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Sample records for resource materials relating

  1. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  2. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  3. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  4. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  5. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered.

  6. Mars prospective energy and material resources

    Badescu, Viorel

    2009-01-01

    The manned mission is seen as a first step towards a Mars surface exploration base-station and, later, establishing permanent settlement. The location and use of Mars's natural resources is vital to enable cost-effective long-duration human exploration and exploitation missions as well as subsequent human colonization. Planet resources include various crust-lodged materials, a low-pressure natural atmosphere, assorted forms of utilizable energy, lower gravity than Earth's, and ground placement advantages relative to human operability and living standards. Power resources may include using sola

  7. Moon. Prospective energy and material resources

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

  8. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  9. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  10. Study on Insulating Material by Renewable Resources

    Kurata, Yasuyuki; Kurosumi, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keita

    Under circumstances such as global warming caused by carbon dioxide and other green house gas and crisis of depletion of fossil resources, recyclable resources such as biomass have captured the world's attention as reproducible resources alternative to petroleum. Therefore the technologies such to manufacture chemicals from recyclable resources have been developed for the achievement of measures for controlling global warming and the low carbon society. Recently, the bioplastic such as polylactic resin is applied to the home appliances and the automobile interior part as substitution of general-purpose plastic Moreover, the insulation oil from the vegetable oil has been put to practical use. The application of recyclable resources is extending in an electric field. In this paper, we introduce the characteristic and the problem of the insulating material made from recyclable resources in the field of the solid insulation.

  11. PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

    A. Alpatov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

  12. Total resource utilization of landfilled organic materials

    Dhooge, P.M. [Delphi Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Landfilled wastes represent a potential threat to the environment and a potential opportunity for innovative approaches to resource recovery. Chemical and biological transformations of landfilled materials can provide sources of fuels or raw materials while mitigating the environmental threat from disposed materials. Technologies such as methane mining are already being used, but more complete recovery technologies are required to take advantage of the total value of landfilled resources. This paper presents an integrated approach to processing landfilled materials, with emphasis on use of organic resources. After separation of reclaimable metals (chiefly aluminum and steel) and concrete/glass, the remainder of landfilled material can be processed in a chemical digestion system to produce valuable products. Wet oxidation and similar processes can produce acetic acid and other derivatives of cellulosic materials. However, most products produced by partial chemical treatments of landfilled materials are insufficiently pure to command good prices, or may be a negative value product due to contamination. Complete conversion of organic components to pure hydrogen and carbon dioxide products may be more desirable. Heat energy from catalyzed chemical oxidation of the organic materials can drive the production of pure hydrogen from depolarized electrochemical cells. Hazardous organic compounds and pathogens will be destroyed. Both the pure hydrogen and pure carbon dioxide from the process have positive value as merchant gases. Valuable trace metals from the landfilled materials will concentrate in the catalytic chemical oxidation solution for recovery. Mineral salts and water from the treatment process can be used in industrial processes, prepared as fertilizers, or returned to the environment safely. Economic estimates show that such a scheme will provide positive returns.

  13. Water Management in Cambodia Resources and Relations

    Muukkonen, Satu

    2007-01-01

    In Cambodia, water has a special purpose as a source of life and livelihoods. Along with agriculture, fishing and forest use, industry, hydropower, navigation and tourism compete for the water resources. When rights and responsibilities related to essential and movable water are unclear, conflicts emerge easily. Therefore, water management is needed in order to plan and control the use of water resources. The international context is characterized by the Mekong River that flows through s...

  14. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Orlitová Erika; Jablonská Jana

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  15. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-04-01

    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  16. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  17. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  18. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  19. Lack of material resources causes harsher moral judgments

    Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This research tested the idea that lack of material resources (e.g., low income) causes people to make harsher moral judgments because lack of material resources is associated with a lower ability to cope with the effects of others' harmful behavior. Consistent with this idea, a large cross-cultural survey (Study 1) found that both chronic (low income) and situational (inflation) lack of material resources were associated with harsher moral judgments. The effect of inflation was stronger for ...

  20. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe2O3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe2O3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO3 product of Merck, and BaCO4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH)max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH)max are relatively lower than commercial product

  1. RELATIO: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONAL DIMENSION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Kevin Sheneberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous traditions and values of African peoples have been viewed as being behind the times. Disregarding established, functioning systems of African resource allocation has led to a system of interaction out of touch with local cultural priorities. Through a review of literature, augmented by qualitative interviews and observational analysis, the evolutionary nature of rationality is revealed; demonstrating the necessity for our understanding of economic choice to be adjusted to involve broader conceptions of its constitution, restraints, and motivations. It is derived that two parallel systems for addressing basic questions of choice and resource management exist; a traditional “rational” Western system, and a “relational” African system. After establishing these intersecting systems, the value of African uniqueness is appreciated. This paper attempts to build upon the work of other economists in the addition of a “relational” component of rationality, informed by both social and material forms of capital.

  2. Lakota Woskate. Curriculum Materials Resource Unit 6.

    Red Cloud Indian School, Inc., Pine Ridge, SD. Oglala Sioux Culture Center.

    The instructional material in this last of 6 units is directed to the 9th graders of the Oglala Sioux people. The material focuses on games and sports, and the origin of the games is discussed. The document explains that Lakota games, besides being fun, teach values. The games teach children the values of endurance, of risk, of taking a chance and…

  3. Resource convergence and resource power: towards new concepts for material efficiency.

    Vasara, Petri; Rouhiainen, Juulia; Lehtinen, Hannele

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency is not a panacea, but it lies at the intersection of many problems of global sustainability. Reducing the usage of a single material in a value chain may require ingenuity and wide cooperation, but conceptually it is not a problem. When the problem stretches to several resources in changing circumstances, we have to understand the linkages between resources and the power, and the influence of each resource in decision-making in different settings. In this paper, we concisely go from the time dimension to a very short history of resource thinking, and then introduce our resource convergence concept. Using text mining on a sample of articles linking different resources, we show in a 'visual literature review' how resource convergence emerges from unrelated texts. To demonstrate one new method under the resource convergence umbrella, we use a case example with our Resource Power Index method. In our opinion, mastering complexity will be the key to solving the challenges we are facing, and mastering resource convergence and translating it into material efficiency is one of the central problems. What we show in this paper is a core framework and some details of the direction we see as worth pursuing. PMID:23359733

  4. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  5. Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources

    Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

  6. Relating Solar Resource Variability to Cloud Type

    Hinkelman, L. M.; Sengupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    Power production from renewable energy (RE) resources is rapidly increasing. Generation of renewable energy is quite variable since the solar and wind resources that form the inputs are, themselves, inherently variable. There is thus a need to understand the impact of renewable generation on the transmission grid. Such studies require estimates of high temporal and spatial resolution power output under various scenarios, which can be created from corresponding solar resource data. Satellite-based solar resource estimates are the best source of long-term solar irradiance data for the typically large areas covered by transmission studies. As satellite-based resource datasets are generally available at lower temporal and spatial resolution than required, there is, in turn, a need to downscale these resource data. Downscaling in both space and time requires information about solar irradiance variability, which is primarily a function of cloud types and properties. In this study, we analyze the relationship between solar resource variability and satellite-based cloud properties. One-minute resolution surface irradiance data were obtained from a number of stations operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) and Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) networks as well as from NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Individual sites were selected so that a range of meteorological conditions would be represented. Cloud information at a nominal 4 km resolution and half hour intervals was derived from NOAA's Geostationary Operation Environmental Satellite (GOES) series of satellites. Cloud class information from the GOES data set was then used to select and composite irradiance data from the measurement sites. The irradiance variability for each cloud classification was characterized using general statistics of the fluxes themselves and their variability in time, as represented by ramps computed for time scales from 10 s to 0.5 hr. The statistical relationships derived using this method will be presented, comparing and contrasting the statistics computed for the different cloud types. The implications for downscaling irradiances from satellites or forecast models will also be discussed.

  7. The Inada conditions for material resource inputs reconsidered

    Baumgärtner, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the thermodynamic law of conservation of mass, the so-called Materials-Balance-Principle, implies that the marginal product as well as the average product of a material resource input are bounded from above. This means that the Inada conditions, one of the standard assumptions of economic growth theory, when applied to material resource inputs are inconsistent with a basic law of nature. The analysis is based on a model of multi-level production where intermediate goods are p...

  8. Hypertextual Relations in Digital Born Materials

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    The paper present a framework for distinguishing different sorts of heterogeneous digital materials. The hypothesis is that hypertextual linking is both a major source of the messy-ness of big data and a means to characterize and classify non-parametric data resources. Thus the notion of hypertext...... will be revalidated and utilized in the analysis of heterogeneous digital collections....

  9. Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a...

  10. Improving Statistical Machine Translation for a Resource-Poor Language Using Related Resource-Rich Languages

    Nakov, Preslav Ivanov; Ng, Hwee Tou

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel language-independent approach for improving machine translation for resource-poor languages by exploiting their similarity to resource-rich ones. More precisely, we improve the translation from a resource-poor source language X_1 into a resource-rich language Y given a bi-text containing a limited number of parallel sentences for X_1-Y and a larger bi-text for X_2-Y for some resource-rich language X_2 that is closely related to X_1. This is achieved by taking advantage of t...

  11. Putting the "T" in "Resource": The Benefits of LGBT-Related School Resources for Transgender Youth

    Greytak, Emily A.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Boesen, Madelyn J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the availability and effectiveness of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related school resources for a national sample of transgender youth (N = 409), as compared to a national sample of LGB cisgender (non-transgender) youth (N = 6,444). All four examined resources--gay-straight alliances (GSAs), supportive…

  12. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  13. Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources

    Saphire-Bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M.; Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological resources—optimism, mastery, and self-esteem—buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the “A” allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-esteem, r...

  14. Catalysis by ceria and related materials

    Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    This book follows the 2002 edition of Catalysis by Ceria and Related Materials, which was the first book entirely devoted to ceria and its catalytic properties. In the ten years since the first edition a massive amount of work has been carried out in the field, and ceria has gained a prominent position in catalysis as one of the most valuable material for several applications. This second edition covers fundamental and applied aspects of the latest advances in ceria-based materials with a special focus on structural, redox and catalytic features. Special emphasis is given to nano-engineered an

  15. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a..., including tariffs, rate schedules, service agreements, and contracts, or parts thereof, and material...

  16. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  17. Negotiating desirability and material resources: changing expectations on men in post-Soviet Havana

    Härkönen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    In post-Soviet Havana, material resources emerge as a factor in terms of which women assess a man’s desirability as a potential partner. These tendencies in current gender relations relate to the larger transformations in Cuba’s political and economic context. The fall of Eastern European and Soviet state socialisms seriously diminished the Cuban state’s ability to provide social services. Remittances generated through transnational kin ties and recent liberalistic changes in labour politics ...

  18. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  19. Catalysis by ceria and related materials

    Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    The use of CeO2-based materials in catalysis has attracted considerable attention in recent years, particularly in applications like environmental catalysis, where ceria has shown great potential. This book critically reviews the most recent advances in the field, with the focus on both fundamental and applied issues. The first few chapters cover structural and chemical properties of ceria and related materials, i.e. phase stability, reduction behaviour, synthesis, interaction with probe molecules (CO, O2, NO), and metal-support interaction - all presented from the viewpoint of catalytic appl

  20. ESTEC wiring test programme materials related properties

    Judd, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wires are considered as EEE parts and are covered within the ESA SCC specification series (ESA SCC 3901/XXX). This specification defines the principal properties of the wires including insulation/lay-up and electrical properties. Some additional space related materials requirements are also included, requirements such as outgassing and silver plating thickness. If a project has additional materials requirements over and above those covered by the relevant SCC specification, then additional testing is required. This is especially true for crewed spacecraft. The following topics are discussed in this context: additional requirements for manned spacecraft; flammability; arc tracking; thermal decomposition; microbial surface growth; and ageing.

  1. Radiation effects on pharmaceuticals and related materials

    Radiation sterilization is the method of choice for many medical supplies and devices. However, because of the ionizing nature of gamma radiation, one must consider the effect of such radiation on the physical and chemical properties and on the biological behaviour of pharmaceutical and related materials before the feasibility of radiation sterilization for such products is established. The results of such feasibility studies can lead to an appropriate decision on the suitability of radiation sterilization for a particular pharmaceutical. (author)

  2. Resource Letter EMAA-1: Educational Materials in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Berendzen, Richard; DeVorkin, David

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of selected articles on astronomy instruction at high school, college, and graduate levels, especially those for college nonscience majors. Besides teaching materials and aids, related societies, organizations, planetariums, and periodicals are incorporated as entries of primary sources. (CC)

  3. Decision making model for the recovery of useful material resources from wastes

    In the United States, many of the material resources necessary for energy production are imported. Strategic stockpiling of these resources has been a well-known method for reducing the economic and productivity impact of supply interruption in case of emergency. Another viable option is the recovery of valuable materials and recycle of useful products from wastes generated in energy production and industrial processing. The technical feasibility for recovery and recycle, including decontamination of nuclear-related materials, has been proven and demonstrated. The economic feasibility would depend on both the resale and strategic values of the material, the saving from reusing rather than disposing of the material, the reclamation cost, and other factors that may influence the incentive for recovery and recycle. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to develop a model to identify the economic and other incentives for the reclamation of useful material resources. Using available data to quantify factors such as strategic and resale values, reclamation cost and disposal cost saving, this model calculates the incentive value consisting of the above factors and selects the appropriate reclamation option. Because this model is empirical, there are limitations to its application. However, within the boundary where the model has been tested, it can be a useful tool for the decision maker to evaluate the economic feasibility of reclamation

  4. Relative prices and investment: an essay on resource allocation

    Keith Griffin

    2005-01-01

    In this essay the mainstream story about how resources are allocated in a market economy is challenged. The conventional view is that a change in relative prices leads to a change in the composition of output as a result of a reallocation of the stock of primary factors of production (land, labor and capital). No investment is required. This is possible, however, only if the primary factors of production are homogeneous and hence highly mobile. If land, labor and capital are heterogeneous and...

  5. Bodily-material resources in CSCL:Children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning of scale around touchscreens

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Within CSCL language is often perceived as the primary vehicle for knowledge building and collaboration, whereas bodily-material resources are explored to a lesser extent. In this data session we explore the importance of gestures and body movements as bodily-material resources in relation to communication, learning and collaboration and how they are used to organise intra- and inter-psychological processes. By presenting two short video excerpts of children working with the concept of scale ...

  6. Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention. PMID:23394104

  7. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible light. Finally, we demonstrate that open-framework chalcogenides can also be used as efficient photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to CH 4. These materials contain covalent superlattices of nanosized supertetrahedral clusters, which can be made with different metal cations to provide high electrical conductivity and current density as well as materials with different band gaps. The ability in incorporating different metal cations further enhances the material's photocatalytic activity, which could possibly provide alternative technologies for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and simultaneously producing fuel.

  8. Facilitating NCAR Data Discovery by Connecting Related Resources

    Rosati, A.

    2012-12-01

    Linking datasets, creators, and users by employing the proper standards helps to increase the impact of funded research. In order for users to find a dataset, it must first be named. Data citations play the important role of giving datasets a persistent presence by assigning a formal "name" and location. This project focuses on the next step of the "name-find-use" sequence: enhancing discoverability of NCAR data by connecting related resources on the web. By examining metadata schemas that document datasets, I examined how Semantic Web approaches can help to ensure the widest possible range of data users. The focus was to move from search engine optimization (SEO) to information connectivity. Two main markup types are very visible in the Semantic Web and applicable to scientific dataset discovery: The Open Archives Initiative-Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE - www.openarchives.org) and Microdata (HTML5 and www.schema.org). My project creates pilot aggregations of related resources using both markup types for three case studies: The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) dataset and related publications, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI) animation and image files from NCAR's Visualization Lab (VisLab), and the multidisciplinary data types and formats from the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). This project documents the differences between these markups and how each creates connectedness on the web. My recommendations point toward the most efficient and effective markup schema for aggregating resources within the three case studies based on the following assessment criteria: ease of use, current state of support and adoption of technology, integration with typical web tools, available vocabularies and geoinformatic standards, interoperability with current repositories and access portals (e.g. ESG, Java), and relation to data citation tools and methods.

  9. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  10. Improvements in or relating to refractory materials

    A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

  11. PROMOTING HEALTH AND MOTIVATION AT WORK: THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF JOB DEMANDS, JOB RESOURCES AND PERSONAL RESOURCES

    von Krassow, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    While many employees are engaged in their jobs, others suffer from poor working conditions and impaired well-being. Research suggests that job demands may impair employee work attitudes and health while both job resources and personal resources can have positive effect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of job demands, job resources, and a personal resource (self-efficacy) for employees’ health and motivation at work. Questionnaire data were collected fro...

  12. Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation

    The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

  13. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  14. Out on the Web: The Relationship between Campus Climate and GLBT-Related Web-based Resources in Academic Libraries

    Ciszek, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the perceived campus environment for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) students at colleges and universities and how academic libraries have deployed GLBT-related resources on the Web. Recommendations are made for increasing GLBT-related materials and information in academic libraries.…

  15. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally. PMID:26978979

  16. Creating e-learning material with optimal utilization of limited resources

    Channa Abeyweera Gunawardena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is a country with comparatively high standards of healthcare, but a poor distribution of resources. While gaining access to expert trainers is relatively easy in the western province, the same cannot be said of regions like the eastern and north central provinces.With access to broadband crossing all regional and geographic boundaries and an 84% penetration rate for mobile phones, internet access is becoming the one resource that is uniformly distributed across the island. An eLearning solution therefore is the only practical means to ensure that training resources are available to everyone, anytime, anywhere in the island.The paper proposes a hosted eLearning solution incorporating video based lessons supplemented by text, animations and voiceovers to provide postgraduate level training for medical personnel. The process of creating training material will be non intrusive and not require any additional time or expensive resources as it will be primarily based on capturing of actual cases including consultations, surgery and other day to day activities as videos. A simple webcam attached to a laptop or even a relatively high resolution mobile phone with sufficient storage capacity is all that is required to capture the core training content.Assembly of the training course using these videos can be done by eLearning domain specialists, along with instructional design and preparation of rich content such as animations; only the knowledge and information needs to be provided by subject matter experts.The proposed approach ensures that the most valuable resource consumed in this process, the time of the expert practitioner, is used optimally and in a manner that has the least impact on his or her primary responsibility, that of providing care to patients.

  17. Bio-resource of human and animal-derived cell materials.

    Nakamura, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    The Cell Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center is a not-for-profit public "cell bank" that accepts donations and deposits of human and animal cell materials developed by the life science research community. We examine, standardize, amplify, preserve, and provide cell materials to scientists around the world. The major cell materials used around the world have been cultured cell lines, i.e., immortalized cells. Most human cell lines are derived from tumor cells. There is no doubt that the demand for these cell lines will never cease in the field of biology. In addition, stem cell lines such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are of great value in current biology and medical science. Thus, we are extensively collecting such stem cell lines, aiming at contributing to the fields of developmental biology and transplantation/regenerative medicine. In addition, the demand for primary cells has recently increased. To meet this demand, we have started the banking of primary human cells including somatic stem cells, such as umbilical cord blood cells and cultured mesenchymal cells. The staff of the Cell Engineering Division conduct not only the banking of cell materials, but also research and development relating to cell materials, such as the establishment of novel human and animal-derived cell lines and the development of new technology to utilize cell materials. PMID:20224164

  18. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  19. Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources

    Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

  20. Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources

    Bollinghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

  1. Nuclear raw materials: Developing resources through technical co-operation

    This article presents an overview of the IAEA's technical co-operation activities in the field of nuclear raw materials, particularly looking at recent developments and trends influencing future directions

  2. Basic Material Quartz and Related Innovations

    Ballato, A.

    Although material quartz is of scientific interest in its own right, its volume of usage and variety of applications dictate its technological importance.The technological prominence of ?-quartz stems largely from the presence of piezoelectricity, combined with extremely low acoustic loss. It was one of the minerals with which the Brothers Curie first established the piezoelectric effect in 1880. In the early 1920s, the quartz resonator was first used for frequency stabilization. Temperature-compensated orientations (the AT and BT shear cuts) were introduced in the 1930s, and assured the technology's success. By the late 1950s, growth of cultured bars became commercially viable, and in the early 1970s, cultured quartz use for electronic applications first exceeded that of the natural variety. The discovery of cuts that addressed compensation of stress and temperature transient effects occurred in the 1970s, and led to the introduction of compound cuts such as the SC, which hasboth a zero temperature coefficient of frequency, and is simultaneously stress-compensated [1-5]. Between 109 and 1010 quartz units per year were produced by 2000 at frequencies from below 1 kHz to above 10 GHz. Categories of application include resonators, filters, delay lines, transducers, sensors, signal processors, and actuators. Particularly noteworthy are the bulk- and surface-wave resonators; their uses span the gamut from disposable timepieces to highest precision oscillators for position-location, and picosecond timing applications. Stringent high-shock and high-pressure sensor operations are also enabled. Table 2.1 shows the major applications of quartz crystals. These applications are discussed subsequently in greater detail. For general background and historical developments, see [1,6-11].

  3. Resource Guide for Search and Rescue Training Materials.

    LaValla, Patrick

    The bibliography about search and rescue training materials lists booklets, books, manuals, films, papers, periodicals, and pamphlets that treat many aspects of search and rescue situations: general, cave, disaster, and mountain rescues; strategy tactics; communications; knots and ropes; outdoor living; dogs; tracking; map and compass; survival;…

  4. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

  5. Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources

    One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO2 and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of 10B2O3 processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO2 and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

  6. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  7. 77 FR 71842 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource...

    2012-12-04

    ... COMMISSION Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource..., at the US Ecology Idaho (USEI) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C hazardous... 70.17 Exemption of Humboldt Bay Power Plant Waste For Disposal at US Ecology, Inc'' (2) Email...

  8. Research concerning the need of capitalizing on the material resources in sports marketing

    Laurentiu Gabriel TALAGHIR; Victoria GHEONEA; Gabriel Marian MANOLACHE

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is trying to increase awareness regarding the unexploited material resources that the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports owns. In the context of the increased interest in practicing sports, a better utilization would determine significant financial benefits

  9. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

  10. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  11. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  12. Energy and resource saving raw materials for dactyloscopy

    Ikonnikova Lyubov F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “developing” properties of ferromagnetic fingerprint powders are defined by the chemical nature and the particle sizes of the pigment which form acidity of its surface, adhesive and magnetic properties, and color spectrum. The optimum ratio of these physical and chemical parameters is observed in the pigment consisting of iron-containing sludge tempered at 800°C, which contains α-Fe2O3 and impurity of clay materials.

  13. Analysis of material, social, and moral governance in natural resource management in southern Namibia

    Thomas Falk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Namibia ineffective enforcement contributes to natural resource degradation. We analyse the root causes of ineffective enforcement applying diverse methods. In the first step we develop a conceptual framework distinguishing between moral, social, and material enforcement. In the second step we analyse water and rangeland management regulations through the filter of our conceptual framework. In the third step we conduct economic experiments in order to gain additional insights into the characteristics of selected elements of the framework. We observe that social enforcement has the strongest impact on encouraging cooperative behaviour. Water governance in our cases makes more direct use of social enforcement, which is one factor contributing to its relative success compared to rangeland governance. We draw the general conclusion that existing moral and social norms should be considered as starting points for the establishment of formal rules because norms are more costly to establish but cheaper to apply.

  14. Fly ash: Perspective resource for geo-polymer materials production

    Kargin, Aleksey; Baev, Vladimir; Mashkin, Nikolay; Uglyanica, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The present paper presents the information about the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ash and slag and their amounts at the dumps of the thermoelectric plants located in the city of Kemerovo. It is known that about 85% of ash and slag from the thermoelectric plants in Russia are removed by means of the hydraulic sluicing systems and only about 15% - by the systems of pneumatic ash handling. Currently, however, the transition from the "wet" ash removal systems to the "dry" ones is outlined. This process is quite logical since the fly ash has the higher reactivity compared with the hydraulic sluicing ash and therefore it is of the great interest for recycling and use. On the other hand, the recent trend is the increased use of fly ash in the production of geo-polymers due to their availability, workability and the increased life of the final product. The analysis is carried out to check the possibility of using the fly ash from various Kemerovo thermoelectric plants as a raw material for the production of the alkali-activated binder.

  15. Uranium resources and production of nuclear fuel material in the world

    Data are summed up relating to uranium resources, the technology of nuclear fuel manufacture, the prices of U concentrate and the costs of the basic operations of the fuel cycle. Resources are sufficient for the needs of nuclear power production based on LWR's without closing the fuel cycle for at least up to the year 2010; in the subsequent period fuels of higher price categories would have to be used (> or approx. 130 $/kg U). The manufacture of U concentrate after culmination in the years 1979 to 1980 is declining as is its price. Fuel material on an operation scale (15a t/year and more) is now being manufactured in 11 countries, with the US leading followed by Canada and Japan. From the point of view of technology the following methods are interesting: processing complex ores (USSR), the use of wastes from the production of nuclear purity uranium in agriculture (Canada), single-stage reconversion of UF6 to UO2 (the so-called IDR process in the UK), chemical methods of uranium enrichment (France and Japan), etc. Great attention is being devoted to the design and construction of spent fuel reprocessing plants and thus the introduction of the closed fuel cycle which is the only way towards the full utilization of uranium, to the transition to fast reactors and the extended service life of nuclear power way into the next millenium. (author)

  16. Material Flow Cost Accounting as an Approach to Improve Resource Efficiency in Manufacturing Companies

    Schmidt, Mario; Nakajima, Michiyasu

    2013-01-01

    What potentials do manufacturing companies have for identifying inefficiencies in their use of resources? Assessing the products with regard to their durability, functional usefulness, use of materials, etc. is only one aspect of the exercise. The actual production operations and the search for in-plant inefficiencies represent the other. In Germany, the material flow cost accounting (MFCA) method was developed years ago to tackle this requirement. It evaluates material losses in the company ...

  17. Causality relations for materials with strong artificial optical chirality

    Gorkunov, M V; Ezhov, A A; Artemov, V V; Rogov, O Y

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the fundamental causality principle being applied to strongly chiral artificial materials yields the generalized Kramers-Kronig relations for the observables -- circular dichroism and optical activity. The relations include the Blaschke terms determined by material-specific features - the zeros of transmission amplitude on the complex frequency plane. By the example of subwavelength arrays of chiral holes in silver films we show that the causality relations can be used not only for a precise verification of experimental data but also for resolving the positions of material anomalies and resonances and quantifying the degree of their chiral splitting.

  18. Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme

    The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

  19. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn; Andresen, Marc

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of...... buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a...... relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another important result that emerged from the study is customers’ specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services....

  20. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    Smallwood, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  1. Permittivity and permeability measurements methods for particle accelerator related materials

    Vollinger, C; Jensen, E

    2014-01-01

    For the special requirements related to particle accelerators, knowledge of the different material parameters of dielectrics and other materials are needed in order to carry out simulations during the design process of accelerator components. This includes also properties of magnetically biased ferrites of which usually little information is available about material characteristics, especially in magnetic bias fields. Several methods of measurement are discussed and compared of which some require delicate sample preparation whereas others can work with unmodified material shapes that makes those methods also suited for acceptance checks on incoming materials delivered by industry. Applications include characterization of different materials, as absorbers in which dielectric losses play an increasing role, as well as low frequency measurements on ferrites that are used for tunable cavities. We present results obtained from both broadband and resonant measurements on different materials determined in the same s...

  2. Vacancy defects in silicon related materials and gallium nitride

    Rummukainen, MIkko

    2007-01-01

    Defects on the atomic scale strongly affect the performance of semiconductor devices and the achievable device lifetimes. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is sensitive to vacancy-type defects, which are the most common type of structural defects. In this thesis positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to study vacancy defects in gallium nitride and silicon related materials: silicon, silicon germanium and germanium. Silicon related materials are dominant in current integrated...

  3. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.1

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume One presents fundamental knowledge on ZnO-based materials and technologies. It covers the b

  4. Handbook of zinc oxide and related materials, v.2

    Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Through their application in energy-efficient and environmentally friendly devices, zinc oxide (ZnO) and related classes of wide gap semiconductors, including GaN and SiC, are revolutionizing numerous areas, from lighting, energy conversion, photovoltaics, and communications to biotechnology, imaging, and medicine. With an emphasis on engineering and materials science, Handbook of Zinc Oxide and Related Materials provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of various technological aspects of ZnO. Volume Two focuses on devices and nanostructures created from ZnO and similar materials. The book

  5. Fusion materials activation characteristics as related to waste disposal requirements

    Lower activation materials for fusion reactors are technically possible, may be important to the public acceptance of fusion energy, and are a main goal of fusion energy development. Actual levels of radioactivation in a fusion reactor will depend on the material itself and on its alloying constituents and impurity content. The equilibrium activation level and post-shutdown decay rates affect three primary areas: long term waste material disposal; reactor maintainability, specifically, the prospects for limited hands-on or contact maintenance; and reactor safety. Goals relating to each of these three areas are proposed and used to develop four particular categories which classify both reactors and materials

  6. The global resource balance table, an integrated table of energy, materials and the environment

    This paper introduces the Global Resource Balance Table (GRBT), which is an extension of the energy balance tables that expresses the relationships between energy, materials and the environment. The material division of the GRBT includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. In contrast, the environmental division of the GRBT includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. The transaction division rows in the GRBT include production, conversion, end use and stock. Each cell of the GRBT contains the quantities of the respective resources that were generated or consumed. The relationships between the cells were constructed from the laws of conservation of the materials and energy. We constructed a GRBT for 2007 and discussed the increasing air temperature due to waste heat and the CO2 equivalent from human breathing. The GRBT is a comprehensive integrated table that represents the resources that are consumed by human activities and is useful for energy and environmental studies. - Highlights: • We extended energy balance table and introduced Global Resource Balance Table. • It shows relationships between energy, materials and the environment. • The material division includes steel, cement, paper, wood and grain. • The environmental division includes oxygen, CO2 and methane. • We discussed on waste heat and CO2 emission by human breathing

  7. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with relation to big infrastructure projects.

