Euratom Association (Germany))

1992-12-01

146

Material related aspects of density control in JET plasma discharges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of density control in JET has revealed that dynamic retention in the beryllium surface of the first wall is an important factor in controlling recycling. A self-consistent global particle balance model that simulates the recycling in JET has been devised. The assumption is that particle transport is effectively diffusive in the materials encompassing the plasma and particle release is by recombination to molecules. The effect of neutral particle screening in the plasma edge is also globally taken into account. Comparison with experimental results of discharges of normal duration (20 s) shows good agreement. Discrepancies appear for 60 s long discharges, suggesting changes of material properties. (orig.)

1992-04-03

147

Relative needs-based health care resource allocation to the regional, district and local levels.  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

Purpose Traditionally, the geographic distribution of health care funding has been based on past allocations and the distribution of health care facilities and providers. Hence the capacity to provide care has not been directly influenced by relative population needs for care. Governments in Canada are increasingly considering or adopting approaches to health care resource allocation based on relative population needs. What is not known is whether the traditional approach to health care resource allocation in Canada has succeeded in distributing resources among populations in keeping with relative needs, even though the approach has not been explicitly needs-based. In this project, we addressed this question by comparing current health care allocations to allocations based on relative population needs as defined by the age, sex and self-assessed health of the populations at regional, district and local area levels in Ontario and at regional levels in Quebec.Secondly, this study developed alternative approaches to needs-based resource allocation to regions in Quebec using readily accessible data sources such as census, birth, and death data. Methods We used resource allocations based on age, sex and self-assessed health status as a reference standard, against which we compared current allocations based on place of residence in Ontario and Quebec and alternative allocations based on: a) age and sex; b) age, sex and socio-economic characteristics; and c) age, sex and premature mortality (SMR 0-74) in Quebec. To develop the reference standard models we used provincial level health care expenditure data and health survey data to determine age, sex, and health status specific resource shares. We estimated the age, sex and health status distributions of the geographic areas using population data combined with health survey data. The need-specific shares were applied to these distributions to determine the reference standard allocation for each geographic area. In Ontario we included acute hospital services and health professional services provided by general practitioners, specialists, optometrists, physiotherapists and chiropractors in our analysis. In Quebec we included acute hospital, ambulatory and inpatient general medicine, dentistry, other specialties, pharmaceutical services and assistive devices. The socio-economic allocations were calculated by modelling self-assessed health status using health survey data at the provincial level and then predicting the age, sex and health status distributions of the geographic areas using the model together with census data for the areas. We then applied the reference standard needs-adjusted shares to the predicted distributions. The mortality-based allocations were developed by first adjusting for the age and sex distribution of the population and then adjusting for the premature mortality experience of the area population relative to the provincial population. Results Current allocations differed substantially from the reference standard allocations. The socio-economic-based allocations were the closest to the reference standard followed by the age and sex-based allocations and then the mortality-based allocations. The current allocations were the furthest from the reference standard. Discussion The target audience for dissemination of these results is health systems policy makers and health services researchers. Because current health care resource allocations to geographically defined populations in Quebec and Ontario are inconsistent with allocations based on the demographic (age and sex) and health status characteristics of the area populations, policy makers may want to consider adopting population-based funding approaches that explicitly adjust for relative population needs. Based on our results for health care resource allocations to Quebec sregions, capitation funding approaches that adjust for age and sex; age, sex and socio-economic characteristics; and age, sex and premature mortality would all produce funding allocations more in keeping with allocations

2000-01-01

148

Ecologization of intenational relations in the sphere of marine resources use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper defines the concept of ecologization of international relations, analyses trends and steps of ecologization and environmental law development. Special role of UN in global environmental problems solving is highlighted.Ecologization of international regulation of marine-related activities is considered as an extremely importantdue to marine resources degradation, marine transboundary pollution, human impact in the coastal zones, high level of uncertainty and risk of marine-related activities.Ecologization of international relations in the Black Sea basin is realized by mechanism of conventions, international programs and international projects. Special role of the Black Sea Commission and International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River is emphasized. Recommendations for rasing the level of international relations ecologization in the Black Sea basin are made

Kateryna Stepanova

2013-01-01

149

Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

1976-04-22

150

Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

Leschine, Susan (Leverett, MA); Warnick, Thomas A. (Sunderland, MA)

2010-03-23

151

Controllability and reliability issues related to electrorheological material adaptive structures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present investigation focused on the controllability and reliability of an electrorheological (ER) material filled adaptive beam. An AC ER material-filled composite beam was constructed and tested over a period of 500 hours. Attention was focused on changes in fundamental vibration frequencies and modal loss factor over the test period. Controllability in terms of beam vibration response time to both increasing and decreasing field strengths was also studied. Response times at the first two fundamental frequencies of 15 and 35 Hertz were focused on. The results indicated that at 35 Hertz, the structural response time was faster for both switching on and switching off of the electric field. In switching off the electric field, the structure returned to zero-field behavior within three seconds on all occasions. The duration of the electric field application did not affect beam response time.

Shiang, A.; Coulter, J. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics--Packard Lab.

1994-12-31

152

Characterization of porous carbon fibers and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This program was geared to support the Fossil Energy Material Sciences Program with respect to several areas of interest in efficient production and utilization of energy. Carbon molecular sieves have great potential for economically purifying gases; i.e. removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas without having to resort to cryogenic techniques. Microporous carbons can be tailored to serve as adsorbents for natural gas in on-board storage in automotive applications, avoiding high pressures and heavy storage tanks. This program is a laboratory study to evaluate production methodologies and activation processes to produce porous carbons for specific applications. The Carbon Materials Technology Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is engaged in developmental programs to produce activated carbon fibers (ACF) for applications in fixed beds and/or flowing reactors engineering applications.

Fuller, E.L. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-07-15

153

Developing A Computer Assisted Education Material Related To Thermochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, computer assisted education (CAE) material was developed according to the Meaningful Learning Theory and its effectiveness on the students’ success and their attitudes towards computer and chemistry was researched. The research was applied to 10th class science students at Buca High School in ?zmir. 56 students attending this research were randomly divided into two groups; experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). While the material was applied to EG by CAE, traditional method (TM) was applied to CG. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the material, Scientific Success Test (SST), Chemistry Attitude Scale (ChAS) and Computer Attitude Scale (CAS) of which validity and reliability calculated before were applied to both EG and CG as pre-test and post-test. The data obtained from tests were analyzed by using SPSS program. The results of analysis indicated that Computer Assisted Education method has more effect on students’ chemistry success, attitudes towards chemistry and computer than Traditional Method.

Bar?? DEMIRDA?; Mehmet KARTAL; Cengiz TÜYSÜZ

2008-01-01

154

Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)[de] Einleitend werden Ansaetze zur systematischen Erfassung der Zusammenhaenge des Wasserstrahl-Abtragens bis 1000 bar entwickelt. In Bohrversuchen wird durch gezielte Zerteilung des Fluessigkeitsstrahls die Wirkung der Strahldynamik untersucht. An Modell-Schicht-Systemen wird hierauf aufbauend der Schichtabtrag durch den unbeeinflussten Fluessigkeitsstrahl untersucht. Die Abtragsmechanismen und die Auswirkungen auf die Praxis werden diskutiert. Ein Konzept zur Messung besonders der dynamischen Strahlwirkung wird vorgestellt. Abschliessend werden die Entwicklungsaussichten dieses Abtrag-Verfahrens erlaeutert. (orig.)

1986-01-01

155

The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and to facilitate investments. The UN Framework Classification provides information about: the stage of geological assessment, subdivided into: Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration; the stage of feasibility assessment, subdivided into: Geological Study, Prefeasibility Study and Feasibility Study/Mining Report; the degree of economic viability, subdivided into: Economic, Potentially Economic and Intrinsically Economic. The Mineral Reserve is defined as the economically extractable part of the Total Mineral Resource, demonstrated by feasibility assessment. A numerical codification of the eight resource classes available was introduced to facilitate the application. Due to many similarities to the classification of uranium resources used by the NEA and IAEA the new UN Framework Classification can be used to classify uranium resources. In general Reasonably Assured Resources of the lowest cost category (presently economically extractable amounts) are consistent with the UN term Proved Reserve. It is therefore hoped that the UN Framework, which now will be tested internationally for three years, will be accepted by all countries and for all mineral commodities including uranium. (author)

2001-01-01

156

The relationship between learned resourcefulness and cancer-related fatigue in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of learned resourcefulness on fatigue symptoms in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving chemotherapy. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental with repeated measures. SETTING: Two large hospitals in Israel. SAMPLE: 46 patients with NHL. METHODS: On the first day of a cycle of chemotherapy treatment, participants completed questionnaires assessing fatigue and learned resourcefulness. Fatigue was assessed again after 10 and 21 days. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Cancer-related fatigue, learned resourcefulness. FINDINGS: Fatigue increased 10 days following chemotherapy treatment and returned to pretreatment levels at day 21. Learned resourcefulness correlated negatively with each of the three measurements of fatigue. In addition, a calculated partial correlation showed the specific effect of learned resourcefulness on chemotherapy-related fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed a negative correlation between a physiologic variable (fatigue) and a psychological variable (learned resourcefulness), which is related to individual coping ability. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Nurses should receive education about learned resourcefulness to potentially help patients with cancer cope with chemotherapy-related fatigue. KNOWLEDGE TRANSLATION: As learned resourcefulness was negatively correlated with chemotherapy-related fatigue in patients with NHL, having this personality trait may help those patients manage fatigue.

Menshadi N; Bar-Tal Y; Barnoy S

2013-03-01

157

Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated.

1984-01-01

158

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

159

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents.

1996-03-22

160

Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube production the first two methods were utilized mainly for the production of SWNTs while the third one produced mainly MWNTs. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. Single-walled (SWNT), multi-walled (MWNT) and coiled carbon nanotubes are produced. In some case, interesting carbonaceous materials are formed during the synthesis process, such as bamboo-like tubes, onions, horn-like structures. In this paper, we refer to the progresses made in the field of the synthesis techniques of carbon nanotubes in the last decade.

Andrea Szabó; Caterina Perri; Anita Csató; Girolamo Giordano; Danilo Vuono; János B. Nagy

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

1995-01-01

162

Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60.Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health.

McMullen DB; Buzo ZJ; Rainey MB; Francotte J

1962-01-01

163

Gender Relations in Environmental Entitlements: Case of Coastal Natural Resources in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is about a study that rested on the mapping of how men and women gain entitlements (access to, ownership and control) of coastal resources through endowments, referred to herein as environmental entitlements. Environmental entitlements are enhanced by institutional means and mechanisms and the policy dimension of which demand specific forms of action to promote and protect them. The central role played by institutions (regularised patterns of behaviour between men and women in society) in bringing about changes to the environment and society relationships, was the premises of the study. The study explored on how men and women command natural resources that are instrumental to their wellbeing (van Ingen, Kawau, & Wells, 2002). A combination of data collection techniques were used, which included in-depth household interviews, focus group discussions, participant observations, and documentary review to capture the understanding of the relationship between environmental entitlements and gender roles. Various alternative conceptualisations of gender-environment relations, which can roughly be thought of as translations of the findings into the environment domain, were also used. As an action research, it highlighted a number of empowerment issues for participatory implementation with the focus on women. This is in recognition that there is undervaluation of both environmental resources and of women’s labour in managing and conserving these.

Albinus M. P. Makalle

2012-01-01

164

Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

1980-01-01

165

Technology-Related Research in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Publications: A Review between 2000 and 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of technology has influenced human resource development (HRD) practitioners to embrace technology for both training and non-training interventions. This study examined technology-related articles in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) publications in order to understand what these articles address and the future needs of…

Githens, Rod P.; Dirani, Khalil; Gitonga, Jacqueline; Teng, Ya-Ting; Benson, Angela D.

2006-01-01

166

The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

2008-01-01

167

Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

1979-01-01

168

Microdosimetric modelling of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry relies on evaluating the dose absorbed in the TL detector by measuring the light output by the detector, i.e. by the TL glow-curve analysis. However, the absolute efficiency of the TL light emission per unit dose of ionizing radiation absorbed in the detector is known to depend on the energy and quality (ionization density) of this radiation. Moreover, as the TL light is absorbed in the detector itself, the spatial distribution of energy deposition events inside the detector also needs to be considered. It is convenient to describe the response of the detector (TL output per unit dose) relative to that after a dose of sparsely ionizing reference radiation, such as {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays, via relative efficiency, {eta}{sub i{gamma}}, defined as the TL light signal emitted by the TL detector per unit imparted energy of radiation of the type i, normalized to the signal per unit imparted energy of this reference radiation. Microdosimetric models have provided an insight as to the variation of {eta}{sub i{gamma}}, with the energy and ionization density, related to the spatial distribution of ionizations and excitations produced by the ionizing radiation in the detector, as well as some experimental factors related to the TL light transport within the detector. To study the variation of {eta}{sub i{gamma}} with LET in LiF:Mg, Ti detectors irradiated by heavy charged particles (high-LET radiation), the most successful approach was the track structure model, based on the radial distribution of dose (RDD) around the ion tracks. For low-LET radiation (photons, electrons) the microdosimetric model has been successfully applied to predict {eta}{sub i{gamma}} for LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaF{sub 2}:Tm TL detectors, to explain the discrepancy between the measured and predicted photon-energy response of these detectors.

Olko, Pawel E-mail: pawel.olko@ifj.edu.pl

2004-12-01

169

Microdosimetric modelling of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry relies on evaluating the dose absorbed in the TL detector by measuring the light output by the detector, i.e. by the TL glow-curve analysis. However, the absolute efficiency of the TL light emission per unit dose of ionizing radiation absorbed in the detector is known to depend on the energy and quality (ionization density) of this radiation. Moreover, as the TL light is absorbed in the detector itself, the spatial distribution of energy deposition events inside the detector also needs to be considered. It is convenient to describe the response of the detector (TL output per unit dose) relative to that after a dose of sparsely ionizing reference radiation, such as 137Cs ?-rays, via relative efficiency, ?i?, defined as the TL light signal emitted by the TL detector per unit imparted energy of radiation of the type i, normalized to the signal per unit imparted energy of this reference radiation. Microdosimetric models have provided an insight as to the variation of ?i?, with the energy and ionization density, related to the spatial distribution of ionizations and excitations produced by the ionizing radiation in the detector, as well as some experimental factors related to the TL light transport within the detector. To study the variation of ?i? with LET in LiF:Mg, Ti detectors irradiated by heavy charged particles (high-LET radiation), the most successful approach was the track structure model, based on the radial distribution of dose (RDD) around the ion tracks. For low-LET radiation (photons, electrons) the microdosimetric model has been successfully applied to predict ?i? for LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaF2:Tm TL detectors, to explain the discrepancy between the measured and predicted photon-energy response of these detectors.

2004-01-01

170

An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. METHODS: We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam). Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers), we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. RESULTS: Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region) in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

Hanvoravongchai P; Chavez I; Rudge JW; Touch S; Putthasri W; Chau PN; Phommasack B; Singhasivanon P; Coker R

2012-01-01

171

An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam). Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers), we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region) in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

Hanvoravongchai Piya; Chavez Irwin; Rudge James W; Touch Sok; Putthasri Weerasak; Chau Pham Ngoc; Phommasack Bounlay; Singhasivanon Pratap; Coker Richard

2012-01-01

172

A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

1988-09-01

173

Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J.M.; Hildebrand, S.G.

1980-01-01

174

Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes research done at Los Alamos in FY 1993 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. The US Department of Energy funds this research through two programs at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): defense and groundwater characterization. Los Alamos personnel have continued to study the high-pressure zone created in the aquifer under Yucca Flat. We analyzed data from a hole in this area (U-7cd) and drilled another hole and installed a water monitoring tube at U-4t. We analyzed water from a number of locations on the NTS where we know there are radionuclides in the groundwater and critiqued the effectiveness of this monitoring effort. Our program for analyzing postshot debris continued with material from the last nuclear test in September 1992. We supported both the defense program and the groundwater characterization program by analyzing water samples from their wells and by reviewing documents pertaining to future drilling. We helped develop the analytical methodology to be applied to water samples obtained in the environmental restoration and waste management efforts at the NTS. Los Alamos involvement in the Hydrologic Resources Management Program is reflected in the appended list of documents reviewed, presentations given, papers published, and meetings attended

1994-01-01

175

Mechanics/heat-transfer relation for particulate materials. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The original goal of this study was to try and understand the relationship between the thermal and mechanical properties of particulate flows. Two situations were examined. The first is a study of the effects of simple shear flows, as a embryonic flow type on the apparent thermal conductivity and apparent viscosity of a dry granular flow. The second study involved fluidized beds. The original idea was to try and relate the heat transfer behavior of a fluidized bed to the ``particle pressure,`` the forces by only the particle phase of the two-phase mixture. (VC)

Campbell, C.S.; Wang, D.G.; Rahman, K.

1991-11-01

176

Relative local density of states for homogeneous lossy materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive the appropriate form of the relative local density of states (RLDOS) for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous lossy medium, and give the corresponding result for the three-dimensional equation. The RLDOS enables the calculation of the enhancement or suppression of the energy radiated in the form of transverse electromagnetic waves by a localized source in the medium, and so would be useful in studies of either electromagnetic communication from inside a cloaking system or detection of the cloaking system by radiation from thermally excited atoms within it.

2010-07-15

177

Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ hardiness is increasingly recognised as an aspect of their well-being and feelings of career success. Psychological well-being and feelings of subjective career success have positive implications for the motivation, satisfaction, performance and commitment of young talented staff.Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II]) and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale).Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2%) and female (71%) employed adults (N = 355) at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field.Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment.Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

Nadia Ferreira

2012-01-01

178

Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui) illustrated regional sustainable developmen...

