WorldWideScience
 
 
1

A Bibliography for Available Material Instrument Making (with Related Resources).  

Science.gov (United States)

This forty-five item annotated bibliography dealing with available materials about instrument making is comprised of 39 books, five catalogs, and one newsletter. These resources are divided into the following categories: instrument making books: children; instrument making books: written on an adult level, but include projects suitable for the…

Pizzo, Tony

2

International comparison of resource use and its relation to economic growth. The development of total material requirement, direct material inputs and hidden flows and the structure of TMR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resource flows constitute the materials basis of the economy. At the same time, they carry and induce an environmental burden associated with resource extraction and the subsequent material flows and stocks, which finally end up as waste and emissions. A reduction of this material throughput and the related impacts would require a reduction of resource inputs. And breaking the link between resource consumption and economic growth would require an increase in resource productivity. Material flow analysis (MFA) can be used to quantify resource flows and indicate resource productivity. In this article, we study the available empirical evidence on the actual (de-)linkage of material resource use and economic growth. We compare resource use with respect to total material requirement (TMR) and direct material input (DMI) for 11 and 26 countries, respectively, and the European Union (EU-15). The dynamics of TMR, as well as of the main components are analysed in relation to economic growth in order to show whether there is a decoupling (relative or absolute) from GDP and a change of the metabolic structure in the course of economic development. DMI/cap so far only decoupled from GDP/cap in relative terms; that is, in most countries, it reached a rather constant level but-with the exception of Czech Republic-showed no absolute decline yet. TMR/cap was reduced in two high-income countries and one low-income country due to political influence. Changes in TMR were more influenced by hidden flows (HF) than by DMI. We analyse the dynamics of the structure and composition of TMR in the course of economic development. In general, the economic development of industrial countries was accompanied by a shift from domestic to foreign resource extraction. Different relations can be discovered for the share of biomass, fossil fuel resources, construction resources and metals and industrial minerals.

Bringezu, Stefan; Schuetz, Helmut; Steger, Soeren; Baudisch, Jan [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Department for Material Flows and Structural Change, Wuppertal Institute, P.B. 100 480, 42002 Wuppertal (Germany)

2004-11-01

3

Energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The eleven papers in this book were given at a symposium on the public's attitude toward energy conservation measures in the U.S. Papers discussed the need for taking public opinion into account when forming energy policies, the difficulties of obtaining reliable data concerning public opinion, the science of attitudinal surveying, and the effect that attitudes have on behavior related to energy and resource conservation.

Conn, W.D.

1983-01-01

4

Asteroids prospective energy and material resources  

CERN Document Server

The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

2013-01-01

5

Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

2013-11-01

6

Russian Resource Materials Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

Seymour, Viveca

7

Space resources. Volume 3: Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

1992-01-01

8

Functional ceramic materials database: an online resource for materials research.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present work on the creation of a ceramic materials database which contains data gleaned from literature data sets as well as new data obtained from combinatorial experiments on the London University Search Instrument. At the time of this writing, the database contains data related to two main groups of materials, mainly in the perovskite family. Permittivity measurements of electroceramic materials are the first area of interest, while ion diffusion measurements of oxygen ion conductors are the second. The nature of the database design does not restrict the type of measurements which can be stored; as the available data increase, the database may become a generic, publicly available ceramic materials resource. PMID:18232678

Scott, D J; Manos, S; Coveney, P V; Rossiny, J C H; Fearn, S; Kilner, J A; Pullar, R C; Alford, N Mc N; Axelsson, A-K; Zhang, Y; Chen, L; Yang, S; Evans, J R G; Sebastian, M T