  8. 29 CFR 1208.4 - Material relating to representation function.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to representation function. 1208.4 Section 1208.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF... and examination during the usual business hours at the Board's offices in Washington. (b) This...

  9. Socially poorer than peers? : Economic resources and school class friendship relations

    Hjalmarsson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    That a lack of economic resources negatively affects the social relations of children is often assumed, sometimes described, but rarely tested using methods allowing generalization. When addressing this issue, previous research has largely been limited to self-reported data on social relations. This thesis uses peer reported measures of social relations in combination with survey and register data to examine the effect of economic resources on the probability of social isolation and on the nu...

  10. Kramers-Kronig Relations in Optical Materials Research

    Lucarini, Valerio; Saarinen, Jarkko J; Vartiainen, Erik M

    2005-01-01

    This is the first one-volume work to provide a thorough and comprehensive description of the physical background, rigorous theory and applications of Kramers-Kronig relations in the fields of linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy. Currently, Kramers-Kronig relations have become basic tools in the investigation of the optical properties of materials. A brief presentation of the related data-retrieval technique, the maximum entropy method, is also given. The contents and style potentially make this a standard text for physicists, chemists and engineers interested in optical-materials research and development.

  11. Relative Resources: Inequality in Ethnic Wars, Revolutions, and Genocides

    Marie L. Besançon

    2005-01-01

    Political scientists and economists have exhaustively examined the nexus between economic inequality and political conflict (EI-PC nexus) in aggregated civil wars. This article revisits the nexus and its related theories, empirically and parsimoniously testing the effects of inequality on disaggregated intrastate conflicts. The results buttress the notion that traditionally deprived identity groups are more likely to engage in conflict under more economically equal conditions, while class or ...

  12. Exploring workplace related health resources from a salutogenic perspective: Results from a focus group study among healthcare workers in Sweden

    Bringsén, Åsa; Andersson, Ingemar H; Ejlertsson, Göran; Troein, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare workers' opinions on workplace related health resources relevant to promotion of their health. Participants: 16 registered nurses and 19 assistant nurses, from a medical emergency ward at a medium sized hospital in the south of Sweden, participated in the study. Methods: Eight focus group interviews were conducted, the material was condensed and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to elicit and ident...

  13. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The...

  14. Where Is the Discourse of Desire? Deconstructing the Irish Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) Resource Materials

    Kiely, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by poststructuralist insights and the critical literature on the topic of school-based sexuality education, this paper is derived from a close examination of the Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) resource materials devised for teachers involved in delivering the programme in Irish schools. It seeks critically to uncover how…

  15. Index to Bibliographies and Resource Materials--Project MEDIA, Summer 1975.

    National Indian Education Association, Minneapolis, Minn.

    Information presented in this index includes citations ano descriptions of print and nonprint media by, for, or about Native Americans and represents some of the resource materials to be included in the functioning computer-housed data base now being constructed by Project MEDIA. As the precursor of a print catalogue to be published as more data…

  16. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  17. Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control

    Larsgarrd L, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

  18. Materialism.

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  19. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

  20. Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.

    2005-03-01

    Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice. PMID:15887634

  1. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some aircraft seat materials

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Fewell, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen samples of aircraft seat materials were evaluated for relative toxicity using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Nine samples were upholstery fabrics and nine samples were cushioning foams. Under these particular conditions of test, the aromatic phenolic and aromatic polyamide fabrics exhibited less toxicity than the samples of wool and wool/nylon fabrics, and the samples of neoprene foams exhibited less toxicity than the samples of polyurethane foams. These relative toxicity rankings were obtained using both apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals (ALC50), and time to death (Td) at a fixed weight of material.

  2. Collocational relations in Japanese language textbooks and computer-assisted language learning resources

    Srdanović, Irena

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations ...

  3. Adolescent Resource Control: Associations with Physical and Relational Aggression, Prosocial and Withdrawn Behaviors, and Peer Regard

    Findley, Danielle; Ojanen, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescent coercive and prosocial resource control strategies in relation to various indices of peer-reported behaviors and peer regard ("N" = 384; 12-14 years). Coercive control was uniquely positively related to physical and relational aggression and peer disliking, and negatively to prosocial behaviors when…

  4. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 – 16 11 mm diameter. Pressure drop – velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop...

  5. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  6. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of...... efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity...... production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  7. Exergy analysis for resource conversion of the Chinese Society 1993 under the material product system

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q. [National Laboratory for Complex Systems and Turbulence, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The resource exergy conversion in Chinese society in 1993 under the material product system (MPS) was investigated. Major resources that entered the society were divided into subgroups and analyzed in detail. The end use was broken down into ten end-use sectors: the forestry industry, food industry, iron and steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, chemical industry, textile industry, transportation, households, commerce, other industry. The total exergy input was 62.9EJ, which was 53.3GJ/cap. The total exergy output contained 11.66EJ or 9.88GJ/cap, which was 19% of the total exergy input. One RMB (Chinese Renminbi) yuan ($ 0.17) corresponded to 3.37MJ resource exergy output. (author)

  8. Quantum capacitance in monolayers of silicene and related buckled materials

    Nawaz, S.; Tahir, M.

    2016-02-01

    Silicene and related buckled materials are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit coupling and the buckled structure. These materials have potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit coupling. We present a theoretical realization of quantum capacitance which has advantages over the scattering problems of traditional transport measurements. We derive and discuss quantum capacitance as a function of the Fermi energy and temperature taking into account electron-hole puddles through a Gaussian broadening distribution. Our predicted results are very exciting and pave the way for future spintronic and valleytronic devices.

  9. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  10. THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION

    Rehana MASRUR

    2010-01-01

    One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid) course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the...

  11. Analysis of material, social, and moral governance in natural resource management in southern Namibia

    Thomas Falk; Bjoern Vollan; Michael Kirk

    2012-01-01

    In southern Namibia ineffective enforcement contributes to natural resource degradation. We analyse the root causes of ineffective enforcement applying diverse methods. In the first step we develop a conceptual framework distinguishing between moral, social, and material enforcement. In the second step we analyse water and rangeland management regulations through the filter of our conceptual framework. In the third step we conduct economic experiments in order to gain additional insights into...

  12. Material and moral resources: the 1984-5 miners' strike in Scotland

    Phillips, J

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to debates about the economic framework of industrial politics by examining aspects of the 1984–5 miners' strike in Britain, focusing on developments in Scotland. It focuses on strike endurance and pit-level variations in strike endurance by examining the contrasting quantity and quality of the material and moral resources available to the strikers at different collieries and in different communities. Powerful local variables in building or inhibiting strike commitmen...

  13. Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties

    Jessica Vitak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies (ICTs challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.

  14. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  15. Technical resource document: Solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes are effective in treating a variety of difficult to manage waste materials for reuse or disposal. S/S has been identified as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for treating a wide range of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) non-wastewater hazardous waste subcategories. S/S has been selected as the treatment technology of choice for 26% of the remedial actions complete at Superfund sites through fiscal year 1992. The standard bulk material handling and mixing equipment used in many S/S processes make the technology appear simple. The morphology and chemistry of S/S-treated waste are complex. Selection of the binder requires an understanding of the chemistry of the bulk material, the contaminants, and the binder. Battelle, under the direction of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared the Technical Resources Document (TRD) as a resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future application of S/S processes

  16. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  17. Analytical Study for Seeking Relation Between Customer Relationship Management and Enterprise Resource Planning

    Perwej, Asif

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a integration of various resources of any organization. It is computer software. All kinds of organization data that is relating to each and every function of the organization are available in ERP. So most of the big business organizations are implementing ERP and some of the medium, small scale companies are also using ERP system. CRM in an organization helps to retain their existing customers as well as capturing new customers for their products. So it ...

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool for the investigations on local electronic and vibrational properties of solids. On the other hand, the recently developing field of 'spintronics', where spins of conduction electrons play a key role for transport phenomena, is requiring to control the size and physical properties of materials in nanoscales. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy it becomes possible to investigate local magnetism and electron-spin polarization of materials, while can be important information for further development of spintronics. In this article, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials in the early stage after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance effect are outlined briefly, and then recent studies on Heusler-alloy-based layered structures are introduced topically. (author)

  19. Dynamic Modelling of Material Flows and Sustainable Resource Use: Case Studies in Regional Metabolism and Space Life Support Systems

    Suomalainen E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable resource use is one of the most important environmental issues of our times. It is closely related to discussions on the 'peaking' of various natural resources serving as energy sources, agricultural nutrients, or metals indispensable in high-technology applications. Although the peaking theory remains controversial, it is commonly recognized that a more sustainable use of resources would alleviate negative environmental impacts related to resource use. In this thesis, sustainable...

  20. Standard Terminology Relating to Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 These definitions cover generic optical terms which appear in one of more standards relating to aerospace transparent materials and enclosures. 1.2 The definitions cover, in most cases, special meanings used in the transparency industry. No attempt has been made to include common meanings of the same terms as used outside of the transparency industry. 1.3 Definitions included have, in general, been approved as standard.

  1. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Graham Butler

    2014-01-01

    This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek ...

  2. Material culture: the concrete dimension of social relations

    Tania Andrade Lima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the emergence, maintenance and transformation of sociocultural systems, Archaeology basically works with three closely inter-related dimensions: space, time, and form. The latter has seen the greatest diversity in approaches over the course of Archaeology's construction as a discipline. This article presents the conceptions of material culture developed by various schools of archaeological thought. Wrongly understood until the 1980s as an unproblematic dimension, a passive reflection of human behavior, some authors since then have explored its active and transformative role in social negotiations, making it the concrete dimension of relations inside the society.

  3. Chemical development of the Calsinter process for recovering resource materials from fly ash

    Felker, L. K.; Seeley, F. G.

    1979-09-01

    Laboratory-scale tests of several methods for the recovery of resource materials from fly ash have led to the development of a sinter/dilute acid leach method (Calsinter process) in which fly ash is sintered with CaSO/sub 4/ and CaCO/sub 3/ at 1200/sup 0/C followed by a leach with 4 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Aluminum recovery, using this process, increased with the sintering temperature in the range 800 to 1200/sup 0/C and exceeded 95% at the optimum sintering conditions. An attractive feature of the process is that flue gas desulfurization sludge (FGDS) can be substituted for CaSO/sub 4/ without reduction of the metal values recovery. Other resource materials such as Fe, Ti, Mn, U, and Th can also be recovered when this process is coupled with a solvent extraction step, which provides for the recovery of a pure Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ product. In addition, potentially hazardous materials such as Ba, As, Hg, Cd, Se, Cr, Pb, and Ag can be managed in a way that will render the waste from the process more environmentally stable than the original waste materials.

  4. Standard Lunar Regolith Simulants for Space Resource Utilization Technologies Development: Effects of Materials Choices

    Sibille, Laurent; Carpenter, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    As NASA turns its exploration ambitions towards the Moon once again, the research and development of new technologies for lunar operations face the challenge of meeting the milestones of a fastpace schedule, reminiscent of the 1960's Apollo program. While the lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions have revealed much about the Moon, these priceless materials exist in too scarce quantities to be used for technology development and testing. The need for mineral materials chosen to simulate the characteristics of lunar regoliths is a pressing issue that is being addressed today through the collaboration of scientists, engineers and NASA program managers. The issue of reproducing the properties of lunar regolith for research and technology development purposes was addressed by the recently held 2005 Workshop on Lunar Regolith Simulant Materials at Marshall Space Flight Center. The recommendation of the workshop of establishing standard simulant materials to be used in lunar technology development and testing will be discussed here with an emphasis on space resource utilization. The variety of techniques and the complexity of functional interfaces make these simulant choices critical in space resource utilization.

  5. Relational Resources Management as Source of Company?s Innovativeness and Competitive Advantage

    Marta Zió?kowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There exist various resources which an enterprise can use in order to become more innovative and achieve competitive advantage on the market. Relational resources are definitely one of them, for instance enabling a company to make its customers more loyal or to attract new purchasers and other stakeholders. This paper presents the results of a study in which 200 Polish enterprises were asked about what relational resources they used and how frequently. Analysing the results, the authors of the study observed various interesting relationships between the use of relational resources and numerous factors such as the company’s development stage, ownership form, turnover, scope of activity and others. The general conclusion drawn is that more and more Polish enterprises tend to use and manage relational resources, but there still exists a visible difference between Poland and West European countries, as far as the extent of this use is concerned. Therefore, the authors of the study recommend a broader approach to the issue, since its development would be profitable from the economic point of view.

  6. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs related to an assessment of the effects of oil and gas development. An overview of each presentation and the presentation materials used at the meeting are provided in the Planning Meeting report. The reader should refer to that report as well as to the information presented in the current report for a more complete understanding of each resource.

  8. Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

  9. Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons

    Tsuchiya, H

    2014-01-01

    Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a $^3\\mathrm{He}$ counter had a small sensitivity to high-energy gamma rays because of inelastic interaction with its cathode-tube materials (Al or stainless steel). A $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counter with the intrinsic small sensitivity, if surrounded by thick materials, would largely detect thunderstorm-related gamma rays rather than those neutrons produced via photonuclear reaction in the atmosphere. On the other hand, the counter, if surrounded by thin materials and located away from a gamma-ray source, would observe neutron signals with little gamma-ray contamination. Compared with t...

  10. Material issues relating to high power spallation neutron sources

    Futakawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Innovative researches using neutrons are being performed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in which a mercury target system is installed for MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. In order to produce neutrons by the spallation reaction, proton beams are injected into the mercury target. At the moment, when the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel, leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall, i.e. on the interface between liquid and solid metals. On the other hand, the structural materials are subjected to irradiation damage due to protons and neutrons, very high cycle fatigue damages and so-called "liquid metal embrittlement". That is, the structural materials must be said to be exposed to the extremely severe environments. In the paper, research and development relating to the material issues in the high power spallation neutron sources that has been performed so far at J-PARC is summarized.

  11. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research.

    Seiler, Catherine Y; Park, Jin G; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743-D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease. PMID:24225319

  12. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

  13. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  14. Resource use in European countries: An estimate of materials and waste streams in the community, including imports and exports using the instrument of material flow analysis

    Bringezu, Stefan; Schütz, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Objective of this study is to support the development of a Thematic Strategy for Sustainable Use and Management of Resources through the provision of background information, in particular an estimate of materials and waste streams in the Community, including imports and exports (Article 8 a 6th EAP) using the method of material flow accounting. It further presents first ideas on how the resource use pattern of the EU can be assessed with regards to priority setting for possible policy measure...

  15. Formation of Silicon Carbide Using Volcanic Ash as Starting Material and Concentrated Sunlight as Energy Resource

    Kensuke Nishioka; Junki Komori; Kouji Maeda; Yasuyuki Ota; Hiroshi Kaneko; Kosei Sato

    2015-01-01

    SiC was formed using volcanic ash as starting material and concentrated sunlight as energy resource. The solar furnace was composed of two parts: Fresnel lens and reacting furnace. The reacting furnace was composed of a cylindrical vacuum chamber and quartz glass plate functioning to guide the concentrated sunlight into the furnace and was placed at the focal point of the Fresnel lens. The sample was made from the mixture of silica formed from volcanic ash and graphite and placed in the carbo...

  16. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  17. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    2012-11-09

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data and literature in... scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  18. Online Resources Related to Children Affected by War, Terrorism, and Disaster

    Masse, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a collection of websites related to children affected by war, terrorism, and disaster. These online resources are intended to provide information about various organizations and their efforts to improve the lives of children in crisis around the world.

  19. Resource Letter MP-1: The Manhattan Project and related nuclear research

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2005-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, the German nuclear program, and technical papers of historical interest. A list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues is also given.

  20. Human Resource Development (HRD) Evaluation and Principles Related to the Public Interest

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in the use of ethical standards related to social responsibility using the two ethical codes: the American Evaluation Association "Guiding Principles for Evaluators" and the Academy of Human Resource Development "Standards on Ethics and Integrity." This examination will take the perspective of an internal…

  1. Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    ), is crucial for the understanding of contemporary, socially and politically oriented fine art of the mid-1990 and onwards and its challenge of established aesthetic conceptions within art as well as theory. The concept of model is a reoccurring figure in RA and connects to a widespread "lab......  This paper seeks to contribute to the development of socio-aesthetics by analysing the notion of model established in the discourse of relational art--that is of course with special reference to French art critic Nicolas Bourriad's theoretical writings. His seminal book, Relational Aesthetics (RA......" (laboratory) metaphor where social reality is staged and facilitated in order to document and present its development. At the same time however, the notion of model is difficult to dissociate from Bourriaud's materialism which draws on such different figures as the late Althusser, Lucretius, and Deleuze and...

  2. Microstructure-fracture-permeability relations in cemented granular materials

    In this work, we investigate the relationships between the microstructure of cemented granular materials, morphology of cracks that may appear under tensile loading and their apparent permeability. In order to simulate the complexity of the multiphase heterogeneous structure of these materials, a numerical approach based on a lattice discretization was developed and used to study the mechanisms that control their behavior and rupture. Three distinct regimes of crack propagation were evidenced in terms of the combined influence of the matrix volume fraction and particle/matrix adherence. In the context of nuclear safety and in view of analyzing cracked concrete tightness, a methodology is proposed for generating representative microstructures with controlled phase volume fractions and particle size distributions. The cracks obtained under tensile loading are analyzed and a relationship is obtained between the microstructure of concrete and the tortuosity of the cracks. The permeability of cracked numerical microstructures was obtained by the simulation of liquid flow through the cracks by means of the Lattice Boltzmann method. Finally, a microstructure-tortuosity-permeability relation is proposed. The modeling and analysis tools developed in this work are generic enough to be applied to other complex multiphase heterogeneous materials. (author)

  3. Volcano-related materials in concretes: a comprehensive review.

    Cai, Gaochuang; Noguchi, Takafumi; Degée, Hervé; Zhao, Jun; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2016-04-01

    Massive volcano-related materials (VRMs) erupted from volcanoes bring the impacts to natural environment and humanity health worldwide, which include generally volcanic ash (VA), volcanic pumice (VP), volcanic tuff (VT), etc. Considering the pozzolanic activities and mechanical characters of these materials, civil engineers propose to use them in low carbon/cement and environment-friendly concrete industries as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or artificial/natural aggregates. The utilization of VRMs in concretes has attracted increasing and pressing attentions from research community. Through a literature review, this paper presents comprehensively the properties of VRMs and VRM concretes (VRMCs), including the physical and chemical properties of raw VRMs and VRMCs, and the fresh, microstructural and mechanical properties of VRMCs. Besides, considering environmental impacts and the development of long-term properties, the durability and stability properties of VRMCs also are summarized in this paper. The former focuses on the resistance properties of VRMCs when subjected to aggressive environmental impacts such as chloride, sulfate, seawater, and freezing-thawing. The latter mainly includes the fatigue, creep, heat-insulating, and expansion properties of VRMCs. This study will be helpful to promote the sustainability in concrete industries, protect natural environment, and reduce the impacts of volcano disaster. Based on this review, some main conclusions are discussed and important recommendations regarding future research on the application of VRMs in concrete industries are provided. PMID:26865491

  4. Social relations, human resource management, and knowledge transfer in work organisations: toward an integrated approach

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2008-01-01

    Hailed as the basis for competitive advantage of contemporary firms, knowledge transfer has recently emerged as a key research topic in the organisation and management field. Despite wide recognition of the importance of social relations for effective knowledge transfer, there is little understanding of the micro-sociological foundations of this process, and even less understanding of the ways in which human resource management practices can support social relations conducive to knowledge tra...

  5. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  6. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  7. BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities

    Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

  8. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Lars Bäckman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  9. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  10. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics.

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications. PMID:27087123

  11. INIS-based Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools for human resource development

    The Library of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed two Japanese literature materials of bibliographic tools based on the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA which contains over 3.3 million records of 127 countries and 24 international organizations. These materials have been elaborated by appropriately designating Japanese terminology of nuclear field corresponding with English terminology or vice versa. One is 'Transliterated Japanese journal title list' and the other is 'INIS Thesaurus in Japanese'. While the former is served as a reference that enables users to access articles of Japanese journals better matching their needs, the latter is served as a dictionary to bridge the gap on nuclear field terminologies between over 30,000 English terms and Japanese terms which correspond with those in a semantic manner. The application of those materials to the INIS's full text collection over 280,000 of technical reports, proceedings etc. as an archive is helpful for enhancement of human resource development. The authors describe the effectiveness of those INIS-based materials with bibliographic references of Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident. (author)

  12. Agricultural wastes as a resource of raw materials for developing low-dielectric glass-ceramics

    Danewalia, Satwinder Singh; Sharma, Gaurav; Thakur, Samita; Singh, K.

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural waste ashes are used as resource materials to synthesize new glass and glass-ceramics. The as-prepared materials are characterized using various techniques for their structural and dielectric properties to check their suitability in microelectronic applications. Sugarcane leaves ash exhibits higher content of alkali metal oxides than rice husk ash, which reduces the melting point of the components due to eutectic reactions. The addition of sugarcane leaves ash in rice husk ash promotes the glass formation. Additionally, it prevents the cristobalite phase formation. These materials are inherently porous, which is responsible for low dielectric permittivity i.e. 9 to 40. The presence of less ordered augite phase enhances the dielectric permittivity as compared to cristobalite and tridymite phases. The present glass-ceramics exhibit lower losses than similar materials synthesized using conventional minerals. The dielectric permittivity is independent to a wide range of temperature and frequency. The glass-ceramics developed with adequately devitrified phases can be used in microelectronic devices and other dielectric applications.

  13. Geo-material microfluidics at reservoir conditions for subsurface energy resource applications.

    Porter, Mark L; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Martinez, Ricardo; McCulloch, Quinn; Carey, J William; Viswanathan, Hari S

    2015-10-21

    Microfluidic investigations of flow and transport in porous and fractured media have the potential to play a significant role in the development of future subsurface energy resource technologies. However, the majority of experimental systems to date are limited in applicability due to operating conditions and/or the use of engineered material micromodels. We have developed a high pressure and temperature microfluidic experimental system that allows for direct observations of flow and transport within geo-material micromodels (e.g. rock, cement) at reservoir conditions. In this manuscript, we describe the experimental system, including our novel micromodel fabrication method that works in both geo- and engineered materials and utilizes 3-D tomography images of real fractures as micromodel templates to better represent the pore space and fracture geometries expected in subsurface formations. We present experimental results that highlight the advantages of using real-rock micromodels and discuss potential areas of research that could benefit from geo-material microfluidic investigations. The experiments include fracture-matrix interaction in which water imbibes into the shale rock matrix from etched fractures, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) displacing brine in idealized and realistic fracture patterns, and three-phase flow involving scCO2-brine-oil. PMID:26329326

  14. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  15. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

  16. Hydrogen compatibility of structural materials for energy-related applications

    Structural materials for H pressure vessels and H pipelines are discussed along with processes for producing H from water. The most difficult problems of those discussed are related to the design and construction of pressure vessels and pipelines for high pressure hydrogen. Because of the size of the facilities, quality control is difficult and low-cost materials must be used. In underground pipelines, the problems are compounded by possible corrosive attack leading to crack formation. In hydride storage vessels, the hydrogen pressures are sufficiently low that ordinary steels can be used as long as the design is conservative or special design features are incorporated. In thermochemical hydrogen production processes, the combined effects of hydrogen and corrosive halogens need to be investigated. Combined effects of hydrogen, other gases, and abrasive solids are the main concern in coal conversion processes. In all applications, there does not appear to be a critical need for new alloy development to protect against hydrogen damage, although the development of lower cost alloys or alloys with better properties should not be discouraged. Also, commercially available alloys may be inadequate for applications in which hydrogen damage is not the only concern

  17. Incentive-Related Human Resource Practices for Substance Use Disorder Counselors: Salaries, Benefits, and Training

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with incentive-related human resource practices for substance use disorder counselors can help promote a stable workforce in this occupation. We examined three counselor incentives—salaries, benefits, training—and the link with organizational, counselor, and patient characteristics. Data were collected in 2007/08 via face-to-face interviews with 345 administrators/clinical directors in private treatment centers. Centers paid counselors an average of $38,800 an...

  18. Microbial symbionts: a resource for the management of insect‐related problems

    Crotti, Elena; Balloi, Annalisa; Hamdi, Chadlia; Sansonno, Luigi; Marzorati, Massimo; Gonella, Elena; Favia, Guido; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Summary Microorganisms establish with their animal hosts close interactions. They are involved in many aspects of the host life, physiology and evolution, including nutrition, reproduction, immune homeostasis, defence and speciation. Thus, the manipulation and the exploitation the microbiota could result in important practical applications for the development of strategies for the management of insect‐related problems. This approach, defined as ‘Microbial Resource Management’ (MRM), has been ...

  19. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization related projects. [Article content in Chinese

  20. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  1. Use of blog as a supplementary study material resource in dentistry: An Indian experience

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social networking sites (SNS are emerging as an alternate teaching resource. The reach and access characteristics of SNS for a noninstitutional, academic blog in an Indian setting has not been documented and this manuscript aim to address this lacunae. Materials and Methods: A blog for oral histology, an integral basic dental subject and its Facebook promotional page was created. The access characteristics were observed using Google analytics. The Facebook promotional pages of the blog access characteristics are presented. Results: A total of 582 people visited the blog during the study period. Majority of them used Google Chrome from desktop/laptop to access the blog. There were 2723 page visits in all. Visitors from 36 countries and 99 cities across the globe accessed the blog. In all through Facebook, the promotional page reached 36,543 people. The total number of people engaged through Facebook promotion page was 10,757. Conclusion: Access characteristics of the noninstitutional, academic blog have been described for the first time in dentistry. The lessons learnt through this exercise would be helpful in designing e-mentoring courses as well promotional pages of such events in the future. The necessity of making the mentors and students to adapt to e-learning and digital learning resources before drawing such programs is highlighted.

  2. Engineering analysis and comparison of new processes for the recovery of resource materials from coal ash

    Canon, R.M.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 2 years, several promising new processes for the recovery of valuable resource materials from coal ash, primarily power plant fly ash, have been conceived and investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These processes, which include direct acid leach, the salt-soda sinter process, and the Calsinter (CaSo/sub 4/-CaCO/sub 3/) process, are designed to remove the major metals (aluminum, iron, and titanium) from fly ash; however, some are also capable of recovering trace metals. The sintering processes are particularly efficient in metal recovery and perhaps can produce nonhazardous solid wastes, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The salt-soda sinter process can recover 95% of the aluminum and 90% of the iron and titanium while producing a solid containing mostly silicates similar to silica gel. The Calsinter process recovers approximately the same amounts of the metals and produces solids similar to plaster of Paris. This process is particularly attractive because it can consume large amounts of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge as well as fly ash. Engineering and preliminary cost analyses have been prepared for these processes (and the lime-soda sinter process) for a plant consuming one million tons of fly ash (dry basis) per year. A comparison of strengths and weaknesses of the various processes is presented.

  3. Materials and energy resources. Report of the research committee working party

    The Working Party has tried to assess the problems likely to stem from future scarcity of a number of important materials and how these interact with the simultaneous depletion of energy resources. The report examines in detail the likely areas of shortages, and their economic, social and political implications, and suggests the various choices for preventive or corrective action. In its recommendations it has delineated areas not only for research but for action by government and by professional and other bodies. The need is forseen for a nuclear power programme of possibly 35 GW(e) by the end of the century part of which could be from fast breeders. Uranium supplies would appear to be adequate only if fast breeders become available. Nuclear fusion is potentially a very large energy source but only for the distant future. (author)

  4. Improving the resource efficiency of the German steel industry using material flow analysis

    Müller, J. I. R.; Mayer, W. A.

    2015-03-01

    This article deals with the utilization of residues from the German steel industry with focus on electric arc furnace (EAF) dust. Material flow analysis is used to illustrate the steel industry by specific output flows of residues over the process chain. The objective of the underlying study was to find further, more efficient connections between process chains. In Germany EAF dust is mainly processed in the Waelz process to recover the contained zinc (open-loop recycling). About 67 % of the world's EAF dust, however, is landfilled and thereby an amount corresponding to 1 to 10 % of the annual production of zinc is lost for production processes. In this article treatment operations for EAF dust are compared through utility analysis with regard to resource efficiency.