Qi Wang; Xiaodan Wang; Hua Tang; Jun Li; Haihu Ma; Tianxing Cheng

179

Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs : The case of a Southern Danish Firm Cluster  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities but at the same time highlight the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

2013-01-01

180

Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui) illustrated regional sustainable development approach. In this study, to provide insight into spatial and dynamic analysis of region sustainable development, we calculated the relative carrying capacity of land resources and economical resources and synthetical carrying capacity of resources in different cities in Zhejiang, and geographic information system was carried out. The results showed that all cities but Hangzhou and Ningbo were ecologically sustainable, and relative carrying capacity of land resources in northern and eastern Zhejiang was larger than those in southern and western Zhejiang. The sampling years of Wenzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo contribution rates of land resource to synthetic carrying capacity were grouped into three stages, and there were two milestones trends and changes in 1996 and 2004, respectively. This study demonstrated that geographic information system and relative carrying capacity of resources are effective for assessment of region sustainable development, and provide policy guidelines for decision-making.

Qi Wang; Xiaodan Wang; Hua Tang; Jun Li; Haihu Ma; Tianxing Cheng

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. Conclusions Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development.

Wyss Kaspar

2004-01-01

182

Uncertainties related to the use of remote sensing data in wind resource assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Remote sensing is a developing technology for wind resource assessment. This presentation discussed uncertainties related to the use of remote sensing data in wind resource assessments. It discussed the advantages and disadvantages of remote sensing, how it works, as well as uncertainty and bias. The advantages of remote sensing include ease of mobility; installation; permitting; maintenance; higher measurements; and more measurement heights. The disadvantages are the high cost and power requirements. Remote sensing is not the standard for the wind industry and may not perform well in certain weather or atmospheric conditions. Accuracy is also an issue with remote sensing technology, and it requires and experienced operator and analyst. Equipment cost and the potential use of SODAR/LIDAR measurements were presented. The use of remote sensing in energy estimates was also considered. It was concluded that remote sensing may be a good supplement, but not a replacement for meteorological towers. In addition, remote sensing measurements may reduce the uncertainty of an energy estimate. figs.

Briggs, K. [DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

2009-07-01

183

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress. In this study, virtual water trade in relation to water resources availability has been assessed as a way of relaxing water stress in Iran. The results showed that from the 21 food products, cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are water-intensive crops according to their estimated virtual water content, while fruits, vegetables and industrial crops are not water-intensive. Considering the volume of virtual water entering the country through food imports, more water will be available for other essential uses. However, the virtual water trade has been developed rather unconsciously regarding water use and crop water productivity during the past two decades. For instance, wheat with a share of 58.5% in the virtual water import to Iran, was the dominant imported crop during 1983-2003. By importing 10.4 Mt of wheat, 11.6 BCM of water has been saved within the country during 1999-2003. However, Iran became self-sufficient in wheat production in early 2005. Consequently, this latest drive for self-sufficiency in the production of wheat, as a water-intensive crop, put tremendous pressure on domestic water resources. The trend in crop trade in terms of quantity and virtual water for other groups of crops has also been shown in the study. Seemingly, crop production and import have been greatly influenced by the weather conditions. With the increasing water scarcity, the role of virtual water in food security is expected to rise continuously in Iran. Thus, conscious virtual water trade as a policy measure in water management and judicious adjustment in agricultural structure will ensure sustainable food security and water availability in Iran.

N Rouhani; H Yang; S Amin Sichani; M Afyuni; S.F Mousavi; A.A Kamgar Haghighi

2009-01-01

184

Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters : An Empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Innovation Capabilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub-clusters in the regional cluster organisation would strengthen the innovative capabilities on the cluster and on the firm level.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

185

Incentive-Related Human Resource Practices for Substance Use Disorder Counselors: Salaries, Benefits, and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding factors associated with incentive-related human resource practices for substance use disorder counselors can help promote a stable workforce in this occupation. We examined three counselor incentives-salaries, benefits, training-and the link with organizational, counselor, and patient characteristics. Data were collected in 2007/08 via face-to-face interviews with 345 administrators/clinical directors in private treatment centers. Centers paid counselors an average of $38,800 annually and provided a mean of 2.83 benefits and 1.61 training (0-4 scales). Characteristics differed based on the incentive. Centers' managements need to be aware of different incentives that can help attract and retain counselors. PMID:22039315

Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M

2011-01-01

186

Incentive-Related Human Resource Practices for Substance Use Disorder Counselors: Salaries, Benefits, and Training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding factors associated with incentive-related human resource practices for substance use disorder counselors can help promote a stable workforce in this occupation. We examined three counselor incentives-salaries, benefits, training-and the link with organizational, counselor, and patient characteristics. Data were collected in 2007/08 via face-to-face interviews with 345 administrators/clinical directors in private treatment centers. Centers paid counselors an average of $38,800 annually and provided a mean of 2.83 benefits and 1.61 training (0-4 scales). Characteristics differed based on the incentive. Centers' managements need to be aware of different incentives that can help attract and retain counselors.

Rothrauff TC; Abraham AJ; Bride BE; Roman PM

2011-01-01

187

Directory of information resources related to health, exposure, and risk assessment of air toxics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many State and local agencies are developing or implementing programs to control emissions of toxic air pollutants. To successfully carry out these programs, in many cases, agency personnel must be familiar with a wide range of issues related to health, exposure, and risk assessment for toxic air pollutants. However, locating appropriate sources of information on these topics is not always an easy task. This directory was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) as a resource tool for state and local air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices to identify useful sources of information regarding health, exposure, and risk assessments for toxic air pollutants.

1989-08-01

188

Natural resources in US-Canadian relations. Volume I. The evolution of policies and issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume traces the background of the US-Canadian resource connection, analyzes the evolution of resource policies and processes in the two countries, and introduces the domestic and bilateral policy issues that have emerged regarding natural resource development and trade. The contributing authors in 11 chapters examine the possibility that Canada may seek to exploit its resource position by taking actions that are detrimental to US interests. 451 references, 34 tables.

Beigie, C.E.; Hero, A.O. Jr. (eds.)

1980-01-01

189

Relative Density of Backfilled Soil Material around Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relative density of backfilled soil material around offshore monopiles is assessed through experimental testing in the Large Wave Channel (GWK) of the Coastal Research Centre (FZK) in Hannover. The relative density of the backfill material was found to vary between 65 and 80 %. The dependency of the relative density of backfill on the maximum pile bending moment is assessed through three-dimensional numerical modeling of a monopile foundation located at the offshore wind farm at Horns Reef, Denmark.

SØrensen, SØren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

2012-01-01

190

Injury severity score underpredicts injury severity and resource utilization in combat-related amputations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Assess effectiveness of Injury Severity Score (ISS) in predicting injury severity in combat-related amputations. DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Military medical center. PATIENTS: One hundred and nine patients with major extremity amputations sustained in overseas combat. INTERVENTION: Standard combat casualty care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Difference in injury severity as measured by ISS, numbers of extremity(s) amputated, number of associated injuries, blood products used, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay in those with an upper extremity amputation (UEA) compared with those with an isolated lower extremity amputation. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (11.9%) sustained at least one UEA. Patients with an UEA had a greater number of amputations per casualty compared with patients with a lower extremity alone (2.5 vs. 1.5; P < 0.001). The mean hospital length of stay (P = 0.02) and intensive care unit length of stay (P = 0.02) were significantly greater in those with an UEA. Mean blood product utilization was also significantly greater in those with an upper extremity amputation (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ISS between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an UEA is associated with increased injury severity as evident by increased intensive care unit requirements, blood product utilization, and hospital length of stay. ISS underestimates the severity of injury and therefore resource utilization in patients with multiple combat-related amputations. Recognition of this limitation in addition to the development of a military-specific ISS is required for more effective resource utilization to continue to improve combat casualty care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Shin E; Evans KN; Fleming ME

2013-07-01

191

[Availability of resources for patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Optimal study].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the availability of resources for patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) in current clinical practice. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Eligible subjects were ? 18 years old, with primary/secondary active subfoveal AMD-related choroidal neovascularization diagnosed 12-18 months prior to inclusion in the study. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were included (39 centers). The mean age (SD) was 76.1 (8.1) years, of whom 55.6% were female. According to the investigator assessment a median (Q1-Q3) of 20.0 (10.0-50.0) patients were visited weekly. A mean of 100.0 (45.0-250.0) were currently under treatment mainly performed in operating rooms (61.5%). Centers had 1.0 (1.0-2.0) operating rooms available for treatment 2.0 (2.0-5.0) days/week. In 74.4% they were located on different floors/buildings from ophthalmology services. Waiting time until visit was 40.0 (30.0-60.0) min, and duration of treatment was 20.0 (15.0-50.0) min. The time between request until medical visit was 20.0 (15.0-30.0) days, and from diagnosis to treatment was 7.0 (5.0-10.0) days. Clinicians considered there was insufficient staff for examinations (84.6%), and treatment (46.2%). About 30.8% and 20.5% mentioned lack of diagnostic tools, such as optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography. CONCLUSIONS: More resources for diagnosis and treatment of wAMD are required. These results, together with the current policy of reducing the budget in the Spanish Health System, could lead to possible delays in the diagnosis and treatment of wAMD.

Casaroli-Marano R; Roura M

2013-08-01

192

Battery resource assessment. Interim report No. 1. Battery materials demand scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Projections of demand for batteries and battery materials between 1980 and 2000 are presented. The estimates are based on existing predictions for the future of the electric vehicle, photovoltaic, utility load-leveling, and existing battery industry. Battery demand was first computed as kilowatt-hours of storage for various types of batteries. Using estimates for the materials required for each battery, the maximum demand that could be expected for each battery material was determined.

Sullivan, D.

1980-12-01

193

Fishery resource utilization of a restored estuarine borrow pit: A beneficial use of dredged material case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous pits in coastal waters are subject to degraded water quality and benthic habitat conditions, resulting in degraded fish habitat. A pit in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey (USA) was partially filled with dredged sediment to increase flushing, alleviate hypoxia, and enhance benthic assemblages. Restoration objectives were assessed in terms of benthic community parameters and fishery resource occupation. Restoration resulted in increased benthic diversity (bottom samples) and the absence of water column stratification. Fisheries resources occupied the entire water column, unlike pre-restoration conditions where finfish tended to avoid the lower water column. The partial restoration option effectively reproduced an existing borrow pit configuration (Hole #5, control), by decreasing total depth from -11m to -5.5m, thereby creating a habitat less susceptible to hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while retaining sufficient vertical relief to maintain associations with juvenile weakfish and other forage fishes. Partially filling pits using dredged material represents a viable restoration alternative.

Reine K; Clarke D; Ray G; Dickerson C

2013-08-01

194

A standardized relative resource cost model for medical care: application to cancer control programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicare data represent 75% of aged and permanently disabled Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the fee-for-service (FFS) indemnity option, but the data omit 25% of beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Little research has examined how longitudinal patterns of utilization differ between HMOs and FFS. The Burden of Cancer Study developed and implemented an algorithm to assign standardized relative costs to HMO and Medicare FFS data consistently across time and place. Medicare uses 15 payment systems to reimburse FFS providers for covered services. The standardized relative resource cost algorithm (SRRCA) adapts these various payment systems to utilization data. We describe the rationale for modifications to the Medicare payment systems and discuss the implications of these modifications. We applied the SRRCA to data from four HMO sites and the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data. Some modifications to Medicare payment systems were required, because data elements needed to categorize utilization were missing from both data sources. For example, data were not available to create episodes for home health services received, so we assigned costs per visit based on visit type (nurse, therapist, and aide). For inpatient utilization, we modified Medicare's payment algorithm by changing it from a flat payment per diagnosis-related group to daily rates for diagnosis-related groups to differentiate shorter versus longer stays. The SRRCA can be used in multiple managed care plans and across multiple FFS delivery systems within the United States to create consistent relative cost data for economic analyses. Prior to international use of the SRRCA, data need to be standardized.

O'Keeffe-Rosetti MC; Hornbrook MC; Fishman PA; Ritzwoller DP; Keast EM; Staab J; Lafata JE; Salloum R

2013-01-01

195

Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. 'Embodied HANPP' (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism.

Haberl H; Steinberger JK; Plutzar C; Erb KH; Gaube V; Gingrich S; Krausmann F

2012-12-01

196

Selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste from material resources consumed in residential building construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The unfortunate economic situation involving Spain and the European Union is, among other factors, the result of intensive construction activity over recent years. The excessive consumption of natural resources, together with the impact caused by the uncontrolled dumping of untreated C&D waste in illegal landfills have caused environmental pollution and a deterioration of the landscape. The objective of this research was to generate a selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste based on the material resources consumed in the construction of residential buildings, either new or renovated, namely the Conventional Constructive Model (CCM). A practical example carried out on ten residential buildings in Seville, Spain, enabled the identification and quantification of the C&D waste generated in their construction and the origin of the waste, in terms of the building material from which it originated and its impact for every m(2) constructed. This model enables other researchers to establish comparisons between the various improvements proposed for the minimization of the environmental impact produced by building a CCM, new corrective measures to be proposed in future policies that regulate the production and management of C&D waste generated in construction from the design stage to the completion of the construction process, and the establishment of sustainable management for C&D waste and for the selection of materials for the construction on projected or renovated buildings.

Mercader-Moyano P; Ramírez-de-Arellano-Agudo A

2013-05-01

197

Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

2011-04-15

198

Documentation of the reserve-related data inputs to the Resource Allocation and Mine Costing model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The methodology and data used to prepare reserve-related inputs to the Resource Allocation and Mine Costing (RAMC) program are documented. The report is intended for analysts familiar with the modeling of the coal market and, in particular, the economic-engineering approach to the development of coal supply curves. The reserve-related inputs developed during this study include: distribution of demonstrated reserves by supply region, coal type, and mining method; distribution of reserves dedicated to existing mines (committed reserves) by supply region, coal type, and mining method; allocation of remaining strippable reserves to overburden categories; allocation of remaining deep reserves to seam depth and type opening (drift and shaft/slope) categories; estimation of future recovery factors by supply region and mining method; and estimation of current f.o.b. mine prices by supply region and coal type. Emphasis was placed on using current EIA data files to calculate coal reserve quantities and qualities, coal prices, committed reserves, seam thickness, and production. Data on overburden depth for both strippable and deep reserves were obtained from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and various State agencies. Similar data are not currently collected or maintained by EIA.

1982-09-01

199

The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

2009-08-15

200

Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Nonlinear constitutive relations for magnetostrictive materials with applications to 1-D problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the author presents a nonlinear constitutive relation for magnetostrictive materials which includes the nonlinear coupling effect arising between temperature/preload and field strength. The relations are derived from thermodynamic principles using Gibbs free energy expanded in a Taylor series with only the pertinent constants included as determined from experimental evidence present in existing literature. The material constants appearing in these constitutive relations are also related to the linear coefficients used in characterizing the response of the material systems. This is accomplished by assuming that the material is operated at an initial bias magnetic field and expanding the field is a simple perturbation theory. An approach to solve the nonlinear magnetoelasticity problem is discussed with implications to vibrational control through static and dynamic stiffness changes.

Carman, G.P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

1994-12-31

202

Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete

1977-01-01

203

Assessment/management of dredged material to minimize contaminant-related impacts: An international perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Close attention must be given to the effects of dredging and disposal operations on the marine environment. The globally applicable Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972), in conjunction with resolutions adopted there under, provides regulations and guidance regarding sea disposal of dredged material. For this purpose the Dredged Material Assessment Framework developed in 1995 provides advice to decision-makers in the field of management of dredged material, incorporating knowledge and experience gained by Contracting Parties to the Convention on potential environmental impacts of dredging operations. Characterization of dredged material is requested with regard to physical and chemical characteristics, including geochemical parameters, potential routes and previous soils of contaminants in the area, and biological characteristics, including tests to determine acute and chronic toxicity, the potential for bioaccumulation and the potential for tainting aquatic living resources. The results of the physical/chemical/biological characterization will indicate whether the dredged material is suitable for disposal at sea. For material found to be unsuitable for beneficial uses, disposal at sea or disposal on land, disposal management techniques will have to be used to reduce or control impacts to a level that-will not constitute an unacceptable risk to human health, or harm living resources, damage amenities or interfere with legitimate uses of the sea. Disposal management techniques may include burial in the sea floor followed by clean sediment capping, selection of special sites, or methods of containment. The Assessment Framework further includes criteria for selection of sea disposal sites, advice for the conduct of impact assessments, and of post-operational monitoring.

Nauke, M.K. [International Maritime Organization, London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

204

A critical analysis of the resource-based relative value scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND--There is a general perception that procedural medical services are reimbursed at an inappropriately greater rate than cognitive services. By congressional mandate, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has been directed to establish a Medicare fee schedule to shift funding under a budget-neutral assumption from procedural to cognitive services. To provide a rational basis for this change, Hsiao et al (Harvard-Hsiao) developed a resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) that equates the value of a service to the resources necessary to generate the service. METHODS--Instead of focusing on relative values and fee schedules ("price-per-unit-service"), the present study employs the standard commercial/industrial method of determining reimbursement rate (income divided by hours of labor) for 15 medical and surgical specialties. Data from independent sources are used to determine income and hours of professional effort for each of the specialties studied. Harvard-Hsiao and HCFA predicted the percent change in income for each of the specialties under the initial RBRVS and the HCFA fee schedule. The predicted income was then employed in this study to recompute reimbursement rates under the newly proposed payment systems. RESULTS: CURRENT PAYMENT SYSTEM--Average annual incomes for medical and surgical specialties are $124,500 and $176,600, respectively, a 42% difference (P = .03). Average weekly work hours (nominal hours, as adjusted for overtime) for medical and surgical specialties are 70.6 and 87.8, respectively (P = .005). Average hourly reimbursement rates for medical ($33.90) and surgical ($38.80) specialties are not substantially different (P, not significant). The difference in annual income is explained by the 17.2 hours per week of additional work hours by surgeons. The erroneous perception that procedurists are reimbursed at a higher rate than cognitive practitioners likely arises from differences in billing methods by which surgeons shift charges for cognitive work hours to the 18% of their time spent in the operating room. RESULTS: PROPOSED RBRVS AND HCFA PAYMENT SYSTEM--The income of all specialties is equalized about a mean of $132,500 (+/- $21,400 [1 SD]) by varying reimbursement rates in such a way that the effect of working hours is fully discounted. Reimbursement rates under the proposed payment system make no recognition of the hours of professional effort, postgraduate specialty training, or putative differences in the nature of the physician's work. CONCLUSION:--The RBRVS, and the HCFA fee schedule to the extent that it is based on that scale, are inappropriate bases for the reform of the physician reimbursement system.