2008-02-01

9

Materials supply and demand problems and related near- and long-term issues as seen by relatively developed resource-rich nations. [Canada, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concerns of the relatively developed, resource-rich (RDR-R) countries (basically Canada, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand) fall between those of the industrialized countries and the developing countries. The advanced countries are principally concerned about their dependence on imports, often from developing or RDR-R countries, to meet their increasing raw materials needs, while the latter are concerned about both conditions of trade for their raw material exports, and, more broadly, their long-term ability to obtain materials for their own expected economic growth. Given the importance of resources to these countries, a major reexamination of the relation of domestic environmental, social, political, and economic policies to resource development is unsurprising. In the emotional atmosphere following the energy crisis, however, this has added fuel to an already-confused international debate. This renewed international interest in these issues is welcome and vital. As yet, little has emerged from it to reduce confusion. The reasons for this are many, but they include failure to approach issues pragmatically rather than dogmatically; to take a realistic rather than a moralistic approach; and to specify issues precisely. The consequences are a lack of credibility in discussion and a misinterpretation of actions and of situations. This could result in wrong policy prescriptions, as well as continued political conflict and uncertainty. Among the consequences could be a further discouragement of investment in raw material productive capacity. The developing countries in total might then achieve their objective of higher prices unintentionally through world underinvestment in capacity.

Harris, S.

1977-05-01

10

Resource Material for the Business Education Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the importance of being aware of new curriculum and materials in business education. Suggests and describes the Vocational Education Curriculum Materials database as a resource for locating new materials. (JOW)

Chase, Shirley A.

1988-01-01

11

Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources  

CERN Multimedia

The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

2012-01-01

12

PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

A. Alpatov

2012-02-01

13

Materials resource cycle of fusion power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The materials resource cycle for a fusion power plant includes facilities for deuterium separation and extraction, lithium mining and milling, power plant operation, and waste storage and recycle. Work in progress at PNL characterizes each of these facilities in a conceptual manner in terms of materials flow, processes used, and proximity to the power plant. Emphasis during the first phase of the program has been on the post-reactor-shutdown part of the materials resource cycle. Various blanket design options have been compared. Methods for offgassing of tritium after shutdown have been investigated. The degree to which materials may be recycled in both liquid lithium and in solid breeding modules has been explored. Ease of disassembly has been revealed as an important factor in determining the degree to which blanket materials may be recycled

1979-09-01

14

Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

2012-01-01

15

RELATIO: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONAL DIMENSION OF RESOURCE ALLOCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indigenous traditions and values of African peoples have been viewed as being behind the times. Disregarding established, functioning systems of African resource allocation has led to a system of interaction out of touch with local cultural priorities. Through a review of literature, augmented by qualitative interviews and observational analysis, the evolutionary nature of rationality is revealed; demonstrating the necessity for our understanding of economic choice to be adjusted to involve broader conceptions of its constitution, restraints, and motivations. It is derived that two parallel systems for addressing basic questions of choice and resource management exist; a traditional “rational” Western system, and a “relational” African system. After establishing these intersecting systems, the value of African uniqueness is appreciated. This paper attempts to build upon the work of other economists in the addition of a “relational” component of rationality, informed by both social and material forms of capital.

Kevin Sheneberger

2011-10-01

16

Improving standardization of production reserves of material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems of improving standardization of production reserves of material resources are examined and proposals are developed for creating a scientifically justified technique for rating the standards of production reserves.

Rozov, V.N.; Karchenko, O.F.; Khalilov, K.G.

1984-01-01

17

Resource convergence and resource power: towards new concepts for material efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Material efficiency is not a panacea, but it lies at the intersection of many problems of global sustainability. Reducing the usage of a single material in a value chain may require ingenuity and wide cooperation, but conceptually it is not a problem. When the problem stretches to several resources in changing circumstances, we have to understand the linkages between resources and the power, and the influence of each resource in decision-making in different settings. In this paper, we concisely go from the time dimension to a very short history of resource thinking, and then introduce our resource convergence concept. Using text mining on a sample of articles linking different resources, we show in a 'visual literature review' how resource convergence emerges from unrelated texts. To demonstrate one new method under the resource convergence umbrella, we use a case example with our Resource Power Index method. In our opinion, mastering complexity will be the key to solving the challenges we are facing, and mastering resource convergence and translating it into material efficiency is one of the central problems. What we show in this paper is a core framework and some details of the direction we see as worth pursuing. PMID:23359733