  5. Evaluation of a webquest on the theme "management of material resources in nursing" by undergraduate students.

    Pereira, Marta Cristiane Alves; Melo, Márcia Regina Antonietto da Costa; Silva, Adriana Serafim Bispo E; Evora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2010-01-01

    The learning process mediated by information and communication technology has considerable importance in the current context. This study describes the evaluation of a WebQuest on the theme "Management of Material Resources in Nursing". It was developed in three stages: Stage 1 consisted of its pedagogical aspect, that is, elaboration and definition of content; Stage 2 involved the organization of content, inclusion of images and completion; Stage 3 corresponded to its availability to students. Results confirm the importance of information technology and information as instruments for a mediating teaching practice in the integration between valid knowledge and the complex and dynamic reality of health services. As a result of the students' favorable evaluation of the approximation with the reality of nursing work and satisfaction for performing the activity successfully, the WebQuest method was considered valid and innovating for the teaching-learning process. PMID:21340275

  6. Variations in avoidable mortality in relation to health care resources and urbanization level.

    Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis Gonzalez, A; Tejerizo Perez, M L

    1996-01-01

    "Avoidable" mortality may be defined as causes of death whose occurrence is closely related to medical intervention. Areas with particular health care delivery problems can be identified through a geographical comparison of these "avoidable deaths." Mortality data for Valencia from 1982 to 1990 were examined to determine whether or not the availability of medical care resources in the area influenced the occurrence of avoidable deaths. We identified variations in mortality from avoidable causes, grouped according to the differences in levels of urbanization and health care resources, in the 537 municipalities of the Valencian community. (In Spain, the municipality is the lowest administrative division.) Linear regression analysis was performed to predict or estimate this relationship. Only in a small number of avoidable causes did the mortality trend for males differ significantly from 0 (p health care resources. A direct association between these two variables was observed in males with regards to pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic rheumatic heart disease, and bacterial infection. In females, a relationship between "avoidable" mortality rates and the differences in urbanization and health care resources was found in cervical cancer, pneumonia, abdominal hernias, and cholecystitis. Mortality from asthma and cardiovascular disease (in both males and females) declined faster in urbanized, high income areas than in rural areas. The results clearly demonstrate the considerable mortality risk associated with living in urban areas. On the contrary, we found very little correlation between health service access and mortality. PMID:9216798

  7. Improvements in or relating to the drying of gel materials

    A process is described for the drying of a gel material, comprising mixing together steam and gas in controlled amounts to form a mixture, feeding the mixture to a gel material to be dried thereby to contact the gel material with an atmosphere containing steam and gas in controlled amounts and thereby dry the gel material. One application of the process is in the production of ceramic particles for nuclear fuels. (author)

  8. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters: An empirical Investigation of Relational Resources and Value Creation

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources on the cluster level. Empirically the...... creation of single firms embedded in clusters in terms of overlapping value adding webs of single firms. The main focus of the paper is on how to describe and operationalise and how to manage social and symbolic capital in clusters. The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks...

  9. The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification

    Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and to facilitate investments. The UN Framework Classification provides information about: the stage of geological assessment, subdivided into: Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration; the stage of feasibility assessment, subdivided into: Geological Study, Prefeasibility Study and Feasibility Study/Mining Report; the degree of economic viability, subdivided into: Economic, Potentially Economic and Intrinsically Economic. The Mineral Reserve is defined as the economically extractable part of the Total Mineral Resource, demonstrated by feasibility assessment. A numerical codification of the eight resource classes available was introduced to facilitate the application. Due to many similarities to the classification of uranium resources used by the NEA and IAEA the new UN Framework Classification can be used to classify uranium resources. In general Reasonably Assured Resources of the lowest cost category (presently economically extractable amounts) are consistent with the UN term Proved Reserve. It is therefore hoped that the UN Framework, which now will be tested internationally for three years, will be accepted by all countries and for all mineral commodities including uranium. (author)

  10. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.; Raats, Monique M.; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own...... homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed...... that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction...

  11. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) activities in exploring its uranium resources, Egypt

    Full text: NMA was initiated as the Geology and Nuclear Raw Materials Department in the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt (established in 1957). However, due to the extended nature of NMA's work and it s increasingly expanded activities in the fields of prospection, exploration and evaluation of nuclear raw materials required for the peaceful uses application of nuclear energy, beside processing of their ores; this Department was converted into a separate authority; namely the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) of Egypt, in 1977. Since several decades, Egypt started prospecting and regional exploration for radioactive raw materials using Airborne and ground surveys, carborne, and field reconnaissance in soft and hard rocks During this work activities, some promising U-occurrences were discovered. Airborne radiometric survey started in Egypt in 1958; The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)cooperated with NMA in 1998 for the construction of 4 sets of calibration pads for standardizing both aerial and ground survey instruments. Application of all these activities resulted in completing aerial radiometric prospection of about 40% of the Egyptian territories, among which some locations were also magnetically surveyed from the air. NMA organized several ground geophysical and geological expeditions to verify the registered anomalies, discover any possible mineralization and identify the promising locations using electric, electromagnetic , self-potential, induced polarization, radon, seismic, gravity, ets In the meantime, the necessary relevant field geologic studies were undertaken, together with site development works, involving percussion and core drilling. Geophysical well logging measurements, beside excavation works of some exploratory mining tunnels were conducted. The before mentioned activities led to the definition of three encouraging uranium occurrences in the granite; and metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and a fourth occurrence in the sedimentary rocks of west Central Sinai these are: Gabal Qattar, occurrences (Northern Eastern Desert). Al-Missikate, and Al-Aradiya occurrences, (Central Eastern Desert). Abu- Russhied, Seila, and Um-Ara occurrences, Southern Eastern Desert. Abu-Zeneima occurrences(west Central Sinai).These represent the main occurrences of Uranium resources which were variably developed by NMA, in addition to some other less-important uranium localities. These occurrences could be classified into conventional uranium resources, and non-conventional uranium resources (uranium production is a by-product). NMA undertaken different ore processing studies for the discovered mineralizations and was actually able to design several technological flow sheets for the preparation of uranium concentrate(yellow cake). NMA erected two experimental units for uranium recovery at Abu-Zeneima, and Qattar respectively; The preparation of yellow cake was executed using acid heap leaching, followed by uranium extraction with anion exchange resin. Kilograms of uranium concentrate(yellow cake) were prepared by such two units. NMA is also undertaking various works for the purification of the uranium concentrate(yellow cake) obtainable from the different experimental units whether from that at Inchass or from the two field experimental units at Gebel Gattar Abu Zeneima sites. Airborne surveys, recently conducted by NMA over the Mediterranean cost, demonstrated their use as a, powerful tool in evaluating mineral of beach mineral sand deposits. The most important economic minerals are: ilmenite, magnetite zircon, garnet, rutile and monazite.NMA started, since the year 2000 a detailed evaluation of the black sands at AL-Burullus - Balteem, Northern coast which could offer more than 200 million tons as reserves. (author)

  13. Family Relational Health, Psychological Resources, and Health Behaviors: A Dyadic Study of Military Couples.

    O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. PMID:26837084

  14. IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material

    The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve and update the data base for impact velocities resulting from aircraft accidents. (authors)

  15. Concise encyclopedia of semiconducting materials and related technologies

    Mahajan, S M

    1992-01-01

    The development of electronic materials and particularly advances in semiconductor technology have played a central role in the electronics revolution by allowing the production of increasingly cheap and powerful computing equipment and advanced telecommunications devices. This Concise Encyclopedia, which incorporates relevant articles from the acclaimed Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering as well as newly commissioned articles, emphasizes the materials aspects of semiconductors and the technologies important in solid-state electronics. Growth of bulk crystals and epitaxial layer

  16. Resource management performance in Bahrain: a systematic analysis of municipal waste management, secondary material flows and organizational aspects.

    Al Sabbagh, Maram K; Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed review of municipal solid waste (MSW) and resource management in Bahrain, using the recently developed UN-Habitat city profile methodology. Performance indicators involve quantitative assessment of waste collection and sweeping, controlled disposal, materials recovery and financial sustainability together with qualitative assessment of user and provider inclusivity and institutional coherence. MSW management performance in Bahrain is compared with data for 20 other cities. The system in Bahrain is at an intermediate stage of development. A waste/material flow diagram allows visualization of the MSW system and quantifies all inputs and outputs, with the vast majority of MSW deposited in a controlled, but not engineered landfill. International comparative analysis shows that recycling and material recovery rates in Bahrain (8% wt. for domestic waste, of which 3% wt. due to informal sector) are generally lower than other cities, whereas waste quantities and generation rates at 1.1 kg capita(-1) day(-1)) are relatively high. The organic fraction (60% wt.) is comparable to that in middle- and low-income cities (50-80% wt.), although on the basis of gross domestic product Bahrain is classified as a high-income city, for which the average is generally less than 30% wt. Inclusivity in waste governance is at a medium stage as not all waste system stakeholders are considered in decision-making. While the system now appears to be financially stable, key pending issues are cost-effectiveness, improving the standards of disposal and deployment of extensive materials recovery/recycling services. PMID:22584268

  17. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  18. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  19. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  20. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  1. Analogical reasoning in working memory: resources shared among relational integration, interference resolution, and maintenance.

    Cho, Soohyun; Holyoak, Keith J; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2007-09-01

    We report a series of experiments using a pictorial analogy task designed to manipulate relational integration, interference resolution, and active maintenance simultaneously. The difficulty of the problems was varied in terms of the number of relations to be integrated, the need for interference resolution, and the duration of maintenance required to correctly solve the analogy. The participants showed decreases in performance when integrating multiple relations, as compared with a single relation, and when interference resolution was required in solving the analogy. When the participants were required to integrate multiple relations while simultaneously engaged in interference resolution, performance was worse, as compared with problems that incorporated either of these features alone. Maintenance of information across delays in the range of 1-4.5 sec led to greater decrements in visual memory, as compared with analogical reasoning. Misleading information caused interference when it had been necessarily attended to and maintained in working memory and, hence, had to be actively suppressed. However, sources of conflict within information that had not been attended to or encoded into working memory did not interfere with the ongoing controlled information processing required for relational integration. The findings provide evidence that relational integration and interference resolution depend on shared cognitive resources in working memory during analogical reasoning. PMID:18035640

  2. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

  4. International Competitiveness Based on Resources – Study of the Relation amog Resources and The International Dtrategies in the Biggest Exporting Companies of the Brazilian Footwear Sector

    Sérgio Henrique Arruda Cavalcante Forte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of companies refers to a strategy to get greater presence in the international market. As the companies need to make use of strategical resources for their insertion in the international market, was searched to answer: Is there a relation between the evolution of the strategical resources and the strategies of internationalization in great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector? For the theoretical base were used the classifications of the resources of Fahy (2002 and the strategies of internationalization of Sharma and Erramilli (2004. The study searched to rescue the dynamic character of the Resouce-based View. The method of the research was the quantitative and explicative nature. The data were collected from 2004 to 2005, with 15 great exporting companies of the Brazilian footwear sector and had been analyzed by the Cluster Analysis in the entrance in the international market, in the current situation and in 2010. It was concluded that the companies which use more complex strategies of internationalization, at the entrance moment and in the future, consider more strategical the capabilities, then the tangible resources and finally the intangible resources. However, in the current situation, they consider more strategical the capabilities, then the intangible resources and finally, the tangible resources.

  5. Radiation in houses in relation to radioactivity in building materials

    Some of the investigations into the radiation levels in houses due to natural radioactivity in building materials are summarised. The distribution in various districts of Norway of K40, Ra226 and Th232 in concrete, brick and expanded clay pellet blocks is presented. Calculations of the gamma radiation 3m from walls of various thicknesses are presented on graphs. Values are given for calculated exposure rates in standard rooms in houses of various materials, and are compared with measured values. An expression for calculating radon concentration is given, and values for the exhalation of radon from concrete, brick and expanded clay pellet blocks are given. It is concluded that the models developed give a good picture of radiation levels indoors as a function of the radioactivity in the building materials. Criteria are given for radioactivity levels in building materials. (JIW)

  6. Human Resource Management & Knowledge-Based Management -- A study of HR practices in performance-related knowledge management

    Huang, KeKe

    2007-01-01

    Human resource management has increasingly become to a significant part of organizational management. The existing literatures related to Strategic HRM currently are closely referred to the resource-based view of the firm to explain and analyze the correlation between human capital and the sustention of competitive advantage. In view of resource-based development under the competitive dynamic environment, the economy has changed from the product-based to mainly knowledge-based. Knowledge-rela...

  7. Investigations on moisture damage-related behaviour of bituminous materials

    Bagampadde, Umaru

    2005-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents results of literature review on classical and contemporary aspects of stripping, as well as experimental investigations on moisture damage as influenced by bituminous materials. Previous research in the area of moisture damage was reviewed and synthesized into a state-of-the-art. Important parameters linked to moisture sensitivity, like bituminous material characteristics, dynamic loads from heavy vehicles, environmental factors, construction practice and nature ...

  8. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  9. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Highlights: → Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. → The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. → Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  10. Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.-----V tem članku raziskujemo prisotnost kolokacijskih odnosov v sistemih za računalniško podprto učenje in drugih jezikovnih virov za japonski jezik, na eni strani, in v materialih za učenje japonskega jezika za tujce, na drugi strani. Najprej predstavimo pomembnost učenja kolokacij v učenju tujega jezika, na kar preučimo njihov obseg v različnih virih za japonski jezik. Še posebej se osredotočimo na nekaj besednih zvez na začetniški ravni in pokažemo, kako so obravnavani v vsakem od virov. Posebna pozornost je namenjena nepredvidljivosti kolokacij, ki je povezana z večjim bremenom pri učenju tujih jezikov kot je to v primeru kolokacij, ki so učencem predvidljivi.  

  11. Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrologic Resources Management Program. Progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    This report describes the work done at Los Alamos in FY 1994 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program, a multi-organization project funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office. The authors participated in cooperative collaborations with University of California (UC), Berkeley, the Yucca Mountain Project, the Underground Test Area Operable Unit, and other participating organizations within the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP). They provided operational support to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) organizations by testing a water-evaporation system, championing the use of high-sensitivity logging equipment during drillbacks, and participating in the planning and execution of drilling operations at two nuclear test sites. Los Alamos personnel cooperated in preparing a proposal to drill beside and under a nuclear test located in unsaturated media. The authors gave assistance in laboratory work related to colloid migration and actinide sorption. In conjunction with personnel from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, they collected water samples from 10 wells at the NTS that are known to contain radionuclides. Their analyses of these samples suggest that radionuclides may not be moving away from cavity zones at appreciable rates. Recent field sampling shows clearly the need to purge wells of materials introduced during drilling and illustrates the inconsistency between water samples taken by bailing and those taken by pumping. 36 refs

  12. Unconformity-related uranium-gold deposits of northern Australia: Resources, genesis and exploration

    Australia has a uranium resource of 370 kt U3O8 (313 kt U) contained in unconformity-related deposits. Over 85% of this resource is located in the Alligator Rivers Province of the Northern Territory. In addition to uranium, several of the deposits here contain economic gold (38t have so far been delineated) and two contain major amounts of platinum-group metals. Uranium-gold deposits of the Alligator Rivers Provinces are in many ways similar to deposits of the Athabasca Basin in Saskatchewan (Canada). They are located at the unconformity between Mid Proterozoic clastic rocks and older metamorphic basement. Ore is associated with fault zones which in some cases transgress and offset the unconformity. Ore is enveloped by intense clay-sized phyllosilicate alteration haloes. Differences (i.e. lower grade, no ore in sandstone, no Ni-Co-As ore) can largely be attributed to the effects of extensive erosion and weathering which has exposed the Alligator Rivers deposits, and overall lack of exploration in areas of thick sandstone cover. All the known deposits in the Alligator Rivers Province were discovered by relatively simple airborne or ground radiometric surveys. Modern, geophysical methods as are routinely employed in Saskatchewan (such as airborne TEM), have not been tried in the Alligator Rivers Province. There has been a paucity of exploration in the Alligator Rivers Province in the past 15 years, as a result of creation of a national park over the most prospective area. (author). 31 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Sustainably Managing Natural Resources and the Need for Construction Materials in Pacific Island Countries : The Example of South Tarawa, Kiribati

    Babinard, Julie; Bennett, Christopher R.; Hatziolos, Marea E.; Faiz, Asif; Somani, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for construction materials in South Tarawa, a remote atoll in the South Pacific, provides an example of the environmental and social challenges associated with the use of non-renewable resources in the context of small island countries threatened by coastal erosion and climate change. In many small Pacific island countries, the availability of construction materials is limited, with the majority mined from beaches and coastal reefs in an unsustainable manner. Growing demand...

  14. The role of human resource management in open innovation: exploring the relation between HR practices and OI

    Paul, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    How do human resource practices strengthen open innovation activities? This inductive study of six cases led to propositions exploring that question. I thereby investigated the role of human resource management in open innovation, specifically the relation between HR practices and an employee's willingness to embrace open innovation.

  15. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  16. Technology-Related Research in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) Publications: A Review between 2000 and 2004

    Githens, Rod P.; Dirani, Khalil; Gitonga, Jacqueline; Teng, Ya-Ting; Benson, Angela D.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of technology has influenced human resource development (HRD) practitioners to embrace technology for both training and non-training interventions. This study examined technology-related articles in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) publications in order to understand what these articles address and the future needs of…

  17. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  18. Material flow account and analysis of environmental load from import of resources; Material furo kantei to shigen yunyu no kankyo fuka bunseki

    Moriguchi, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    A material flow account (MFA) for Japan was prepared on a trial basis in accordance with the MFA having been studied at the Wuppertal Institute. The MFA identifies both of flow amount of materials inputted from the Ecosphere into the Technosphere areas and flow amount of emission therefrom in the reverse direction, as well as balance between them. Other than solids flow, gaseous and aqueous flows are also dealt with. With regard to imported raw materials including minerals, an indirect MFA generated during a period from when these materials are taken out from natural environment in the exporting countries until when they are exported are added as an ecological rucksack. The MFA for Japan in fiscal 1990 was about 2.2 billion tons in an input total summing the imported resources and domestically available resources. Such construction materials as gravels and crushed stones occupy about half of the amount. The MFA in the exporting countries for which the imported resources of about 700 million tons were put into the `rucksack` is estimated about 2.4 billion tons. A rucksack for agricultural and forest products would also reach about 200 million tons. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  20. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authorita...

  1. MBE Growth and Properties of Zinc Selenide and Related Materials

    Ren, Jie Jack

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has been successfully employed to grow ZnSe and related alloys on GaAs (100) substrates. High quality ZnSe films were obtained which exhibited narrow x-ray rocking curves and good surface morphologies. Controlled substitutional doping was also studied. ZnCl_2 was used as a solid source of Cl for the preparation of n-type substitutionally -doped ZnSe films. The n-type ZnSe:Cl epilayers were highly conducting and exhibited bright blue-violet luminescence at room temperature. A Hall mobility of 2480 cm ^2/V.S at 40 K was measured for an n-type ZnSe:Cl film doped to a level of ~3 times 10^{17 } cm^{-3} and for which a compensation ratio N_{ rm A}/N_{rm D} ~ 4% was calculated. This is the highest mobility ever achieved for ZnSe doped to this level. P-type ZnSe films were prepared using Li or N as the substitutional dopant. The ZnSe:Li films exhibited photoluminescence spectra at 4 K dominated by an acceptor -bound exciton peak at 2.791 eV, providing clear evidence of p-type doping. The p-type character of ZnSe:N films was identified on the basis of a donor-acceptor pair recombination peak observed in photoluminescence spectra at low temperature. ZnSe n-channel field effect transistors (FETs) grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates have been successfully fabricated for the first time. Successful fabrication of ZnSe p-n junction light emitting diodes in which Li and Cl were used as p-type and n-type dopants, respectively, has also been achieved. These p-on-n structures emit blue light at room temperature. In addition, double heterostructures and multiquantum well structures composed of ZnSe-ZnSe_{0.9 }Te_{0.1}, ZnSe-Zn_{0.9}Cd _{0.1}Se, ZnSe-ZnS_ {0.1}Se_{0.9} and ZnS_{rm x}Se _{rm 1-x}-Zn _{rm 1-y}Cd_ {rm y}Se layers in which Li or N (p-type) and Cl (n-type) were used as dopants have been fabricated by MBE. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra were studied, and photopumped stimulated emission was demonstrated for all these structures. The double -heterostructures consisting of a multiple quantum well structure of ZnS_{rm x} Se_{rm 1-x} -Zn_{rm 1-y}Cd _{rm y}Se, with n-type and p-type ZnS_{rm x}Se _{rm 1-x} cladding layers, emit bright blue electroluminescence at 2.601 eV (476 nm) at room temperature. Finally, in seeking better control of the electrical properties of multilayered structures, both conventional and modulation-doped n-type ZnSe-ZnCdSe multilayered structures were fabricated. Successful modulation-doping was confirmed by Hall effect measurements. The research which comprises this thesis is expected to impact significantly on the areas of optoelectronics (blue-green LEDs and lasers), optical communications, optical computing, and information storage using magnetic and optical recording media. In addition, the work represents important advances in materials growth and characterization of wide band gap II-VI compound semiconductors.

  2. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  3. Fabrication of autoclavable bacteriologic loops for handling Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from recycled materials in a resource poor setting.

    Ochang, Ernest Afu

    2013-01-01

    In resource limited settings, the appropriation of scarce resources during research efforts can be daunting. Sourcing for disposable plastic bacteriological loops for manipulating M. tuberculosis had been eating into the research budget. In an attempt to reduce cost, an alternative and more cost effective way of obtaining autoclavable bacteriologic inoculation loops from used materials in the laboratory was employed. Autoclave resistant loops were prepared from polypropylene automatic pipette tips and platinum wires from electric stoves. The loop volume, when desired, was calculated using a simple mathematical equation after several passes in weighted water. Laboratories in resource poor settings could also save on inoculating loops by adopting such pragmatic approaches using recycled materials. PMID:23550202

  4. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

  5. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. Conclusions Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development.

  6. What should Marxism materialism propose to International Relations?

    Egni Malo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To argue for the acknowledgment of the importance of historical materialism today when the cold-war and communism have for more than two decades ceased to exist it might create the perception of appearing dejected. Yet such a task which we attempt to take in this work is possible, if only because of the way that our actuality has depicted itself. One can argue for example that the significance of historical materialism as an elucidating method was never reliant on the success of the authoritarian regimes of communism that gave it a face of their own, any more than has traditional conservatism been dependent on social Darwinism, racist or/and aggressive regimes. Beyond this indication we argue of the possibility that historical materialism can be recognised as explanatory system, as one that in derivation and maturity has as its focus of analysis and particularly lays emphasis on what more than ever before governs our social world today, capitalism. The cold war proved the ground or rather the fit for concealing the social and economic divide and made that division namely in competing strategic interest: with the failure of communism and the freeing of historical materialism itself, IR might as well accept the degree to which socio-economic issues determined its agenda and policy of the west.

  7. Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials

    Leschine, Susan; Warnick, Thomas A.

    2010-03-23

    Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

  8. SEARCHBreast: a new resource to locate and share surplus archival material from breast cancer animal models to help address the 3Rs.

    Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Morrissey, Bethny; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2016-04-01

    Animal models have contributed to our understanding of breast cancer, with publication of results in high-impact journals almost invariably requiring extensive in vivo experimentation. As such, many laboratories hold large collections of surplus animal material, with only a fraction being used in publications relating to the original projects. Despite being developed at considerable cost, this material is an invisible and hence an underutilised resource, which often ends up being discarded. Within the breast cancer research community there is both a need and desire to make this valuable material available for researchers. Lack of a coordinated system for visualisation and localisation of this has prevented progress. To fulfil this unmet need, we have developed a novel initiative called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources: Coordinating Holdings-Breast (SEARCHBreast) which facilitates sharing of archival tissue between researchers on a collaborative basis and, de facto will reduce overall usage of animal models in breast cancer research. A secure searchable database has been developed where researchers can find, share, or upload materials related to animal models of breast cancer, including genetic and transplant models. SEARCHBreast is a virtual compendium where the physical material remains with the original laboratory. A bioanalysis pipeline is being developed for the analysis of transcriptomics data associated with mouse models, allowing comparative study with human and cell line data. Additionally, SEARCHBreast is committed to promoting the use of humanised breast tissue models as replacement alternatives to animals. Access to this unique resource is freely available to all academic researchers following registration at https://searchbreast.org . PMID:27083180

  9. Functionalization of biomedical materials using plasma and related technologies

    Zhao, Ying; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-08-01

    Plasma techniques are important to biomedical engineering and surface modification. By modifying selective surface characteristics, conventional materials can be designed with superior biological properties while the favorable bulk materials properties can be retained. In this mini-review, recent progress pertaining to surface modification of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials by plasma-based techniques such as gas or metal ion implantation, dual metal and gas ion implantation, as well as plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is described. Plasma-based surface modification is promising in elevating the cell biocompatibility, blood compatibility, and antibacterial properties of Mg-based and polymer-based biomaterials and expected to be extensively applied to biomaterials.

  10. Swift heavy ion irradiation of titanium phosphate and related materials

    Amorphous and crystalline (both, ?- and ?-forms) titanium phosphate, titanium molybdate and tungstate were irradiated with swift heavy ions of 84Kr and 203Bi at a fluence of 5x1010-1014ioncm-2. The crystalline structure of the materials was characterized by XRD method before and after irradiation. Comparison of the powder diffraction patterns revealed that the irradiation had practically no effect on the materials with the exception of ?-crystalline structure. This structure was destroyed under the effect of radiation of 84Kr ions and became amorphous above the fluence of 1x1012ioncm-2. In case of irradiation with 203Bi ions it became amorphous at the lowest fluences applied

  11. Access and management of HIV-related diseases in resource-constrained settings: a workshop report.

    Dimba, Eao; Yengopal, V; Joshua, E; Thavarajah, R; Balasundaram, S

    2016-04-01

    With advancement of medical interventions, the lifespan of people living with HIV has increased globally. However, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) which bear the greatest burden of the HIV pandemic face a constant challenge in addressing the treatment needs of immune-suppressed patients. An analysis of the current management protocols and access to medication in resource-poor settings was conducted at this workshop, with emphasis on the situation in resource-poor settings. The participants developed a consensus document based on the need to respond to the constantly changing HIV pandemic. Provision of oral health care must be guided by interconnecting principles based on population based strategies that address upstream determinants of health. Basic oral health coverage in developing countries can only be realized with a strong foundation at the primary health level. Early diagnosis of HIV-related comorbidities including the adverse effects of ARVs is essential for the improvement of treatment outcomes. Standardization of oral health care delivery mechanisms will facilitate evaluation at national and regional levels. Oral health care workers have a moral obligation to participate in sustained campaigns to reduce the social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS in their work places at every stage of the referral chain. Future research also needs to realign itself towards prevention using the common risk factor approach, which has a broader impact on non-communicable diseases, which are increasingly affecting patients with HIV/AIDS as their life expectancies increase. PMID:27109288

  12. ARE OPPORTUNITIES DEMANDS AND RESOURCES RELATED TO STRESS ? A CRITICAL STUDY

    Harish .K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of us are aware that employee stress is an increasing problem in organizations. Friends tell us they’re stressed out from greater workloads and having to work longer hours because of downsizing at their company. Parents talk about the lack of job stability in today’s world and reminisce about a time when a job with a large company implied lifetime security. We read surveys in which employees complain about the stress created in trying to balance work and family responsibilities. We’ll look at the causes and consequences of stress, and then consider what individuals and organizations can do to reduce it. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

  13. Relation between physicomechanical properties and diffusion phenomena in composite materials

    One of the procedures for storing low and medium activity nuclear waste consists of coating the contaminated material in a thermosetting resin. The drums thus constitued are stored in concreted underground trenches, then covered with cement, bitumen or clayey soil. Although the risk of water circulation is low, this element represents on the one hand the major cause of natural deterioration of the polymer, and on the other hand the most likely vehicle for conveying the radioactive ions confined in the drums. It is for this reason that the study of the behaviour of polyester or epoxide-based macromolecular materials with regard to water constitutes the first stage of this work. The second part of the thesis is directed towards the study of compound materials. Indeed, the charges are represented in the first case by the nuclear waste itself; in the second case, they are introduced into the polymer beforehand, on the one hand to reduce costs, and on the other hand to give the mixture suitable mechanical and rheological properties. In this study, three types of mineral charge are added in an epoxide resin: glass balls surface-treated or not, and sand. Various techniques are implemented in order to assess and characterize the interfacial adhesion, in the different systems. The strongest polymer-charge bonds are sought in order to resist natural deterioration. Finally, the object of the confinement process, is to avoid dispersion of low and medium activity substances (137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 106Ru..) in the environment. The final stage of this work therefore consists in assessing the barrier qualities of pure or charged polymers with regard to radioactive ion diffusion. We will show in particular that the use of fine resin membranes enables the diffusion coefficient of the 137Cs to be calculated

  14. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  15. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173.173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS...

  16. Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources

    Cervencl, Anja; Alvarez Fernandez, Santiago

    2012-10-01

    The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering sites for Scaup in relation to available food resources. Data on the distribution of Scaup was obtained from annual aerial counts in January during 1999-2009. This data was related to benthos data of regular shellfish surveys in the sublittoral part of the western Dutch Wadden Sea. Boosted regression tree models were applied to quantify the relative importance of different potential prey items to explain the presence of Scaup. Scaup preferred sites with high abundances of small sized Mya arenaria. A negative influence on Scaup preference for sites with high abundances M. arenaria was found when there was a high abundance of large Cerastoderma edule at the sites, which increased Scaup searching time for M. arenaria.