Maloney JV Jr

1991-12-01

205

Job demands and personal resources in their relations to indicators of job strain among nurses for older people.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To examine the role of two personal resources (active, problem-focused coping; self-efficacy beliefs) in the relation between job demands and strain. BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that healthcare staff in general and nurses in particular, are at a high risk of suffering from high levels of job strain. In addition to often examined job-related resources (such as control and social support), personal resources are expected to moderate (i.e. buffer) the relation between job demands and indicators of strain, particularly when there is a functional match between the type of demands and resources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted (February-April 2010) among staff members of three nursing homes of a municipal organization for residential elderly care located in an urban area of Western Germany. A total of 145 of 251 employees responded to the invitation to participate in the study (57·8% participation rate). Data were analysed by hierarchical moderated regression analyses. RESULTS: Increasing job demands (quantitative and qualitative workload) had adverse effects on emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic complaints, and turnover intentions, whereas nurses' self-efficacy beliefs exerted beneficial effects on all outcomes. Furthermore, findings revealed that active, problem-focused coping interacts with job demands in the prediction of job strain. CONCLUSION: Both research and practice should focus on a closer match between personal resources and job demands to prevent nurses from being strained.

Schmidt KH; Diestel S

2013-01-01

206

Lower life satisfaction related to materialism in children frequently exposed to advertising.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Research among adults suggests that materialism and life satisfaction negatively influence each other, causing a downward spiral. So far, cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain. This study adds to the literature by investigating the longitudinal relation between materialism and life satisfaction. We also investigated whether their relation depended on children's level of exposure to advertising. METHODS: A sample of 466 children (aged 8-11; 55% girls) participated in a 2-wave online survey with a 1-year interval. We asked children questions about material possessions, life satisfaction, and advertising. We used structural equation modeling to study the relationship between these variables. RESULTS: For the children in our sample, no effect of materialism on life satisfaction was observed. However, life satisfaction did have a negative effect on materialism. Exposure to advertising facilitated this effect: We only found an effect of life satisfaction on materialism for children who were frequently exposed to advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Among 8- to 11-year-old children, life satisfaction leads to decreased materialism and not the other way around. However, this effect only holds for children who are frequently exposed to television advertising. It is plausible that the material values portrayed in advertising teach children that material possessions are a way to cope with decreased life satisfaction. It is important to reduce this effect, because findings among adults suggest that materialistic children may become less happy later in life. Various intervention strategies are discussed.

Opree SJ; Buijzen M; Valkenburg PM

2012-09-01

207

Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

Pemsler, P.

1981-02-01

208

Health-related Quality of Life in Psoriasis: Important Role of Personal Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many patients with psoriasis demonstrate psychological disturbances, including decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected personal resources and HRQoL in 168 in-patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The following questionnaires were used: Skindex-29, General Health Questionnaire, Coping with Skin Disease Scale, Acceptance of Illness Scale, Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. It was demonstrated that younger patients experienced fewer problems in psychosocial functioning, and that they showed a correlation between worse HRQoL and both external powerful others and external chance domains in locus of health control. Subjective self-evaluation of health correlated with HRQoL irrespective of patient's age. Coping with stress strategies hopelessness/helplessness and distraction/catastrophization correlated with worse overall HRQoL, whereas fighting spirit strategy correlated with better overall HRQoL. Hopelessness/helplessness coping strategy, somatic symptoms, disease acceptance, psoriasis severity and patient's age explained 61% of overall HRQoL variance. Psychomedical interventions designed for psoriatic patients should take into account the above variables. PMID:23407910

Miniszewska, Joanna; Juczy?ski, Zygfryd; Ograczyk, Alicja; Zalewska, Anna

2013-09-01

209

The Effect of Globalization, Labor Fexibilization and National Industrial Relations Systems on Human Resource Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes how changes to the global organization of capitalism have accompanied and intensified globalization as well as have affected the regulation of labor and employment relationship. One of the most significant of these changes has been the dramatic increase in the rate of cross-border merger and acquisition activity. Of equal significance, especially for the regulation of labor and the employment relationship, has been the pronounced tendency of global enterprises to transform themselves into coordinators and organizers of activities performed for them by contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers. Outsourcing and sub­contracting have allowed global enterprises to reduce and externalize the costs incurred from the direct employment of labor. This reorganization of the operations of global corporations has been greatly facilitated by the removal of barriers to trade and the global movement of capital, and labor market deregulation. Labor market deregulation has largely been brought about by the emasculation of national Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs) in developed and developing nations alike. As national IRSs have been emasculated, so has the regulation of labor and the employment relationship increasingly been internalized in the firm by the use of Human Resource Management (HRM).

Mohammad Ziaul Hoq; Muslim Amin; Ifthekhar Amin Chowdhury; Sulaiman Ali

2009-01-01

210

Health-related quality of life and symptoms in patients with experiences of health problems related to dental restorative materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The question of health risks associated with dental materials, especially dental amalgam, has long been controversial and remains unresolved. For the past 10 years, people in Sweden with perceived adverse reactions to dental restorative materials have been entitled to apply to their local county council for subsidized replacement of restorative materials. The aim of the study was to investigate symptoms, perceived health changes over time and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population, comprising subjects with subjective health impairment, allegedly because of dental materials. A further aim was to compare their HRQoL with that of the general population. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was sent to 515 people who had applied for subsidized replacement of dental restorations. The questionnaire covered general and oral symptoms, HRQoL, health ratings over time and dental restoration replacement. RESULTS: The response rate was 54.4% (n=280). Most (83.2%) answered that they had undergone replacement of restorative materials because of impaired health, perceived to be related to dental restorative materials. The most common symptoms were musculoskeletal pain (67.5%), sleep disturbance (60.0%) and fatigue (58.6%). The HRQoL of the study subjects was significantly lower than that of the Swedish population in general. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects who had undergone subsidized dental restoration replacement reported persistent subjective symptoms and low HRQoL. The results indicate that replacement of restorative materials alone is insufficient to achieve improved health in patients with symptoms allegedly attributable to dental restorations.

Naimi-Akbar A; Svedberg P; Alexanderson K; Carlstedt-Duke B; Ekstrand J; Englund GS

2013-04-01

211

Progress in enzyme immobilization in ordered mesoporous materials and related applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A short time after the discovery of ordered mesoporous materials, which possess unique features such as high specific surface area and pore volume, highly uniform pore distribution and tunable pore size, these materials have been prospected as promising carriers for enzyme immobilization. The immobilization of enzymes in ordered mesoporous materials has been studied for almost two decades. With the development of tailored ordered mesoporous materials and advances in enzyme technology, this field attracted increasing interest due to its quickly expanded functions and applications. This review focuses on the relation between the progress in ordered mesoporous materials and its corresponding contribution to enzyme immobilization as well as the applications of these materials in biocatalysis. The potential trends in the future development of this field are also pointed out.

Zhou Z; Hartmann M

2013-05-01

212

Model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database for CAPCAST system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is related with one of the components of a hybrid decision support system called CAPCAST, implemented under a research project conducted by WIMIIP AGH. It is a model of knowledge representation about materials in the form of a relational database, de- signed to allow the transformation of its records into components of a rule-based knowledge base.

B. Mrzyg?ód; K. Regulski

2011-01-01

213

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-05-01

214

Surface detail reproduction of elastomeric impression materials related to rheological properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to discern, for elastomeric impression materials, the important rheological properties and importance of hydrophilicity for detail reproduction. METHODS: Viscosity, modulus and tan delta were measured using a controlled-stress rheometer in cone/plate configuration. The flow of the materials, immediately after mixing and at the manufacturer's stated working time, was measured using a shark fin test and the interaction with moist surfaces was determined by taking impressions from two different sized grooves in moist gypsum casts. RESULTS: Tan delta was found to be the parameter most indicative of the accuracy of the impression and the flow of the material. Impregum samples, a polyether material, exhibited the highest initial tan delta (7.4), the largest shark fins at both time periods and the most accurate impressions from both grooves. Aquasil, a polyvinylsiloxane material, had similar initial tan delta values (6.9) and impressions taken on the deep groove with this material closely matched the groove. The other two polyvinylsiloxane materials (Affinis and Flexitime) had significantly lower initial tan delta values (3.1 and 2.9, respectively), exhibited much smaller shark fins and a worse ability to accurately reproduce the deep groove. SIGNIFICANCE: For large features, it is clear that the higher the initial tan delta of the impression material the better the ability to replicate larger features. However, with smaller features the relative hydrophobicity of the material becomes an important factor, with more hydrophilic materials better able to reproduce fine detail.

German MJ; Carrick TE; McCabe JF

2008-07-01

215

Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

216

Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas of Edo State. Data analysis was carried out using t-test for the hypothesis and simple percentages for questions one and two. The results showed that instructional materials and resources available were grossly inadequate. It was also observed that there was no difference in the use of instructional materials between specialist social studies teachers and non-specialist teachers. It is therefore recommended that instructional materials and resources be made available for the teaching of social studies.

E.O. Okobia

2011-01-01

217

Measuring the Value of Library Resources and Student Academic Performance through Relational Datasets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This article describes a project undertaken by the University of Wollongong Library (UWL) to identify whether a correlation exists between usage of library resources and academic performance.Methods – A multidimensional approach to systems design was implemented, requiring collaboration between among the library, university administration, Performance Indicator Project team (PIP), and information technology services. The project centers on the integration and interrogation of a series of discrete datasets containing student performance, attrition, demographic, borrowing, and electronic resources usage data. PIP built a cube for the library that links usage of library resources to student demographic data and academic performance (the “Library Cube”). Other cubes will be linked later.Results – While initial reports are rudimentary and do not yet incorporate data on e-resource usage, results are favourable in demonstrating the value of using the library information resources in coursework. Based on the data generated to date, students who borrow library resources do outperform students who do not. Early trend data shows up to a 12-point difference in grades.Conclusion – The Library Cube signals a new milestone in the UWL’s quality assessment journey. Well-established measures of effectiveness and efficiency will be further complemented by measures of impact and value, allowing the library to step even closer to the goal of having effective and valued partnerships with the university community to realize teaching, learning, research, and internalization goals.

Margie Jantti; Brian Cox

2013-01-01

218

Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

1999-01-01

219

Social Sciences Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Social Sciences Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources devoted to the interplay of science and the social realm, as well as social-science materials that draw heavily upon or are closely related to the life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and/or technology: for example, archaeology, physical anthropology, economics, human geography, linguistics, and psychology. Here may be found materials for educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at research communities at the nexus of the social, physical, and life sciences.

2008-03-14

220

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

2009-01-01

222

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

De Greef J; Villani K; Goethals J; Van Belle H; Van Caneghem J; Vandecasteele C

2013-06-01

223

Energy and resources recovery by pyrolysis of polymeric materials. 2. Pyrolysis of polystyrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pyrolysis of polymeric waste materials is a useful way to obtain marketable products. The pyrolysis of polystyrene (I) separated from municipal and industrial wastes gives the corresponding monomer. The pyrolysis of I is carried out at 350-500 degrees using a sieve-tray reactor containing molten I and fed by a continuous stream of inert gas. The liquid products contained approximately 98% styrene at 500 degree and a linear gas velocity of 0.9 cm/s. By-products are PhMe, alpha-methylstyrene, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/, PhEt and high boiling compounds. Gaseous products are C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and propylene in the uncondensed gas stream. The process reduces carbonaceous residues.

Lucchesi, A.; Giusti, P.; Maschio, G.

1980-01-01

224

Criticality of metal resources for functional materials used in electronics and microelectronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In microelectronic devices a multitude of essential, indispensable metals is functionalized. Many of these metals are scarce and rather often only mined as by-products of base metals. For the industry but also for the development of new technologies this situation can evoke serious restrictions. In order to foresee, validate and minimize such risks a criticality concept is described. In this concept quantitative and qualitative criteria like scarcity, geo-political restrictions, economic availability, efficiency, recyclability, potential dissipation, social and cultural factors, ecologic impacts, etc. are considered in order to define a reliable, sustainable and responsible implementation of strategic functional metals and materials into technical systems. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Reller, Armin [Resource Strategy, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1a, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)

2011-09-15

225

Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nano materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nano technology which is called carbon-related nano materials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nano materials. Carbon nano materials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nano materials such as zero-dimensional carbon nano materials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nano diamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nano materials (including carbon nano fibers and carbon nano tubes), and two-dimensional carbon nano materials (including graphene and carbon nano walls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nano materials.

2011-01-01

226

Relative inequality in energy resource consumption: a case of Kanvashram village, Pauri Garhwal district, Uttranchall (India)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy planning exercises for rural areas make use of a mix of locally available renewable resources with some commercial resources to cater to the energy needs of the population. Such exercises are economically attractive in developing countries, whereby, the foreign exchange reserves for the purchase of commercial energy is curtailed. The first step in the implementation of an energy planning exercise is to understand the energy consumption and utilization habits of the population being served. Frequently, an assessment of the levels of inequality in the consumption of various resources is necessary as, this provides the rural planner with an understanding of the future trends and thus forearms him with strategic alternatives to combat any future energy resource crisis that the trends seem to imply. In the present paper, an attempt is made to assess the level of energy resource consumption inequality in a typical hilly rural Indian village. The Gini Coefficient of Inequality, a measure of inequality in the field of Econometrics has been applied for this assessment. The population is segregated into different categories based on their income levels and certain socio-economic criteria, which are also felt to exercise an influence on consumption levels of energy. The results of the analysis are then discussed in the light of the findings. (author)

Fernandez, E.; Saini, R.P.; Devadas, V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Roorkee (India)

2005-04-01

227

Motion-Related Resource Allocation in Dynamic Wireless Visual Sensor Network Environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a Centralized Control Unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, while the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Katsenou A; Kondi L; Parsopoulos K

2013-10-01

228

Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

Engi, D.

1998-09-01

229

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

1992-01-01

230

Organization and economic aspects of using by-product material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the amount of waste produced by the USSR coal industry (in 1986, it produced 1.3 billion m/sup 3/ of overburden, more than 125 million t of mine rock and 112.9 million t of waste from coal preparation plants) and explains that this waste is detrimental to the environment and is expensive to transport and store. The most suitable type of waste for recycling is the by-products from coal preparation due to the stability of its chemical and granulometric structure. These by-products may be used as the basic material for the production of ceramics (e.g. drainpipes) or as additives in clay bricks. Organomineral by-products make up about 80% of all waste from coal preparation plants but they are not yet fully exploited due to poor planning, inadequate technology and lack of economic stimuli. A series of measures to be implemented in the 1981-1990 period should rectify this. Describes how the wholesale prices of waste products may be calculated from the costs of preparation, shipping, transportation and storage (e.g. gravitation waste costs 0.61 rubles/t and flotation tailings about 2 rubles/t). These prices mean that using coal preparation by-products is an economical proposition for brick manufacturers.

Russkaya, Eh.I.; Aleksandrova, I.V.

1987-07-01

231

Geospatial Studies Resource Links  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, from Northern Virginia Community College, provides a number of links to resource materials useful for geospatial education. Materials for curriculum development, general information for GIS users and resource materials for general geography are included.

2011-09-12

232

Human Development as semiotic-material Ordering: Sketching a Relational Developmental Psychology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presented here is an attempt at casting human development as a semiotic-material phenomenon which reflects power relations and includes uncertainty. On the ground of post-structuralist approaches, development is considered here as a performative concept, which does not represent but creates realities. Emphasis is put on the notions of ‘mediation’, ‘translation’ and ‘materiality’ in everyday practices of students and teachers in a concrete school setting, where I conducted ethnographical research for one school year. The analysis of discursive research material of teachers’ discussions and interviews with students proves the developmental discourse to be interrelated to teachers’ and students’ positioning in the school; the developmental discourse orders ongoing interaction and enables students and teachers to perform the past and witness the future in a way which corresponds with dominant values and state social/educational policies. By translating a variety of events into a line moving from the past to the future as well as by materializing this line as diagrams and other semiotic-material objects, development becomes a technology of the self of (late) modernity which implies power relations and supports the maintenance of the modern order. On these grounds, a relational approach to development is suggested, which raises methodological and political issues.

Michalis Kontopodis

2007-01-01

233

Relations between elastic constants C sub ij and texture parameters for hexagonal materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultrasonic techniques have recently been applied to the texture characterization in polycrystalline aggregates of hexagonal crystals. The basis of this application lies in the relations between the elastic constants {bar {ital C}}{sub {ital ij}} of the aggregates, which can be inferred from ultrasonic wave velocity measurements, and the orientation distribution coefficients. This communication presents such relations for aggregates which possess orthotropic material symmetry and hexagonal crystal symmetry for Voigt, Reuss, and Hill averaging methods in a unified and concise representation.

Li, Y.; Thompson, R.B. (Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (US))

1990-03-01

234

Materials design and related R and D issues for the force-free helical reactor (FFHR)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Materials issues related to the force-free helical reactor (FFHR) design are presented. In FFHR, which uses the Flibe liquid breeder from the main reason of safety, if there is no need to replace in-vessel materials in the lifetime of 30 years, the reactor can be operated with not only the high safety margin but also a high availability of the plant, resulting in reducing not only the cost of electricity (COE) but also the total amount of radiative wastes. Nuclear properties of induced radioactivity, solid transmutation products, and decay heat at the 14 MeV neutron fluence of 45 MWa/m{sup 2} as well as materials compatibility with Flibe are investigated for JLF-1, V-alloy, SiC and high Z materials. In conclusion, control of metal impurities, transmutation of W and V, acceptable decay heat, and reaction kinetics with Flibe are pointed out as R and D issues. (orig.) 16 refs.