Vasara, Petri; Rouhiainen, Juulia; Lehtinen, Hannele

2013-03-13

18

Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

2010-12-01

19

Maintenance modeling and optimization integrating human and material resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maintenance planning is a subject of concern to many industrial sectors as plant safety and business depend on it. Traditionally, the maintenance planning is formulated in terms of a multi-objective optimization (MOP) problem where reliability, availability, maintainability and cost (RAM+C) act as decision criteria and maintenance strategies (i.e. maintenance tasks intervals) act as the only decision variables. However the appropriate development of each maintenance strategy depends not only on the maintenance intervals but also on the resources (human and material) available to implement such strategies. Thus, the effect of the necessary resources on RAM+C needs to be modeled and accounted for in formulating the MOP affecting the set of objectives and constraints. In this paper RAM+C models to explicitly address the effect of human resources and material resources (spare parts) on RAM+C criteria are proposed. This extended model allows accounting for explicitly how the above decision criteria depends on the basic model parameters representing the type of strategies, maintenance intervals, durations, human resources and material resources. Finally, an application case is performed to optimize the maintenance plan of a motor-driven pump equipment considering as decision variables maintenance and test intervals and human and material resources.

Martorell, S., E-mail: smartore@iqn.upv.e [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Villamizar, M.; Carlos, S. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Dpto. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica Valencia (Spain)

2010-12-15

20

Metallurgy and Materials Case Studies: Teaching and Learning Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This University of Birmingham (U.K.) website provides a wealth of resources for both the college educator and student using a case-based approach to materials science. The site provides background information on the use of case studies in teaching, a series of case studies in materials, broadly defined, information on group learning and how to facilitate group learning, and assessment.

2013-01-03

 
 
 
 
21

Experience of Designing a Relational Materials Database.  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of a database for engineering and manufacturing materials data in a tabular (relational) format is described. The freedom permitted by a relational (rather than hierarchical) structure allows better use of the computer's ability to handle n dim...

R. J. Bamkin S. C. F. Macrae

1991-01-01

22

Silicon Carbide and Related Materials: ECSCRM2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Third European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ECSCRM2000), held September 3-7, 2000 in Kloster Banz, Germany, developed into a truly important forum in the field of wide bandgap semiconductors. All continents - some 320 participa...

D. Stephani G. Pensl M. Hundhausen

2000-01-01

23

Revisiting Rebound Effects from Material Resource Use. Indications for Germany Considering Social Heterogeneity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In contrast to the original investigation by William Stanley Jevons, compensations of energy savings due to improved energy efficiency are mostly analyzed by providing energy consumption or greenhouse gas emissions. In support of a sustainable resource management, this paper analyzes so-called rebound effects based on resource use. Material flows and associated expenditures by households allow for calculating resource intensities and marginal propensities to consume. Marginal propensities to consume are estimated from data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP in order to account for indirect rebound effects for food, housing and mobility. Resource intensities are estimated in terms of total material requirements per household final consumption expenditures along the Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (COICOP. Eventually, rebound effects are indicated on the basis of published saving scenarios in resource and energy demand for Germany. In sum, compensations due to rebound effects are lowest for food while the highest compensations are induced for mobility. This is foremost the result of a relatively high resource intensity of food and a relatively low resource intensity in mobility. Findings are provided by giving various propensity scenarios in order to cope with income differences in Germany. The author concludes that policies on resource conservation need to reconsider rebound effects under the aspect of social heterogeneity.

Johannes Buhl

2014-02-01

24

Informatics-based Learning Resources for Patients and their Relatives in recovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we describe experiences from design of an informatics-based learning resource for patients and relatives. The prototype, REPARERE (learning REsource for PAtients and RElatives during REcovery), aims to support patients and their family recovering from heart surgery in meeting challenges in to daily living post discharge. Using recovery experiences and patient teaching material, REPARERE includes examples of textual information, video-clips, images and illustrations relevant to t...

Moen, Anne; Smørdal, Ole

2006-01-01

25

Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psychological resources—optimism, mastery, and self-esteem—buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the “A” allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-e...