  17. Energy dispersion relation for negative refraction (NR) materials

    Ben-Aryeh, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A general energy dispersion relation is developed for metamaterials having the negative-refraction (NR) property. It is shown that absorption effects are involved with NR phenomena, and the conditions under which NR occurs are discussed. Simple equations for NR are developed using Lorentzian models.

  18. Material relations for a relativistic fluid with nonlocality

    Dinariev, O. Iu.

    An expression is obtained for the energy-momentum tensor of a fluid with nonlocality in the framework of special relativity. The dissipative fluxes are found in the framework of the linear approximation. Eckart's (1940) approach is used in constructing the relativistic hydrodynamics.

  19. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  20. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  1. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-04-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  2. The importance of material resources and qualified trainers in adult non-formal education and training centres in South Africa

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2016-03-01

    Non-formal education and training (NFET) programmes in public and private centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education which would have fostered skills acquisition and access to employment earlier in their lives. The concern which informs this paper is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills often remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. The paper assesses the extent to which material and human resources have affected skills acquisition and graduate employment in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results show that material and human resource challenges in most public and some private centres have led to gaps in skills training. Programmes focus too strongly on academic credits and certificates and not enough on employment as an end goal. The authors argue that the existence of suitable training materials and qualified trainers with practical experience and specific technical skills constitutes favourable conditions ("enabling environments") for graduate employment. Without improvement in material and human resources, adult trainees will continue to experience difficulties integrating into the labour market, and the cycle of poverty and social exclusion will remain unbroken.

  3. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.; Raats, Monique M.; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

    homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed...... food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but...... also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals....

  4. Services of radiological protection: as sizing the human and material resources

    Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)

  5. 29 CFR 1208.5 - Material relating to mediation function-confidential.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material relating to mediation function-confidential. 1208.5 Section 1208.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1208.5 Material relating to mediation function—confidential. (a) All...

  6. White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations.

    Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Arola, Lluis; van Erk, Marjan; van Ommen, Ben; Radonjic, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a physiological aspect that determines WAT health status. Following this principle, five anti-diabetic drug interventions and one diet intervention were scored for the match of their expression signature to the five biomarker signatures derived from the WATRefNet. This confirmed previous observations of successful intervention by dietary lifestyle and revealed WAT-specific effects of drug interventions. The WATRefNet represents a sustainable knowledge resource for extraction of relevant relationships such as mechanisms of action, nutrient intervention targets and biomarkers and for assessment of health effects for support of health claims made on food products. PMID:25466819

  7. Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources

    Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources is devided into the aspects of 1) geology, 2) potential energic mineral, 3) potential radioactive mineral, and 4) nuclear technigue application in exploration. Schematically, geology of Indonesia in composed by 1) mineralogical infertile area of subduction zone, 2) agricultural fertile land of volcanic arc, 3) possible nuclear energy resources area of old magmatic arc -metamorphic rock, and 4) tertiary basin sediment which is highly potential for oil, gas and coal. Considering its geologic and environmental components, there are 13 blocks which are potential for base metalic minerals, and all of the blocks exist in the magmatic belts. Based on their genetic environment, a base metal map could be made consisting of 1) acid igneous rock environment where Cu, Au and Pb metals could be obtained, 2) volcanic environmet, 3) ultra-basic rock environment where Ni, Co and Cr metals could be obtained, and 4) sediment rock environment where Cu, Au, Pb and Zn metals could be obtained. Radioactive minerals in Kalan (west Kalimantan) and Sumatra were formed in continental granite environment. Radioactive mineral survey on metamorphic rock in granitic belt had been done. Because of Australian plate which is rich of radioactive minerals is subducting under the east part of Maluku and Irian Jaya islands, it could be expected that those islands contain radioactive minerals. Nuclear technique in exploration has been used for 1) detecting of dam leakage, 2) logging in drilling for oil and coal, 3) determining the volcanic activity gradient using radioactive gas, 4) radioactive airbone survey for metallic mineral exploration, and 5) predicting earthquake caused by fault/volcano by measuring their radioactive gas released. (author). 1 refs, 2 figs

  8. Contributive research in compound semiconductor material and related devices

    Twist, James R.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this program was to provide the Electronic Device Branch (AFWAL/AADR) with the support needed to perform state of the art electronic device research. In the process of managing and performing on the project, UES has provided a wide variety of scientific and engineering talent who worked in-house for the Avionics Laboratory. These personnel worked on many different types of research programs from gas phase microwave driven lasers, CVD and MOCVD of electronic materials to Electronic Device Technology for new devices. The fields of research included MBE and theoretical research in this novel growth technique. Much of the work was slanted towards the rapidly developing technology of GaAs and the general thrust of the research that these tasks started has remained constant. This work was started because the Avionics Laboratory saw a chance to advance the knowledge and level of the current device technology by working in the compounds semiconductor field. UES is pleased to have had the opportunity to perform on this program and is looking forward to future efforts with the Avionics Laboratory.

  9. CaTiO3 RELATED MATERIALS FOR RESONATORS

    L. TaIbi - Benziada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics of Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb are prepared from mixtures of CaTiO3, MF2 and LiF powders by sintering at 950°C for 4 hours in free-air. The samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric measurements. The phase transitions of pure CaTiO3 are strongly influenced by the incorporation of the fluoride mixture MF2 + LiF into the host lattice whereas the orthorhombic symmetry at room temperature is not at all affected by the chemical substitutions Ca-M, Ti-Li and O-F. The dielectric permittivity e'r and losses tand are slightly dependent of temperature between 20°C and 200°C. At room temperature, e'r is stable over a large frequency range with tand < 1%. The Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb oxyfluorides are promising materials to manufacture resonators.

  10. Is Melatonin Protective in Contrast Material Related Renal Failure?

    Ozum Tuncyurek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the renal injury resulting from radiocontrast media and myoglobinuria in male Wistar albino rats. Material and Method: 50% glycerol at equal amounts was intramuscularly administered to both hind legs of all animals under ether anesthesia at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Three hours later, the groups were administered the following: Group I (number:7: Iopromide(Ultravist -300® at the dose of 2 ml/kg (intracardiac; Group II (number:7: Iopromide(Ultravist -300® and intraperitoneally administered Melatonin at the dose of 10 mg/kg (Melatonin was dissolved in 7.5% absolute ethanol and further dilutions were made in saline.; and Group III (number:7: 2 ml/kg of sterile physiologic saline (Control group. The levels of Uurea, Ccreatinine and Ccystatin C were studied on the blood samples collected. The renal samples were evaluated by 2two distinct pathologists who did not know the protocol. Results: There was no difference in the values of Creatinine and cystatin c between Groups 2 and 3 (p=0.9; 0.2. Discussion: In conclusion, we evaluated the possible prevention of contrast-induced oxidative stress in the kidney with using melatonin. However, additional clinical studies are needed to evaluate the role of preventive melatonin treatment in humans.

  11. Relative local density of states for homogeneous lossy materials

    Nicorovici, N.-A.P. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McPhedran, R.C., E-mail: ross@physics.usyd.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Botten, L.C. [CUDOS and Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    We derive the appropriate form of the relative local density of states (RLDOS) for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous lossy medium, and give the corresponding result for the three-dimensional equation. The RLDOS enables the calculation of the enhancement or suppression of the energy radiated in the form of transverse electromagnetic waves by a localized source in the medium, and so would be useful in studies of either electromagnetic communication from inside a cloaking system or detection of the cloaking system by radiation from thermally excited atoms within it.

  12. Long-term relationships of major macro-variables in a resource-related economic model of Australia

    The paper reports the results of a simple cointegration analysis applied to bivariate causality models using data on resource output, oil prices, terms of trade, current account and output growth to investigate the long-term relationships among these major macroeconomic aggregates in a resource-related economic model of Australia. For the period 1960-1990, the empirical evidence indicates that these five macro-variables, as formulated in our model, are not random walks. In addition, resource production and oil prices are significantly cointegrated, and they are also significantly cointegrated with the current account, terms of trade and economic growth. These findings provide support to the long-term adjustments foundation of our resource-related model. (author)

  13. Using closely-related language to build an ASR for a very under-resourced language: Iban

    Juan, Sarah Samson; Besacier, Laurent; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Tien Ping, Tan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our work on automatic speech recognition system (ASR) for an under-resourced language, Iban, a language that is mainly spoken in Sarawak, Malaysia. We collected 8 hours of data to begin this study due to no resources for ASR exist. We employed bootstrapping techniques involving a closely-related language for rapidly building and improve an Iban system. First, we used already available data from Malay, a local dominant language in Malaysia, to bootstrap grapheme-to-phoneme...

  14. Failure of school project: the role of social, material, behavioural, physical and mental resources among multi-cultural students.

    Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Youth context require social-material-behavioral-mental resources to realize school achievement and their community participation, but they are lacking or altered for many adolescents. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed the associations of these factors with repeating a school year, low school-performance, and quitting-school thinking at 16 years. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including: sex, age, family st...

  15. BioCreative V CDR task corpus: a resource for chemical disease relation extraction.

    Li, Jiao; Sun, Yueping; Johnson, Robin J; Sciaky, Daniela; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Wiegers, Thomas C; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Community-run, formal evaluations and manually annotated text corpora are critically important for advancing biomedical text-mining research. Recently in BioCreative V, a new challenge was organized for the tasks of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. Given the nature of both tasks, a test collection is required to contain both disease/chemical annotations and relation annotations in the same set of articles. Despite previous efforts in biomedical corpus construction, none was found to be sufficient for the task. Thus, we developed our own corpus called BC5CDR during the challenge by inviting a team of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexers for disease/chemical entity annotation and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) curators for CID relation annotation. To ensure high annotation quality and productivity, detailed annotation guidelines and automatic annotation tools were provided. The resulting BC5CDR corpus consists of 1500 PubMed articles with 4409 annotated chemicals, 5818 diseases and 3116 chemical-disease interactions. Each entity annotation includes both the mention text spans and normalized concept identifiers, using MeSH as the controlled vocabulary. To ensure accuracy, the entities were first captured independently by two annotators followed by a consensus annotation: The average inter-annotator agreement (IAA) scores were 87.49% and 96.05% for the disease and chemicals, respectively, in the test set according to the Jaccard similarity coefficient. Our corpus was successfully used for the BioCreative V challenge tasks and should serve as a valuable resource for the text-mining research community.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-3-cdr/. PMID:27161011

  16. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, II: Instructional Materials Available.

    Austin, John H.

    This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…

  17. Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies

  18. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE AS A SYSTEM OF SOCIAL AND STRATIFICATION RELATIONS OF RESOURCES OWNERS COALITION

    O. Shevchuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coverage of the issues connected with the transformation of the elite at the microlevel of the industrial enterprises in the scientific and professional economic sources have caused the relevance of the article, the logic of its presentation and its purpose.The basis of the research is the principle of subordination, the main criterion of which is the subordination of the system elements based on inequality. It is the hierarchical stratification system of industrial enter­prises.It is determined that the basis of inequality, from the point of view of the theory of human capital, are three signs of social differentiation of the development of human capital, namely: the incorporation, institutional and objective forms of human capital.It is proved that the process of the establishment formation at the enterprises is closely linked with the existing problems of unequal oppor­tunities and the results of their reproduction at the various stages of the life cycle of the economic entities in socioeconomic space.With a view to determining the hierarchical structure of the industrial enterprise, it is proposed to consider it as a system of sociostratification relations between the coalition of resources owners, providing a coalition of interests. This approach gives the possibility for the realization of socio-stratification classification of workers.

  19. Managing, marketing, maximising : creating an information resources development policy to further academic-library relations

    Kendlin, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a school information resources development policy and illustrates how these policies can be used to further liaison among academic libraries, to market library resources to our users and to ensure that library purchases accurately reflect the teaching and research needs of each school.

  20. Swelling, stiffness, and stress in gel material - as related to moisture sorption

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented by which estimates can be made on swelling, bulk modulus, and internal stresses in gel materials as related to water sorption. Porous gel materials are considered as gel materials made porous by capillary pores large enough not to create capillary condensation and capillary...

  1. Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators.

    Haberl, Helmut; Steinberger, Julia K; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gaube, Veronika; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-12-01

    Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. 'Embodied HANPP' (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism. PMID:23470886

  2. Variabilities in the mortality-related resource utilisation for congenital heart disease

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kutty, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. Methods Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004–2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV). There were no interventions but diagnosis, institution (and volume), age, length of hospitalisation, billed charges and deaths were recorded. The main outcome measure was MRRUF, the ratio of investments during hospitalisations ending in fatality to investments during all hospitalisations. Results There were 50 939 admissions, 1711 deaths, 703 383 inpatient days, and $10 182 000 000 billed charges. MRRUF varied widely by diagnosis: highest in HLHS (21%), but present in ASD (2%) and VSD (4%). Highest among the very young, MRRUF also increased in HLHS and SV during adolescence. MRRUF increased with hospitalisation duration. MRRUF had no relation to institutional volume, and was static over the decade studied. Conclusions Even in the modern era we invest heavily in inpatient CHD care that does not produce the desired outcome. Although its magnitude varies by lesion and age, MRRUF is not limited to complex disease in the very young. MRRUF is not decreasing, and is not isolated to high or low volume institutions. PMID:27175289

  3. Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance

    Fei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organizations use balanced developed leadership pattern is far higher than other three leadership patterns. Different human resource system is adopted according to different leadership pattern. When different leadership pattern matches with human resource system, organization performance will prominently be varied. Furthermore, human resource system must be fit with organization situational factor.

  4. What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?

    Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

  5. Consumer Education Resources Catalog. 16mm Films, Multi Media Kits, Video Cassettes, Simulations & Games, Printed Material.

    Jones, Sandra; Bannister, Rosella

    This catalog lists teaching-learning resources available for preview at the Michigan Consumer Education Center. A subject index to multi-media identifies titles of films, video casettes, multi-media kits, and games under seven specific subjects. These are (1) Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior, (2) Money Management and Credit, (3) Buying and…

  6. Resource sharing of online teaching materials: The lon-capa project

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    The use of information technology resources in conventional lecture-based courses, in distance-learning offerings, as well as hybrid courses, is increasing. But this may put additional burden on faculty, who are now asked to deliver this new content. Additionally, it may require the installation of commercial courseware systems, putting the colleges and universities in new financial licensing dependencies. To address exactly these two problems, the lon-capa system was invented to provide an open-source, gnu public license based, courseware system that allows for sharing of educational resources across institutional and disciplinary boundaries. This presentation will focus on both aspects of the system, the courseware capabilities that allow for customized environments for individual students, and the educational resources library that enables teachers to take full advantages of the work of their colleagues. Research results on learning effectiveness, resource and system usage patterns, and customization for different learning styles will be shown. Institutional perceptions of and responses to open source courseware systems will be discussed.

  7. The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua

    Tesler Laura E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to respond to struggles collectively has been put at risk as well. Bi-lateral and multilateral agencies need to take into account local needs and demands, and implement policies in a manner that respects national laws, and protects both the physical and social well-being of individuals.

  8. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  9. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives

  10. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research

    Seiler, Catherine Y.; Park, Jin G.; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collabora...

  11. Actual question of marketing procurement, planning needs material resources for industrial enterprises

    N.V. Rozumnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available From the marketing effectiveness of procurement depends not only on obtaining and maximizing profits, but the main thing - the competitiveness of products, opportunities for the development of an industrial enterprise in the long term. The article analyzes the current trends of development of procurement logistics, practical recommendations on selection of the planning system needs physical resources, optimizing the cost of your order and support the size of the stocks of industrial companies.

  12. Relative Abundance of Renewable Resources in Asia and Europe and the Future Demand for Renewable Technologies

    Danielsson, Peter [European Renewable Energies Federation (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In Europe and in many other parts of the world, energy consumption has reached unsustainable levels. As such, efforts must be made both to expand the use of renewable energy and to reduce the total level of energy consumption. If there are any pertinent driving forces for this, they would be the need to reduce harmful emissions; to increase sustainable energy supply, security, poverty, eradication and access to dignity for billions of people - the ending of a vicious circle of exploitation of scarce natural resources for inefficient energy use. Most European nations belong to the relatively small group of wealthy countries enjoying a comparatively high standard of living. They comprise of approximately 20% of the world's population, producing 80% of the world's GNP, while at the same time, consuming 60% of the world's energy, Ironically, more than half of the world's population, or close to 3 billion people, have almost no access to energy services - 1.2 billion live in Asia. There is, however, enough renewable energy flow worldwide to meet all demands. Renewable energies in general now provide some 14% of the world's primary energy and is mostly covered by traditional biomass. In the field of electricity, where renewables account for 20% worldwide, it is mostly hydropower which is used as source. We need a rapid and courageous worldwide change towards an energy-efficient, Renewable Energy Systems powered energy. Asia already offers a set of successful initiatives and examples of how renewables can be promoted. Some countries have set national targets for the future share of renewable energy. Targets are an excellent strategy to demonstrate political willingness and create a stimulating investment climate for the private sector. Financing schemes, adapted to regional situations, in particular microfinance systems, demonstrate how small-scale installations of renewables could become affordable to the population.

  13. Home Range Size Variation in Female Arctic Grizzly Bears Relative to Reproductive Status and Resource Availability

    Edwards, Mark A.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Nagy, John A.

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal’s home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus ar...

  14. Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance

    Fei Guan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organizations ...

  15. THE MODERATING EFFECT OF SLACK RESOURCES ON THE RELATION BETWEEN QM AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

    MORENO, ANTONIA RUIZ; Fernandez, Luis Miguel Molina; MONTES, FRANCISCO JAVIER LLORENS

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature in the strategic management field suggests that firms must learn to re-bundle internal competencies and resources in order to achieve competitive advantages. This paper examines how firms employ slack resources to enhance the relationship between quality management (QM) and organizational learning to obtain sustainable competitive advantages. Using empirical data gathered from 202 Chief Executive Officers (CEOs), the findings support the hypotheses that: ...

  16. Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran

    N Rouhani; Yang, H.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Physics Department, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China); S Amin Sichani; M. Afyuni; S.F Mousavi; A. A. Kamgar Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM) and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress...

  17. Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development

    Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere. Hydrogeochemical conditions were defined on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 16 chemical parameters. Quite wide variations in geochemistry were encountered, with evolved groundwater types affected by cation exchange or mixing with sea water. Groundwater residence time can thus be quite long, which may be due to the relatively high porosity (5-10%) of the rock. Methane is of mixed origin and preferentially associated with evolved water types. SALTFLOW, a variable-density flow and mass transport simulator, was used to represent the peninsula as well as the adjacent highlands in a 2D vertical section model. The interaction of the highland and peninsula recharge leads to nested flow systems with converging-diverging flow conditions under the peninsula, with a relatively shallow active flow zone. The observed and simulated conditions support a conceptual model that can be used to infer the level of risk for groundwater quality related to oil and gas industry activities.

  18. Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs

    Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

  19. The Relation between Human Resource Management (HRM) Strategies and Job Loyalty as Practiced at the Public Relations (PR's) Units in the Government Ministries of Jordan

    Akif Lutfi Al-Khasawneh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between human resource management strategies (selection, training, evaluation, safety & security, and motivation) as practiced at the public Relations department in the Government Ministries of Jordan and job loyalty (job). The study employed the questionnaire for data gathering and SPSS program for processing. A representative inclusive to all PR's employees (N=145) and major findings were: 1. Low satisfaction level among PR's employees regarding HRM...

  20. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  1. RCRA Sustainable Materials Management Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a broad variety of documents, descriptive data, technical analyses and guidance materials relative to voluntary improvements in resource...

  2. Vector of development of prospecting branch in the conditions of exhaustion of raw material resources

    Andrei Zastypov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustion of oil resources in many oil-extracting regions staticizes a problem of development of mechanisms of economic incentives of activity of the prospecting companies, effective regulation of tax system and its adaptation to needs of development of oil-extracting and prospecting branches. Offers on rational use of investment means in geological exploration and to justification of administrative decisions are considered. The main questions of tax and investment incentives of activity in the subsurface use sphere in the conditions of insufficiency of financing of prospecting works are taken up.

  3. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  4. Relative inequality in energy resource consumption: a case of Kanvashram village, Pauri Garhwal district, Uttranchall (India)

    Fernandez, E.; Saini, R.P.; Devadas, V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2005-04-01

    Energy planning exercises for rural areas make use of a mix of locally available renewable resources with some commercial resources to cater to the energy needs of the population. Such exercises are economically attractive in developing countries, whereby, the foreign exchange reserves for the purchase of commercial energy is curtailed. The first step in the implementation of an energy planning exercise is to understand the energy consumption and utilization habits of the population being served. Frequently, an assessment of the levels of inequality in the consumption of various resources is necessary as, this provides the rural planner with an understanding of the future trends and thus forearms him with strategic alternatives to combat any future energy resource crisis that the trends seem to imply. In the present paper, an attempt is made to assess the level of energy resource consumption inequality in a typical hilly rural Indian village. The Gini Coefficient of Inequality, a measure of inequality in the field of Econometrics has been applied for this assessment. The population is segregated into different categories based on their income levels and certain socio-economic criteria, which are also felt to exercise an influence on consumption levels of energy. The results of the analysis are then discussed in the light of the findings. (author)

  5. 1980 MRDAC Resource Library Annotated Bibliography.

    Douglas, Betsy, Comp.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography lists books, films, filmstrips, recordings, and audio-visual aids which can be used as resources or instructional materials. The first section presents background and references materials on affirmative action, civil rights, desegregation, education, human relations, and race relations. Instructional resources on…

  6. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society...... have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment of......, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  7. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Nuclear fuel cycle issues

    The range of issues relating to exemption and clearance within the nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. It is concluded that current regulatory systems and the underpinning technical criteria are potentially inflexible and over-conservative, resulting in an imbalance in the use of society's resources. Proposals are developed for establishing practical requirements which would ensure that resource allocation is commensurate with the magnitude of the risks and in broad proportion to the other risks affecting society. Such an approach would be consistent with the concept of sustainability and could support wider public acceptance of these issues. Within this approach the practical distinction between exemption and clearance is challenged. (author)

  8. [Human resources in Latin America: a historical focus on the relations among population, education, and employment].

    Oteiza, E

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of human resources has a history of almost 3 decades in Latin America. This method of assessing temporary and structural balances and imbalances between population, education, and employment began in the 1960s with recognition of the role of education in development. The human resources perspective tended to be centered more on the availability or supply of resources as affected by educational planning than on occupational requirements or demand. It was also centered on problems of educational investment and planning, leaving aside other basic aspects of human resources development such as health or nutrition. The notion of human resources has progressed in Latin America from imitation of the educational systems of the industrialized countries to attempts to project future occupational structures in Latin America and to adjust training and educational programs accordingly. But longterm projection of occupational structures is very difficult in Latin America primarily because of the unstable and dependent status of Latin American economies which leave them at the mercy of changes in the central countries. A series of studies in the mid-1970s argued for the need to revise the dominant development strategies in order to eliminate poverty within 50 years, implying increased attention to human resources. The economic crisis of the 1970s and beyond had deflected attention away from the actions necessary to reach this goal. Latin America, despite considerable economic progress and modernization, still is incapable of providing productive employment for a large proportion of its population. Around 50% of the economically active population was unemployed or underemployed in 1980. Recent studies have revealed several peculiarities in the occupational dynamics of countries, and they never have the proportion of highly skilled workers that the developed countries do. Urbanization and growth of the tertiary sector are rapid. Where agriculture has modernized, rural employment has declined abruptly. The residual category of labor in the informal sector is large and growing rapidly in countries of the region. These distortions express the structural incapacity of economies on the region to employ their available human resources in a context of rapid population growth and considerable (though still insufficient) investment in education. A different development strategy, oriented toward satisfaction of basic needs of the population, would mobilize human resources and create employment. In the case of educaiton, available data point to a continuing disarticulation between population dynamics, employment, and education. The existence of some 40 million illiterates in Latin America and the Caribbean and the wasted investment in large numbers of highly educated persons who either emigrate or remain underemployed in their own countries express 2 facets of this problem. PMID:12284020

  9. Hydrotreating catalysts containing zeolites and related materials. Mechanistic aspects related to deep desulfurization

    Perot, G. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR 6503, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2003-11-01

    The deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of diesel fuels requires the decomposition of refractory compounds such as 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (46DMDBT). There is a general agreement on the fact that the low reactivity of these compounds is due to steric hindrance of the transition state leading to C-S bond cleavage, which annihilates the effect of the promoter to a large extent. The consequence is that their so-called 'direct desulfurization pathway' is particularly inhibited. Various issues were considered to circumvent the difficulty to eliminate the HDS-resistant molecules and therefore to reach deep desulfurization. Two of them at least consist in designing new hydrotreating catalysts (in addition to the improvement of the alumina-supported conventional catalysts): (1) catalysts with improved hydrogenation properties; and (2) bifunctional catalysts containing an acid component. The main findings obtained with the first class of catalysts are summarized. On these catalysts HDS was found very sensitive to the inhibition by aromatics. The studies regarding the second category of catalysts are analyzed in more detail. Several techniques were used to introduce acid components, including mesoporous materials, in hydrotreating catalysts: physical mixing, binding, deposition of sulfide precursors on an acid-alumina support, deposition of sulfide precursors on an acidic support. Most of these catalysts were found more active than conventional catalysts in the HDS of compounds such as 46DMDBT. The various interpretations of the effect of the acid component are reported and discussed. It is however generally accepted that the improvement of the reactivity, on this category of catalysts, of the HDS-resistant compounds is due to their acid-catalyzed isomerization and disproportionation into more reactive derivatives. When acidic materials were used directly as supports it was difficult to obtain a good association of, for instance, molybdenum, with promoters. Nevertheless, in certain cases catalysts were obtained which were more active than conventional catalysts in the HDS of compounds such as 46DMDBT or of gas oils containing such impurities. However although the catalysts containing acid components proved efficient in hydrotreating various kinds of oils, they suffer several drawbacks such as deactivation by coke deposition and inhibition of HDS by aromatics. Moreover nitrogen impurities which inhibit HDS even with conventional catalysts may also impede seriously their use in practice.

  10. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  11. Spin-Orbit Physics Giving Rise to Novel Phases in Correlated Systems: Iridates and Related Materials

    Rau, Jeffrey G.; Lee, Eric Kin-Ho; Kee, Hae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in correlated materials have become one of the most actively studied subjects in condensed matter physics, as correlations and SOC together can lead to the discovery of new phases. Among candidate materials, iridium oxides (iridates) have been an excellent playground to uncover such novel phenomena. In this review, we discuss recent progress in iridates and related materials, focusing on the basic concepts, relevant microscopic Hamiltonians, ...

  12. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  13. Bionanocomposites from renewable resources: epoxidized linseed oil-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes hybrid materials.

    Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Joan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

    2006-12-01

    This study is concerned with the preparation and properties of a new class of bionanocomposites from renewable resources. Epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) and 3-glycidylpropylheptaisobutyl-T8-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (G-POSS) (2, 5, and 10 wt %) were cross-linked, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the POSS-reinforced oil-based polymer networks. No POSS aggregates were observed for the 2 wt % G-POSS nanocomposite by SEM. POSS-rich particles with diameters of several nanometers were observed in the nanocomposites with 5 and 10 wt % G-POSS. Enhanced glass transition temperatures and storage moduli of the networks in the glassy state and rubber plateau were observed to be higher than those of the POSS-free oil based polymer network, due to the reinforcement effect of POSS cages. PMID:17154483

  14. Nuclear power plant life management: Materials and components, research, human resource, radwaste and regulatory aspects

    Aspects concerning nuclear power plant (NPP) life management (PLiM) programmes are examined. The objectives of PLiM and their influence on safety and operation are presented in terms of potential gains in safety, reliability and performance of systems, structures and components (SSCs) by giving due emphasis to social and economic considerations. A nuclear plant implementing a PLiM programme needs state of science and technology information and approaches as well as availability of well trained personnel in sufficient numbers to achieve safe and optimized operating life of the NPP. Accordingly, the importance of succession planning for assuring trained human resources, knowledge management and the need for continued research in all fields of nuclear power generation are highlighted in the paper. (author)

  15. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material for... Impact. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Hickman, Division of Waste Management and Environmental...). The engineered features include an engineered cover, liners and leachate monitoring systems....

  16. Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons

    Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete

  17. Influence of surface chemistry on the electronic properties of graphene related carbon materials

    Chutia, Arunabhirm; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Miyamotob, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study on the influence of organic functional groups on the electronic properties of graphene related carbon materials was carried out. Here we report, using density functional theory and tight-binding approach, that the best candidates for conducting supramolecular devices can be obtained by engineering the surface chemistry and stacking conformation of these materials.

  18. Annotated Bibliography of Materials Relating to the Evolution-Creationism Controversy.

    Haughton, Buzz

    In examining the literature on materials relating to the evolution-creationism controversy, it was found that there have been no comprehensive bibliographies compiled since the early 1980s. This paper presents an annotated bibliography on the creationism-evolution controversy including materials published or made available since 1980. (ASK)

  19. Relations between Faculty Use of Online Academic Resources and Student Class Attendance

    Kinlaw, C. Ryan; Dunlap, Linda L.; D'Angelo, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated connections between faculty use of online resources and student class attendance. Of particular interest was whether online submission of course assignments is detrimental to attendance. Students and faculty at a small, liberal arts college completed surveys about student attendance patterns, student reasons for non-attendance,…

  20. Resource Allocation Practices in Three Charter Middle Schools in Relation to Student Achievement Improvement Strategies

    Campo-Contreras, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a better understanding of the allocation of resources used to improve student learning outcomes in three middle schools within a Charter Management Organization (CMO). The three middle schools that participated in the study have similar demographics and serve students in low socio-economic areas of Los…

  1. Coping strategies in relation with personality resources of resilience and possibilities of intervention in adolescents

    Karaffová, Eva

    Oslo : NPA, 2009. s. 1-1. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 14.07.2009-17.07. 2009, Oslo] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : prevention of stress * personality resources * coping strategies Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy

    Leland, Anna E.