Sagara, A.; Muroga, T.; Motojima, O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki (Japan); Noda, T. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Lab.; Tanaka, S.; Terai, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Inst. of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan); Matsui, H. [Inst. for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1998-10-01

235

Materials design and related R and D issues for the force-free helical reactor (FFHR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Materials issues related to the force-free helical reactor (FFHR) design are presented. In FFHR, which uses the Flibe liquid breeder from the main reason of safety, if there is no need to replace in-vessel materials in the lifetime of 30 years, the reactor can be operated with not only the high safety margin but also a high availability of the plant, resulting in reducing not only the cost of electricity (COE) but also the total amount of radiative wastes. Nuclear properties of induced radioactivity, solid transmutation products, and decay heat at the 14 MeV neutron fluence of 45 MWa/m2 as well as materials compatibility with Flibe are investigated for JLF-1, V-alloy, SiC and high Z materials. In conclusion, control of metal impurities, transmutation of W and V, acceptable decay heat, and reaction kinetics with Flibe are pointed out as R and D issues. (orig.)

1998-01-01

236

Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts

1993-01-01

237

Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

Martin Roeb; Martina Neises; Nathalie Monnerie; Friedemann Call; Heike Simon; Christian Sattler; Martin Schmücker; Robert Pitz-Paal

2012-01-01

238

Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

Shikama, Tatsuo [Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

1999-09-01

239

Ion beam synthesis of silicon-carbon structures and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this dissertation is the study and characterisation of high dose Carbon (C) implantation processes into Silicon (Si) and related materials for the synthesis of Silicon Carbide (SiC). The attainment of well-characterised multilayer structures useful to fabricate sensor and electronic devi...

Calvo Barrio, Lorenzo

240

Stachybotrys atra Growth and Toxin Production in Some Building Materials and Fodder under Different Relative Humidities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth of Stachybotrys atra and its toxin production on some building materials and in animal fodder were studied at relative humidities ranging from 78 to 100%. Toxins were detected by biological assays and chemical methods. Strong growth of the fungus and presence of macrocyclic trichothecenes, ma...

Nikulin, Marjo; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Berg, Seija; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa

 
 
 
 
241

TPV energy conversion: A review of material and cell related issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion using low band gap semiconductor photovoltaic cells. Physics of PN junctions related to TPV cells is described and the factors that affect overall cell efficiencies are outlined. Current status of bulk and epitaxial growth of TPV materials and cell fabrication issues are also described.

Bhat, I.B.; Borrego, J.M.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ostrogorsky, A.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronic Manufacturing

1996-12-31

242

TPV energy conversion: A review of material and cell related issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overview of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion using low band gap semiconductor photovoltaic cells. Physics of PN junctions related to TPV cells is described and the factors that affect overall cell efficiencies are outlined. Current status of bulk and epitaxial growth of TPV materials and cell fabrication issues are also described.

Bhat, I.B.; Borrego, J.M.; Gutmann, R.J.; Ostrogorsky, A.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronic Manufacturing

1996-08-01

243

Optimisation of sinter plant operating conditions and BF burden material resources using advanced multivariate statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project has demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between the effects of sinter blend, plant, process operations and their resultant effects on quality and productivity. This has enabled an improved window for process operation and blend optimisation to be defined. Developments related to blast furnace requirements have established the effects that sinter of different physical, mineralogy and chemistry and coke have on its operation. Defining the sinter and coke requirements for the blast furnace operating regime sinter quality, coke quality and productivity have been optimised as a function of cost and energy usage. The classification of sintering ores demonstrated by use of data clustering techniques gives the ability and confidence to assess new ores without undertaking pilot or plant based assessments. Tools developed and deployed for improved monitoring of sinter plant and blast furnace operation give permanent monitoring and provide a facility to identify deviations in performance. The tools meet the need of providing complex analysis and model development to plant technologists without having to have extensive knowledge of the underlying principles. Techniques applied including genetic algorithms, fuzzy systems, have been linked to traditional statistical techniques to refine the accuracy of the models. Reverse engineering of models has been developed to enable predict of the inputs, to achieve a required process output. The methods employed are transferable to other production facilities, or similar design and capacity. Where plant configurations are different, data associated with normal plant operations will have to be used to tune the models. 79 figs., 27 tabs.

Kitson, P.; Mochon, J.; Saxen, H. (and others) [Corus UK, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

244

Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

2008-01-01

245

Relations between structural parameters and adsorption characterization of templated nanoporous materials with cubic symmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic approach is proposed to structural characterization of templated nanoporous materials with cubic symmetry by gas adsorption. The authors hypothesize that regular structures of these materials can be described in terms of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), similarly to bicontinuous mesophases observed in oil-water, lipid, block copolymer, and other amphiphilic systems. The authors relate topological characteristics of TPMS to the pore structure parameters evaluated from adsorption measurements, such as the specific surface area, pore volume, mean pore size, and also pore wall thickness. The relations obtained can be used for discrimination of possible TPMS morphologies. The method developed is used for characterization of newly synthesized MCM-48 mesoporous materials by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. They show that adsorption data fully support the minimal gyroid model of MCM-48 structure (Ia3d space group) established earlier by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy studies. The mean pore size of MCM-48 can be accurately described by the hydraulic diameter calculated from the capillary condensation region of nitrogen adsorption isotherms by the nonlocal density functional theory method. Moreover, the adsorption method allows one to estimate the pore wall thickness, which cannot be done by XRD. For a series of high-quality MCM-48 materials reported recently in the literature, the calculated mean wall thickness varied from 0.8 to 1.2 nm. The adsorption method developed is recommended as a complement to X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques for characterization of nanoporous materials.

Ravikovitch, P.I.; Neimark, A.V.

2000-03-21

246

Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know”) was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%), time spent receiving healthcare services (39%), regular medication currently taken (35%) and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%). These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

Chernyak Nadja; Ernsting Corinna; Icks Andrea

2012-01-01

247

Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation.The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. METHODS: The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, "don't know") was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. RESULTS: Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%), time spent receiving healthcare services (39%), regular medication currently taken (35%) and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%). These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. CONCLUSION: The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

Chernyak N; Ernsting C; Icks A

2012-01-01

248

Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? UFG materials produced by SPD do exhibit specific GBs defined earlier as “non-equilibrium GB”. ? Such boundaries differ from regular GBs on atomic structure and appearance of long-range stresses. ? The apparent thickness of “non-equilibrium” GB is typically in a range of 1 to 2 nm. ? GBs in SPD materials may promote segregations and mechanical mixing that affect the properties. ? “Non-equilibrium” GBs do significantly enhance the atomic mobility in SPD materials. - Abstract: Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called “non-equilibrium” grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These features and related phenomena (diffusion, segregation, etc.) have been the object of intense studies and the obtained results provide convincing evidence of the importance of a non-equilibrium state of high angle grain boundaries for UFG materials with unusual properties. The aims of the present paper are first to give a short overview of this research field and then to consider tangled, yet unclear issues and outline the ways of oncoming studies. A special emphasis is given on the specific structure of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by SPD, on grain boundary segregation, on interfacial mixing linked to heterophase boundaries and on grain boundary diffusion. The connection between these unique features and the mechanical properties or the thermal stability of the ultrafine grained alloys is also discussed.

2012-04-01

249

Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises Ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Chase, Lloyd L. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Larry K. (Salida, CA)

1994-01-01

250

Training materials related to IEC programming; IEC junkyo programming kyoiku kizai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international standard IEC61131-3 was established with the aim of improving the development efficiency, readability and maintain-ability of programmable logic controller programs and adopted by the JIS as JIS B 3503; however, it has not enough spread in Japan. To make the IEC language popular, Fuji Electric has held seminars for spreading IEC languages and technologies as well as has issued educational texts. This paper describes training materials used in MICREX-SX technical seminars, materials formerly used in Olympics in technology and books related to IEC published in October 1999. (author)

Nagata, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-02-10

251

Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same  

Science.gov (United States)

An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

Krupke, W.F.; Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Smith, L.K.

1991-12-31

252

Proceedings of Seminar on Water Resources and Environment: application of nuclear and related technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Isotope techniques have been used in solving problems in the fields of hydrology and environment since 1950s. It is acknowledged that of all the methods used to understand hydrologic processes, applications of tracers in particular have been the most useful in terms of providing new insights into the processes. Isotope techniques have been applied in the investigation of seepage losses from dams and canals, coastal sediment dynamics, surface water and groundwater resources, groundwater age dating, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, sediment movement and transport pathways, streamflow measurements, pollution transport behaviour and others. A total of sixteen papers were presented by Malaysian researchers involved in the field. The papers covered areas in dam surveillance, river management, water resources and stream flow measurement, estuary and coastal studies and slope stability investigations

2006-01-01

253

IAEA programme on fast reactor, related fuels, and structural materials technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For obvious sustainability reasons, spent fuel utilization and breeding are returning to centre stage, and with this the fast reactor as the necessary linchpin. The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term of fast reactors and the associated fuel cycles is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on research and technology development efforts. Achieving the full potential of fast neutron systems and closed fuel cycle technologies with regard to both efficient utilization of the fissile resources and waste management is conditional on continued advances in research and technology development to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The IAEA's fast reactor technology development activities are pursued within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Currently, the TWG-FR comprises 14 IAEA Member States, the European Commission (EC), the ISTC, and the OECD/NEA, as well as Belgium and Sweden as observers. The TWG-FR assists in the implementation of IAEA activities, and ensures that all technical activities performed within the framework of the IAEA project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems are in line with expressed needs from Member States. The scope of the TWG-FR is broad, covering all technical aspects of fast reactors and sub-critical systems, including: research and development, design, deployment, operation, and decommissioning. The TWG-FR has focused on experimental and theoretical aspects of fast reactor technology and safety. A benchmark test with experimental data was conducted to verify and improve the codes used for the seismic analysis of reactor cores. A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted to apply acoustic signal processing for the detection of boiling or sodium/water reactions in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Benchmark analyses addressed accident behaviour and design improvements of the Russian BN-800 reactor. In cooperation with the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety, assistance was provided to ensure safe operation during the remaining lifetime and the development of an effective decommissioning programme for the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan. A CRP is being conducted with the objective of reducing the calculational uncertainties of fast reactor reactivity effects. Another CRP is contributing to the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation (FRKP) initiative through bibliographic catalogues and synthesis (lessons learned) reports related to feedback from fast reactor operational experience in the areas of steam generators, fuel and blanket subassemblies, and structural materials. Advanced reactor technology options for effective utilization and transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is addressed in another CRP. Its focus is on the transient behaviour of advanced transmutation systems, both critical and sub-critical. An ongoing CRP is performing computational and experimental benchmarking of ADS and non-spallation neutron source driven sub-critical systems. Two new CRPs were initiated in 2009: the first one aiming at the validation of multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes based on thermal stratification measurements performed during the 1995 Monju start-up experiments; the second one performing blind benchmarking and post-experiment analyses for two Phenix end-of-life tests, viz. the Control Rod Withdrawal Test and the Sodium Natural Circulation Test. More CRPs are planned for 2010/2011 and beyond, e.g. on the estimation of the source term in a fast reactor for radioactivity release, and on thermal hydraulics code verification and validation of liquid metal and molten salt coolants. The IAEA maintains a database to foster information exchange in the field of advanced fast reactor technology development. It is planned to establish a 'living' (WWW-based) innovative fast reactor technology status report. Last but not least, to

2009-01-01

254

Icelandic nurses' beliefs, skills, and resources associated with evidence-based practice and related factors: a national survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential to the improvement of patient outcomes and the quality of care. Nurses' use of evidence in practice, however, remains limited. Assessing nurses' readiness for EBP where it is not as prominent as in countries leading EBP research was of particular interest. PURPOSE: To determine Icelandic registered nurses' (RNs') ability to provide care based on evidence as measured by their beliefs, perception of skills, and access to resources associated with EBP. METHODS: A descriptive survey was used in which a random sample of 540 Icelandic RNs completed the translated and modified version of the Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice and the translated EBP Beliefs Scale. Descriptive statistics, correlations, chi-square tests, t tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants strongly believed in the value of EBP for patient care, but were less confident regarding their own knowledge and skills needed for EBP. Most (82%) of the respondents (i.e., RNs) turned to peers when in need of information, rather than peer-reviewed resources. Although over half of the RNs (54%) had received instructions in the use of electronic databases, only a third indicated success in using them. They considered "lack of search skills" as the primary barrier to use of research in practice. Using research findings in practice was associated with positive EBP beliefs, familiarity with EBP and other EBP-related activities. Clinical RNs were found to be at a disadvantage when it came to access to EBP-related resources and participated less frequently in EBP-related activities other than using research in practice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Icelandic RNs' beliefs regarding EBP are similar to those of RNs in other countries. Their access to EBP resources is generally good, but they lack the skills and knowledge needed for EBP. Strategies aimed at changing the organizational and practice context need to be developed.

Thorsteinsson HS

2013-05-01

255

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

1998-01-01

256

Application of SPM and Related Techniques to the Mechanical Properties of Biotool Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Soon after the introduction of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) originally developed for imaging purposes, their potential for mechanical analyses at the smallest scales was recognized and soon the method was applied to a variety of materials, including some of biological origin. Experimental techniques range from phase imaging to indentation and scratch testing. This chapter focuses on the use of instrumented indentation and related techniques such as scanning wear testing on biological tool tissues, materials often characterized by a high abrasion resistance. A brief overview of structure and composition of biological materials is given, since these factors are crucial in determining the mechanical properties and a basic understanding of such correlations is indispensable for the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the influence of sample storage, preparation, and environmental conditions on mechanical tests is discussed, and relevant evaluation methods described. Finally, examples from the literature illustrating the successful application of SPM techniques on biotool tissues (mainly teeth) are presented.

Schöberl, T.; Jäger, I. L.; Lichtenegger, H. C.

257

Assessing the impact of relative social position and absolute community resources on depression and obesity among smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested two competing hypotheses-relative social position and community resources-in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactively) was associated with the presence of co-occurring health problems. We found that lower individual education was related to poorer health for all outcomes (Depression: OR = 1.25; Obesity: OR = 1.24; Both: OR = 1.46), lower community education was only related to obesity (OR = 1.20). Lower individual income was related to higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.64) and both health problems (OR = 1.55); a significant interaction of individual and community income (Wald = 6.13, p < .05) revealed that high income individuals were less likely to be depressed if they lived in lower-income communities and became more likely to be so as community income increased. Relative social position was confirmed for depression, whereas community resources were prominent only for obesity. Higher individual education most consistently predicted positive health outcomes, making it a potentially powerful target to reduce health disparities. PMID:22278773

Aguilera, Adrian; Leykin, Yan; Adler, Nancy; Muñoz, Ricardo F

2012-09-01

258

Assessing the impact of relative social position and absolute community resources on depression and obesity among smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested two competing hypotheses-relative social position and community resources-in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactively) was associated with the presence of co-occurring health problems. We found that lower individual education was related to poorer health for all outcomes (Depression: OR = 1.25; Obesity: OR = 1.24; Both: OR = 1.46), lower community education was only related to obesity (OR = 1.20). Lower individual income was related to higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.64) and both health problems (OR = 1.55); a significant interaction of individual and community income (Wald = 6.13, p < .05) revealed that high income individuals were less likely to be depressed if they lived in lower-income communities and became more likely to be so as community income increased. Relative social position was confirmed for depression, whereas community resources were prominent only for obesity. Higher individual education most consistently predicted positive health outcomes, making it a potentially powerful target to reduce health disparities.

Aguilera A; Leykin Y; Adler N; Muñoz RF

2012-09-01

259

Estimation and Control Related Issues in Smart Material Structures and Fluids  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We discuss issues related to modeling of nonlinearities and hysteresis arising in a class ofmagnetorheological-based smart elastomers. The dynamic models, intended for use in parameterestimation and control problems, are presented in the context of simple elongation of a filledrubber-like rod. Theoretical, computational and experimental results are given.1 IntroductionSmart material structures and fluids are generally understood to be structure and fluid compositesthat possess the capability to sense and actuate in a controlled manner in response to variable ambientstimuli. These are in actuality smart material systems which involve combinations of advancedsensors, actuators and microprocessors. Effective practical use of these systems in specific applicationsdepends on fundamental developments related to a number of important modeling issuesinvolving these composites. In particular one must have (i) models for the composite host systemincluding sensors and actuators an...

H. T. Banks; Gabriella A. Pinter; Laura K. Potter; B. C. Mu~noz; L. C. Yanyo

260

Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp) With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, Learning, etc., as all these are covered in anumbrella namely Soft Skills. No technology can attain maximum efficiency without the Human Intervention evenit is fully automated. This paper attempts to explain the problems faced by the ERP consultants before, during andafter the implementation.

Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Basic considerations for the preparation of performance testing materials as related to performance evaluation acceptance criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of performance testing (PT) materials for environmental and radiobioassay applications involves the use of natural matrix materials containing the analyte of interest, the addition (spiking) of the analyte to a desired matrix (followed by blending for certain matrices) or a combination of the two. The distribution of the sample analyte concentration in a batch of PT samples will reflect the degree of heterogeneity of the analyte in the PT material and/or the reproducibility of the sample preparation process. Commercial and government implemented radioanalytical performance evaluation programs have a variety of acceptable performance criteria. The performance criteria should take into consideration many parameters related to the preparation of the PT materials including the within and between sample analyte heterogeneity, the accuracy of the quantification of an analyte in the PT material and to what 'known' value will a laboratory's result be compared. How sample preparation parameters affect the successful participation in performance evaluation (PE) programs having an acceptance criteria established as a percent difference from a 'known' value or in PE programs using other acceptance criteria, such as the guidance provided in ANSI N42.22 and N13.30 is discussed. (author)

2001-01-01

262

Metallorganic precursors route for high Tc superconducting materials and related phases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The adequacy of the precursors approach for high Tc superconducting materials is validated by means of three examples of a new synthesis of mixed oxides which are directly related to the high Tc superconductors. The synthesis temperature is lowered significantly, and the need for extending the classic 'building block' approach is shown. The hypothesis that topochemical reactions from molecular to extended solids are posssible is proven. 28 refs

1991-01-01

263

Material Property Measurements Related to Engineering Design Optimization Guidelines and Spacecraft Charging  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the study framework for material property measurements related to spacecraft charging, methods, and measurement results. This work specifically addresses analyses and measurements of surface resistivity, volume resistivity, and the dielectric constant. We also explain measurements of secondary electron and photoelectron emissions in this framework. This review is based on joint experimental studies conducted for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), at the Musashi Institute of Technology and at the Saitama University to investigate the relation to spacecraft charging. This report introduces a summary of some typical measurement results following a brief explanation of the measurement project.