Saphire-bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M.; Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

2011-01-01

26

Re-Reading Diotima: Resources for a Relational Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers a range of responses to Plato's "Symposium," paying particular attention to Diotima's speech on eros and philosophy. It argues that Diotima's teachings contain resources for a relational pedagogy, but that these resources come more sharply into focus when Plato's text is read through the lens of…

Jones, Rachel

2014-01-01

27

Genetic materials at the gene engineering division, RIKEN BioResource Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic materials are one of the most important and fundamental research resources for studying biological phenomena. Scientific need for genetic materials has been increasing and will never cease. Ever since it was established as RIKEN DNA Bank in 1987, the Gene Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC) has been engaged in the collection, maintenance, storage, propagation, quality control, and distribution of genetic resources developed mainly by the Japanese research community. When RIKEN BRC was inaugurated in 2001, RIKEN DNA Bank was incorporated as one of its six Divisions, the Gene Engineering Division. The Gene Engineering Division was selected as a core facility for the genetic resources of mammalian and microbe origin by the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan in 2002. With support from the scientific community, the Division now holds over 3 million clones of genetic materials for distribution. The genetic resources include cloned DNAs, gene libraries (e.g., cDNA and genomic DNA cloned into phage, cosmid, BAC, phosmid, and YAC), vectors, hosts, recombinant viruses, and ordered library sets derived from animal cells, including human and mouse cells, microorganisms, and viruses. Recently genetic materials produced by a few MEXT national research projects were transferred to the Gene Engineering Division for further dissemination. The Gene Engineering Division performs rigorous quality control of reproducibility, restriction enzyme mapping and nucleotide sequences of clones to ensure the reproducibility of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Users can easily access our genetic materials through the internet and obtain the DNA resources for a minimal fee. Not only the materials, but also information of features and technology related to the materials are provided via the web site of RIKEN BRC. Training courses are also given to transfer the technology for handling viral vectors. RIKEN BRC supports scientists around the world in the use of valuable genetic materials. PMID:20484845

Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Murata, Takehide; Pan, Jianzhi; Nakade, Koji; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Ugai, Hideyo; Kimura, Makoto; Kujime, Yukari; Hirose, Megumi; Masuzaki, Satoko; Yamasaki, Takahito; Kurihara, Chitose; Okubo, Masato; Nakano, Yuri; Kusa, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Inabe, Kumiko; Ueno, Kazuko; Obata, Yuichi

2010-01-01

28

Decision support system and related methods in water resource planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper deals with decision support systems and related methods in water resources planning. The various papers given for the session on economic quantification as a tool for decision making in water resources planning, reflect the change in emphasis from the quantity to quality viewpoint. Only a few of these papers deal with the economic aspects of water management from the quantitative viewpoint. The papers can be classified according to two main themes: the contribution of the feedback control theory, and of simulation and optimization models to decision making; the use of cost-benefit analysis or of benefit studies in decision making for water resources management in relation to environmental matters.

Potier, M.; Carlsen, A.J. (ed.)

1987-01-01

29

Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

1980-11-10

30

Resource Materials for Nanoscale Science and Technology Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology and advanced materials examples can be used to explore science and engineering concepts, exhibiting the "wow" and potential of nanotechnology, introducing prospective scientists to key ideas, and educating a citizenry capable of making well-informed technology-driven decisions. For example, material syntheses an atomic layer at a time have already revolutionized lighting and display technologies and dramatically expanded hard drive storage capacities. Resource materials include kits, models, and demonstrations that explain scanning probe microscopy, x-ray diffraction, information storage, energy and light, carbon nanotubes, and solid-state structures. An online Video Lab Manual, where movies show each step of the experiment, illustrates more than a dozen laboratory experiments involving nanoscale science and technology. Examples that are useful at a variety of levels when instructors provide the context include preparation of self-assembled monolayers, liquid crystals, colloidal gold, ferrofluid nanoparticles, nickel nanowires, solar cells, electrochromic thin films, organic light emitting diodes, and quantum dots. These resources have been developed, refined and class tested at institutions working with the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Nanostructured Interfaces at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (http://mrsec.wisc.edu/nano).