    2009-11-01

    An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

  3. Legal issues related to geopressured-geothermal resource development. Geopressured-geothermal technical paper No. 1

    1979-07-01

    The legal aspects of geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are discussed. Many of the legal issues associated with geopressured-geothermal development in Texas are unsettled and represent areas of developing policy and law. Lawsuits can be expected either before or shortly after the first commercial development of geopressured-geothermal resources.

  4. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer-Based and Traditional Resources for Education in Anatomy

    Khot, Zaid; Quinlan, Kaitlyn; Norman, Geoffrey R.; Wainman, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing use of computer-based resources to teach anatomy, although no study has compared computer-based learning to traditional. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of three formats of anatomy learning: (1) a virtual reality (VR) computer-based module, (2) a static computer-based module providing Key Views (KV), (3) a plastic…

  5. Human Resource Management Strategies and Teacher's Efficiency within Schools: A Co-Relational Study

    Hashmi, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study Human Resource Management and Development (HRMD) strategies and their effect on teachers' efficiency within the Catholic Board of Education (CBE) schools of Pakistan whose teachers are graduates in educational leadership courses from a private teacher education institutes in Karachi. The study endeavored to build a…

  6. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study

    Nadia Ferreira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

  7. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  8. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a controlled ecological life support system

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  9. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study

    This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

  10. <> Relative Importance of Human Resource Management Practices for a Firm’s Innovation Performance

    Arvanitis, Spyridon; Seliger, Florian; Stucki, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Human resource management (HRM) practices are generally expected to stimulate a firm's innovation performance. However, which of these practices do really pay off? Based on a unique dataset that includes detailed information for both a firm's innovation activities and different types of HRM practices we find that primarily new workplace organization practices seem to enhance a firm's innovation activities. Flexible practices of working time management and incentive payment schemes show only s...

  11. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M), cow pea sole crop (C), within row intercropping (I1), row intercropping (I2) and mix cropping (I3). The density of intercropping w...

  12. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean region. PMID:25988125

  13. Natural Resources – Food Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and producti...

  14. The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    2001-01-01

    With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization ...

  15. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family. PMID:23844162

  16. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  17. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  18. Sea Sources. Bibliographic and Resource Material of Children's Literature of the Sea.

    Bagnall, Norma

    Writers have often used the sea as background or as a theme in writing for children since it is a natural setting for adventure or exploration and has an attractiveness for all of us. Included in this bibliography is a representative listing of books related to the seas and inland waters, individual stories and poems which have a bearing on sea…

  19. Practicing Human Resource strategy: Understanding the relational dynamcis in strategic HR work by means of a narrative approach

    Kaudela-Baum, Stephanie; Endrissat, Nada

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative research project aimed at examining how Human Resource (HR) practitioners interpret HR strategy and strategic change. We will illustrate how they develop HR strategy by relying on a system of shared practices which, in turn, constitute the underlying relational dynamics. We argue that HR strategy is embedded in a (rhetorical) network of middle and top managers from HR departments and corresponding operational departments. This implies that HR...

  20. Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Fisheries Resources Found in Beach Seine along the Central Coast of Ghana

    Aggrey-Fynn, J.; Sackey-Mensah, R.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and relative species abundance of fisheries resources were studied from Winneba to Cape Coast on the central coast of Ghana during December 2007 to May 2009. Samples of organisms were collected at random from beach seine landings during the study period. The fishes were counted and identified to the family and species levels. Ecological indices such as Shannon-Wiener diversity index, equitability and Sørenson’s similarity index were used to analyse the data. Specimen...

  1. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  2. Sinks as limited resources? A new indicator for evaluating anthropogenic material flows.

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Chen, Sih-Rong

    2014-11-01

    Besides recyclables, the use of materials inevitably yields non-recyclable materials such as emissions and wastes for disposal. These flows must be directed to sinks in a way that no adverse effects arise for humans and the environment. The objective of this paper is to present a new indicator for the assessment of substance flows to sinks on a regional scale. The indicator quantifies the environmentally acceptable mass share of a substance in actual waste and emission flows, ranging from 0% as worst case to 100% as best case. This paper consists of three parts: first, the indicator is defined. Second, a methodology to determine the indicator score is presented, including (i) substance flows analysis and (ii) a distant-to-target approach based on an adaptation of the Ecological Scarcity Method 2006. Third, the metric developed is applied in three case studies including copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the city of Vienna, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Switzerland. The following results were obtained: in Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to geogenic and anthropogenic sinks are acceptable when evaluated by the distant-to-target approach. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters are beyond the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, and 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The examples demonstrate the need (i) for appropriate data of good quality to calculate the sink indicator and (ii) for standards, needed for the assessment of substance flows to urban soils and receiving waters. This study corroborates that the new indicator is well suited as a base for decisions regarding the control of hazardous substances in waste and environmental management. PMID:25368543

  3. Applying Semantic Web technologies to improve the retrieval, credibility and use of health-related web resources.

    Mayer, Miguel A; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Kukurikos, Antonis; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Villarroel, Dagmar; Leis, Angela

    2011-06-01

    The number of health-related websites is increasing day-by-day; however, their quality is variable and difficult to assess. Various "trust marks" and filtering portals have been created in order to assist consumers in retrieving quality medical information. Consumers are using search engines as the main tool to get health information; however, the major problem is that the meaning of the web content is not machine-readable in the sense that computers cannot understand words and sentences as humans can. In addition, trust marks are invisible to search engines, thus limiting their usefulness in practice. During the last five years there have been different attempts to use Semantic Web tools to label health-related web resources to help internet users identify trustworthy resources. This paper discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied in practice to generate machine-readable labels and display their content, as well as to empower end-users by providing them with the infrastructure for expressing and sharing their opinions on the quality of health-related web resources. PMID:21712354

  4. Social Resource Correlates of Levels and Time-to-Death-Related Changes in Late-Life Affect

    Windsor, Tim D.; Gerstorf, Denis; Luszcz, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding how well psychosocial resources that promote well-being continue to correlate with affect into very late life. We examined social resource correlates of levels and time-to-death related changes in affect balance (an index of affective positivity) over 19 years among 1,297 by now deceased participants (aged 69 to 103 at first assessment, M = 80 years; 36% women) from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging. A steeper decline in affect balance was evident over a time-to-death metric compared with chronological age. Separating time-varying social resource predictors into between- and within-person components revealed several associations with level of affect balance, controlling for age at death, gender, functional disability and global cognition. Between-person associations revealed that individuals who were more satisfied with family, and more socially active, expressed greater positivity compared with those who were less satisfied, and less socially active. Within-person associations indicated that participants reported higher positivity on occasions when they were more socially active. In addition, lower affect balance was associated with more frequent contact with children. Our results suggest that social engagement and satisfying relationships confer benefits for affective well-being that are retained into late life. However our findings do not provide evidence to indicate that social resources protect against terminal decline in well-being. PMID:25621743

  5. Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource

    Alexandre Bec

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

  6. Medical Communication-related Informational Need and Resource Preferences Among Family Caregivers for Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Longacre, Margaret L; Galloway, Thomas J; Parvanta, Claudia F; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in treatment, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often experience considerable functional impairment during and following treatment. As a result, family caregivers are essential in a patient's recovery; however, few caregivers are well-prepared to handle the extensive caregiving needs of this patient population. To date, little is known about HNC caregivers' informational needs in this role. Thus, we surveyed a sample of HNC caregivers about their informational needs including those related to interacting in the medical context as a caregiver and meeting patient needs. We also asked these caregivers their preferences for obtaining caregiving information. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 59 family caregivers for HNC patients who had completed radiation therapy at a comprehensive cancer center. The majority of caregivers (74.6%) reported having high informational need at diagnosis related to interacting as a caregiver. Although the need for such information decreased over time, over half still had a high need for information at treatment end. Importantly, caregivers who desired information about reducing patient pain and distress also reported having greater informational needs on issues related to interacting in the medical context. Further, the caregivers most often preferred to receive information from health-care professionals as a first source. However, preferring an informal (e.g., Internet) resource at first was significantly associated with needing information on how to talk to a doctor or nurse. The development of evidence-based resources and tools for HNC caregivers as well as clinicians may help caregivers more effectively manage patient symptoms and warrants further attention. Further, Internet resources may represent an effective resource for providing caregivers with strategies toward enhancing communication with healthcare professionals. PMID:25893922

  7. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  8. PWR composite materials use: A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    The major decision taken by EDF to use composites on safety-related circuits (for example: Essential Service Water System) at the CIVAUX nuclear power plant, shows the interest that EDF takes in the development of these new materials (in this instance, for corrosion resistance). This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants

  9. Asthma, wheezing, and allergies in Russian schoolchildren in relation to new surface materials in the home.

    Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Parise, Helen; Kislitsin, Victor; Lebedeva, Natalia I; Spengler, John D

    2004-04-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 5951 Russian 8-12-year-old schoolchildren, risks of current asthma, wheezing, and allergy were related to recent renovation and the installation of materials with potential chemical emissions. New linoleum flooring, synthetic carpeting, particleboard, wall coverings, and furniture and recent painting were determinants of 1 or several of these 3 health outcomes. These findings warrant further attention to the type of materials used in interior design. PMID:15054004

  10. Application of the Maximum relative Entropy method to the physics of ferromagnetic materials

    Giffin, Adom; Ali, Sean Alan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the Maximum relative Entropy (MrE) method can be used to both update and approximate probability distributions functions in statistical inference problems. In this manuscript, we apply the MrE method to infer magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. In addition to comparing our approach to more traditional methodologies based upon the Ising model and Mean Field Theory, we also test the effectiveness of the MrE method on conventionally unexplored ferromagnetic materials with defects.

  11. Loopholes of laws and regulations related to redevelopment of former sites of radioactive material control area

    We found loopholes of laws and regulations for supervising radioactive materials. It is not obliged to measure the soil radioactivity of the sites that were formerly used as scientific or engineering institutes, or hospitals with a radioactive material control area. If the former institutes or hospitals made studies with radioactive materials before the enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to isotopes and its detailed regulations, it is concluded that there was the period when the radioactive materials were not under management. If it is found that the radioactive materials were applied at the former site before the enforcement of the related laws and regulations, the radioactivity in the soil of the redeveloped area should be examined, which should be obliged by some laws or regulations. (author)

  12. MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data

    Full text: The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

  13. MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data

    The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

  14. Sapphire: Relation between luminescence of starting materials and luminescence of single crystals

    Mogilevsky, R.; Nedilko, S.; Sharafutdinova, L.; Burlay, S.; Sherbatskii, V.; Boyko, V.; Mittl, S.

    2009-10-01

    A relation between photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of different starting materials used for crystal growth and un-doped sapphire single crystals manufactured using various methods of crystal growth (Kyropolus, HEM, Czochralski, and EFG) was found. The crystals grown using the Verneuil starting material exhibited significant PL when any method of crystal growth was used. On the contrary, sapphire samples grown by the same technologies wherein the starting material was EMT HPDA R revealed very low PL. (HPDA R is produced by EMT, Inc., with proprietary and patented technology.)

  15. 'Low-activation' fusion materials development and related nuclear data needs

    So-called ''low-activation'' materials are presently considered as an important means of improving the safety characteristics of future DT fusion reactors. Essential benefits are expected in various problem areas ranging from operation considerations to aspects of decommissioning and waste disposal. Present programs on ''low-activation'' materials development depend strongly on reliable activity calculations for a wide range of technologically important materials. The related nuclear data requirements and important needs for more and improved nuclear data are discussed. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Teaching General Relativity

    Wald, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This Resource Letter provides some guidance on issues that arise in teaching general relativity at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for presenting the mathematical material needed for the formulation of general relativity.

  17. LEGAL ISSUES AND ASPECTS RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT REGARDING THE SELECTION OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration selects its servants exclusively on competence criteria (the so-called merit system. The selection of civil servants is performed by contest, organized within the limit of vacant public positions provided annually for this purpose, by the plan for occupation of public positions. As a general rule, the contest is organized on a quarterly basis. Any individual who meets the general conditions provided by law and the specific conditions established by law for occupying a certain public position may participate at the selection contest organized for the occupation of a public position. Among other aspects, in this study we underline an inconsistency regarding the recruitment defined in the field of Human Resources Management and its definition from The Statute of the Civil Servants.

  18. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nano materials

    In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nano technology which is called carbon-related nano materials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nano materials. Carbon nano materials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nano materials such as zero-dimensional carbon nano materials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nano diamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nano materials (including carbon nano fibers and carbon nano tubes), and two-dimensional carbon nano materials (including graphene and carbon nano walls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nano materials.

  19. Contrast Materials

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  20. Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting

    Charlesworth B.; Pilling C; Chadwick P; Butcher M

    2014-01-01

    Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study...

  1. Some suggestions related to the harmonization of uranium resource classification. Summary

    The B and C1 categories of uranium reserves that are characteristic for Uzbekistan can probably be compared to the explored reserves based on IAEA classification. The first (B) category, in deposits of the sandstone type, are from areas where full scale exploration (geotechnological) programme has been carried out (using drill hole grid of 50x25 m). The C1 category, also in deposits of the sandstone type, are from areas where the drill hole grid are of 200x50 to 100 m and sometimes as close as 100x25 to 50 m. Reserves of C2 category, referred to as preliminary estimated reserves, are found in sandstone type deposits where drilling programme followed a 400x50 to 100 m grid and sometimes a 200x50 to 100 m grid in the case where the deposit has a more complex morphology. According to the stages accepted in the Republic, the stage of preliminary estimate is followed by detailed estimate. The advisability of conducting detailed estimate is governed by the result of works in the previous stage. From this explanation it would be appropriate to classify the reserves of C2 category as a preliminary estimated additional reserve of category I (''PODZ-I'' in Russian), although a large part of C2 reserves was already included in the explored reserves. For the preliminary estimated additional reserves of category II (''PODZ-II'' in Russian) it is suggested to include P1 category, which is the predicted resources in areas that are under current exploration activities. It is further suggested to include P2 resources into category of prospective deposits (''PZ'' in Russian), that might occur in area within known uranium districts where new reserves of specific types of deposits might be found or in new areas with similar geological environment that is known to contain uranium deposits. For the technical and economic evaluation (called ''TEO'' in Russian) it is advisable to conduct the required works and prepare a preliminary ''TEO'', which was used in the former USSR, and is still used during the study of new area with no known uranium deposit characteristic. During the exploration and development works in the known regions such as in Central Kyzylkum province, the role of preliminary evaluation is minimal. A good geological study of territory of the province, and the availability of sufficient number of standard facilities might provide a situation where the evaluation stage of ''TES'' and even ''TED'' could be eliminated. The result is a reduction of the expenses of test works and at the same time reduces the time to start industrial development. (author)

  2. PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes

    This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

  3. The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains

    The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

  4. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  5. Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources

    In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

  6. Strain-displacement relations for strain engineering in single-layer 2d materials

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Lewenkopf, Caio H.; Croy, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the electromechanical coupling in single-layer 2d materials. For non-Bravais lattices, we find important corrections to the standard macroscopic strain-microscopic atomic-displacement theory. We put forward a general and systematic approach to calculate strain-displacement relations for several classes of 2d materials. We apply our findings to graphene as a study case, by combining a tight binding and a valence force-field model to calculate electronic and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under strain. The results show good agreement with the predictions of the Dirac equation coupled to continuum mechanics. For this long wave-limit effective theory, we find that the strain-displacement relations lead to a renormalization correction to the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields. A similar renormalization is found for the strain-induced band-gap of black phosphorous. Implications for nanomechanical properties and electromechanical coupling in 2d materials are discussed.

  7. Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel. Final report

    This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts

  8. Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review

    Robert Pitz-Paal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

  9. Functional Thermoplastic Materials from Derivatives of Cellulose and Related Structural Polysaccharides

    Yoshikuni Teramoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys advances in the development of various material functionalities based on thermoplastic cellulose and related structural polysaccharide derivatives. First, the dependence of thermal (phase transition behavior on the molecular composition of simple derivatives is rationalized. Next, approaches enabling effective thermoplasticization and further incorporation of material functionalities into structural polysaccharides are discussed. These approaches include: (a single-substituent derivatization, (b derivatization with multi-substituents, (c blending of simple derivatives with synthetic polymers, and (d graft copolymerization. Some examples addressing the control of supramolecular structures and the regulation of molecular and segmental orientations for functional materials fabrication, which have especially progressed over the past decade, are also addressed. Attractive material functions include improved mechanical performance, controlled biodegradability, cytocompatiblity, and optical functions.

  10. The role of absorbent building materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

    Padfield, Tim

    The problem studied in this work is, how porous, absorbent materials surroundning or placed in a room influence the relative humidity of the room. This is of interest in designing precautions and machinery to monitor the indoor climate in museums and dwelling rooms. - A novel technique for the in...

  11. Factors that Contribute to Faculty's Incorporation of Diversity-Related Content into Their Course Materials.

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Grunwald, Heidi E.

    This study examined the factors that predict whether college faculty incorporate diversity-related content into their course material and whether the decision to include this type of content is affected by personal beliefs and experiences with diversity. The sample consisted of 336 faculty members at a large midwestern, predominantly white, public…

  12. The Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation Using Alternative Measures

    Christoph, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Among the surprising results of research on the relation between a person's material circumstances and his or her subjective well-being was the finding that this relationship appears to be rather weak (throughout this paper the terms "(general) life satisfaction", "(subjective) satisfaction", "happiness" and "subjective well-being" will be used…

  13. Management of groundwater resources in relation to oasis sustainability: the case of the Nefzawa region in Tunisia.

    Mekki, Insaf; Jacob, Frederic; Marlet, Serge; Ghazouani, Wafa

    2013-05-30

    In Southern Tunisia Nefzawa region, the deep fossil aquifers have been used intensively to support agricultural activities and economic development. This resulted in the degradation of groundwater resources as well as in their conflicting uses. Efficient management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and water resource preservation are needed. Such strategies require initial understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and water related processes. This paper aims to conceptualize the causalities between the management of deep fossil aquifers and the functioning of oasian agrosystems. By merging biophysical and socioeconomic issues, we propose an integrated assessment of public policies devoted to the management of groundwater resources. The failure of public policies emphasizes both the lack of consideration for individual initiatives and the long-term uncertainties on such policies, where farmer practices have been driven by economic and cultural factors. A set of indicators is next proposed for assessing the preservation of deep fossil aquifers that support agricultural and economic development. Further methodological improvements are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of constraints and incentives on the management of deep fossil aquifers. PMID:23542212

  14. Access to water and related resources in Ngamiland, Botswana: Toward a more critical perspective and sustainable approach

    Kgomotso, Phemo K.; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Governance structures in Botswana are highly centralized and top-down in orientation. For water and related resources management in rural areas, this creates particular difficulties - from lack of decision-making capacity to limited human and financial capital at the level of the resource base. In Ngamiland, government is currently undertaking the Okavango Delta Management Plan project as part of its commitment to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The project purports to develop an integrated management plan based on an ecosystems approach. Meaningful participation by local people is a requirement of the process. Data from 43 village meetings undertaken under the auspices of the ODMP process reveal that local people’s access to their resource base is diminishing. Information from key informant interviews and a variety of government documents, however, suggests that policy makers are either unaware of or uninterested in this growing problem. Although citizens and government are engaged in an on-going dialogue, there is little evidence to suggest that policy and practice are moving toward sustainable solutions for all. This article highlights these issues in the hope that a more meaningful dialogue among all stakeholders may be undertaken.

  15. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.; Jensen, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    . Intercropped pea did not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake......Intercropping advantages may be influenced by both plant density and relative frequency of the intercrop components. In a field study barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) were sole cropped and intercropped at three densities and with two relative frequencies when intercropped...... dominance did not appear to suppress pea growth indicates that differences in phenology played a role in shaping the prevailing dynamics. Whereas increases in plant density had a positive effect on the growth of pea, the growth of intercropped barley was severely limited by increases in density at the end...

  16. A Study of Travel Agencies’ Human Resources in Relation to Internet Marketing

    Huang-Wei Su

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available When technological advances emerge in electronic commerce, travel agencies rapidly take account of their application in Internet marketing. Internet marketing presents many advantages to its users, such as the ability to break the barriers of time and space, convenience and speed of trade between travel agencies and consumers, ability to provide customers with sufficient information of travel services and products, and low cost. In order to take advantage of the new Internet market, travel agencies have already set up websites to attract potential customers. However, the traditional marketing of travel agencies generally depends on the sales force, because travel agency representatives act not only as salespeople, but also as guides and escorts. Therefore, personal selling offers the benefits of evaluating travel courses in advance, providing information on various choices, and accompanying customers throughout the trip to help them feel at ease. Since Internet marketing and personal selling both have their own advantages, should travel agency salespeople feel threatened by the emergence of Internet marketing? Will the marketing functions impact travel agency salespeople because consumers purchase services on the Internet themselves? The purpose of this study is to discover whether the travel agencies salespeople feel threatened by the development of Internet marketing. Also, this study seeks to reveal the specific personal thoughts of travel agency salespeople if they do feel threatened. At its conclusion, this study will provide suggestions for training programs or criteria of recruitment for the human resource directors in travel agencies. Also, those interested in travel business may use the results of this study as guidelines as they prepare themselves for the impact of Internet marketing.

  17. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.

    Rivers, James W; Johnson, J Matthew; Haig, Susan M; Schwarz, Carl J; Glendening, John W; Burnett, L Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species. PMID:24523893

  18. Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support. Practical Resources for Public Engagement, Public Relations, and Marketing.

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

    With the growing recognition that public perception of education is an essential component of soliciting support, this guide is intended to help public-school principals refine their approaches to communication, marketing, public affairs, and public relations. It instructs principals on looking at public engagement, on building public support, on…

  19. Identity-Processing Style, Psychosocial Resources, and Adolescents' Perceptions of Parent-Adolescent Relations

    Berzonsky, Michael D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to generalize and extend research on identity styles among early adolescents in the Netherlands. The study investigated associations between perceived parent-adolescent relations and identity-processing styles among 13-year-old adolescents and the role identity styles played in mediating relationships between parent-adolescent…

  20. New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge

    Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

  1. New Media, New Voices: A Complex School Public Relations and Human Resources Challenge

    Peck, Craig M.; Mullen, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in students' personal technology use presents a new area for study within the educational leadership and administration field. Cellular phones, video posting websites, and online social networking destinations empower students to create and distribute school-related images and stories. Student-developed media content can…

  2. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  3. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    Shikama, Tatsuo [Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  4. Research issues relating to material degradation mechanism in the aging management of cable insulating materials used in nuclear power plants

    Polymeric insulating materials used for safety related cables in nuclear power plants are subject to thermal and radiation environment. The durability of such materials has been confirmed through environmental qualification tests, but recently some international organizations have also mentioned the necessarily to develop condition monitoring methods for condition-based qualifications and plant aging management programs. Thanks to this trend and recent demands for scientific rationality, it is encouraged to carry out a research on understanding the difference of aging phenomena in actual environment and the ones in testing environment. Such research activities will also reflect the validation of testing manner used for environmental qualification. The present research completed a map of technological issues that still need to be solved for the management program. Each issue, found through a bibliographic survey, is categorized into the following three fields: 1) investigation of aging mechanism and development of degradation model, 2) development of condition monitoring methods for global inspection and/or mechanism-based analysis, and 3) concept and procedure of environmental qualification. The main goals of the management program may be accomplished thanks to a synergy of these three fields. An example of such goal is an assessment of remaining life based on condition monitoring. (author)

  5. Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer

    Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

    1993-12-01

    Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

  6. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The silicon oxycarbide material can provide potential applications of the Eu luminescent materials to challenging conditions like high temperatures or aggressive environments where the silica has weaknesses. In some approaches, silicon rich silicon oxide that contain silicon nanoclusters emit red to near infrared luminescence due to quantum confinement effects while luminescence at shorter wavelength is difficult due to the interplay of defects and quantum confinement effects. In addition it is applicable as low-k dielectric, etch-stop and passivation layers. It also has an optical band-gap that is smaller than that of SiO2 which may facilitate carrier injection at lower voltages that is suitable for optoelectronics. From materials perspective of emerging materials, it seems distant to consider system related issues. The future demands on communication and lighting devices require higher information flows in modernized optical devices, for example by replacing electrical interconnects with their optical counterparts and tunable backgrounds filters for integrated optics or photonics applications. However, there are materials issues related to such device performance, for example by a non-linearity, that provide the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths using hetero structures in which one side of the structure enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of long and medium wavelength channels and diminish others, and an opposite behavior in other face of the structure. Certainly materials may be applied in various innovative ways to provide new performances in devices and systems. In any materials and device evaluation, reliability issues in passivation and packaging of semiconductor device structures provide a base knowledge that may be used to evaluate new concepts. Fundamental aspects of dielectric constant, bandgap and band offsets between the valence and conduction band edges between the passivation layer and the semiconductor create a foundation for understanding the device performance. In relation to these, the surface pre-treatment and deposit

  7. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    Hussaini, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  8. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy...

  9. A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations

    Binali Dogan; Ata Özdemirci; Nese Güngör

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR) management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1)The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2) While...

  10. Human resource and industrial relations practices of UK and US multinationals in Germany

    Muller-Camen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Most of the research about HRM and IR practices of MNCs in their host country has been conducted in deregulated countries such as the UK and the US. Host countries with relatively weak institutional arrangements facilitate the transfer of home-country practices. In contrast, those with institutionally strong systems, such as Germany, impose stronger pressures for adaptation. This paper reports research about nine US and four UK subsidiaries operating in Germany. It examines how their HRM and ...

  11. White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations

    Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity—from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resour...

  12. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials

    Martin Rütten; Matthias Kaes; Andreas Albert; Matthias Wuttig; Martin Salinga

    2015-01-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2...

  13. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and the Resource- Advantage Perspective: An Illustrative Example of Relational and Transactional Drivers of Competitiveness

    Raskovic Matevz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the so called resource-advantage perspective can be used to determine the importance of specific relational and transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships in driving relationship competitiveness within a transnational company (TNC. The main objective of our research was to analyze which and how much specific relational and/or transactional dimensions of buyer-supplier relationships affect TNC buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness. Based on an illustrative empirical example, we tested a simple variance-based reflective Structural Equation Model (SEM with main effects based on a sampleof 130 TNC buyer-supplier relationships. Our results show that buyer-supplier relationship competitiveness is mostly driven by interpersonal trust and joint problem solving (both relationaldeterminants, as well as by two kinds of transaction-specific investments (TSIs, namely investments into people and physical assets. In terms of theoretical implications, our results show thatthe resource-advantage theory of competition can link both the relationship marketing and the transaction cost economics perspective of buyer-supplier relationship management. We further provide some managerial recommendations for more effective management of TNC buyer-supplier relationships in terms of leveraging competitiveness.

  14. Planning the new medical school library in relation to local and regional information resources.

    Bishop, D

    1971-04-01

    The first relationship of a new medical school library with local and regional medical libraries is one of dependence. This must change, as the new library grows, to a continuing state of interdependence. To accomplish this, the new library must thoughtfully design its collections and services, and must prepare for an extramural as well as an intramural clientele. Relationships with Regional Medical Library services and with Regional Medical Programs must be carefully planned. So too must be the adoption of EDP and related procedures where future compatability is important. Any new medical school library must have strength, but must never forget the need for true cooperation to give it viability. PMID:5582095

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  16. Quality of master impressions and related materials for fabrication of complete dentures in the UK.

    Al-Ahmar, A O; Lynch, C D; Locke, M; Youngson, C C

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the quality of master impressions and related materials for fabricating complete dentures in the UK. One hundred and fifty pre-piloted questionnaires were distributed to a number of dental laboratories in the UK with large catchment areas. Information requested related to the quality and choice of techniques for the master impression stage of fabricating complete dentures, as well as prescription of materials for occlusal registration, amongst others. All information was recorded anonymously. One hundred and forty-four completed questionnaires were returned. All items were provided on a private basis. Eighty-three per cent (n=119) of master impressions were made using a custom tray, the remainder were made using a plastic stock tray. The most commonly used impression material was zinc oxide-eugenol (42%, n=60), followed by polyvinylsiloxane (39%, n=56) and irreversible hydrocolloid (19%, n=28). Master casts were poured after a minimum of 4 days. Eleven per cent of impressions examined (n=16) were judged to have errors. It was reported that 64% of master impressions (n=92) examined had been disinfected adequately. While this study revealed evidence of good clinical practice, particularly in relation to the selection of impression trays and quality of master impressions for complete dentures, there were some areas of concern, particularly in relation to the disinfection of the impressions examined. Dental practitioners should aim to provide their patients with high-quality prostheses by observing best clinical practice at all times. PMID:18053059

  17. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current conceptual design optimization of future spacecrafts as being coordinated by the Vehicle Analysis Branch where this research is being conducted.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  19. Interactions of water with energy and materials in urban areas and agriculture. IWRM. Integrated water resources management. Conference proceedings

    Steusloff, Hartwig (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The current rationale, range and significance of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) are subject to increasing dimensionality, such as systemic conflicts between water users, increasing regulatory influences, and the growing energy requirements for providing the appropriate water resources. The competition between urban and agricultural consumers for water is dealt with as are regulatory, technological and socio-economic aspects of IWRM. The conference proceedings of IWRM Karlsruhe 2012 impart knowledge and relate practical experience in three key areas of IWRM: 1. Challenges for Future Cities and Efficient Agricultural Production Satisfying the growing demand for fresh water for a growing population as well as for agriculture bears the risk of aggravating the conflict between economic and ecological needs. Providing a reliable and secure supply of water for our future cities requires appropriate technical infrastructure systems coupled with environmentally optimized management. In this context it is essential to have greater awareness of the relationship of water and energy and of the overall water usage including the re-use of water 2. Competing Water Uses Water must be shared between domestic/municipal, industrial, agricultural, and hydropower users as well as between regions. This competition is intensified by the vulnerability of supply and sanitation systems to increasing climate extremes and to terrorism. 3. Regulatory and Policy Framework Using water is associated with a great number of externalities. For this reason a proper legislative and regulatory framework is prerequisite for proper management of the water supply, sewerage and storm-water services as well as water usage, all of which are essential for public health, economic development and environmental protection.