Nitta, Kumi; Miyake, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masato

2009-01-01

264

Resource Allocation and Related Transactions of Listed Company: Based on Perspective of the Implicit Transaction Costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implicit related-party transaction has its own particularity on the background of Chinese listed companies. It has strong significance of study the implicit related-party transaction. The study thinks that the related party transaction within the group of decrease implicit transaction costs but increased the cost of small shareholders. Hidden costs have stronger influence on hidden related party transactions. Hidden costs increase agency costs but the relationship between the hidden costs and the size of related party transactions is uncertain. So it is necessary to distinguish related-party transactions from the point of normative research.

L.I. Zhiguo

2013-01-01

265

Search for sustainable resources management in relation to consumption/production patterns : case studies from Slovakia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efforts taken by Slovakia to move towards a sustainable future of resource management and consumption/production patterns were discussed. Several possibilities exist for development towards sustainability in various fields including energy savings, using biomass for energy production, cogeneration, ceasing the production of primary aluminium, recycling of municipal wastes, organic agriculture, land use intensification in different sectors, improving the health of forests, reducing water consumption, improving water quality, and the development of public transport. A set of recommendations for political, legislative, technological, institutional and organizational changes were also presented. 4 refs.

Huba, M. [Inst. of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences and Society for Sustainable Living in the Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

2000-07-01

266

Changes in relative material deprivation in regions of Slovakia and the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the level of relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak Republics and their regions. The first part of the article describes the level of households’ equipment with utilities and durables using the 1991 and 2001 censuses. The second part is aimed at estimating the relative material deprivation in the Czech and Slovak regions using EU SILC 2006-2008 microdata, i.e. approximately 15 years after the split. The results indicate that there are significant differences in the relative material deprivation rates between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and among their regions. According to the results, the level of deprivation is higher in Slovakia, and deprived households are highly concentrated in the eastern part of Slovakia. The regions can be divided into five clusters, while the Czech Capital Prague Region has a special position. It has the highest level of housing deprivation and the lowest level of durables/economic strain deprivation.

Zelinsky Tomas

2012-01-01

267

The relative effectiveness of computer-based and traditional resources for education in anatomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic model. We conducted a controlled trial in which 60 undergraduate students had ten minutes to study the names of 20 different pelvic structures. The outcome measure was a 25 item short answer test consisting of 15 nominal and 10 functional questions, based on a cadaveric pelvis. All subjects also took a brief mental rotations test (MRT) as a measure of spatial ability, used as a covariate in the analysis. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. The group learning from the model performed significantly better than the other two groups on the nominal questions (Model 67%; KV 40%; VR 41%, Effect size 1.19 and 1.29, respectively). There was no difference between the KV and VR groups. There was no difference between the groups on the functional questions (Model 28%; KV, 23%, VR 25%). Computer-based learning resources appear to have significant disadvantages compared to traditional specimens in learning nominal anatomy. Consistent with previous research, virtual reality shows no advantage over static presentation of key views.

Khot Z; Quinlan K; Norman GR; Wainman B

2013-07-01

268

Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

Hélène Masclaux; Alexandre Bec; Gilles Bourdier

2012-01-01

269

Bioenergy: Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ohio State University provides this list of resources as part of their Renewable Energy Program. Resources include links to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, AgSTAR, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, and Cow Power Film. A short description is provided for each of sites highlighting their educational materials.

2013-06-21

270

Regulatory focussing of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive materials in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper points out a summary of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive material in Argentina treated only from a regulatory focussing, it is to say from the point of view of its competent authority of application the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish, the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN). Firstly, it is introduced the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the transport of radioactive material and the corresponding authorities involved (ARN, Secretary of Transport, and the Argentine Air Force, Naval Prefecture and Navy). Then, it is presented a schedule of the main characteristics of the shipments of radioactive material used in both the nuclear cycle and in medicine, industry and research, and an average of the shipments annually transported in Argentina. Further on the paper briefly analyses the ARN sources and the way in which it performs the compliance assurance with the in-force transport regulations in the country. Particularly, it is explained certain main tools used by the compliance system, as for example, transport notice, data base, licensing of certain design packages, shipments and materials, inspection and audits, and fees and sanctions regimes. On the other hand, it is mentioned the Argentine experience in the development, licensing, manufacture and use of domestic designs of Type B(U) packages and special form radioactive material (cobalt 60 and iridium 192 sealed sources). Moreover, it is concisely described test facilities available in the country necessary to perform the mentioned designs. Finally, the paper shortly describes the ARN main transport activities exclusively concerning the relationship with other national organisations (Federal Police, Gendarmerie, Naval Prefecture and Argentine Institute of Material Rationalisation, in Spanish Instituto Argentino de Racionalizacion de Materiales - IRAM) and with regional and inter regional organisations (South American Common Market, in Spanish Mercado Comun del Sur, MERCOSUR, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, and International Organisation for Standardisation, ISO). (author)

1998-01-01

271

Joining relatively different melting point materials with metal powder and electromagnetic energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, experiments on solid-state joining were performed under atmospheric conditions by using metal powder medium which was sandwiched in the space between the two solid materials of specimen to be joined (i.e., base metal). In the first experiment, solid specimen were same materials and had a same melting point as the same powder medium. In the second and third, solid specimen were different materials and had relatively different melting points, and with considerably higher melting point materials with nickel powder medium. Complete joining samples were compressed longitudinally by electrodes and current was conducted simultaneously to generate Joule thermal heat. Some fundamental data on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the joint were obtained by resistance welding and tests. The data was discussed with a view to optimizing the method, and was compared with that of the base metals, in terms of tensile, impact strength, Vickers hardness tests; bending U shape flexure test; the macro and micro structural observation was also made by microscopes. The solid specimen bars of the materials used in this study were pure copper, stainless steel, tungsten carbide and titanium cylindrical bars of solid specimen, and the insert materials were atomized copper and nickel powder medium. Some of the mechanical and metallurgical properties were studied by examining the macro and micro structures of the joint section. In particular, the experimental data obtained was compared with those of the base metals, and was found that the strength of the joint reached approximately that of the annealed one of the lower melting point solid copper specimen bar.

Miyagi, K.; Goya, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Itomura, S.; Yara, H.; Yamashiro, Y.; Oshiro, T. [Univ. of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ushio, M.; Ikeuchi, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Haneji, T. [Industrial Research Lab. of the Okinawa Prefecture (Japan)

1997-07-01

272

Management of groundwater resources in relation to oasis sustainability: the case of the Nefzawa region in Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Southern Tunisia Nefzawa region, the deep fossil aquifers have been used intensively to support agricultural activities and economic development. This resulted in the degradation of groundwater resources as well as in their conflicting uses. Efficient management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and water resource preservation are needed. Such strategies require initial understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and water related processes. This paper aims to conceptualize the causalities between the management of deep fossil aquifers and the functioning of oasian agrosystems. By merging biophysical and socioeconomic issues, we propose an integrated assessment of public policies devoted to the management of groundwater resources. The failure of public policies emphasizes both the lack of consideration for individual initiatives and the long-term uncertainties on such policies, where farmer practices have been driven by economic and cultural factors. A set of indicators is next proposed for assessing the preservation of deep fossil aquifers that support agricultural and economic development. Further methodological improvements are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of constraints and incentives on the management of deep fossil aquifers. PMID:23542212

Mekki, Insaf; Jacob, Frederic; Marlet, Serge; Ghazouani, Wafa

2013-03-27

273

Joining relatively different melting point materials with metal powder and electromagnetic energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, experiments on solid-state joining were performed under atmospheric conditions by using metal powder medium which was sandwiched in the space between the two solid materials of specimen to be joined (i.e., base metal). In the first experiment, solid specimen were same materials and had a same melting point as the same powder medium. In the second and third, solid specimen were different materials and had relatively different melting points, and with considerably higher melting point materials with nickel powder medium. Complete joining samples were compressed longitudinally by electrodes and current was conducted simultaneously to generate Joule thermal heat. Some fundamental data on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the joint were obtained by resistance welding and tests. The data was discussed with a view to optimizing the method, and was compared with that of the base metals, in terms of tensile, impact strength, Vickers hardness tests; bending U shape flexure test; the macro and micro structural observation was also made by microscopes.

Miyagi, K.; Goya, M.; Sueyoshi, T.; Itomura, S.; Yara, H.; Oshiro, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ushio, M.; Ikeuchi, K. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Haneji, T. [Industrial Research Lab. of the Okinawa Prefecture, Okinawa (Japan)

1996-10-01

274

Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

1993-01-01

275

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

1983-01-01

276

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references.

Campbell, D.K.

1983-01-01

277

Savings on MSW incineration cost related to at source reduction or separate collection of recyclables (mainly packaging materials)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the paper is to calculate material-by-material (mainly for packaging materials) the savings on incineration related to at source reduction or separate collection of recyclables. The calculation needs analytic accounting to break up the incineration cost into its component parts and to allocate the costs to the different materials. In the short run the savings are related only to variable cost, referring to a marginal cost. In the medium or long run all the costs become variable and have to be charged. A case study shows large differences between some materials. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig.

Bertolini, G. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France))

1994-11-01

278

A comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are (1) blockage of fish migration routes, (2) water level fluctuations, (3) instream flows, (4) water quality, (5) dredging and dredged material disposal, and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J.M.; Hildebrand, S.G.

1980-12-01

279

DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

2002-05-14

280

Theoretical calculations of electronic structure and properties of pyrromethene laser dye and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) both on semi empirical and Ab initio levels have been carried out for pyrromethene laser dye and related compounds (PM-chromophore, PM-4m, PM 546, PM 650 PM 567 and PM 597). We carried out theoretical calculations using DFT, AM1, TD-DFT and CIS on ground and excited states for the selected laser dye materials, we obtained the optimized geometry of the molecules, UV, IR spectrum, and the transition between the ground So and the first excited S1 states exclusively, the Homo and Lumo states and other properties. (author)

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The oxidation state and magnetic behaviour of Tb in high-Tc related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L3-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used together with inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility measurements to characterize the Tb oxidation state and bonding in the high-Tc related materials Y1-xTbxBa2Cu3O7 and Pb2Sr2TbCu3O8. The Tb is found to be essentially trivalent in both compounds with no indications of significant hybridization. However, there is evidence of significant Tb-Tb magnetic interactions in Pb2Sr2TbCu3O8 that persist to temperatures much higher than the Tb long-range ordering temperature

1994-12-02

282

Organizational Buying Behaviour, Services, Human Resource, industrial relations, case studies, Survey Research and Qualitative Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a literature review. The results show that buying behavior is much less rational than has been presumed. For example, it is revealed that a consultant’s personal relationships to customers can often compensate for the consultant’s lack of knowledge. This suggests that consultants’ developing long-term personal relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another importantresult that emerged from the study is customers’ specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services.

Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Hollensen, Svend

2013-01-01

283

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta.

Tannock GW; Wilson CM; Loach D; Cook GM; Eason J; O'Toole PW; Holtrop G; Lawley B

2012-05-01

284

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2011-11-17

285

Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to facial fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Various professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and health care-related Web sites provide Internet-based patient education material (IPEMs) to the general public. However, this information may be written above the 6th-grade reading level recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The purpose of this study is to assess the readability of facial fracture (FF)-related IPEMs and compare readability levels of IPEMs provided by four sources: professional societies, clinical practices, hospitals, and miscellaneous sources. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of IPEMs on FFs available on Google.com. METHODS: The readability of 41 FF-related IPEMs was assessed with four readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. RESULTS: Only 4.9% of IPEMs were written at or below the 6th-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were: FRES 54.10, FKGL 9.89, SMOG 12.73, and Gunning FOG 12.98, translating into FF-related IPEMs being written at a "difficult" writing level, which is above the level of reading understanding of the average American adult. CONCLUSIONS: IPEMs related to FFs are written above the recommended 6th-grade reading level. Consequently, this information would be difficult to understand by the average US patient.

Sanghvi S; Cherla DV; Shukla PA; Eloy JA

2012-09-01

286

Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC). The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM) with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants), as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs), namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

Raskovic Matevz; Makovec Brencic Maja

2013-01-01

287

Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

Pitts-Singer TL; Bosch J

2010-02-01

288

Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production. PMID:20146851

Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

2010-02-01

289

An evaluation of pediatric asthma educational resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate newly developed educational resources for children with asthma. Children with asthma, their parents, and pediatric health care professionals were invited to review age-appropriate asthma resources. Key findings revealed: (1) the perceived usefulness of these resources, particularly for creating discussion opportunities between children and their caregivers through implemented resource use; (2) the need for health education materials to balance goals of depth of information versus child enjoyment in order to increase effective knowledge transfer and application; and (3) a renewed call for future educational resources to be both relevant and interactive in their outreach and engagement of children, potentially involving mediums of advanced technology. Clinical experience and the literature note a current lack of pediatric asthma education materials. The positive findings of this review of novel educational materials in asthma address an important gap relative to pediatric practice, resource evaluation, and knowledge translation.

Nicholas DB; Dell SD; Fleming-Carroll B; Selkirk EK

2009-05-01

290

Creating organizational cultures : Re-conceptualizing the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural change in organizations. The first perspective is informed by modern social science, and focuses primarily on material practices. The second perspective is rooted in classical rhetoric, and concentrates on discursive strategies. Findings – It is found that both perspectives hold pertinent but partial insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development of a new, integrated theory.

Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine NØrholm

2012-01-01

291

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

292

A Study of Travel Agencies’ Human Resources in Relation to Internet Marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When technological advances emerge in electronic commerce, travel agencies rapidly take account of their application in Internet marketing. Internet marketing presents many advantages to its users, such as the ability to break the barriers of time and space, convenience and speed of trade between travel agencies and consumers, ability to provide customers with sufficient information of travel services and products, and low cost. In order to take advantage of the new Internet market, travel agencies have already set up websites to attract potential customers. However, the traditional marketing of travel agencies generally depends on the sales force, because travel agency representatives act not only as salespeople, but also as guides and escorts. Therefore, personal selling offers the benefits of evaluating travel courses in advance, providing information on various choices, and accompanying customers throughout the trip to help them feel at ease. Since Internet marketing and personal selling both have their own advantages, should travel agency salespeople feel threatened by the emergence of Internet marketing? Will the marketing functions impact travel agency salespeople because consumers purchase services on the Internet themselves? The purpose of this study is to discover whether the travel agencies salespeople feel threatened by the development of Internet marketing. Also, this study seeks to reveal the specific personal thoughts of travel agency salespeople if they do feel threatened. At its conclusion, this study will provide suggestions for training programs or criteria of recruitment for the human resource directors in travel agencies. Also, those interested in travel business may use the results of this study as guidelines as they prepare themselves for the impact of Internet marketing.

Huang-Wei Su; Li-Tze Lee; Chiang Ku Fan; Jason C. Hung

2011-01-01

293

Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM) is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353) of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time) in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago). However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils) also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6%) among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%), publicity material (51.0%) and internet (48.7%). Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002), medical staff (P = 0.0007), publicity material (P = 0.005) and sexual partner (P = 0.02). Press (P = 0.04) and book (P = 0.0003) were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time), while medical staff (P = 0.005) and publicity material (P = 0.04) is associated with moderate rate of condom use (condom use often). Conclusions Although the prevalence of HIV infection is low among MSM in Heilongjiang province, the situation that the risk behaviors were frequent in the population is alarming. The study suggests that some strategies like condom use and education intervention are practical approaches and need to be strengthened.

Liu Shengyuan; Wang Kaili; Yao Songpo; Guo Xiaotong; Liu Yancheng; Wang Binyou

2010-01-01

294

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

2009-01-01

295

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

2002-02-26

296

Redox bias in loss of ignition moisture measurement for relatively pure plutonium-bearing oxide materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD-3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from highgrade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidatiodreduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation shows that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LO1 stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Si&icant bias also requires that UO1 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U30s clsning LO1 testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on wellestablished literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LO1 weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confum these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LO1 oxidatiodreduction biases. LO1 bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G. (Phillip Gary); Stakebake, J. L. (Jerry L.); Cooper, T. D. (Thruman D.)

2001-01-01

297

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable

2002-01-01

298

The influence of work, household structure, and social, personal and material resources on gender differences in health: an analysis of the 1994 Canadian National Population Health Survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from the 1994 Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS) do not confirm the widespread assumption that women experience considerably more ill health than men. The patterns vary by condition and age and at many ages, the health of women and men is more similar than is often assumed. However, we should not minimize the gender differences that do exist and in this paper we focus on three health problems which are more common among women: distress, migraine and arthritis/rheumatism. We consider to what extent work, household structure and social, personal and material resources explain these gender differences in health. Analysis of the distributions of paid work conditions, household circumstances and resources reveal mostly minor differences by gender and differences in exposure to these circumstances contribute little to understanding gender differences in health. There is also little evidence that greater vulnerability is a generalized health response of women to paid and household circumstances. We find limited evidence that social, personal and material resources are involved in pathways linking work and home circumstances to health in ways that differ between the sexes. In conclusion, we consider some reasons for the lack of support for our explanatory model: the measures available in the NPHS data set which contains little information on the household itself; the difficulty of separating 'gender' from the social and material conditions of men's and women's lives; and changes in women's and men's roles which may have led to a narrowing of differences in health.