  20. Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank

    Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

  1. Transportation safety aspects of ore and related material - inconsistencies in current exemption values

    The IAEA's system for exemption of material from the transport regulations is based on the fundamental principle that exemption values should be commensurate with the risk posed by the material, as represented by effective dose and skin dose. Important departures from that principle as well as inconsistencies between exemption values for different radionuclides have resulted from special provisions for natural materials that depend on their intended use, and from exposure scenarios and other assumptions and rules used in the derivation of exemption values. This paper examines the sources and extent of inconsistencies in exemption values for transport, particularly as they relate to naturally occurring radionuclides, and suggests ways to achieve greater internal consistency in exemption values as well as greater consistency with the fundamental principle underlying the current system

  2. Kaynak Bağımlılığı Teorisi’nin Kritik Bir Unsuru Olarak Kaynak Belirsizliği ve Müşteri -Tedarikçi Arasındaki İlişkisel Değişime Etkisi(Resource Dependence Theory: Impact of Resource Uncertainty on Relational Exchange between Customer and Supplier

    Gürhan UYSAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of resource uncertainty and relational exchange between customer and supplier. Resource uncertainty involves factors as resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness. The necessary data has been collected from 134 companies in Marmara Region through a questionnaire. This study, therefore, adopts factor, correlation and regression analyses to test impact of resource uncertainty on relational exchange. Data analysis reveals that resource concentration and resource availability uncertainty do not have an impact on relational exchange between customer and supplier and resource interconnectedness influences relational exchange. Furthermore, One-way Anova tests demonstrate that resource concentration, resource availability uncertainty and resource interconnectedness do not significantly differentiate on control variables such as industry, foundation year, revenues and number of employees.

  3. Enhancement of scale-related sensitivity through field-work prototyping and materializations

    Tadeja Zupan?i?

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problems related to the student lacking of the comprehension of the space and proportions scale in architectural and urban design education. The research is based on carefully selected case studies taken from our recent architectural-urban design workshops, which have presented a methodological framework process within the design ideas have been tested by the complex process of physical materialization. Our goal have been to develop the adequate methodological model which would enhance the scale-related sensitivity of students through field-work prototyping and materialization »in one to one scale«. The discussion covers some potentials and limitations of the model proposed and focuses to the potentials of the scientific research level in the implementation of the practice-based research in architecture and urban design.

  4. Identification of defect-related emissions in ZnO hybrid materials

    ZnO hybrid materials with singly precipitated ZnO nanocrystals embedded in the glass surface were fabricated by melt-quenching method followed by the annealing process. A series of samples containing different densities and species of intrinsic defects were obtained under different annealing conditions in a controllable manner, which was an ideal platform to identify the complicated defect origins. By employing photoluminescence (PL), excitation-dependent PL, PL excitation (PLE), and Raman spectroscopy, the radiative transitions of visible emission bands at around 401, 490, and 528 nm were unambiguously involved with zinc interstitial-related defect levels as initial states, and the corresponding terminal states were suggested to be valence band, oxygen vacancies, and zinc vacancies, respectively. This study may deepen the fundamental understanding of defect-related emissions and physics in ZnO and benefit potential applications of ZnO hybrid materials in optoelectronics

  5. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  6. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  7. IAEA programme on fast reactor, related fuels, and structural materials technology

    For obvious sustainability reasons, spent fuel utilization and breeding are returning to centre stage, and with this the fast reactor as the necessary linchpin. The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term of fast reactors and the associated fuel cycles is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on research and technology development efforts. Achieving the full potential of fast neutron systems and closed fuel cycle technologies with regard to both efficient utilization of the fissile resources and waste management is conditional on continued advances in research and technology development to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The IAEA's fast reactor technology development activities are pursued within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Currently, the TWG-FR comprises 14 IAEA Member States, the European Commission (EC), the ISTC, and the OECD/NEA, as well as Belgium and Sweden as observers. The TWG-FR assists in the implementation of IAEA activities, and ensures that all technical activities performed within the framework of the IAEA project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems are in line with expressed needs from Member States. The scope of the TWG-FR is broad, covering all technical aspects of fast reactors and sub-critical systems, including: research and development, design, deployment, operation, and decommissioning. The TWG-FR has focused on experimental and theoretical aspects of fast reactor technology and safety. A benchmark test with experimental data was conducted to verify and improve the codes used for the seismic analysis of reactor cores. A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted to apply acoustic signal processing for the detection of boiling or sodium/water reactions in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Benchmark analyses addressed accident behaviour and design improvements of the Russian BN-800 reactor. In cooperation with the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety, assistance was provided to ensure safe operation during the remaining lifetime and the development of an effective decommissioning programme for the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan. A CRP is being conducted with the objective of reducing the calculational uncertainties of fast reactor reactivity effects. Another CRP is contributing to the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation (FRKP) initiative through bibliographic catalogues and synthesis (lessons learned) reports related to feedback from fast reactor operational experience in the areas of steam generators, fuel and blanket subassemblies, and structural materials. Advanced reactor technology options for effective utilization and transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is addressed in another CRP. Its focus is on the transient behaviour of advanced transmutation systems, both critical and sub-critical. An ongoing CRP is performing computational and experimental benchmarking of ADS and non-spallation neutron source driven sub-critical systems. Two new CRPs were initiated in 2009: the first one aiming at the validation of multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes based on thermal stratification measurements performed during the 1995 Monju start-up experiments; the second one performing blind benchmarking and post-experiment analyses for two Phenix end-of-life tests, viz. the Control Rod Withdrawal Test and the Sodium Natural Circulation Test. More CRPs are planned for 2010/2011 and beyond, e.g. on the estimation of the source term in a fast reactor for radioactivity release, and on thermal hydraulics code verification and validation of liquid metal and molten salt coolants. The IAEA maintains a database to foster information exchange in the field of advanced fast reactor technology development. It is planned to establish a 'living' (WWW-based) innovative fast reactor technology status report. Last but not least, topical technical meetings are held to ensure in-depth information exchange on various scientific and technology related issues (e.g. in-service inspection, advanced steam generators, seismic designs, etc), as well as education and training events (Workshops and Schools) in collaboration with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. A key aspect of fast reactor technology involves the development of the associated fuels and fuel cycles. These include the use of depleted, natural and recycled uranium in conjunction with the multiple recycling of plutonium. Additional requirements which may be placed on the fuels include the ability to operate safely to very high burnup values (150 000-200 000 MWd/tHM), to breed efficiently, and to burn minor actinides effectively. The fuel assembly structural materials should be able to withstand high doses of fast neutron irradiation (up to 200 dpa) with minimum swelling, creep and embrittlement. During the last few years, the IAEA's programme on fast reactor fuels and fuel cycle technology has been active in all of these areas. In collaboration with international experts, the IAEA has organized workshops, conducted CRPs and maintained relevant databases. Three upcoming publications will cover work in all of these areas

  8. Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in Hemodialysis-Related Materials

    Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh; Gholam Reza Jahed Khaniki; Masood Yunesian; Hamid Rajlani; Shahrokh Nazmara; SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Noushin Rastkari; Hossain Jabbari; Mostafa Hosseini; Simin Naseri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC) and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC) were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample ...

  9. Metallorganic precursors route for high Tc superconducting materials and related phases

    The adequacy of the precursors approach for high Tc superconducting materials is validated by means of three examples of a new synthesis of mixed oxides which are directly related to the high Tc superconductors. The synthesis temperature is lowered significantly, and the need for extending the classic 'building block' approach is shown. The hypothesis that topochemical reactions from molecular to extended solids are posssible is proven. 28 refs

  10. Water quality changes and their relation to fishery resources in the upper Mississippi River

    Holland Bartels, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    Despite a long history of human manipulation, the most dramatic changes in the upper Mississippi River occurred in the 1930s with construction of a lock and dam system to facilitate the commercial transport of commodities. In 1988, barge traffic through the system ranged from 7,500 tows per year at Lock and Dam 26 (near Alton, Illinois) to 1, 118 at Lock and Dam 1 (in Minneapolis/St. Paul). The tow-teed dam system created a diversity of lentic habitats, but it also changed the stage and sediment transport characteristics of the river. The principal fishery-related water quality issues of this modified system concern the effects of sediments and toxic contaminants from nonpoint sources. Between 42 and 99% of the streams in the five states of the Mississippi River basin fail to fully support their designated uses because of pollution. primarily from nonpoint sources (e.g., 73% in Minnesota, 98% in Wisconsin, 75% in Illinois). Annual sediment inputs into the upper Mississippi River basin range from minimal in the upper reaches to about 210.000 kg/hectare in the lower reaches. This sediment results in significant losses of fishery habitat. Although bnly 5 to 9% of the total open water area of many pools had been lost by 1975, those losses were in highly productive side channel and backwater areas. Under existing conditions, a loss of an additional 22 to 49% of existing lentic habitats is predicted within 50 years. In addition, toxic contaminants transported along with fine sediments have become more available to stream biota. Although significant interagency efforts have been made to evaluate the impacts on biotic communities of the river. present data are inadequate to determine how changes in water quality affect the fisheries. This lack of data undermines our ability to judge the success of programs initiated to control pollution from point and nonpoint sources.

  11. Relation of bulk precipitation and evapotranspiration to water quality and water resources, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands

    Jordan, Donald George; Fisher, Donald W.

    1977-01-01

    St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, lies in what can be considered a true maritime regime, being 600 miles (1000 kilometers) from the nearest continental landmass. The island is composed almost entirely of volcanic rocks mantled by a thin soil seldom more than 2 feet (60 centimeters) thick. Rainfall, averaging about 40 inches (1020 millimeters) annually, has an orographic distribution related to the central ridge of the island, altitude 600 to 1500 feet (180 to 405 meters), and the easterly to northeasterly trade winds. The mineral content of bulk precipitation falling on the island is derived principally from the sea although soil dust contributes much of the calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. Two-thirds of the sulfate in the precipitation is provided by sea salts; the remainder is derived from other sources. The concentration of the constituents of bulk precipitation fluctuates widely month to month, but the load of the constituents shows little monthly variation. Bulk precipitation is concentrated on the land surface and in the soil zone. From there it is carried into the ground water during recharge or is removed by storm-water runoff. It is the principal source of minerals in the waters of the island. Soil-moisture demand and evaporation limits recharge to 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 millimeters) annually for the greater part of the island. Evapotranspiration also occurs directly from the aquifer. The salts left further increase the mineralization of the ground water. Water loss from the aquifer by evapotranspiration ranges from 40 to 80 percent of the recharge. Recharge to the aquifers and evapotranspiration of ground water determined by ratios of chloride concentrations in bulk precipitation, surface water, and subsurface water agree favorably with recharge and groundwater loss computed by other means.

  12. Material-Model-Based Determination of the Shock-Hugoniot Relations in Nanosegregated Polyurea

    Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.

    2013-10-01

    Previous experimental investigations reported in the open literature have indicated that applying polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can substantially improve ballistic penetration resistance and blast survivability of buildings, vehicles, and laboratory/field test-plates, as well as the blast-mitigation capacity of combat helmets. The protective role of polyurea coatings/linings has been linked to polyurea microstructure, which consists of discrete hard-domains distributed randomly within a compliant/soft matrix. When this protective role is investigated computationally, the availability of reliable, high-fidelity constitutive models for polyurea is vitally important. In the present work, a comprehensive overview and a critical assessment of a polyurea material constitutive model, recently proposed by Shim and Mohr (Int J Plast 27:868-886, 2011), are carried out. The review revealed that this model can accurately account for the experimentally measured uniaxial-stress versus strain data obtained under monotonic and multistep compressive loading/unloading conditions, as well as under stress relaxation conditions. On the other hand, by combining analytical and finite-element procedures with the material model in order to define the basic shock-Hugoniot relations for this material, it was found that the computed shock-Hugoniot relations differ significantly from their experimental counterparts. Potential reasons for the disagreement between the computed and experimental shock-Hugoniot relations are identified.

  13. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV

  14. Knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and their association with information resource among men who have sex with men in Heilongjiang province, China

    Yao Songpo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P = 0.005 and publicity material (P = 0.04 is associated with moderate rate of condom use (condom use often. Conclusions Although the prevalence of HIV infection is low among MSM in Heilongjiang province, the situation that the risk behaviors were frequent in the population is alarming. The study suggests that some strategies like condom use and education intervention are practical approaches and need to be strengthened.

  15. Age-related differences in the course of cognitive skill acquisition: the role of regional cortical shrinkage and cognitive resources.

    Head, Denise; Raz, Naftali; Gunning-Dixon, Faith; Williamson, Adrienne; Acker, James D

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the impact of age-related differences in regional cerebral volumes and cognitive resources on acquisition of a cognitive skill. Volumes of brain regions were measured on magnetic resonance images of healthy adults (aged 22-80). At the early stage of learning to solve the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, speed and efficiency were associated with age, prefrontal cortex volume, and working memory. A similar pattern of brain-behavior associations was observed with perseveration measured on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. None of the examined structural brain variables were important at the later stages of skill acquisition. When hypertensive participants were excluded, the effect of prefrontal shrinkage on executive aspects of performance was no longer significant, but the effect of working memory remained. PMID:11931289

  16. Regulatory focussing of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive materials in Argentina

    Full text: This paper points out a summary of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive material in Argentina treated only from a regulatory focussing, it is to say from the point of view of its competent authority of application the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish, the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN). Firstly, it is introduced the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the transport of radioactive material and the corresponding authorities involved (ARN, Secretary of Transport, and the Argentine Air Force, Naval Prefecture and Navy). Then, it is presented a schedule of the main characteristics of the shipments of radioactive material used in both the nuclear cycle and in medicine, industry and research, and an average of the shipments annually transported in Argentina. Further on the paper briefly analyses the ARN sources and the way in which it performs the compliance assurance with the in-force transport regulations in the country. Particularly, it is explained certain main tools used by the compliance system, as for example, transport notice, data base, licensing of certain design packages, shipments and materials, inspection and audits, and fees and sanctions regimes. On the other hand, it is mentioned the Argentine experience in the development, licensing, manufacture and use of domestic designs of Type B(U) packages and special form radioactive material (cobalt 60 and iridium 192 sealed sources). Moreover, it is concisely described test facilities available in the country necessary to perform the mentioned designs. Finally, the paper shortly describes the ARN main transport activities exclusively concerning the relationship with other national organisations (Federal Police, Gendarmerie, Naval Prefecture and Argentine Institute of Material Rationalisation, in Spanish Instituto Argentino de Racionalizacion de Materiales - IRAM) and with regional and inter regional organisations (South American Common Market, in Spanish Mercado Comun del Sur, MERCOSUR, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, and International Organisation for Standardisation, ISO). (author)

  17. Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena

    Sauvage, X., E-mail: xavier.sauvage@univ-rouen.fr [University of Rouen, CNRS UMR 6634, Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP12, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Wilde, G.; Divinski, S.V. [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Horita, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Valiev, R.Z., E-mail: rzvaliev@mail.rb.ru [Institute for Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marx 12, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UFG materials produced by SPD do exhibit specific GBs defined earlier as 'non-equilibrium GB'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such boundaries differ from regular GBs on atomic structure and appearance of long-range stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apparent thickness of 'non-equilibrium' GB is typically in a range of 1 to 2 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GBs in SPD materials may promote segregations and mechanical mixing that affect the properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 'Non-equilibrium' GBs do significantly enhance the atomic mobility in SPD materials. - Abstract: Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called 'non-equilibrium' grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These features and related phenomena (diffusion, segregation, etc.) have been the object of intense studies and the obtained results provide convincing evidence of the importance of a non-equilibrium state of high angle grain boundaries for UFG materials with unusual properties. The aims of the present paper are first to give a short overview of this research field and then to consider tangled, yet unclear issues and outline the ways of oncoming studies. A special emphasis is given on the specific structure of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by SPD, on grain boundary segregation, on interfacial mixing linked to heterophase boundaries and on grain boundary diffusion. The connection between these unique features and the mechanical properties or the thermal stability of the ultrafine grained alloys is also discussed.

  18. Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by severe plastic deformation and related phenomena

    Highlights: ► UFG materials produced by SPD do exhibit specific GBs defined earlier as “non-equilibrium GB”. ► Such boundaries differ from regular GBs on atomic structure and appearance of long-range stresses. ► The apparent thickness of “non-equilibrium” GB is typically in a range of 1 to 2 nm. ► GBs in SPD materials may promote segregations and mechanical mixing that affect the properties. ► “Non-equilibrium” GBs do significantly enhance the atomic mobility in SPD materials. - Abstract: Grain boundaries in ultrafine grained (UFG) materials processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) are often called “non-equilibrium” grain boundaries. Such boundaries are characterized by excess grain boundary energy, presence of long range elastic stresses and enhanced free volumes. These features and related phenomena (diffusion, segregation, etc.) have been the object of intense studies and the obtained results provide convincing evidence of the importance of a non-equilibrium state of high angle grain boundaries for UFG materials with unusual properties. The aims of the present paper are first to give a short overview of this research field and then to consider tangled, yet unclear issues and outline the ways of oncoming studies. A special emphasis is given on the specific structure of grain boundaries in ultrafine grained materials processed by SPD, on grain boundary segregation, on interfacial mixing linked to heterophase boundaries and on grain boundary diffusion. The connection between these unique features and the mechanical properties or the thermal stability of the ultrafine grained alloys is also discussed.

  19. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Highlights: • We created brazed joints between tungsten and EUROFER 97, Cu and SS316L with Au80Cu19Fe1 filler. • No elemental transitions were detected between the W and the AuCuFe filler in either direction. • Transition regions between filler to EUROFER97/316L showed similar elastic modulus and hardness to the filler. • Smooth elemental and mechanical properties transition were detected between the filler and Cu. - Abstract: In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported

  20. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    Zhang, Yuxuan, E-mail: yuxuan.zhang@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zhu, Wenzhong [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We created brazed joints between tungsten and EUROFER 97, Cu and SS316L with Au80Cu19Fe1 filler. • No elemental transitions were detected between the W and the AuCuFe filler in either direction. • Transition regions between filler to EUROFER97/316L showed similar elastic modulus and hardness to the filler. • Smooth elemental and mechanical properties transition were detected between the filler and Cu. - Abstract: In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  1. Post operation recurrence of inguinal hernia in children and its relation with suture material

    Omid Amanollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using non-absorbable suture in children hernia repair to decrease of recurrence is recommended in the most pediatric surgery centers. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between kind of suture material and rate of hernia recurrence. Methods: In this clinical trial 200 children (age 1-5 years with inguinal hernia who operated in Imam-Reza Hospital (kermanshah –Iran Between April 2007 until April 2008 enrolled into the study. Cases were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into two groups (100 cases per group and operated with absorbable (silk 3-0 and non-absorbable (vicryli 3-0 suture material. Following period was 12 months after operation and collected data analyzed by statistical software. Emergency operations were excluded from the study.Results: 83% of patients were boy and 17% were girl. %53 showed right side inguinal, 29% left side and %18 were bilateral hernia. After one year follow up only one case of recurrence was observed in each group.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that recurrence of inguinal hernia in children after surgery, is not related to kind of suture material (absorbability and we didn’t find any significant difference. Other factors than suture material may influence recurrence rate of hernia operation in children.

  2. Temperature dependent characterization of terahertz vibrations of explosives and related threat materials.

    Melinger, Joseph S; Harsha, S Sree; Laman, N; Grischkowsky, D

    2010-12-20

    Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to characterize the temperature dependent vibrational properties of three threat-related materials: 4-amino-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). These materials are characterized as thin polycrystalline layers deposited in the 50 micron gap of a metal parallel plate waveguide. For each material waveguide THz-TDS at least partially resolves the underlying vibrational spectrum and reveals new features that have not been observed in previous free space measurements of these materials. Strong experimental evidence for a phase transformation is observed for 4A-DNT as the polycrystalline layer on the waveguide surface is cooled to near 200 K. For PETN a highly resolved spectrum containing eleven vibrational lines is observed at 11 K with full-width at half maximum linewidths ranging from 7 GHz to 40 GHz. Based on comparison to measurements in the literature, our PETN measurement suggests that it is possible to produce narrow linewidths from a polycrystalline layer that approach those from a single crystal. Finally, for HMX, a highly resolved vibrational spectrum is measured that is assigned to the metastable gamma polymorph. PMID:21197001

  3. Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group

    A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

  4. Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials

    In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

  5. Heterotopic relation between media and materiality in children's online memorials and on children's graves

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    relations with the dead child and the (re)negotiating of parenthood. We understand media as a function of an object reflected in human practices and embedded and structured by the different materialities they are intertwined with. We argue that the use of media and materiality online and on the graves are......In this paper we analyze how bereaved parents make use of various media-strategies on online memorial sites and on children’s graves when performing processes of grief and commemoration for their stillborns and infants, and how these processes are not just linked to one particular media but take...... place across media. We show how the death of an infant can lead to mediation, remediation and mediatization strategies which involves both the uses and arrangement of objects on memorial pages and on children’s graves as well as uses of new social technologies, that produce, negotiate and develop social...

  6. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN: Sand and Gravel Resource Potential in Mapped Surficial Material in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SAND_GRAVEL_RESOURCES_IN is a polygon shapefile that identifies sand and gravel permissive tracts in the surficial unconsolidated deposits of Indiana. Permissive...

  8. On the determination of representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials using instrumented indentation

    Highlights: • A method to convert indentation load–depth curve into representative stress–strain curve is presented. • Representative stress–strain curves of six metals are obtained using finite element analysis. • Different representative strain definitions are compared using finite element method. • Representative stress–strain curve of molybdenum films is obtained by nanoindentation tests. - Abstract: In this study, attempts have been made to estimate the representative stress–strain relation of metallic materials from indentation tests using an iterative method. Finite element analysis was performed to validate the method. The results showed that representative stress–strain relations of metallic materials using the present method were in a good agreement with those from tensile tests. Further, this method was extended to predict representative stress–strain relation of ultra-thin molybdenum films with a thickness of 485 nm using nanoindentation. Yielding strength and strain hardening exponent of the films were therefore obtained, which showed a good agreement with the published data

  9. Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials

    Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1993-01-01

    Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

  10. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  11. Teeth and bones: applications of surface science to dental materials and related biomaterials

    Jones, F. H.

    2001-05-01

    Recent years have seen a considerable upsurge in publications concerning the surface structure and chemistry of materials with biological or biomedical applications. Within the body, gas-solid interactions become relatively less significant and solid-liquid or solid-solid interfaces dominate, providing new challenges for the surface scientist. The current paper aims to provide a timely review of the use of surface analysis and modification techniques within the biomaterials field. A broad overview of applications in a number of related areas is given with particular attention focusing on those materials commonly encountered in dentistry and oral or maxillofacial implantology. Several specific issues of current interest are discussed. The interaction between synthetic and natural solids, both in the oral environment and elsewhere in the body is important in terms of adhesion, related stresses and strains and ultimately the longevity of a dental restoration, biomedical implant, or indeed the surrounding tissue. Exposure to body fluids, of course, can also affect stability, leading to the degradation or corrosion of materials within the body. Whilst this could potentially be harmful, e.g., if cytotoxic elements are released, it may alternatively provide a route to the preferential release of beneficial substances. Furthermore, in some cases, the controlled disintegration of a biomaterial is desirable, allowing the removal of an implant, e.g., without the need for further surgery. The presence of cells in the immediate bioenvironment additionally complicates the situation. A considerable amount of current research activity is targeted at the development of coatings or surface treatments to encourage tissue growth. If this is to be achieved by stimulating enhanced cell productivity, determination of the relationship between cell function and surface composition is essential.

  12. Analysis of pigmentary materials on the vinland map and tartar relation by Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    Brown, Katherine L; Clark, Robin J H

    2002-08-01

    Studies by Raman microprobe spectroscopy have shown that the black ink defining each feature on the controversial Vinland Map consists of carbon that overlays a yellow line containing anatase. This material was not detected elsewhere on the map. Since anatase has not been found on medieval artifacts, and such yellow lines are only naturally produced by iron gallotannate inks, a modern (post 1923) origin for the Vinland Map is strongly indicated. The ink of the Tartar Relation is different and probably consists of an iron gallotannate mixed with a small proportion of carbon. The rubrication is established to be vermilion. PMID:12175150

  13. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions, 'Boron chemistry' and 'Superconductivity', were also held at the symposium. The session on Boron chemistry was planned to honor the scientific work in boron chemistry of Professor J Bauer on the occasion of his retirement. Many recent results were discussed in the session, and Professor Bauer himself introduced novel rare-earth-boron-carbon compounds RE10B7C10 (RE = Gd - Er) in his lecture. In the latter session, on the basis of recent discoveries of superconductivity in MgB2 and in β-boron under high pressure, the superconductivity of boron and related materials was discussed and the superconductivity of boron-doped diamond was also addressed. More than 120 participants from 16 countries attended the ISBB 2008, and active presentations (22 invited, 33 oral and 68 posters) and discussions suggest that research on boron and borides is entering a new phase of development. This volume contains 46 articles from 52 submitted manuscripts. The reviewers were invited not only from symposium participants but also from specialists worldwide, and they did a great job of evaluating and commenting on the submitted manuscripts to maintain the highest quality standard of this volume. Recent discoveries of superconductivity in boron under high pressure, synthesis of a new allotrope of boron and of various boron and boride nanostructures will lead this highly interdisciplinary field of science, which will further grow and gain attention in terms of both basic and applied research. In this context, we are very much looking forward to the next symposium, which will be held in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011, organized by Professor Onuralp Yucel, Istanbul Technical University. Turkey currently has the world highest share of borate production and is expected to be involved more in boron-related research. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the style improvement by Dr K Iakoubovskii, and sincerely thank Shimane Prefecture and Matsue City for their financial support. The symposium was also supported by Tokyo University of Science, Suwa and foundations including, the Kajima Foundation, Foundation for Promotion of Material Science and Technology of Japan and Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering, as well as companies including JFE Steel Corporation, Shincron Co, Ltd, Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd, Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co, Ltd, Japan New Metals Co, Ltd, H C Starck Ltd and Fritsch Japan Co, Ltd. Editors Chair Takaho Tanaka (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) Vice chairs Koun Shirai (Osaka University, Japan) Kaoru Kimura (The University of Tokyo, Japan) Ken-ichi Takagi (Tokyo City University, Japan) Touetsu Shishido (Tohoku University, Japan) Shigeru Okada (Kokushikan University) Hideaki Itoh (Nagoya University,Japan) Katsumitsu Nakamura (Nihon University, Japan) Organizing committee of ISBB 2008 K Takagi Chairman (Tokyo City University) T Tanaka Program Committee Chairman (National Institute for Materials Science) K Kimura Secretary (The University of Tokyo) J Akimitsu (Aoyama University)K Shirai (Osaka University) H Itoh (Nagoya University)T Shishido (Tohoku University) K Nakamura (Nihon University)K Soga (Tokyo University of Science) K Nishiyama (Tokyo University of Science, Suwa)M Takeda (Nagaoka University of Technology) S Okada (Kokushikan University)Y Yamazaki (Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd) International Scientific Committee 0f ISBB (2008-2011) K Takagi Chairman (Japan) B Albert (Germany) J-F Halet (France) M Takeda (Japan) M Antadze (Georgia) H Hillebrecht (Germany) T Tanaka (Japan) J Bauer (France) W Jung (Germany) R Telle (Germany) I Boustani (Germany) K Kimura (Japan) M Trenary (USA) D Emin (USA) T Mori (Japan) O Tsagareishvili (Georgia) M Engler (Germany) P D Ownby (USA) H Werheit (Germany) N Frage (Israel) P Rogl (Austria) G Will (Germany) Yu Grin (Germany) S Shalamberidze (Georgia) O Yucel (Turkey) V N Gurin (Russia) N Shitsevalova (Ukraine) G Zhang (China)

  14. Assessment of relative flammability and thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of some typical thermoplastic materials currently in use and others being considered for use in aircraft interiors are described. The properties studied included (1) thermal mechanical properties such as glass transition and melt temperature, (2) changes in polymer enthalpy by differential scanning calorimetry, (3) thermogravimetric analysis in an anaerobic and oxidative environment, (4) oxygen index, (5) smoke evolution, (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis, and (7) selected physical properties. The generic polymers which were evaluated included: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, bisphenol fluorenone carbonatedimethylsiloxane block polymer, phenolphthalein-bisphenol A polycarbonate, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfide, polyaryl sulfone, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride homopolymer, polyvinyl fluoride, and polyvinylidene fluoride. Processing parameters including molding characteristics of some of the advanced polymers are described. Test results and relative rankings of some of the flammability, smoke and toxicity properties are presented.

  15. The use of curium as a rare earth substitute in high Tc related materials

    Curium (Z-96) is a 5f-element with chemical properties similar to Pr. The authors have taken advantage of these similarities to synthesize the high Tc related materials CmBa2Cu3O7, Cm2CuO4 and Cm2-xThxCuO4. They compare the chemical properties, as well as the collective properties of these compounds with their rare earth analogues. In particular, they focus the comparison on the isostructural Pr-compounds. For example, CmBa2Cu3O7, like PrBa2Cu3O7 is not superconducting, but magnetically orders at about 20 K. Cm2CuO4 however, does not behave like the Pr analogue, but instead orders at a relatively high temperature

  16. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    Mireles, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La penuela, Zacatecas, Zac., CP 98068 (Mexico)], E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.mx; Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La penuela, Zacatecas, Zac., CP 98068 (Mexico); Montero, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih., CP 31109 (Mexico); Colmenero, L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Chihuahua II, Ave de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Villalba, L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Circuito No. 1, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31125 (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    Indoor radon gas ({sup 222}Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the {sup 238}U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6{+-}4.9Bqm{sup -3} and 46.5{+-}5.3Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8{+-}5.4Bqm{sup -3}. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm{sup -3}.

  17. Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material

    Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

    2009-04-01

    For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with sodium azide to prevent microbial degradation, all samples showed oscillating concentrations of PAH over time pointing to the presence of anaerobic biodegradation. This also had an impact on the temporal development of pH, DOC and electrical conductivity. However, the concentrations of PAH desorbed were very low; for components with a molecular weight higher than pyrene, no desorption was observed at all. On a percentage basis, more PAH desorbed from the BK sample, even though the BMR sample contained an up to ten times higher amount of PAH. In addition, the organic material of the sludges was characterised by C and N elemental and sugar analysis and 13C CPMAS NMR to see how the type of organic material influenced desorption. It was shown that the two sludges did not differ significantly in the amount but more in the type of organic material. The BK sample contained organic material which was more degraded than the BMR sample. By combining desorption behaviour with organic material characterisation, we will show how the type of organic material influences desorption of PAH from the sediments.

  18. Taken for Granted: Material Relations Between Disability and Codes/Guidelines

    Janice Rieger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical examination of the taken for granted nature of the codes/guidelines used towards the creation of designed spaces, their social relations with designers, and their agency in designing for people with disabilities. We conducted case studies at three national museums in Canada where we began by questioning societal representations of disability within and through material culture through the potential of actor-network theory where non-human actors have considerable agency. Specifically, our exploration looks into how representations of disability for designing, are interpreted through mediums such as codes, standards and guidelines. We accomplish this through: deep analyses of the museums’ built environments (outdoors and indoors; interviewed curators, architects and designers involved in the creation of the spaces/displays; completed dialoguing while in motion interviews with people who have disabilities within the spaces; and analyzed available documents relating to the creation of the museums. Through analyses of our rich data set involving the mapping of codes/guidelines in their “representation” of disability and their contributions in “fixing” disability, this paper takes an alternative approach to designing for/with disability by aiming to question societal representations of disability within and through material culture.

  19. The effect of broadening the definition of generalized anxiety disorder on healthcare resource utilization and related costs in outpatient psychiatric clinics

    Javier Rejas; José M. Olivares; Vanessa López-Gómez; María Perez; Enrique Álvarez; Carrasco, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are among the highest users of healthcare resources. The broadening of the DSM-IV criteria for GAD has been a subject of controversy in the literature, but its consequences have not been analyzed to date. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze how the broadening of the DSM-IV criteria affects healthcare resource utilization and related costs. Methods: A multicentre, prospective, observational study was conducted in rand...

  20. Assessing the Educational Needs of Tomorrow's "Ideal" Corporate Communicators: Should Public Relations and Human Resource Development Programs Form a "Strategic" Merger?

    Thomsen, Steven R.; And Others

    A study assessed the specific courses and educational needs professionals considered important in the proper undergraduate preparation of future public relations practitioners. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,000 human resource managers and public relations practitioners from the national membership of two professional…

  1. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

  2. Teachers' planning and preparation of teaching resources and materials in the implementation of Form 4 Physical Education curriculum for physical fitness strand

    SYED ALI, Syed Kamaruzaman bin; ZAHIDI, Muhammad Akbar bin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the level of teachers’ preparation of teaching resources and materials in the implementtaion of Form 4 Physical Education for physical fitness strand. As a descriptive study, the location was selected in the district of Gombak, Selangor. Respondents who were involved in this study consisted of 50 teachers with Physical Education option and are teaching Form 4 students. The instrument employed to collect data was in the form of structured checklist and inte...

  3. Roget's Thesaurus: a Lexical Resource to Treasure

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the steps involved in creating an electronic lexical knowledge base from the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus. Semantic relations are labelled with the help of WordNet. The two resources are compared in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Differences in the organization of the lexical material are discussed, as well as the possibility of merging both resources.

  4. Interaction of graphene-related materials with human intestinal cells: an in vitro approach

    Kucki, M.; Rupper, P.; Sarrieu, C.; Melucci, M.; Treossi, E.; Schwarz, A.; León, V.; Kraegeloh, A.; Flahaut, E.; Vázquez, E.; Palermo, V.; Wick, P.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml-1) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone.Graphene-related materials (GRM) inherit unique combinations of physicochemical properties which offer a high potential for technological as well as biomedical applications. It is not clear which physicochemical properties are the most relevant factors influencing the behavior of GRM in complex biological environments. In this study we have focused on the interaction of GRM, especially graphene oxide (GO), and Caco-2 cells in vitro. We mimiked stomach transition by acid-treatment of two representative GRM followed by analysis of their physicochemical properties. No significant changes in the material properties or cell viability of exposed Caco-2 cells in respect to untreated GRM could be detected. Furthermore, we explored the interaction of four different GO and Caco-2 cells to identify relevant physicochemical properties for the establishment of a material property-biological response relationship. Despite close interaction with the cell surface and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), no acute toxicity was found for any of the applied GO (concentration range 0-80 μg ml-1) after 24 h and 48 h exposure. Graphene nanoplatelet aggregates led to low acute toxicity at high concentrations, indicating that aggregation, the number of layers or the C/O ratio have a more pronounced effect on the cell viability than the lateral size alone. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material characterization details, light microscopy images of Caco-2 cells, cell-free control tests for MTS and DCF assay. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00319b

  5. Safeguards resource management

    Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of systems upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and cost and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers

  6. Physician services in an academic neurology department: using the resource-based relative-value scale to examine physician activities.

    Becker, E R; Hall, K

    2001-01-01

    The inability of physician managers and decision makers to critically analyze the resource utilization of physicians has hindered a more comprehensive understanding of the role of neurologists in the patterns and organization of medical practice. This article outlines an approach for using the physician work relative value units (RVUs) in the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS) to address this problem and profile physician clinical activities in a comparative manner. These techniques are then used to profile the physician services associated with the neurology department at a large academic hospital. All 28,048 physician services associated with a neurology department in 1995 were studied. Using billing data, physician work RVUs were assigned to each service and the results analyzed by major services, type of service, and physician workload for physician work RVUs and physician charges. For the average service, mean physician charges were $187 per service while median physician charges were $120. Mean physician work RVUs per service averaged 1.3 RVUs, and the median was 0.94 per service. Of all the services provided in the neurology department, 65 percent are visits and consultations, while medicine services (e.g., nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, neuropsychological testing, and electroencephalogram) make up 31 percent. All the other services combined represented less than five percent of the services in the department. The top five physicians in the department account for 33 percent of all physician work RVUs in the neurology department. Using the physician work relative values in the MFS provides a unique perspective for analyzing and understanding neurologists' work activities. PMID:11434716

  7. Chemistry, materials and related problems in steam generators of power stations

    The operational reliability and availability of power plants are considerably influenced by chemical factors. Researches all over the world indicate that several difficulties in power plants can be traced to off-normal or abnormal water chemistry conditions. Whatever the source of energy, be it fossil fuel or nuclear fuel, the ultimate aim is steam generation to drive a turbine. It is, therefore, natural that problems of water chemistry and material compatibility are similar in thermal and nuclear power stations. The present paper discusses various types of problems in the form of corrosion damages, taking place in the boiler-turbine cycles and describes different types of boiler feed water/boiler water treatments that have been in use both in nuclear and thermal power stations. Current positions in relation to requirements of boiler feed water, boiler water and steam quality have been described

  8. Some classes of inelastic materials related problems basic to future technologies

    This mainly philosophic look ahead to the future highlights a number of developing classes of materials-related mechanics problems on the microscale and the macroscale. Each appears to be of considerable practical importance, intellectually stimulating, and likely to be very difficult. The list includes: the mechanics of response of lightly and heavily damaged structures and microstructures to further loading, the development of design theorems for the microscale and macroscale which contain suitable measures of damage, mechanics guidance for the development and interpretation of the remarkably sensitive and discerning NDE ultrasonic measurements that are now becoming possible for creep and fatigue damage, the mechanics of chemically active solids, and the mechanics of enormous strain rates, strains, stresses and temperatures likely to be encountered in power generation by fusion. The paper closes with attention to the need to capture the essence of reality rather than its full complexity. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of Commercial Vegetable Tannin materials and Related Polyphenols of Selected Acacia Species in Sudan

    Mahdi Haroun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannins and related polyphenols from twelve indigenous and exotic woody plant species were studied by different methods (Hide powder method, combined method, Folin-Denis method, and Hagerman Butler method with objectives of evaluating the quantity and quality of extractable tannins for comparison with standard Acacia mearnsii (wattle tannins. The result showed that of the sixteen parts studied, nine had more than 10% tannin content and were thus suitable for commercial exploitation. Thin layer and paper chromatography indicated and confirmed the differences of the chemical nature of the materials as mixed (Hydrolysable-condensed and condensed tannins. The protein precipitation behaviours confirmed complexity and differences in their nature and potentiality for tanning or other uses compared with A. mearnsii. The tannin type of Acacia nilotica species was of hydrolysable-condensed while that of A. mearnsii was of condensed type.

  10. Microanalytical and structural characterization of optical materials by electron microscopy and related spectroscopies

    The fine probe forming capabilities of an analytical electron microscope combined with the development of related spectroscopies, diffraction and imaging techniques, makes it possible to obtain structural and chemical information from multiphase materials at high spatial resolution. These microanalytical methods are described with relevant examples from our studies of compounds in the Al2O3-AIN pseudo binary system, a potential window material, low-pressure synthesized diamond, diamond-like carbon and hydrocarbon films. A comprehensive example of the characterization of a novel AlON poltypoid structure (32H), level of resolution and the need to employ all the complementary methods of analysis, is discussed. Efforts to characterize a variety of diamond-like carbon films by the measurements of both the low-loss plasmon resonances and the fine structure in the core-loss edges observable in the energy-loss spectrum, to obtain sp3/sp2 ratios are outlined. The electronic structure of thin film diamonds, synthesized by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, has been shown to be in agreement with band structure calculations

  11. The relation between magnetic and material arms in models for spiral galaxies

    Moss, D; Sokoloff, D; Stepanov, R; Krause, M; Arshakian, T G

    2013-01-01

    Context. Observations of polarized radio emission show that large-scale (regular) magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are not axisymmetric, but generally stronger in interarm regions. In some nearby galaxies such as NGC 6946 they are organized in narrow magnetic arms situated between the material spiral arms. Aims. The phenomenon of magnetic arms and their relation to the optical spiral arms (the material arms) call for an explanation in the framework of galactic dynamo theory. Several possibilities have been suggested but are not completely satisfactory; here we attempt a consistent investigation. Methods. We use a 2D mean-field dynamo model in the no-z approximation and add injections of small-scale magnetic field, taken to result from supernova explosions, to represent the effects of dynamo action on smaller scales. This injection of small scale field is situated along the spiral arms, where star-formation mostly occurs. Results. A straightforward explanation of magnetic arms as a result of modulation of th...

  12. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinia doped ceria in its doped or strained form is considered to be an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The simulation of the defect processes in these materials is complicated by the random distribution of the constituent atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure (SQS) approach as a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature of the local cation environment and the distribution of the oxygen vacancies. We have generated two 96-atom SQS cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of the local environment around a Y dopant in Y-codoped gadolinia doped ceria. It is energetically favourable if Y is not close to Gd or an oxygen vacancy. Moreover, Y-O bonds are found to be weaker than Gd-O bonds so that the conductivity of O ions is improved. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  13. Age related differences in mechanical demands imposed on the lower back by manual material handling tasks.

    Shojaei, Iman; Vazirian, Milad; Croft, Emily; Nussbaum, Maury A; Bazrgari, Babak

    2016-04-11

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) increases with age, yet the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this remains unclear. To explore the role of biomechanical factors, we investigated age-related differences in lower-back biomechanics during sagittally-symmetric simulated manual material handling tasks. For each task, trunk kinematics and mechanical demand on the lower back were examined, from among 60 participants within five equal-sized and gender-balanced age groups spanning from 20 to 70 years old. The tasks involved lowering a 4.5kg load from an upright standing posture to both knee height and a fixed height and then lifting the load back to the initial upright posture. During these tasks, segmental body kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected using wireless inertial measurement units and a force platform. Overall, older participants completed the tasks with larger pelvic rotation and smaller lumbar flexion. Such adopted trunk kinematics resulted in larger peak shearing demand at the lower back in older vs. younger participants. These results suggest that older individuals may be at a higher risk for developing lower back pain when completing similar manual material handling tasks, consistent with epidemiological evidence for higher risks of occupational low back pain among this cohort. PMID:26556714

  14. Dante, Seventh Centennial, 1265-1965: Resource Materials for Teachers. Curriculum Bulletin, 1965-66 Series, Number 16.

    Cavicchia, Gida; Costadasi, Virginia

    A two-part curriculum bulletin pays tribute to the life and works of Dante Alighieri during the 700th annivarsary of his birth. Part One includes his biography, a discussion of his minor works, a summary of "The Divine Comedy", Dante's impact on other lands, and Dantean thought. Suggestions for teaching a resource unit for elementary and junior…

  15. Dielectric relaxations in non-metallic materials related to Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    Bennani, H.; Pilet, J.C. (Lab. Instrumentation, Rennes-1 Univ., 35 (France)); Guilloux-Viry, M.; Perrin, C.; Perrin, A.; Sergent, M. (Lab. de Chimie Minerale B, C.N.R.S., 35 - Rennes (France))

    1990-10-15

    In relation with high Tc superconducting material studies, dielectric measurements have been carried out, in the frequency range 10 Hz - 100 kHz, on two powdered compounds belonging to the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. The non-metallic tetragonal phases YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} exhibit dielectric relaxations: for the studied samples (x<0.4) the activation energy U is observed in the range 0.5related to the presence of electrical dipoles due to the local dissymmetries induced by oxygen vacancies in the Cu-O chains. The insulating green phase Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} has a lower activation energy U {approx equal} 0.4 eV and an entropy factor A {approx equal} 10{sup 10} Hz. A second dielectric relaxation has been detected at higher temperature, near 400 K. Additional measurements to 77 K at 1 MHz give a value of dielectric constant {epsilon}'=3 and a low loss factor tg{delta}=10{sup -3}: this latter value is comparable to the one of lanthanum gallate recently proposed as a substrate for high frequency uses. This result enhances the previously reported potential interest of this material as substrate or buffer layer for preparation of superconducting thin films for high frequency applications. (orig.).

  16. Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study

    Bondevik Margareth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sense of coherence (SOC is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61 and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28. These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs.

  17. Sense of coherence as a resource in relation to health-related quality of life among mentally intact nursing home residents – a questionnaire study

    Drageset, Jorunn; Nygaard, Harald A; Eide, Geir Egil; Bondevik, Margareth; Nortvedt, Monica W; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2008-01-01

    Background Sense of coherence (SOC) is a strong determinant of positive health and successful coping. For older people living in the community or staying in a hospital, SOC has been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies focusing on this aspect among nursing home (NH) residents have been limited. This study investigated the relationship between SOC and HRQOL among older people living in NHs in Bergen, Norway. Methods Based on the salutogenic theoretical framework, we used a descriptive correlation design using personal interviews. We collected data from 227 mentally intact NH residents for 14 months in 2004–2005. The residents' HRQOL and coping ability were measured using the SF-36 Health Survey and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13), respectively. We analyzed possible relationships between the SOC-13 variables and SF-36 subdimensions, controlling for age, sex, marital status, education and comorbidity, and investigated interactions between the SOC and demographic variables by using multiple regression. Results SOC scores were significantly correlated with all SF-36 subscales: the strongest with mental health (r = 0.61) and the weakest with bodily pain (r = 0.28). These did not change substantially after adjusting for the associations with demographic variables and comorbidity. SOC-13 did not interact significantly with the other covariates. Conclusion These findings suggest that more coping resources improve HRQOL. This may indicate the importance of strengthening the residents' SOC to improve the perceived HRQOL. Such knowledge may help the international community in developing nursing regimens to improve HRQOL for older people living in NHs. PMID:18940001

  18. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  19. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

  20. The relation between magnetic and material arms in models for spiral galaxies

    Moss, D.; Beck, R.; Sokoloff, D.; Stepanov, R.; Krause, M.; Arshakian, T. G.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Observations of polarized radio emission show that large-scale (regular) magnetic fields in spiral galaxies are not fully axisymmetric, but generally stronger in interarm regions. In some nearby galaxies such as NGC 6946 they are organized in narrow magnetic arms situated between the material spiral arms. Aims: The phenomenon of magnetic arms and their relation to the optical spiral arms (the material arms) calls for an explanation in the framework of galactic dynamo theory. Several possibilities have been suggested but are not completely satisfactory; here we attempt a consistent investigation. Methods: We use a 2D mean-field dynamo model in the no-z approximation and add injections of small-scale magnetic field, taken to result from supernova explosions, to represent the effects of dynamo action on smaller scales. This injection of small scale field is situated along the spiral arms, where star-formation mostly occurs. Results: A straightforward explanation of magnetic arms as a result of modulation of the dynamo mechanism by material arms struggles to produce pronounced magnetic arms, at least with realistic parameters, without introducing new effects such as a time lag between Coriolis force and α-effect. In contrast, by taking into account explicitly the small-scale magnetic field that is injected into the arms by the action of the star forming regions that are concentrated there, we can obtain dynamo models with magnetic structures of various forms that can be compared with magnetic arms. These are rather variable entities and their shape changes significantly on timescales of a few 100 Myr. Properties of magnetic arms can be controlled by changing the model parameters. In particular, a lower injection rate of small-scale field makes the magnetic configuration smoother and eliminates distinct magnetic arms. Conclusions: We conclude that magnetic arms can be considered as coherent magnetic structures generated by large-scale dynamo action, and associated with spatially modulated small-scale magnetic fluctuations, caused by enhanced star formation rates within the material arms.

  1. Archaeology in the Classroom: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    O'Brien, Wendy, Ed.; Cullen, Tracey, Ed.

    This resource guide contains information about a wide range of archaeology related education materials available in North America. Resources listed include books, magazines, curriculum guides, resource packets, films, videos, kits of simulated artifacts, computer programs, games, museums, site specific resources, historical societies and…

  2. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  3. Synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene and graphene-related materials

    Gurunathan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jin-Hoi Kim Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene is a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and since its development it has been applied in many novel ways in both research and industry. Graphene possesses unique properties, and it has been used in many applications including sensors, batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, transistors, components of high-strength machinery, and display screens in mobile devices. In the past decade, the biomedical applications of graphene have attracted much interest. Graphene has been reported to have antibacterial, antiplatelet, and anticancer activities. Several salient features of graphene make it a potential candidate for biological and biomedical applications. The synthesis, toxicity, biocompatibility, and biomedical applications of graphene are fundamental issues that require thorough investigation in any kind of applications related to human welfare. Therefore, this review addresses the various methods available for the synthesis of graphene, with special reference to biological synthesis, and highlights the biological applications of graphene with a focus on cancer therapy, drug delivery, bio-imaging, and tissue engineering, together with a brief discussion of the challenges and future perspectives of graphene. We hope to provide a comprehensive review of the latest progress in research on graphene, from synthesis to applications. Keywords: biomedical applications, cancer therapy, drug delivery, graphene, graphene-related materials, tissue engineering, toxicity 

  4. Relative TL and OSL efficiency to protons of various dosimetric materials.

    Sądel, M; Bilski, P; Swakoń, J

    2014-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are the well-known phenomena used for passive methods of dose measurements. TL and OSL detectors are frequently used in the dosimetry of cosmic radiation in space and of particle radiotherapy beams. However, the relative TL/OSL efficiency, which is defined as a ratio of the emitted light intensity per unit dose for a given radiation type, to the same quantity for the reference gamma radiation is not constant and depends on radiation type and energy. In the present work several types of TL and OSL dosimetric materials, including lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide and lithium aluminate, were tested with protons. The measurements were realised exploiting the 60-MeV proton beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron in the Proton Eye Radiotherapy Facility at Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN). The influence of proton energy on the relative efficiency and other TL/OSL characteristics of the studied detector types was presented. PMID:24036656

  5. Bombardment of ?-quartz and related materials by argon (3 MeV) ions

    The bombardment using argon ions of energy 3 MeV of several ?-quartz isomorphous crystal structures has been carried out. Non-crystalline metamict forms have been obtained in all cases, using relatively low fluence. The metamict damage cross-sections Dsub(M) obtained are: 3.1 +- 0.3 nm2 (GeO2), 2.7 +- 0.3 nm2 (FePO4), 1.9 +- 0.4 nm2 (AlPO4), 1.0 +- 0.3 nm2 (SiO2) and 0.7 +- 0.3 nm2 (GaPO4), and these values decrease with increasing melting points. Recrystallization is observed to occur at relatively low temperatures of less than 0.5 Tsub(m). These results are in contrast to earlier studies using fast-neutron irradiation, in which non-crystalline forms were obtained only for SiO2. This is probably due to annealing of the neutron damage for materials of lower melting point during the lengthy irradiation at the temperature of the atomic pile. (author)

  6. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  7. Raw Materials Synthesis from Heavy Metal Industry Effluents with Bioremediation and Phytomining: A Biomimetic Resource Management Approach

    Salmah B. Karman; Diah, S. Zaleha M.; Gebeshuber, Ille C.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater poses a threat to human life and causes significant environmental problems. Bioremediation provides a sustainable waste management technique that uses organisms to remove heavy metals from contaminated water through a variety of different processes. Biosorption involves the use of biomass, such as plant extracts and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, yeast), and represents a low-cost and environmentally friendly method of bioremediation and resource management. Bio...

  8. Material-related measuring methods for the nanotechnology; Materialspezifische Messverfahren fuer die Nanotechnologie

    Beckhoff, Burkhard; Hoenicke, Philipp; Kolbe, Michael; Mueller, Matthias; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Reinhardt, Falk; Weser, Jan [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Roentgenspektrometrie' ; Brand, Uwe; Nesterov, Vladimir [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Nanokraftmesstechnik' ; Herrmann, Konrad [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). ' Haerte- und Schichtdickenmesstechnik'

    2011-06-15

    The optimization of functionalities of nanoscale systems required a comprehensive knowledge of material properties. Besides the material and product development the quality and production control needs measuring methods that are adjusted to the respective dimensions. The measuring methods require calibration standards and nanoscale reference materials. The article describes the material-specific measuring methods for the nanotechnology developed by PTB, that allow the determination of relevant material characteristics without reference materials. The article covers the following topics: X-ray spectrometry using synchrotron radiation, contamination control, elemental analysis, depth profiles and chemical binding state, micro- and nanoforce measuring technique for scanning force microscopy and nanoindentation.

  9. Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials

    The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the annihilation radiation whose momentum density distribution has its own peculiarities, different from the ones to be detected for defect-'free' crystal structure. Being a 'fingerprint' of a certain type of defects these peculiarities make it possible the nondestructive characterization of the heterostructures and superlattices by means of the positron particle microprobe. (author)

  10. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 28 February 2003 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Note Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  11. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 25 October 2004 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Notes Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

  12. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  13. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  14. Polarons and Bipolarons in High-Tc Superconductors and Related Materials

    Salje, E. K. H.; Alexandrov, A. S.; Liang, W. Y.

    2005-07-01

    1. A polaron theory of high temperature superconductors; 2. On the possibility of non-BCS superconductivity; 3. Bipolaron Bose-liquid in high-Tc superconductors; 4. Spin polarons in high-Tc superconductors; 5. The polaron scenario for high-Tc superconductors; 6. Formation, phase separation and superconductivity of large bipolarons; 7. Polarons and bipolarons in WO3-x YBa2Cu3O7; 8. Polaron bands in the far- and mid-infrared spectra of e-doped cuprates; 9. Electron-phonon interaction of non-equilibrium carriers in the photoinduced state of YBa2Cu3O7-d; 10. Experimental evidence of local lattice distortion in superconducting oxides; 11. Hall effect due to small polarons and conduction in narrow energy bands; 12. Static and dynamic conductivity of untwinned YBa2Cu4O8: gaps or condensation?; 13. The near infrared and optical absorption of high-Tc superconductors using powders; 13a. Polaronic theory of mid-infrared conductivity: a numerical cluster study; 14. Electromagnetic properties of local pair superconductors; 15. Electron-hole asymmetric polarons; 16. On the nature of the superconducting state in high-Tc cuprates; 17. High-Tc superconductivity with polarons and bipolarons: an approach from the insulating states; 18. Coexistence of small polaron and Anderson localisation in high-Tc superconducting materials; 19. Concentration and temperature dependence of magnetic polaron spectra in the t-J model; 20. Mass enhancement without band-narrowing in t-t'-J related models: predictions for Fermi-surface and optical conductivity; 21. Polarons in Peierls-Hubbard models; 22. Exact estimates of inter-polaron coupling constants resulting in bipolaron formation; 23. Coulomb interaction and the criteria for bipolaron formation; 24. Large bipolarons and high-Tc materials; 25. Collective excitations in the ground state of a two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas; 26. Strong two-band electron trapping, state hybridization effects and related pressure induced phenomena in semiconductors; 26a. Bismuth disproportionation in super and semiconducting barium bismuthates; 27. Magnetic polarons in concentrated and diluted magnetic semiconductors; 28. Energy scales of exotic superconductors.

  15. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and support Member States in solving them through international collaboration under the IAEA’s aegis

  16. Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel

    The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

  17. Biointeractivity-related versus chemi/physisorption-related apatite precursor-forming ability of current root end filling materials.

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Commercial root end filling materials, namely two zinc oxide eugenol-based cements [intermediate restorative material (IRM), Superseal], a glass ionomer cement (Vitrebond) and three calcium-silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based cements (ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end), were examined for their ability to: (a) release calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydroxyl (OH(-) ) ions (biointeractivity) and (b) form apatite (Ap) and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) precursors. Materials were immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1-28 days. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release were measured by ion selective probes, surface analysis was performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis, micro-Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IRM and Superseal released small quantities of Ca(2+) and no OH(-) ions. Uneven sparse nonapatitic Ca-poor amorphous CaP (ACP) deposits were observed after 24 h soaking. Vitrebond did not release either Ca(2+) or OH(-) ions, but uneven nonapatitic Ca-poor CaP deposits were detected after 7 days soaking. ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus, and Tech Biosealer root end released significant amounts of Ca(2+) and OH(-) ions throughout the experiment. After 1 day soaking, nanospherulites of CaP deposits formed by amorphous calcium/magnesium phosphate (ACP) Ap precursors were detected. A more mature ACP phase was present on ProRoot MTA and on Tech Biosealer root end at all times. In conclusion, zinc oxide and glass ionomer cements had little or no ability to release mineralizing ions: they simply act as substrates for the possible chemical bonding/adsorption of environmental ions and precipitation of nonapatitic Ca-poor ACP deposits. On the contrary, calcium-silicate cements showed a high calcium release and basifying effect and generally a pronounced formation of more mature ACP apatitic precursors correlated with their higher ion-releasing ability. PMID:23559495

  18. Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects

    Winget, Megan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

  19. Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network). PMID:23467581

  20. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel

    This paper is primarily concerned with Section 11 of INFCIRC/153 which provides for the possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material in question has been consumed, has been diluted, or has become practicably irrecoverable. Two distinctly different categories of nuclear material have been suggested for possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material has become practicably irrecoverable: One relates to a variety of low concentration waste materials, meaning thereby materials which the State or plant operator considers to be of questionable economic recoverability and the other relates to the spent fuel placed in facilities described as ''permanent repositories'' which are at least claimed to represent ''final disposal'' facilities and are candidates for a possible determination of practicably irrecoverable. 26 refs, tabs

  1. Soft tetragonal distortions in ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa and related materials from first principles

    Godlevsky, V V

    2000-01-01

    A detailed examination of the energy landscape, density of states and magnetic moment of tetragonally distorted ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa was performed using first-principles local-spin-density (LSD) pseudopotential calculations, varying V as well as c/a. The energy of tetragonal Ni_2MnGa is found to be nearly constant for values of c/a over a wide range, with shallow minima near c/a = 1 and 1.08 in addition to that near 1.2. This flat energy surface is consistent with the wide range of observed values of c/a. It also explains the observation of pseudomorphic growth of Ni_2MnGa on GaAs, despite a nominal 3% lattice mismatch. The related materials Ni_2MnAl, Ni_2MnIn and ferromagnetic NiMn were examined for similar behavior, but all are seen to have a single well-defined minimum at c/a near 1, consistent with available experimental information. For NiMn, the ground state antiferromagnetic ordering and structural parameters are correctly predicted within the LSD approach.