Walters V; McDonough P; Strohschein L

2002-03-01

299

Readability assessment of Internet-based patient education materials related to endoscopic sinus surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals provide Internet-based patient education materials (PEMs) to the general public, but not all of this information is written at a reading level appropriate for the average patient. The National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend that PEMs be written at or below the sixth-grade level. Our purpose was to assess the readability of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)-related PEMs available on the Internet and compare readability levels of PEMs provided by three sources: professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive and correlational design was used for this study. METHODS: The readability of 31 ESS-related PEMs was assessed with four different readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. RESULTS: The majority of PEMs (96.8%) were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL (P < .001). Only one article (3.2%) had an FKGL at or below the sixth-grade level. The mean readability values were: FRES 47.1 ± 13.4, FKGL 10.7 ± 2.4, SMOG 13.7 ± 1.6, and Gunning FOG 12.4 ± 2.7. CONCLUSIONS: Current Internet-based PEMs related to ESS, regardless of source type, were written well above the recommended sixth-grade level. Materials from the hospitals/university-affiliated websites had lower readability scores, but were still above recommended levels. Web-based PEMs pertaining to ESS should be written with the average patient in mind.

Cherla DV; Sanghvi S; Choudhry OJ; Liu JK; Eloy JA

2012-08-01

300

Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to uterine artery embolization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the readability of Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs) created by United States hospitals and universities and clinical practices and miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a marker for IPEMs in general. METHODS AND METHODS: Two hundred unique Web sites were evaluated for patient-related articles on UAE. Web sites produced by US hospitals and universities and clinical practices, as well as miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites meeting the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct criteria were included in the database. By using mathematical regression algorithms based on word and sentence length to quantitatively analyze reading materials for language intricacy, readability of 40 UAE-related IPEMs was assessed with four indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (GFOG). Scores were evaluated against national recommendations, and intergroup analysis was performed. RESULTS: None of the IPEMs were written at or below the sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL. The mean readability scores were as follows: FRES, 43.98; FKGL, 10.76; SMOG, 13.63; and GFOG, 14.55. These scores indicate that the readability of UAE IPEMs is written at an advanced level, significantly above the recommended 6th grade reading level (P<.05) determined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. CONCLUSIONS: IPEMs related to UAE generated by hospitals, clinical practices, and miscellaneous health care-associated Web sites are written above the recommended sixth grade level. IPEMs for other disease entities may also reflect similar results.

Shukla P; Sanghvi SP; Lelkes VM; Kumar A; Contractor S

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Emotional job resources and emotional support seeking as moderators of the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion: a two-wave panel study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion was investigated, as was the moderating role of emotional job resources and emotional support seeking on this relation. We hypothesized a positive lagged effect of emotional job demands on emotional exhaustion, and proposed that this relation is weakened by the availability of emotional job resources. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that this stress-buffer effect of emotional job resources would be stronger for employees high on emotional support seeking (3-way interaction). A 2-wave survey study with a 1-year time lag was conducted among 711 employees in the technology sector. Results showed that emotional job demands are least likely to result in emotional exhaustion when employees are provided with high emotional job resources and score high on emotional support seeking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Van de Ven B; van den Tooren M; Vlerick P

2013-01-01

302

Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties.

Ewing-Cobbs L; Prasad MR; Mendez D; Barnes MA; Swank P

2013-05-01

303

Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD) against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS) and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART) service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV

Feyissa GT; Abebe L; Girma E; Woldie M

2012-01-01

304

West Virginia US Department of Energy experimental program to stimulate competitive research. Section 2: Human resource development; Section 3: Carbon-based structural materials research cluster; Section 3: Data parallel algorithms for scientific computing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report consists of three separate but related reports. They are (1) Human Resource Development, (2) Carbon-based Structural Materials Research Cluster, and (3) Data Parallel Algorithms for Scientific Computing. To meet the objectives of the Human Resource Development plan, the plan includes K--12 enrichment activities, undergraduate research opportunities for students at the state`s two Historically Black Colleges and Universities, graduate research through cluster assistantships and through a traineeship program targeted specifically to minorities, women and the disabled, and faculty development through participation in research clusters. One research cluster is the chemistry and physics of carbon-based materials. The objective of this cluster is to develop a self-sustaining group of researchers in carbon-based materials research within the institutions of higher education in the state of West Virginia. The projects will involve analysis of cokes, graphites and other carbons in order to understand the properties that provide desirable structural characteristics including resistance to oxidation, levels of anisotropy and structural characteristics of the carbons themselves. In the proposed cluster on parallel algorithms, research by four WVU faculty and three state liberal arts college faculty are: (1) modeling of self-organized critical systems by cellular automata; (2) multiprefix algorithms and fat-free embeddings; (3) offline and online partitioning of data computation; and (4) manipulating and rendering three dimensional objects. This cluster furthers the state Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research plan by building on existing strengths at WVU in parallel algorithms.

1994-02-02

305

Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH) is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1) assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN) and 2) determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version) is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda) and Dholuo (Kenya) according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n?=?283) and Uganda (n?=?299). All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039) and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052) showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

Masquillier C; Wouters E; Loos J; Nöstlinger C

2012-01-01

306

Readability assessment of internet-based patient education materials related to acoustic neuromas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to assess the readability of Internet-based patient education materials related to acoustic neuromas (AN-IPEMs) by 4 widely validated readability indices, to evaluate scores against the existing sixth grade recommended reading level, and to compare the readability scores of patient education materials (PEMs) produced by professional organizations, clinical practices, hospitals, and miscellaneous sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AN-IPEMs from 67 web sites (6 professional societies, 33 clinical practices, 19 hospitals, and 9 miscellaneous) were assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Scores were then evaluated against national recommendations by 1-tailed t tests and against each other using 1-way ANOVAs. RESULTS: The average FKGL, SMOG, and Gunning FOG scores were all significantly higher than the recommended sixth grade reading level suggested by the USDHHS (p < 0.0001, single sample 1-tailed t test). Zero articles, by all indices, had a reading level equal to or below the sixth grade reading level. The FKGLs also varied between the various sources at a significant level (p = 0.01 one-way ANOVA independent samples). The average FKGLs of clinical practice and professional society AN-IPEMs were significantly higher than the average FKGLs of hospital AN-IPEMs (both p ? 0.05 one-tailed t-tests assuming unequal variances). CONCLUSION: AN-IPEMs are written at a level significantly higher than that suggested by national recommendations. Current AN-IPEMs may need to be revised in order to enhance patient comprehension.

Cherla DV; Sanghvi S; Choudhry OJ; Jyung RW; Eloy JA; Liu JK

2013-09-01

307

Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials using statistical evaluation. [2-aminoanthracene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential synergism among components of fuel-derived mixtures is being investigated by comparison of mutagenic activities of ''reconstructed wholes'' with the sum of mutagenic activities of individual fractions. Results of forward mutation assays of samples of Lummus Product and Lummus Feed contrasted with those obtained from reverse mutation assays. Data from assay of both materials gave indications of the likelihood of interactions among fractions contributing to increased mutagenicity. The ability of fuel sample fractions to influence biological activities of individual components is also being studied. In these mutagenicity assays 2-aminoanthracene (2AA), as a model aromatic amine, is tested in the presence of the hexane fraction of PDU-9. Data from these assays show an enhanced mutagenic response as a result of mixing these two materials. This enhancement is not solely due to bacteriotoxic effects. It is, however, probably related to metabolism of the 2AA and/or hexane fraction. The PDU-9 hexane fraction (organic solvent extract) is presently being analyzed chemically using HPLC and fluorescence techniques. Various fractions are being collected so as to identify and characterize the major peaks. These fractions will also be analyzed for their mutagenicities using the forward mutation assay. 5 figs.

Schoeny, R.

1986-01-01

308

The oxidation state and magnetic behaviour of Tb in high-{Tc} related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

L{sub 3}-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used together with inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility measurements to characterize the Tb oxidation state and bonding in the high-{Tc} related materials Y{sub 1-x}Tb{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Pb{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}TbCu{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The Tb is found to be essentially trivalent in both compounds with no indications of significant hybridization. However, there is evidence of significant Tb-Tb magnetic interactions in Pb{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}TbCu{sub 3}O{sub 8} that persist to temperatures much higher than the Tb long-range ordering temperature.

Soderholm, L.; Staub, U.; Skanthakumar, S.; Antonio, M.R.

1995-02-01

309

Research resource: Transcriptional profiling reveals different pseudohypoxic signatures in SDHB and VHL-related pheochromocytomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The six major genes involved in hereditary susceptibility for pheochromocytoma (PCC)/paraganglioma (PGL) (RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD) have been recently integrated into the same neuronal apoptotic pathway where mutations in any of these genes lead to cell death. In this model, prolyl hydroxylase 3 (EglN3) abrogation plays a pivotal role, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its inactivation are currently unknown. The aim of the study was to decipher specific alterations associated with the different genetic classes of PCCs/PGLs. With this purpose, 84 genetically characterized tumors were analyzed by means of transcriptional profiling. The analysis revealed a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-related signature common to succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumors, that differentiated them from RET and neurofibromatosis type 1 cases. Both canonical HIF-1? and HIF-2? target genes were overexpressed in the SDH/VHL cluster, suggesting that a global HIF deregulation accounts for this common profile. Nevertheless, when we compared VHL tumors with SDHB cases, which often exhibit a malignant behavior, we found that HIF-1? target genes showed a predominant activation in the VHL PCCs. Expression data from 67 HIF target genes was sufficient to cluster SDHB and VHL tumors into two different groups, demonstrating different pseudo-hypoxic signatures. In addition, VHL-mutated tumors showed an unexpected overexpression of EglN3 mRNA that did not lead to significantly different EglN3 protein levels. These findings pave the way for more specific therapeutic approaches for malignant PCCs/PGLs management based on the patient's genetic alteration. PMID:20980436

López-Jiménez, Elena; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Leandro-García, L Javier; Muñoz, Iván; Schiavi, Francesca; Montero-Conde, Cristina; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Ramires, Ricardo; Landa, Iñigo; Leskelä, Susanna; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; de la Vega, Leticia; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Letón, Rocío; Bernal, Carmen; de Campos, José M; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Fraga, Mario F; Boullosa, Cesar; Pisano, David G; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

2010-10-27

310

Research resource: Transcriptional profiling reveals different pseudohypoxic signatures in SDHB and VHL-related pheochromocytomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The six major genes involved in hereditary susceptibility for pheochromocytoma (PCC)/paraganglioma (PGL) (RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD) have been recently integrated into the same neuronal apoptotic pathway where mutations in any of these genes lead to cell death. In this model, prolyl hydroxylase 3 (EglN3) abrogation plays a pivotal role, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its inactivation are currently unknown. The aim of the study was to decipher specific alterations associated with the different genetic classes of PCCs/PGLs. With this purpose, 84 genetically characterized tumors were analyzed by means of transcriptional profiling. The analysis revealed a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-related signature common to succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumors, that differentiated them from RET and neurofibromatosis type 1 cases. Both canonical HIF-1? and HIF-2? target genes were overexpressed in the SDH/VHL cluster, suggesting that a global HIF deregulation accounts for this common profile. Nevertheless, when we compared VHL tumors with SDHB cases, which often exhibit a malignant behavior, we found that HIF-1? target genes showed a predominant activation in the VHL PCCs. Expression data from 67 HIF target genes was sufficient to cluster SDHB and VHL tumors into two different groups, demonstrating different pseudo-hypoxic signatures. In addition, VHL-mutated tumors showed an unexpected overexpression of EglN3 mRNA that did not lead to significantly different EglN3 protein levels. These findings pave the way for more specific therapeutic approaches for malignant PCCs/PGLs management based on the patient's genetic alteration.

López-Jiménez E; Gómez-López G; Leandro-García LJ; Muñoz I; Schiavi F; Montero-Conde C; de Cubas AA; Ramires R; Landa I; Leskelä S; Maliszewska A; Inglada-Pérez L; de la Vega L; Rodríguez-Antona C; Letón R; Bernal C; de Campos JM; Diez-Tascón C; Fraga MF; Boullosa C; Pisano DG; Opocher G; Robledo M; Cascón A

2010-12-01

311

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

1996-01-01

312

RELATIVE TL AND OSL EFFICIENCY TO PROTONS OF VARIOUS DOSIMETRIC MATERIALS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented.

Sadel M; Bilski P; Swakon J

2013-09-01

313

Mangrove Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

2000-01-01

314

Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the annihilation radiation whose momentum density distribution has its own peculiarities, different from the ones to be detected for defect-'free' crystal structure. Being a 'fingerprint' of a certain type of defects these peculiarities make it possible the nondestructive characterization of the heterostructures and superlattices by means of the positron particle microprobe. (author)

2008-01-01

315

Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

Jiang, Hongxing

2008-10-31

316

Genomic Resources for Gene Discovery, Functional Genome Annotation, and Evolutionary Studies of Maize and Its Close Relatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the OMAP (www.OMAP.org) BAC resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2 and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed BIBAC libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum land race Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven ZMAP BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92kb to 148kb, organellar DNA from 0.17% to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35% and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics.

Wang C; Shi X; Liu L; Li H; Ammiraju JS; Kudrna DA; Xiong W; Wang H; Dai Z; Zheng Y; Lai J; Jin W; Messing J; Bennetzen JL; Wing RA; Luo M

2013-09-01

317

Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Important levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leading multinational and national companies. In this article we raise questions about the government’s and private companies’ capability to give enough institutional support to this transformation process. We focus on the problem of providing skilled labour by analysing the production of graduates in secondary and tertiary educations and especially labour market related courses, and ask to what extent do institutions promote the upgrading efforts? In order to frame and contrast the Malaysian transformation efforts we make a comparison with Denmark, which also is in a transformation process to a more knowledge-based economy but began this process at an earlier stage than Malaysia. The countries have different traditions regarding participation and relations between the labour market and the government influencing supporting institutions. Our aim is to analyse some of the difficulties for a newly industrialising country to build up a new “soft” infrastructure (educational and human resource development institutions) to a more knowledge-based economy.

Fleming, Daniel; SØborg, Henrik

2010-01-01

318

Supports filmiques transversaux en pratique de la langue : document authentique ou authentiquement intéressant ? Transversal film resources for language practice : authentic or authentically interesting materials ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une réflexion sur les supports filmiques dans l’enseignement des langues, nous nous proposons de revisiter la notion de document authentique pour apporter une contribution théorique à l’appréhension de l’attractivité d’une ressource filmique et à l’appréhension de la nature de l’acte pédagogique que représente l’utilisation de ces ressources. Des exemples de vidéos disponibles sur Internet montrent que l’opposition entre le didactique et l’authentique laisse place à la transversalité des thématiques, fédérées par le concept de « question socialement vive ».Si les ressources filmiques n’ont pas le monopole des questionnements éthiques, le « regarder ensemble pédagogique » en fait un vecteur privilégié pour aborder les questions vives.Avec ces ressources capables de générer une « écoute engagée », la langue devient le vecteur d’une modification d’un système de connaissances, au-delà de la poursuite d’objectifs langagiers mis au service d’une interpellation citoyenne.As part of a reflection on films and videos for language teaching, this paper re-examines the notion of authentic material and presents a theoretical contribution to understanding a video resource’s attractiveness, and to understanding what pedagogical act is represented by the use of such resources. Examples of videos from the Internet show that the traditional opposition between didactic and authentic documents is replaced by the transversal nature of certain topics, connected through the controversies they can generate.While it is true that films and videos are not the only resource allowing one to tackle ethical issues, watching them as a group in class makes them a most adequate vector for work on controversial topics.With these resources capable of triggering engagement in the process of listening, language becomes the way to challenge a knowledge system, far beyond linguistic objectives that are used to serve a wider questioning by the citizen.

Joséphine Rémon

2012-01-01

319

Relationship of birth order and the marketing-related variable of materialism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the birth order and materialism scores was investigated using materialism conceptualized as a consumer value. Data were collected from 275 alumni of a major southwestern university. The analysis indicated that first-borns in this sample scored significantly lower on materialism than younger siblings. PMID:10840891

Zemanek, J E; Claxton, R P; Zemanek, W H

2000-04-01

320

Relationship of birth order and the marketing-related variable of materialism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between the birth order and materialism scores was investigated using materialism conceptualized as a consumer value. Data were collected from 275 alumni of a major southwestern university. The analysis indicated that first-borns in this sample scored significantly lower on materialism than younger siblings.

Zemanek JE Jr; Claxton RP; Zemanek WH

2000-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

The economic problems of efficient use of raw materials and fuel and energy resources in the petroleum industry. Ekonomicheskiye problemy ratsional'nogo ispol'zovaniya syr'yevykh i toplivno-energeticheskikh resursov v neftyanoy promyshlennosti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary methodological problems of identifying and producing quantitative estimates of areas for improving the use of raw materials and fuel and energy resources in the petroleum industry are given. This volume is abstracted by the individual article.

1984-01-01

322

Plasticized waxy maize starch: effect of polyols and relative humidity on material properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasticizing effect of different polyols such as glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, and maltitol on waxy maize starch was investigated. The concentration of plasticizer was fixed at 33 wt % (dry basis of starch). The structure and mechanical performance of resulting films conditioned at different relative humidity levels were studied in detail. The effect of the plasticizer on the glass-rubber transition temperature (T(g)) and crystallinity was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that T(g) decreases with increasing moisture content and decreasing molecular weight of the plasticizer. The water resistance of starch increased steadily with the molecular weight of the plasticizer and was directly proportional to the ratio of the end to total hydroxyl groups. As the molecular weight of the plasticizer increased, the brittleness of the dry system increased. However, the use of high molecular plasticizer allowed good mechanical properties of the moist material to be obtained in terms of both stiffness and elongation at break. PMID:12217059

Mathew, Aji P; Dufresne, Alain

323

Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in Hemodialysis-Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC) and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC) were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml) for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Masood Yunesian; Hamid Rajlani; Shahrokh Nazmara; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Noushin Rastkari; Hossain Jabbari; Mostafa Hosseini; Simin Naseri

2012-01-01

324

Soft tetragonal distortions in ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa and related materials from first principles  

CERN Document Server

A detailed examination of the energy landscape, density of states and magnetic moment of tetragonally distorted ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa was performed using first-principles local-spin-density (LSD) pseudopotential calculations, varying V as well as c/a. The energy of tetragonal Ni_2MnGa is found to be nearly constant for values of c/a over a wide range, with shallow minima near c/a = 1 and 1.08 in addition to that near 1.2. This flat energy surface is consistent with the wide range of observed values of c/a. It also explains the observation of pseudomorphic growth of Ni_2MnGa on GaAs, despite a nominal 3% lattice mismatch. The related materials Ni_2MnAl, Ni_2MnIn and ferromagnetic NiMn were examined for similar behavior, but all are seen to have a single well-defined minimum at c/a near 1, consistent with available experimental information. For NiMn, the ground state antiferromagnetic ordering and structural parameters are correctly predicted within the LSD approach.