  2. Reduced thermal budget processing of high Tc superconducting thin films and related materials by MOCVD

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper the authors report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) on MgO, SrTiO3, and YSZ substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. Some preliminary results are also presented for the deposition of BaF2, Y2O3 and MgO on silicon substrates. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N2O and O2 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower the overall thermal budget for processing of YBCO films

  3. Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP in Hemodialysis-Related Materials

    Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

  4. Reduced thermal budget processing of high-Tc superconducting thin films and related materials by MOCVD

    Sinha, Sanjai; Singh, Rajendra; Hsu, N. J.; Ng, J. T. C.; Chou, P.; Narayan, Jagdish

    1991-03-01

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper we report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) on MgO, SrTiO3, and YSZ substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. Some preliminary results are also presented for the deposition of BaF2, Y203 and MgO on silicon substrates. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N2O and 02 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower the overall thermal budget for processing of YBCO films.

  5. Quantum dot material for the detection of explosive-related chemicals

    Schnee, Vincent P.; Woodka, Marc D.; Pinkham, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals were explored as a potential sensing mechanism for the detection of chemicals associated with landmines, IEDs and HME materials. A series of quantum dots (QDs) with fluorescence emissions spanning the visible spectrum was investigated using the Stern-Volmer relationship, specifically measuring the effect of quencher concentration on QD fluorescence intensity and photo-excited lifetime. The series of QDs was investigated with respect to their ability to donate excited-state electrons to an electronwithdrawing explosive related compound (ERC). Electron transfer was monitored by observing the steady-state fluorescence signal and the excited-state lifetimes of the QDs in the presence of ERC1. Increased sensitivities of QDs towards ERC1 were observed as the size and emission wavelength of the QDs decreased. As the QDs size decreased, the Stern-Volmer quenching constants increased. The larger QD exhibited the lowest Ksv and is thought to be quenched by a purely static quenching mechanism. As QD size decreased, an additional collisional quenching mechanism was introduced, denoted by a non-linearity in the quenching-vs-concentration Stern-Volmer plot. Increases in quenching efficiency were due to increased excited-state lifetimes, and the introduction of a collisional quenching mechanism. The quenching constant for the smallest QD was approximately an order of magnitude higher than those of similarly evaluated commercially available fluorescent polymers, suggesting that QDs could be exploited to develop sensitive detectors for electron-withdrawing compounds such as nitroaromatics.

  6. Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials

    Bilan, Yaroslav

    Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPbmSbTem+2), LASTT-m-x (AgPbm-xSnxSbTem+2), LABST-m-x (AgPbmSb1-xBixTem+2), doped LAST-m and (PbTe)m(M152Te3) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic precipitates and crystal defects the thermal conductivity was generally low. Similar to other reports the powder processing caused a deleterious effect on the electrical conductivity. The comparison between short term annealed and long term sintered polycrystalline bulk samples revealed that the annealing temperature caused partly connected particles for the LAST-derivates but well sintered compacts for the non-LAST-compounds. For both classes, long-term sintering caused a simultanious increase of both thermopower and electrical conductivity which shows that co-ball milling leads to a decoupling of those two properties. This could prove usefull in further investigations and the development of new thermoelectric materials and the processing thereof.

  8. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT §...

  9. NEW BIO-BASED MATERIALS FROM SOYBEAN OIL: HYDRAZINE AND RELATED DERIVATIVES

    Soybean oil is a renewable natural resource and is an environmentally friendly alternative to petroleum-based products. The major components of soybean oil (SBO) are triacylglycerols with a mixture of fatty acids moieties (typically 51% linoleic acid, 25% oleic acid, 10% palmitic acid, 7% linolenic...

  10. Hydrography - Water Resources

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  11. Effect of entropy-packing fraction relation on the formation of complex metallic materials

    Tourki Samaei, Arash; Mohammadi, Ehsan

    2015-09-01

    By combining a number of elements to form complex metallic materials without a base element, it was recently shown that one can obtain rather complex structures, including random solute solutions, multi-phased mixtures and amorphous structures with/without nano-precipitations. Compared to conventional metallic materials, these complex ones could show excellent mechanical and physical properties across a wide range of temperatures, therefore being a promising advanced material for high-temperature applications; however, designing these complex materials, at present, still lacks a unified physical approach but relies on the choice of a few metallurgical parameters, such as atomic size mismatch, heat of mixing and valence electron concentration. Here, we identify a physical mechanism through the optimization of the excess configurational entropy of mixing in the control of phase formation in these metallic materials. The theoretical framework herein established is expected to provide a new paradigm in pursuit of complex metallic materials with superior properties.

  12. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  13. Sustainability of the nuclear power as a technology with minimal relative impact on the economic and environmental resources

    Oussanov, V.I. [State Scientific Center Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The ''entropy'' model for quantitative assessment of the impact of the electricity generating systems is discussed in the paper. Introduction of the ''entropy'' notion opens an opportunity to come to a new understanding of the competitiveness of the electricity generating technologies under taking into account not only economic but also environmental resources. The criterion of the effectiveness should be formulated as production the unit of electricity under minimal dissipation of human energy and natural resources or, in another words, under minimal increase of the 'nooentropy' in the production system. Under such wide definition, the effectiveness of a technology for electricity production becomes a very important index of the sustainability. The assessment of the ''nooentropy'' effectiveness of the main full-energy-chain electricity production options with normalization to natural resources of Russia has demonstrated important advantages of the nuclear power which are missed in another models of the system analysis, specifically, less impact on natural resource. (author)

  14. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  15. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Macro-economics biobased synthesis report

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in this report

  16. Acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of graphene quantum dots using various natural carbon materials as resources.

    Shin, Yonghun; Park, Jintaek; Hyun, Daesun; Yang, Junghee; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2015-03-19

    To prepare carbon-based fluorescent materials such as graphene quantum dots (GQDs), new and effective methods are needed to convert one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials to 0D GQDs. Here, we report a novel acid-free and oxone oxidant-assisted solvothermal synthesis of GQDs using various natural carbon resources including graphite (G), multiwall carbon nanotubes (M), carbon fibers (CF), and charcoal (C). This acid-free method, not requiring the neutralization process of strong acids, exhibits a simple and eco-friendly purification process and also represents a recycling production process, together with mass production and high yield. Newly synthesized GQDs exhibited a strong blue photoluminescence (PL) under 365 nm UV light illumination. The PL emission peaks of all the recycled GQDs did not change. PMID:25757839

  17. Recipient luminophoric mediums having narrow spectrum luminescent materials and related semiconductor light emitting devices and methods

    LeToquin, Ronan P; Tong, Tao; Glass, Robert C

    2014-12-30

    Light emitting devices include a light emitting diode ("LED") and a recipient luminophoric medium that is configured to down-convert at least some of the light emitted by the LED. In some embodiments, the recipient luminophoric medium includes a first broad-spectrum luminescent material and a narrow-spectrum luminescent material. The broad-spectrum luminescent material may down-convert radiation emitted by the LED to radiation having a peak wavelength in the red color range. The narrow-spectrum luminescent material may also down-convert radiation emitted by the LED into the cyan, green or red color range.

  18. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well as...... a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food...

  19. In-situ Resources In Space

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This tutorial is a primer on the motivational and materials science basis for utilizing space resources to lower the cost and increase the safety and reliability of human systems beyond Earth's orbit. Past research in materials processing in orbit will be briefly reviewed to emphasize the challenges and advantages inherent in processing materials in space. Data on resource availability from human Lunar and robotic/sensor missions beyond the Moon will be overviewed for resource relevance to human exploration and development of space. Specific scenarios such as propellant production on the Moon and Mars, and lunar photovoltaic power production from in-situ materials will be discussed in relation to exploration and commercialization of space. A conclusion will cover some of the visionary proposals for the use of space resources to extend human society and prosperity beyond Earth.

  20. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  1. Bond strengths of New Carbon-nitride-Related material C2N2(CH2)

    A new carbon-nitride-related material C2N2(CH2) nanopletelet was synthesized by subjecting a precursor C3N4HxOy+Au in a laser-heating diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) to the pressure of 40 GPa and the temperature of 1200-2000 K. The synthesized C2N2(CH2) was accordingly found to be an orthorhombic unit cell of the space group Cmc21 with lattice constants a = 7.625Å, b = 4.490Å, and c = 4.047Å. The bulk modulus B0 was determined to be B0 = 258 ± 3.4 GPa, only the 60 % that of the diamond. C2N2(CH2) consists of the tetrahedrally coordinated C with three C-N single bond and the one C-C single bond, and the bridging carbon with the C-CH2-C bond. The C-N single bond length of the tetrahedron ranges from 1.444 to 1.503 Å. This bond length is close to the C-N single bond of 1.447 to 1.458 Å in the superhard β-C3N4. The compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of C2N2(CH2) ranges from 0.976 to 0.982 with the pressure of 30 GPa. These values are very close to the compressibility of the C-N and C-C single bond of 0.978 to 0.982 in β-C3N4, cubic-C3N4, and diamond.

  2. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (∼ 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap Δ in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  4. EFL Learners' Perspectives on ELT Materials Evaluation Relative to Learning Styles

    Lee, Bokyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between Korean EFL learners' self-reporting learning style preferences and their perspectives on ELT materials evaluation. Quantitative data was acquired from 521 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and a questionnaire of materials evaluation checklist. The findings show that Korean EFL learners'…

  5. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

    The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  6. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

  7. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Aida Idris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.

  8. Properties of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide electrode material in relation to electrochemical generation of ozone

    Wang, Bin; ??

    2013-01-01

    ?In this study, the properties of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO) electrode materials were investigated in relation to the electrochemical generation of ozone. The performance of NATO materials was correlated to ·OH radical generation and oxygen adsorption properties. Long-time ozone generation results suggested that surface property changes, including surface morphology, chemical composition and electro-catalyst thickness, could lead to ozone production rate decreased from 137...

  9. The relative patient costs and availability of dental services, materials and equipment in public oral care facilities in Tanzania

    Nyamuryekung'e, Kasusu K; Lahti, Satu M; Tuominen, Risto J

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient charges and availability of dental services influence utilization of dental services. There is little available information on the cost of dental services and availability of materials and equipment in public dental facilities in Africa. This study aimed to determine the relative cost and availability of dental services, materials and equipment in public oral care facilities in Tanzania. The local factors affecting availability were also studied. Methods A survey of all dis...

  10. VectorBase: an updated bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors and other organisms related with human diseases

    Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I; Emrich, Scott J.; MacCallum, Robert M.; Maslen, Gareth; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Topalis, Pantelis; Ho, Nicholas; Gesing, Sandra; Madey, Gregory; Collins, Frank H.; Lawson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    VectorBase is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases supported Bioinformatics Resource Center (BRC) for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. Now in its 11th year, VectorBase currently hosts the genomes of 35 organisms including a number of non-vectors for comparative analysis. Hosted data range from genome assemblies with annotated gene features, transcript and protein expression data to population genetics including variation and insecticide-resistance phenotypes. Here w...

  11. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Aida Idris; Saiful Nizam Che Soh

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR) missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army d...

  12. Definition of Terms Relating to Reactions of Polymers and to Functional Polymeric Materials, VII.2

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of polymers, particularly polymers with functional groups (crosslinking, grafting, complexation, reactive blending, etc. enable the preparation of polymeric materials of various properties (swelling, conductivity, photosensitivity, catalytic activity, etc. and functions (superabsorber, ion-exchanger, polyelectrolyte, supporter, surfactant, compatibilizer, etc.. Such an interdisciplinary branch of polymer chemistry requires clear and unified terminology. The present IUPAC recommendations fulfill this demand with definitions of 64 general and specific terms divided into three sections: reactions involving polymers; polymer reactants and reactive polymeric materials; functional polymeric materials. The document will contribute to the proper scientific and technological understanding of the field.

  13. Investigation report on the facilities and disposed materials related to the abolished Tokai refinement plants

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Present situations were surveyed on the slay accumulation site, raw material ore, and demolished facilities. The survey revealed demolished materials buried in a restricted area of the Institute yard, and the result of investigation was published together with further investigation plan. As a result of the investigation, the area of buried slag and ore was pinpointed. At the same time, the situation of disposal of non-radioactive equipment materials and burnt ash generated from the fuel reprocessing plant was investigated. It was confirmed then that the waste storage did not effect the neighboring environment. (H. Baba)

  14. NA Departmental Activities Related to Nuclear Materials for Advanced Reactor Systems

    Overview of completed and ongoing coordinated research projects which address the following issues: (1) Better understanding of radiation effects and mechanisms of material damage and basic physics of accelerator irradiation under specific conditions, (2) Improvement of knowledge and data for the present and new generation of structural materials, (3) Contribution to developmental of theoretical models for radiation degradation mechanism, (4) Fostering of advanced and innovative technologies by support of Round Robin testing, collaboration and networking

  15. Development of methodologies to assess the relative hazards from thermal decomposition products of polymeric materials.

    Barrow, C S; Lucia, H; Stock, M F; Alarie, Y

    1979-05-01

    The physiological stress imposed upon mice due to the irritating properties of thermal decomposition products of polymeric materials was evaluated. Acute lethality and histopathological evaluation were included in the study. The rankings of the polymeric materials studied from most to least hazardous was concluded to be polytetrafluoroethylene greater than polyvinyl chloride greater than Douglas Fir and flexible polyurethane foam greater than fiber glass reinforced polyester greater than copper coated wire with mineral insulation. PMID:463752

  16. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Borislav Bogdanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  17. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  18. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Borislav Bogdanović; Michael Felderhoff

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  19. Nickel hydroxides and related materials: a review of their structures, synthesis and properties

    Hall, David S.; Lockwood, David J.; Bock, Christina; MacDougall, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes the last few decades of research on nickel hydroxide, an important material in physics and chemistry, that has many applications in engineering including, significantly, batteries. First, the structures of the two known polymorphs, denoted as α-Ni(OH)2 and β-Ni(OH)2, are described. The various types of disorder, which are frequently present in nickel hydroxide materials, are discussed including hydration, stacking fault disorder, mechanical stresses and the inco...

  20. Materials problems related to using lithium in a fusion reactor blanket

    Different aspects of corrosion interaction of structural materials (mainly stainless steels) with liquid lithium are considered. Possible mechanisms of neutron irradiation and heavy magnetic field effect on the efficiency of lithium systems of thermonuclear reactor are analyzed. It is shown thatavailable experimental data are not enough for long-termforecast of structural materials behaviour being in a contact with liquid lithium under the conditions of thermonuclear reactor operation

  1. EFFICIENCY OF RELATIONS BETWEEN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS AND BUSINESS-WORLD ON IMPROVING SKILLED HUMAN RESOURCES: A RESEARCH ON BOLU VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL INTERNSHIPS STUDENTS

    Necmettin ÖZEL; İbrahim KARAGÖZ

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to detect relations between vocational high schools and business world on development and employment of skilled human resources. A Questionnaire was administrated to 104 students who have completed their internships. Questionnaire rendered a 85% of reliability. Items means of questionnaire showed that participants perceived that internships experiences motivate to learn new things (3.29); knowledge, however, gained in school aren’t satisfactory in respect of workplace expectat...

  2. An F2 Pig Resource Population as a Model for Genetic Studies of Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases in Humans: Design and Genetic Parameters

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Haja N. Kadarmideen; Mark, Thomas; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Cirera, Susanna; Jacobsen, Mette J.; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR tra...

  3. Materials Research Related to LMFBR Safety at the JRC Ispra. Recent Results and Future Plans

    This paper discusses the contribution of the JRC Ispra in two areas: dynamic material properties and fracture mechanics. Hundreds of dynamic stress-strain curves have been measured on various LMFBR structural materials, mainly AISI 304L and 316L, at strain rates ranging from 10-2 to 500 s-1. At LMPBR working temperature, increasing strain rate has little effect on the stress-strain curve for virgin material but produces a detrimental effect for welded and irradiated materials. High strain rates lead in particular to a drastic decrease of ductility on irradiated materials. Recent work on fracture mechanics has included an experiment on crack initiation and growth in stainless steel tubes under violent thermal shocks in sodium and an investigation on the fracture toughness of AISI 304 and 316 steels irradiated to 2.2 dpa. The combined effect of temperature and irradiation on welds produced drastic reductions in COD or J at the onset of stable crack growth, however the overall behaviour remained ductile. Future activities on dynamic materials properties will be extended to other parameters: stress state, strain and strain rate history, prior damage, size of the components . In the fracture mechanics area, new investigations on the effect of irradiation on fracture toughness, and a work on dynamic fracture mechanics are prepared. (author)

  4. Scaling Relation in Fracture of the Materials with Elastoplastic Response Inaccessible by Scaling Laws

    Soné, Naomi; Mori, Marie; Okumura, Ko

    2012-07-01

    Strong materials and a solid method of estimating their toughness are important for manufacturing materials valuable for human life, such as rubber and plastic. Such strong materials often exhibit a complex response to external force, which resists description by simple scaling laws. In addition, even for simple nonlinear materials, no theoretical or experimental reports have been available on a clear scaling law between fracture stress and crack size, which would, if available, provide a solid test for toughness. Here, we perform experiments on thin sheet samples to make important length scales well-separated. This practically suppresses all the finite-size effects so that we succeed in finding a clear scaling law for fracture (that between failure stress and crack size) by studying nonlinear polymer sheets. This leads to plausible estimates of the fracture toughness. Remarkably, we experimentally find the scaling law even though the nonlinearity in force response is not so simple as described by power laws. The fracture scaling can be explained by a theory developed here for simple nonlinear materials and we expect that this theory will be valid for many other materials with a complex nonlinearity, as demonstrated here. This clarifies the advantage of testing thin sheets. The scaling law established here can be regarded as a nonlinear extension of the Griffith's formula and holds also for thick samples: the nonlinear Griffith's formula is also applicable to three-dimensional bulk objects.

  5. "Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde / "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material

    Sonia Maria Figueira, Mano; Fabio Castro, Gouveia; Virgínia Torres, Schall.

    Full Text Available A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da [...] Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes. Abstract in english Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, d [...] eveloped the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

  6. "Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias": jovens avaliam potencial de material multimídia educativo em saúde "Love and sex: myths, truths and fantasies": youth evaluation of the multimedia resource as educational health material

    Sonia Maria Figueira Mano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A educação sexual na escola é prática defendida e prescrita pelo Ministério da Educação nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais como eixo transversal ao currículo. O tema é complexo e a proposta expressa demandas específicas, como a formação dos professores e materiais educativos adequados. O Museu da Vida, COC/Fiocruz, desenvolveu o multimídia «Amor e sexo: mitos, verdades e fantasias» e, neste artigo, apresenta a avaliação efetuada por 36 alunos do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro sobre o produto. A avaliação permitiu identificar o multimídia como recurso educativo capaz de promover o tema sexualidade em situações de aprendizagem. Um recurso do multimídia, denominado Caderno de Perguntas, mostrou-se como espaço de interlocução entre os jovens, permitindo troca anônima de dúvidas e ideias, e alimentando um banco de dados que permite aos professores e pesquisadores conhecerem melhor o pensamento dos adolescentes.Sex education in schools is advised and agreed as a universal theme in the National Curriculum of the Brazilian Education Ministry. This subject is complex and the proposal expresses specific needs, such as teacher training and the support of educational materials. The Museum of Life, COC/Fiocruz, developed the multimedia resource, "Love and Sex: myths, truths and fantasies" and this study presents the results of the evaluation made by 36 high school students from public schools, in Rio de Janeiro about the multimedia resource. The evaluation identified it as an educational resource, able to promote dialogue and support the the theme sexuality in teaching situations. A multimedia resource, called Answers Notebook, gives a dialogue space between adolescents, allowing anonymity in the exchange of doubts and ideas, and feeding into a database that allow teachers and professionals to know better how adolescents think.

  7. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA)

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget was 225.000,- EUR (funding for the University of Rostock: 87.813,00 EUR, for the Egyptian partners: 99.909,00 EUR).

  8. Material problems and requirements related to the development of fusion blankets: The designer point of view

    The structural materials considered for solid and liquid metal breeder blankets are the austenitic and martensitic steels and vanadium alloys. The principal concerns with these materials are: (a) the high-temperature-induced swelling of the austenitic steels, (b) the low temperature irradiation embrittlement of martensitic steels, and (c) the exact specification of the preferred alloy composition(s), properties during and following irradiation, and technological aspects (fabrication and welding) for the vanadium alloys. Solid breeder blankets are based on the use of lithiated ceramics such as Li2O, LiAlO2, Li4SiO4 and Li2ZrO3 and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The main uncertainty with these materials is their behaviour under irradiation, particularly at higher burnups and fluences than have been achieved hitherto. Liquid metal blankets, utilising pure Li or the LiPb eutectic as the tritium breeding material, can be either self- or separately-cooled; separate coolants include water (with LiPb) and helium. The important materials issues with the LiPb are the development of permeation barriers to contain the tritium and, for the self-cooled option, electrical insulators to reduce the MHD pressure drop to acceptable levels. ((orig.))

  9. Material problems and requirements related to the development of fusion blankets: The designer point of view

    Donne, M. Dalle; Harries, D. R.; Kalinin, G.; Mattas, R.; Mori, S.

    1994-09-01

    The structural materials considered for solid and liquid metal breeder blankets are the austenitic and martensitic steels and vanadium alloys. The principal concerns with these materials are: (a) the high-temperature-induced swelling of the austenitic steels, (b) the low temperature irradiation embrittlement of martensitic steels, and (c) the exact specification of the preferred alloy composition(s), properties during and following irradiation, and technological aspects (fabrication and welding) for the vanadium alloys. Solid breeder blankets are based on the use of lithiated ceramics such as Li 2O, LiAlO 2, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2ZrO 3 and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The main uncertainty with these materials is their behaviour under irradiation, particularly at higher burnups and fluences than have been achieved hitherto. Liquid metal blankets, utilising pure Li or the LiPb eutectic as the tritium breeding material, can be either self- or separately-cooled; separate coolants include water (with LiPb) and helium. The important materials issues with the LiPb are the development of permeation barriers to contain the tritium and, for the self-cooled option, electrical insulators to reduce the MHD pressure drop to acceptable levels.

  10. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 1. Bottom-up Scenarios

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. The results of the synthesis of the modelling work are presented in the main report. This report (part 1) presents scenarios for future biomass use for energy and materials, and analyses the consequences on energy supply, chemical productions, costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with a bottom-up approach. The bottom-up projections, as presented in this report, form the basis for modelling work using the top-down macro-economic model (LEITAP) to assess the economic impact of substituting fossil-based energy carriers with biomass in the Netherlands. The results of the macro-economic modelling work, and the linkage between the results of the bottom-up and top-down work, will be presented in the top-down economic part and synthesis report of this study

  11. Details of criminological investigations of large-valued thefts related to nuclear materials (diversion safeguards program)

    Studies were made of five areas of criminology which have great similarity to the case of nuclear materials. Actual cases of crimes were analyzed by experts in law enforcement and criminal justice. To identify fields of analogous criminology, possible characteristics of nuclear material thefts were considered: total value, high unit cost, limited marketability, special technology for handling, and licensing. The items considered to be analogous to nuclear materials in these aspects were: narcotics, data (as exists in computer memories, tapes, or discs), precious metal and gems, objects of art, and weapons. A criminology survey was conducted in which 509 individuals received one or more questionnaires soliciting opinion responses. Sixty-five questionnaires were returned. Eighty-four individuals replied by letter indicating inadequate knowledge of the crimes being surveyed. The questionnaire was supplemented by 18 interviews with criminal justice and industry personnel for more definitive information on diversion problems. Results of this survey are reported

  12. On the relation between strength properties of carbon materials and total porosity following neutron irradiation

    Correlation of compression strength and flexural strength and dynamic elastic modulus with the general porosity of carbon materials irradiated with neutrons is considered. The syntactic foam and fine-grain graphite on the base of non-calcinated oil coke with pitch binding have been used as samples for investigations. The irradiation is carried out by neutron fluence of 1.3x1021 neutr/cm2. It is shown that the above correlation as well as in non-irradiated materials is approximated satisfactorily by the exponential equation. Besides the character of the interaction of filler grains between themselves and with the binding, has not changed

  13. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  14. Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials

    Temmerman, G. De

    2006-07-01

    This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed.

  15. IE Information Notice No. 85-08: Industry experience on certain materials used in safety-related equipment

    This information notice is being issued to provide licensees and construction permit holders with information pertaining to the behavior of certain materials used in safety-related equipment. The materials, as described below, were observed to have the potential of degrading the operability of safety-related equipment. These observations were made during environmental qualification testing and/or during routine inspection of in-service equipment. The notice describes the following: elastomeric seals used in personnel air locks for the reactor containment systems; epoxy phenolic coating applied to the lower portion of the interior surface of diesel oil storage tanks; the use of Viton elastomer as the seal material in hydrogen recombiner applications; and environmental qualification of ASCO NP valves with Viton and ethylene propylene parts

  16. Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel (AGM-660)

    The Advisory Group was asked to advise the Agency on the circumstances under which the Agency might logically implement Section 11 of INFCIRC/153, or the comparable Section 26c of INFCIRC/66/rev2, which provides for a determination that nuclear material is 'practicably irrecoverable', and that therefore safeguards could be terminated. This advice was sought, and in the paragraphs that follow is given, in two areas. One relates to 'waste', which the Group understands as referring to material which contains nuclear material that the State/facility operator believes has no economically recoverable value and for which no further use is foreseen. The other relates to spent fuel, which in some cases may be placed in geological 'permanent repositories'

  17. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  18. A simple experiment highlighting data treatment techniques: the determination of the relative dielectric constant of a material

    A simple and inexpensive experiment requiring nonlinear data transformation for straightforward fitting gives a complete overview of basic data treatment techniques in a way suitable for a beginners on a physics laboratory course. A satisfactory estimate of the relative dielectric constant of a material is thereby obtained. Methodological issues and pedagogical aspects of the experiment are discussed in detail. (paper)

  19. Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials

    Jiang, Hongxing [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lin, Jingyu [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-01-22

    Among the members of the III-nitride material system, boron-nitride (BN) is the least studied and understood. Its extraordinary physical properties, such as ultra-high chemical stability, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, band gap (Eg ~ 6 eV), and optical absorption near the band gap make hexagonal BN (h-BN) the material of choice for emerging applications such as deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. Moreover, h-BN has a close lattice match to graphene and is the most suitable substrate and dielectric/separation layer for graphene electronics and optoelectronics. Similar to graphene, low dimensional h-BN is expected to possess rich new physics. Other potential applications include super-capacitors and electron emitters. However, our knowledge concerning the semiconducting properties of h-BN is very scarce. The project aims to extend our studies to the “newest” family member of the III-nitride material system, h-BN, and to address issues that have not yet been explored but are expected to profoundly influence our understanding on its fundamental properties and device applications. During the supporting period, we have improved the growth processes of h-BN epilayers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), investigated the fundamental material properties, and identified several unique features of h-BN as well as critical issues that remain to be addressed.

  20. Natural resource mitigation, adaptation and research needs related to climate change in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert

    Hughson, Debra L.; Busch, David E.; Davis, Scott; Finn, Sean P.; Caicco, Steve; Verburg, Paul S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report synthesizes the knowledge, opinions, and concerns of many Federal and State land managers, scientists, stakeholders, and partners from a workshop, held at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, on April 20-22, 2010. Land managers, research scientists, and resource specialists identified common concerns regarding the potential effects of climate change on public lands and natural resources in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert and developed recommendations for mitigation, adaptation, and research needs. Water and, conversely, the effects of drought emerged as a common theme in all breakout sessions on terrestrial and aquatic species at risk, managing across boundaries, monitoring, and ecosystem services. Climate change models for the southwestern deserts predict general warming and drying with increasing precipitation variability year to year. Scientists noted that under these changing conditions the past may no longer be a guide to the future in which managers envision increasing conflicts between human water uses and sustaining ecosystems. Increasing environmental stress also is expected as a consequence of shifting ecosystem boundaries and species distributions, expansion of non-native species, and decoupling of biotic mutualisms, leading to increasingly unstable biologic communities. Managers uniformly expressed a desire to work across management and agency boundaries at a landscape scale but conceded that conflicting agency missions and budgetary constraints often impede collaboration. More and better science is needed to cope with the effects of climate change but, perhaps even more important is the application of science to management issues using the methods of adaptive management based on long-term monitoring to assess the merits of management actions. Access to data is essential for science-based land management. Basic inventories, spatial databases, baseline condition assessments, data quality assurance, and data sharing were identified as top information priorities by all participants at this workshop. Optimizing the utility of ecosystem monitoring data will require standardizing monitoring protocols across agencies. Better communication among researchers and managers and cooperation through partnerships to manage resources across boundaries were emphasized as necessary for adapting to changing climatic conditions. However, even these strategies may be insufficient unless policy mandates, agency missions, and funding are coordinated at a high level.