Godlevsky, V V

2000-01-01

325

Development of ion beam techniques for the study of special nuclear materials related problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scientific objective of this project was to develop the ion beam techniques for the characterization of actinides and their effects on other materials. It was designed to enhance their ability to quantitatively understand the oxidation, corrosion, diffusion, stability, and radiation damage of actinides and the materials with which they are in contact. The authors developed and applied several low-energy nuclear techniques (resonant and nonresonant backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle-induced x-ray emission) to the quantitative study of the near surfaces of actinide and tritide materials, and determined the absolute accuracy and precision of ion beam measurements on these materials. They also demonstrated the use of variable-energy alpha beams for the study of accelerated aging of polymeric materials in contact with actinide materials.

Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; Martz, J.C. [and others

1998-11-01

326

Simulator Network project report: a tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network).

Damanakis A; Blaum WE; Stosch C; Lauener H; Richter S; Schnabel KP

2013-01-01

327

Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects  

CERN Multimedia

This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

Winget, Megan A

2008-01-01

328

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report.

2009-01-01

329

Relationships among perceived burden, depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life in female relatives of seriously mentally ill adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing care and support to a seriously mentally ill (SMI) family member can have deleterious effects on one's health and quality of life. This study explored relationships among perceived burden, depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life in 60 African-American and Caucasian women family members of SMI adults. Caucasians reported greater burden than African-Americans; the groups were similar in depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life. In Caucasians and African-Americans, burden correlated with depressive cognitions and both correlated with poorer mental health. In African-Americans, burden also correlated with lower personal resourcefulness and both correlated with poorer mental health. The findings suggest a mediating role by depressive cognitions for both groups and by resourcefulness in African-Americans. Thus, both groups of women may benefit from positive thinking while African-Americans also may benefit from learning personal resourcefulness skills. PMID:19291490

Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; Suresky, M Jane

2009-03-01

330

Relationships among perceived burden, depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life in female relatives of seriously mentally ill adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Providing care and support to a seriously mentally ill (SMI) family member can have deleterious effects on one's health and quality of life. This study explored relationships among perceived burden, depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life in 60 African-American and Caucasian women family members of SMI adults. Caucasians reported greater burden than African-Americans; the groups were similar in depressive cognitions, resourcefulness, and quality of life. In Caucasians and African-Americans, burden correlated with depressive cognitions and both correlated with poorer mental health. In African-Americans, burden also correlated with lower personal resourcefulness and both correlated with poorer mental health. The findings suggest a mediating role by depressive cognitions for both groups and by resourcefulness in African-Americans. Thus, both groups of women may benefit from positive thinking while African-Americans also may benefit from learning personal resourcefulness skills.

Zauszniewski JA; Bekhet AK; Suresky MJ

2009-03-01

331

Bond strengths of New Carbon-nitride-Related material C2N2(CH2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new carbon-nitride-related material C2N2(CH2) nanopletelet was synthesized by subjecting a precursor C3N4HxOy+Au in a laser-heating diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) to the pressure of 40 GPa and the temperature of 1200-2000 K. The synthesized C2N2(CH2) was accordingly found to be an orthorhombic unit cell of the space group Cmc21 with lattice constants a = 7.625Å, b = 4.490Å, and c = 4.047Å. The bulk modulus B0 was determined to be B0 = 258 ± 3.4 GPa, only the 60 % that of the diamond. C2N2(CH2) consists of the tetrahedrally coordinated C with three C-N single bond and the one C-C single bond, and the bridging carbon with the C-CH2-C bond. The C-N single bond length of the tetrahedron ranges from 1.444 to 1.503 Å. This bond length is close to the C-N single bond of 1.447 to 1.458 Å in the superhard ?-C3N4. The compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of C2N2(CH2) ranges from 0.976 to 0.982 with the pressure of 30 GPa. These values are very close to the compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of 0.978 to 0.982 in ?-C3N4, cubic-C3N4, and diamond.

2012-07-30

332

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

Achatz, Philipp

2009-05-15

333

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (? 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences signifi the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap ? in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

2009-01-01

334

Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Materials at the Urban Scale-Relating Existing Process Life Cycle Assessment Studies to Urban Material and Waste Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many cities are engaged in efforts to calculate and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, most are accounting for “scope one” emissions i.e., GHGs produced within urban boundaries (for example, following the protocol of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives). Cities should also account for the emissions associated with goods, services and materials consumed within their boundaries, “scope three” emissions. The emissions related to urban consumption patterns and choices greatly influence overall emissions that can be associated with an urban area. However, data constraints and GHG accounting complexity present challenges. In this paper we propose one approach that cities can take to measure the GHG emissions of their material consumption: the solid waste life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach. We used this approach to identify a set of materials commonly consumed within cities, and reviewed published life cycle assessment data to determine the GHG emissions associated with production of each. Our review reveals that among fourteen commonly consumed materials, textiles and aluminum are associated with the highest GHG emissions per tonne of production. Paper and plastics have relatively lower production emissions, but a potentially higher impact on overall emissions owing to their large proportions, by weight, in the consumption stream.

Meidad Kissinger; Cornelia Sussmann; Jennie Moore; William E. Rees

2013-01-01

335

Recommended Resources about Eleanor Roosevelt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Books, films, and additional resources available from the National Women's History Resource Service are included in this annotated listing of resource materials which can be used to teach about Eleanor Roosevelt in elementary and secondary social studies classrooms. (RM)

Social Education, 1984

1984-01-01

336

Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 101B: 1107-1123, 2013. PMID:23559495

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

2013-04-04

337

75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...  

Science.gov (United States)

...building materials, and soil debris from Unit 3. The waste...the NRC to exempt the low-contaminated material authorized for disposal...and other metal, wood and soil debris generated during dismantlement...alternate disposal would conserve low-level radioactive waste...

2010-11-10

338

Composite Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

339

Comportamento estratégico da empresa e a visão baseada em recursos: um estudo no setor varejista de material de construção Strategic behavior and resource-based view: a study in construction material retail sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar o relacionamento dos recursos da organização quanto ao seu comportamento estratégico na percepção dos gestores das lojas de material de construção. Para tanto, aborda a teoria de recursos, a partir da RBV (Resource-based View), e a tipologia de Miles e Snow (1978), na determinação do comportamento estratégico das organizações. Com a finalidade de atingir o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma abordagem qualiquantitativa. A pesquisa qualitativa foi exploratória, utilizando focus group e a quantitativa descritiva, a partir de uma survey. Os resultados, quanto ao comportamento estratégico, indicam que 34,3% das empresas são defensoras, 27,1% são reativas, 20,0% são analistas e 18,6% prospectoras. Com relação às hipóteses propostas, inexistência de diferenças nas capacidades segundo os comportamentos estratégicos, nenhuma mostrou significância estatística. Com Respeito à associação mensurada entre o comportamento estratégico e as capacidades, os prospectores são os que possuem a maior correlação positiva, verificada com as capacidades de administração. Já os reativos são os que apresentam a maior correlação negativa, também com as capacidades de administração. Conclui-se que há ausência de ajuste entre comportamentos estratégicos e os recursos e capacidades, o que pode, segundo a RBV, deixar de gerar vantagem competitiva sustentável.This study aims to investigate the relationship between the organization resources and the strategic behavior from construction material stores viewpoint. The RBV (Resource-Based View) and the Miles and Snow Typology (1978) are used in this study for determining the organization's strategic behavior. A quali-quantitave approach was used. The qualitative study was exploratory making use of the focus group technique and the quantitative descriptive analysis through a survey. The results indicated that, according to the strategic behavior, 34.3% of the organizations are defenders, 27.1% are reactors, 20% are analyzers, and 18.6% are prospectors. With regard to proposed hypothesis, there was no statistically significant capability difference according to the Studying the correlation between strategic behavior and capabilities, one can see that the prospectors are the ones that exhibit the strongest positive correlation according to the management capabilities. On the other hand, the reactors exhibit the strongest negative correlation also according to the management capabilities. One can therefore conclude that there is lack of adjustment between the strategic behavior and the resources and capabilities, which, according to the Resource-Based View, may prevent sustainable competitive advantages.

Ronaldo Ribeiro; Carlos Ricardo Rossetto; Miguel Angel Verdinelli

2011-01-01

340

Comportamento estratégico da empresa e a visão baseada em recursos: um estudo no setor varejista de material de construção/ Strategic behavior and resource-based view: a study in construction material retail sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar o relacionamento dos recursos da organização quanto ao seu comportamento estratégico na percepção dos gestores das lojas de material de construção. Para tanto, aborda a teoria de recursos, a partir da RBV (Resource-based View), e a tipologia de Miles e Snow (1978), na determinação do comportamento estratégico das organizações. Com a finalidade de atingir o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma abordagem qualiquantitativa. A (more) pesquisa qualitativa foi exploratória, utilizando focus group e a quantitativa descritiva, a partir de uma survey. Os resultados, quanto ao comportamento estratégico, indicam que 34,3% das empresas são defensoras, 27,1% são reativas, 20,0% são analistas e 18,6% prospectoras. Com relação às hipóteses propostas, inexistência de diferenças nas capacidades segundo os comportamentos estratégicos, nenhuma mostrou significância estatística. Com Respeito à associação mensurada entre o comportamento estratégico e as capacidades, os prospectores são os que possuem a maior correlação positiva, verificada com as capacidades de administração. Já os reativos são os que apresentam a maior correlação negativa, também com as capacidades de administração. Conclui-se que há ausência de ajuste entre comportamentos estratégicos e os recursos e capacidades, o que pode, segundo a RBV, deixar de gerar vantagem competitiva sustentável. Abstract in english This study aims to investigate the relationship between the organization resources and the strategic behavior from construction material stores viewpoint. The RBV (Resource-Based View) and the Miles and Snow Typology (1978) are used in this study for determining the organization's strategic behavior. A quali-quantitave approach was used. The qualitative study was exploratory making use of the focus group technique and the quantitative descriptive analysis through a survey (more) . The results indicated that, according to the strategic behavior, 34.3% of the organizations are defenders, 27.1% are reactors, 20% are analyzers, and 18.6% are prospectors. With regard to proposed hypothesis, there was no statistically significant capability difference according to the Studying the correlation between strategic behavior and capabilities, one can see that the prospectors are the ones that exhibit the strongest positive correlation according to the management capabilities. On the other hand, the reactors exhibit the strongest negative correlation also according to the management capabilities. One can therefore conclude that there is lack of adjustment between the strategic behavior and the resources and capabilities, which, according to the Resource-Based View, may prevent sustainable competitive advantages.

Ribeiro, Ronaldo; Rossetto, Carlos Ricardo; Verdinelli, Miguel Angel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

1992-04-01

342

Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents - a questionnaire study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Sense of coherence (SOC) is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH) residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13), respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61) and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28). These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

Drageset, Jorunn; Nygaard, Harald A; Eide, Geir Egil; Bondevik, Margareth; Nortvedt, Monica W; Natvig, Gerd Karin

2008-01-01

343

Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC) is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH) residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13), respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61) and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28). These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

Drageset Jorunn; Nygaard Harald A; Eide Geir; Bondevik Margareth; Nortvedt Monica W; Natvig Gerd

2008-01-01

344

?????????????????????????????? | The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library: German National Resources for East Asian Materials / Matthias Kaun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For more than 50 years the East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library has been hosting a special interest collection on East- and Southeast Asia. Integrated into a federal network of German libraries, supervised and in part financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG – Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), this collection has become the largest of its kind in Europe. The East Asia Department supplies German and European libraries with publications in East Asian languages through a special inter-library loan service. Since 2002 the Berlin State Library has offered access to electronic resources like databases and electronic journals from the East Asian region via the virtual library CrossAsia. Furthermore the East Asia Department has become an access point to East Asian databases for European consortia.???9-18

?? ?

2007-01-01

345

Application of XAFS to study on physical properties of fullerene related materials and its development in future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent R and D state on physical properties and structures of fullerene related materials are reviewed. Its potentials connecting to the useful function materials in future are also reported. The report is composed of the following four items. Physical properties on fullerene doped with metal elements: The relation between transition temperature of superconductivity Tc and doping metals in the fullerene related materials are reviewed from the point of view of the electronic structures. Physical properties of fullerene with metal inclusion and XAFS: Physical properties such as superconductivity of the fullerene with metal inclusion and its structures are analyzed using XAFS. Application of XAFS to study on fullerene and its related materials: As an example carbon nano-tubes have the potentials connecting to the useful function materials. It is reported that XAFS is effective research method for the structure analysis of the carbon nano-tubes. Application of XAFS to R and D in future: XAFS is very useful for the research on the cluster and for analysis of the formation process of the fullerene. To determine the structure of the interstellar molecules and clusters XAFS is also expected to be useful. (H. Katsuta)

Kubozono, Yoshihiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

2000-06-01

346

What does stable isotope analysis reveal about trophic relationships and the relative importance of allochthonous and autochthonous resources in tropical streams? A synthetic study from Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Analysis of the stable isotope signatures of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) of foods and consumers has led to some preliminary understanding of the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous resources in tropical streams. However, robust generalizations about the dynamics of food webs in...

Lau, DCP; Leung, KMY; Dudgeon, D

347

Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

NONE

1998-11-01

348

Definition of Terms Relating to Reactions of Polymers and to Functional Polymeric Materials, VII.2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactions of polymers, particularly polymers with functional groups (crosslinking, grafting, complexation, reactive blending, etc.) enable the preparation of polymeric materials of various properties (swelling, conductivity, photosensitivity, catalytic activity, etc.) and functions (superabsorber, ion-exchanger, polyelectrolyte, supporter, surfactant, compatibilizer, etc.). Such an interdisciplinary branch of polymer chemistry requires clear and unified terminology. The present IUPAC recommendations fulfill this demand with definitions of 64 general and specific terms divided into three sections: reactions involving polymers; polymer reactants and reactive polymeric materials; functional polymeric materials. The document will contribute to the proper scientific and technological understanding of the field.

Jarm, V.

2009-01-01

349

"Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde/ "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensin (more) o Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes. Abstract in english Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, developed the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public (more) schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

Mano, Sonia Maria Figueira; Gouveia, Fabio Castro; Schall, Virgínia Torres

2009-01-01

350

"Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes.Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, developed the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

Sonia Maria Figueira Mano; Fabio Castro Gouveia; Virgínia Torres Schall

2009-01-01

351

Optical properties of copper-oxygen planes in superconducting oxides and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The optical spectra of YBa2Cu3O7-x and other Cu-O-based superconductors have several common features in the visible and near uv. Chemical changes that affect the conductivity of these materials also have a strong effect on some of these features. By comparing the spectra of many materials containing similar Cu-O structures, we have determined that some of the optical features are associated with specific local structures within the unit cell. Of particular interest is a sharp feature at 1.7 eV that appears for nonmetallic compositions of many of the materials and is removed by the introduction of carriers. Similar features in materials not yet showing superconductivity encourage further investigation of them.

1989-01-01

352

Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

2001-01-01

353

Natural Selection Natural Selection - The UK's gateway to high quality Internet resources relating to the Natural World ??????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural Selection is a gateway to quality, evaluated Internet resources in the natural world - subject coverage includes botany, zoology, palaeontology, ecology and environmental science. The service aims to help anyone with a purposeful interest in these subjects - from school childre...

Wang, Nan????

354

Optimal resource allocation in colonoscopy: timing of follow-up colonoscopies in relation to adenoma detection rates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The assessment of indications for follow-up colonoscopy may help to improve the allocation of available endoscopy resources. The aim of this study was to assess the timing of early follow-up colonoscopy and surveillance utilization in relation to adenoma detection rate (ADR) at follow-up. METHODS: An assessment of the timing and yield of follow-up colonoscopies was performed in patients with non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a Dutch multicenter study. The primary outcome was the number of patients with a prior (index) colonoscopy. The necessity for follow-up procedures was assessed using the ADR. RESULTS: Of 4800 consecutive patients undergoing a colonoscopy, 1249 non-IBD patients had undergone an index colonoscopy. Of these, follow-up procedures were performed within 1 year in 27 % (331/1249). Excluding incomplete colonoscopy, incomplete polypectomy, or poor bowel preparation on index, the ADR on early follow-up was 4 % for symptomatic and 26 % for asymptomatic patients. Among the asymptomatic patients with a follow-up colonoscopy at > 1 year (n = 463), an ADR of 23 % (108/463) was found. In 27 % of these patients, the observed surveillance intervals were in accordance with American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) surveillance recommendations; 60 % were classified as over-utilization and 13 % as under-utilization according to the AGA. Optimal utilization follow-up colonoscopies had higher ADRs on follow-up compared with over-utilized procedures (31 % vs. 17 %; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up colonoscopy in symptomatic patients within a year has limited value in terms of adenoma detection. A considerable proportion of surveillance colonoscopies are performed too early according to current guidelines, resulting in low detection rates. Both aspects can be targeted for optimal usage in endoscopic capacity.

Sint Nicolaas J; de Jonge V; van Baalen O; Kubben FJ; Moolenaar W; Stolk MF; Kuipers EJ; van Leerdam ME

2013-07-01

355

The material footprint of nations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metrics on resource productivity currently used by governments suggest that some developed countries have increased the use of natural resources at a slower rate than economic growth (relative decoupling) or have even managed to use fewer resources over time (absolute decoupling). Using the material footprint (MF), a consumption-based indicator of resource use, we find the contrary: Achievements in decoupling in advanced economies are smaller than reported or even nonexistent. We present a time series analysis of the MF of 186 countries and identify material flows associated with global production and consumption networks in unprecedented specificity. By calculating raw material equivalents of international trade, we demonstrate that countries' use of nondomestic resources is, on average, about threefold larger than the physical quantity of traded goods. As wealth grows, countries tend to reduce their domestic portion of materials extraction through international trade, whereas the overall mass of material consumption generally increases. With every 10% increase in gross domestic product, the average national MF increases by 6%. Our findings call into question the sole use of current resource productivity indicators in policy making and suggest the necessity of an additional focus on consumption-based accounting for natural resource use.

Wiedmann TO; Schandl H; Lenzen M; Moran D; Suh S; West J; Kanemoto K

2013-09-01

356

Material problems and requirements related to the development of fusion blankets: The designer point of view  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structural materials considered for solid and liquid metal breeder blankets are the austenitic and martensitic steels and vanadium alloys. The principal concerns with these materials are: (a) the high-temperature-induced swelling of the austenitic steels, (b) the low temperature irradiation embrittlement of martensitic steels, and (c) the exact specification of the preferred alloy composition(s), properties during and following irradiation, and technological aspects (fabrication and welding) for the vanadium alloys. Solid breeder blankets are based on the use of lithiated ceramics such as Li[sub 2]O, LiAlO[sub 2], Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] and Li[sub 2]ZrO[sub 3] and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The main uncertainty with these materials is their behaviour under irradiation, particularly at higher burnups and fluences than have been achieved hitherto. Liquid metal blankets, utilising pure Li or the LiPb eutectic as the tritium breeding material, can be either self- or separately-cooled; separate coolants include water (with LiPb) and helium. The important materials issues with the LiPb are the development of permeation barriers to contain the tritium and, for the self-cooled option, electrical insulators to reduce the MHD pressure drop to acceptable levels. ((orig.))

Dalle Donne, M. (Kernforschungszentrum, Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Postfach 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany)); Harries, D.R.; Kalinin, G. (Entek, P.O.B. 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)); Mattas, R. (ANL, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)); Mori, S. (ITER, JAERI, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-01 (Japan))

1994-09-01

357

Material problems and requirements related to the development of fusion blankets: The designer point of view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structural materials considered for solid and liquid metal breeder blankets are the austenitic and martensitic steels and vanadium alloys. The principal concerns with these materials are: (a) the high-temperature-induced swelling of the austenitic steels, (b) the low temperature irradiation embrittlement of martensitic steels, and (c) the exact specification of the preferred alloy composition(s), properties during and following irradiation, and technological aspects (fabrication and welding) for the vanadium alloys. Solid breeder blankets are based on the use of lithiated ceramics such as Li2O, LiAlO2, Li4SiO4 and Li2ZrO3 and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The main uncertainty with these materials is their behaviour under irradiation, particularly at higher burnups and fluences than have been achieved hitherto. Liquid metal blankets, utilising pure Li or the LiPb eutectic as the tritium breeding material, can be either self- or separately-cooled; separate coolants include water (with LiPb) and helium. The important materials issues with the LiPb are the development of permeation barriers to contain the tritium and, for the self-cooled option, electrical insulators to reduce the MHD pressure drop to acceptable levels. ((orig.)).

1993-10-01

358

The synergistic character of the defect-induced magnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors and related magnetic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, we introduce a new perspective in explaining the origin of magnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors, carbon-based materials and other related materials. According to our proposal, the magnetism in these materials is the result of the synergistic action of defect-induced electronic processes mostly of local character which can provide magnetic moments and develop a ferromagnetic coupling among them. This synergy is realizable via appropriate codoping which appears as a general and generic approach. In the present report, we use ab initio results to demonstrate that in a diverse sample of systems including codoped ZnO, GaN, TiO2 and carbon-based materials, the ferromagnetic coupling that is developed among the doped (or defect-induced) magnetic moments results from the interaction of spin-polarized neighborhoods centered at the defect sites. Our results also give evidence that bipartite codopant configurations can further enhance the ferromagnetic features of these systems significantly.

2012-11-14

359

Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

Temmerman, G. De

2006-07-01

360

Water migration mechanisms in amorphous powder material and related agglomeration propensity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The agglomeration phenomenon of amorphous particulate material is a major problem in the food industry. Currently, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is used as a fundamental parameter to describe and control agglomeration. Models are available that describe the kinetics of the agglomeration process as a function of the distance of the material from Tg (i.e. T?Tg). In practice these models are often not applied because they assume that the powder material is instantly in equilibrium with the humidity conditions of the environment and that solid mobility only occurs at T>Tg. Insights in the kinetics and mechanisms of water transport in powder material can help to better understand and control powder agglomeration. For this purpose, gravimetric step-change water sorption experiments were performed on maltodextrins as a function of the water activity aw. The maltodextrins vary in dextrose equivalents (DE), particle size and morphology. The experimental results were compared with a Fickian diffusion model in order to understand the dependency of the transport mechanism on water concentration gradient and material relaxation. The water transport kinetics in the maltodextrins with low DE (i.e. 6) were well described by Fickian diffusion for low aw, independently of particle size and morphology, until relaxation phenomena started to occur at an aw corresponding to T?Tg=?20°C. The importance of the matrix relaxation phenomena on the water transport mechanism increased with increasing DE (i.e. 29 and 32), not showing any relationship with the Tg. The results of this study indicate that the water migration mechanism is controlled by relaxation phenomena when the amorphous material is still far from the glass–rubber transition. The T?Tg at which the relaxation phenomena occur depends on the material. On the contrary, the T?Tg parameter could well describe the onset of agglomeration, independently from the material properties. Therefore, it can be concluded that within the conditions of this study, matrix relaxation occurring far below Tg did not affect the onset of agglomeration.

Renzetti S; Voogt JA; Oliver L; Meinders MBJ

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Experience gained from some incidents related to the shipment of radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of accidents occurring during shipment of dangerous materials in France varies between 200 and 250 each year. Those concerning radioactive materials represent one or two events per year. Six incidents or accidents recorded these last few years have been selected as particularly significant; they include not only events on public highways but also events on nuclear sites relevant to transportation safety. These events are summarized together with corrective actions engaged after analysis of the causes of the events. Finally, more general conclusions drawn from these abnormal events are presented from the point of view of emergency preparedness.

1989-01-01

362

Improvements in or relating to method of preparing porous material/synthetic polymer composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Monomers in a porous natural material, e.g. cellulose fibre, wood, are polymerized with gamma radiation. Addition of a chlorinated hydrocarbon to the monomer improves fire resistance, brittleness and friction coefficient and reduces the radiation dose required for polymerization. (U.K.)

1976-01-01

363

Depression, materialism, and excessive Internet use in relation to compulsive buying.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), depression, materialism, and excessive Internet use. METHODS: An online survey of 387 consumers was conducted including questions about demographics and shopping venues, the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale, the Materialistic Values Scale, and questions concerning excessive Internet use. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of the participants reported Compulsive Buying Scale scores less than -1.34 and were considered to be having CB. Participants with CB did not significantly differ from those without CB regarding age, sex, marital status, annual household income, and shopping preferences. Individuals with CB reported more depressive symptoms, higher materialistic values endorsement, and more severe excessive Internet use compared with those without CB. Results of a stepwise logistic regression analysis with CB as the dependent variable showed that materialism and depression were associated with CB, whereas excessive Internet use was not. CONCLUSIONS: Materialism and depression jointly influence CB. Further research is needed to examine the influence of materialism on CB in a clinical sample consisting of patients with diagnosed CB.

Mueller A; Mitchell JE; Peterson LA; Faber RJ; Steffen KJ; Crosby RD; Claes L

2011-07-01

364

Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called "non-equilibrium" grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These feature...

Sauvage, Xavier; Wilde, Gerhard; Divinski, Sergiy; Horita, Zenji; Valiev, Ruslan

365

National Cancer Institute Disseminates Communications Material Related to I-131 Radioactive Fallout Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) will disseminate communications materials to key partners and regional representatives to help better inform the public about potential thyroid cancer risk from Iodine-131 (I-131) radioactive fallout due to nuclear testing in the 1950s and early 1960s. Questions and Answers

366

Resource Letter FR-1: Fractals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on fractals. Although ''fractal'' is a relatively new term in science, unifying many new ideas with established ones, its wide application and general popularity have made it one of the fastest growing fields in statistical physics. The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field; the letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature; and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material. An asterisk (*) indicates those articles to be included in an accompanying Reprint Book

1988-01-01

367

BEI Resources: supporting antiviral research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources Repository (BEI Resources) provides unique, quality-assured reagents to the scientific community for use in basic research and product development involving biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. These include microorganisms (up to Biosafety Level-3) on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists of Category A, B and C priority pathogens. In addition to live microorganisms, related products such as polyclonal antisera, monoclonal antibodies, isolated nucleic acid preparations, overlapping peptide arrays, purified proteins, and assay kits are also available. Many of these materials have direct or indirect applications in antiviral research. These reagents are available free of charge to all registered investigators, regardless of funding source or affiliation. Acquisition of new reagents for the repository is one of the critically necessary and challenging tasks for BEI Resources. Therefore, investigators are encouraged to deposit relevant items, so as to provide access to materials, relief from the burden of distribution, protection of intellectual property rights, and secure storage. In addition, BEI Resources has the capability of contracting for the preparation of specific reagents. If there is a resource needed to advance a specific research area, contact an NIAID program officer or use the "suggest a reagent" option on the BEI Resources homepage, (www.beiresources.org).

Baker R; Peacock S

2008-11-01

368

BEI Resources: supporting antiviral research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research Resources Repository (BEI Resources) provides unique, quality-assured reagents to the scientific community for use in basic research and product development involving biodefense and emerging infectious diseases. These include microorganisms (up to Biosafety Level-3) on the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists of Category A, B and C priority pathogens. In addition to live microorganisms, related products such as polyclonal antisera, monoclonal antibodies, isolated nucleic acid preparations, overlapping peptide arrays, purified proteins, and assay kits are also available. Many of these materials have direct or indirect applications in antiviral research. These reagents are available free of charge to all registered investigators, regardless of funding source or affiliation. Acquisition of new reagents for the repository is one of the critically necessary and challenging tasks for BEI Resources. Therefore, investigators are encouraged to deposit relevant items, so as to provide access to materials, relief from the burden of distribution, protection of intellectual property rights, and secure storage. In addition, BEI Resources has the capability of contracting for the preparation of specific reagents. If there is a resource needed to advance a specific research area, contact an NIAID program officer or use the "suggest a reagent" option on the BEI Resources homepage, (www.beiresources.org). PMID:18675849

Baker, Robert; Peacock, Susan

2008-08-23

369

Native American Educational Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Northwest Center for Sustainable Resources (NCSR) includes a number of educational resources having to do with the Native American perspective on environmental science. The materials are intended to assist educators in integrating this important perspective into their curriculum. Printed resources, curriculum activities, videos and a list of websites are provided.

2011-03-22

370

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

2012-12-01

371

Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens

2012-01-01

372

Neutron irradiation effects in fusion or spallation structural materials: Some recent insights related to neutron spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A review is presented of recent insights on the role of transmutation in the development of radiation-induced changes in dimension or radiation-induced changes in physical or mechanical properties. It is shown that, in some materials and some neutron spectra, transmutation can significantly affect or even dominate a given property change process. When the process under study is also sensitive to displacement rate, and especially if it involves radiation-induced segregation and precipitation, it becomes much more difficult to separate the transmutation and displacement rate dependencies. This complicates the application of data derived from 'surrogate' spectra to predictions in other flux-spectra environments. It is also shown in this paper that one must be sensitive to the impact of previously -ignored 'small' variations in neutron spectra within a given reactor. In some materials these small variations have major consequences. (author)

1998-01-01

373

Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials using statistical evaluation. [2-aminoanthracene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Potential synergism among components of fuel-derived mixtures is being investigated by comparison of mutagenic activities of ''reconstructed wholes'' with the sum of mutagenic activities of individual fractions. Results of assays of sample Lummus Product (Lum. Prod.) Fraction IV were somewhat equivocal, giving indications of loss of material with fractionation. Data from assay of sample Lummus Feed (Lum. Feed), by contrast, gave indications of the likelihood of interactions among fractions contributing to increased mutagenicity. The ability of fuel sample fractions to influence biological activities of individual components also being studied. In these mutagenicity assays 2-aminoanthracene (2AA), as a model aromatic amine, is tested in the presence of the hexane fraction of PDU-9. Data from these assays show an enhanced mutagenic response as a result of mixing these two materials. 8 tabs.

1985-01-01

374

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL OF TETRACYCLINE AND ITS RELATED SUBSTANCES BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An isocratic method for the analysis of tetracycline (TC) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer packing material is described. The method allows the complete separation of TC, 4-epitetracycline, anhydrotetracycline (ATC), 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC). A fermentation impurity, 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamidetetracycline is also resolved from TC. The mobile phase combines tert.-butanol, water and phosphate buffer, tetrabutylammonium sulphate and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate at pH 9.0 for elution at a temperature of 60°C. Among the organic modifiers examined, only tetrahydrofuran and tert.-butanol gave good results. For practical reasons, tert.-butanol was retained as the final organic modifier. The preliminary experiments were carried out on polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer packing material (PRP-I and PLRP-S columns). The selectivity of the columns is comparable. PLRP-S column was chosen as it shows better separation of tetracycline – anhydrotetracycline. The method was used to analyse the commercial samples.

NABILA PERVEEN; NAEEM HASAN KHAN

2006-01-01

375

High density carbon materials obtained at relatively low temperature by spark plasma sintering of carbon nanofibers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphitic materials obtained at low temperatures are interesting for a wide range of industrial applications including bipolar plates. In this work, graphite based nanocomposites have been obtained starting from carbon nanofibers and a mixture of carbon nanofibers with 20 vol.% of alumina nanopowders. High density carbon components were obtained by using Spark Plasma Sintering at temperatures as low as 1500-1800 C for this kind of materials. The effect of spark plasma sintering parameters on the final density, and the mechanical and electrical properties of resulting nanocomposites have been investigated. Pure carbon nanofibers with around 90% of theoretical density and fracture strength of 60 MPa have been obtained at temperatures as low as 1500 C applying a pressure of 80 MPa during sintering. It has been proved that attrition milling is a suitable method for preparing homogeneous mixtures of carbon nanofibers and alumina powders. (orig.)

Borrell, Amparo; Torrecillas, Ramon [Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN), Principado de Asturias - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Univ. de Oviedo, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Fernandez, Adolfo [Fundacion ITMA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Merino, Cesar [Grupo Antolin Ingenieria, Burgos (Spain)

2010-01-15

376

Characterization and derivation methods of humic materials and related effects on radionuclide complexation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional groups of lignins, fulvic and humic acids can be quantitatively characterized by derivatization with C-14-radio-labeled compounds. Utilizing this information, selected functional groups can be blocked off via specific chemical reactions. The comparison of partially blocked and unblocked humic materials using capillary electrophoresis, thermochromatography, pyrolysis gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy yields information of the compounds` functionality and structure. The complexation behavior of these well characterized materials with uranium is investigated by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The novel laser system is very user-friendly because it uses a parametric oscillator instead of the commonly used dyes. Peak deconvolution allows the determination of the species` characteristic fluorescence lines and the life times. First results will be given for complexation constants of the system uranium/lignins/humic acids.

Nitsche, H.; Pompe, S.; Geipel, G. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Dresden (Germany)] [and others

1995-12-01

377

Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

1995-03-01

378

High-sensitivity tool for studying phonon related mechanical losses in low loss materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fundamental mechanical loss mechanisms exist even in very pure materials, for instance, due to the interactions of excited acoustic waves with thermal phonons. A reduction of these losses in a certain frequency range is desired in high precision instruments like gravitational wave detectors. Systematic analyses of the mechanical losses in those low loss materials are essential for this aim, performed in a highly sensitive experimental set-up. Our novel method of mechanical spectroscopy, cryogenic resonant acoustic spectroscopy of bulk materials (CRA spectroscopy), is well suited to systematically determine losses at the resonant frequencies of the samples of less than 10{sup -9} in the wide temperature range from 5 to 300 K. A high precision set-up in a specially built cryostat allows contactless excitation and readout of the oscillations of the sample. The experimental set-up and measuring procedure are described. Limitations to our experiment due to external loss mechanisms are analysed. The influence of the suspension system as well as the sample preparation is explained.

Heinert, D [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Zimmer, A [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Nawrodt, R [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Koettig, T [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schwarz, C [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Hudl, M [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Vodel, W [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2007-12-15

379

High-sensitivity tool for studying phonon related mechanical losses in low loss materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fundamental mechanical loss mechanisms exist even in very pure materials, for instance, due to the interactions of excited acoustic waves with thermal phonons. A reduction of these losses in a certain frequency range is desired in high precision instruments like gravitational wave detectors. Systematic analyses of the mechanical losses in those low loss materials are essential for this aim, performed in a highly sensitive experimental set-up. Our novel method of mechanical spectroscopy, cryogenic resonant acoustic spectroscopy of bulk materials (CRA spectroscopy), is well suited to systematically determine losses at the resonant frequencies of the samples of less than 10-9 in the wide temperature range from 5 to 300 K. A high precision set-up in a specially built cryostat allows contactless excitation and readout of the oscillations of the sample. The experimental set-up and measuring procedure are described. Limitations to our experiment due to external loss mechanisms are analysed. The influence of the suspension system as well as the sample preparation is explained

2007-01-01

380

Design status and development strategy of China liquid lithium-lead blankets and related material technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of fusion reactors (named FDS series) have been designed and assessed in China, with four types of liquid lithium lead blankets including the RAFM steel-structured He-cooled quasi-static LiPb tritium breeder (SLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled (DLL) blanket, the RAFM steel-structured refractory material thermally-insulated high temperature LiPb (HTL) hydrogen production blanket and the RAFM steel or optionally the austenitic stainless steel-structured He-LiPb dual-cooled high level waste transmutation (DWT) blanket. To demonstrate and validate the feasibility of the candidate blankets for fusion energy application, the three-phases-strategy of TBM (test blanket module) development, i.e. material R and D and out-of-pile experimental mockup, EAST-TBM and ITER-TBM have been proposed. A brief overview of the four types of LiPb blanket designs and their goals are given. Material technology requirement and development strategy are also presented in this paper.

2007-08-01