Lisensky, George

2006-12-01

31

Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

Michael Lettenmeier

2014-07-01

32

Radiation effects on pharmaceuticals and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation sterilization is the method of choice for many medical supplies and devices. However, because of the ionizing nature of gamma radiation, one must consider the effect of such radiation on the physical and chemical properties and on the biological behaviour of pharmaceutical and related materials before the feasibility of radiation sterilization for such products is established. The results of such feasibility studies can lead to an appropriate decision on the suitability of radiation sterilization for a particular pharmaceutical. (author)

1986-09-15

33

The Protection of Traditional Knowledge Related to Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work assesses some of the ways in which TK related to genetic resources is protected. The first part addresses the use of patents and their shortcomings in protecting this type of knowledge. To compensate for these weaknesses, the second section of this work argues for the inclusion of sui generis elements into patent law. With regard to TK related to genetic resources, the introduction of procedural safeguards into the patent application procedure would provide an effective model of protection. The final part of this work will address the international dimension of TK protection.

Marko Berglund

2005-06-01

34

Adaptive differentiation of traits related to resource use in a desert annual along a resource gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

• Plant resource-use traits are generally hypothesized to be adaptively differentiated for populations distributed along resource gradients. Although nutrient limitations are expected to select for resource-conservative strategies, water limitations may select for either resource-conservative or -acquisitive strategies. We test whether population differentiation reflects local adaptation for traits associated with resource-use strategies in a desert annual (Helianthus anomalus) distributed along a gradient of positively covarying water and nutrient availability. • We compared quantitative trait variation (Q(ST)) with neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST)), in a common garden glasshouse study, for leaf economics spectrum (LES) and related traits: photosynthesis (A(mass), A(area)), leaf nitrogen (N(mass), N(area)), leaf lifetime (LL), leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf water content (LWC), water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated as ?(13)C) and days to first flower (DFF). • Q(ST)-F(ST) differences support adaptive differentiation for Amass , N(mass), N(area), LWC and DFF. The trait combinations associated with drier and lower fertility sites represent correlated trait evolution consistent with the more resource-acquisitive end of the LES. There was no evidence for adaptive differentiation for A(area), LMA and WUE. • These results demonstrate that hot dry environments can selectively favor correlated evolution of traits contributing to a resource-acquisitive and earlier reproduction 'escape' strategy, despite lower fertility. PMID:24325125

Brouillette, Larry C; Mason, Chase M; Shirk, Rebecca Y; Donovan, Lisa A

2014-03-01

35

Understanding and mitigating HIV-related resource-based stigma in the era of antiretroviral therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The perception in low-resource settings that investment of resources in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is wasted because AIDS is both an incurable and deadly disease is known as resource-based stigma. In this paper, we draw on in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD), and key informant interviews (KII) with 77 HIV-positive microfinance participants and nongovernmental organization leaders to examine resource-based stigma in the context of increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an individual, household, and community level in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose of this exploratory paper is to examine: (1) resource-based stigmatization in the era of ART and (2) the relationship among microfinance, a poverty-reduction intervention, and HIV stigmatization. The frequency with which resource-based stigma was discussed by respondents suggests that it is an important component of HIV-related stigma in this setting. It affected PLHIV's access to material as well as social resources, leading to economic discrimination and social devaluation. Participation in village savings and loans groups, however, mitigated resource-based HIV stigma, suggesting that in the era of increased access to antiretroviral therapy, economic programs should be considered as one possible HIV stigma-reduction intervention. PMID:23394104

Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate

2013-01-01

36

Resource Letter EMAA-1: Educational Materials in Astronomy and Astrophysics  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a list of selected articles on astronomy instruction at high school, college, and graduate levels, especially those for college nonscience majors. Besides teaching materials and aids, related societies, organizations, planetariums, and periodicals are incorporated as entries of primary sources. (CC)

Berendzen, Richard; DeVorkin, David

1973-01-01

37

MatWeb: The Online Materials Information Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

MatWeb, provided by Automation Creations, Inc., provides information on over 2,000 engineering materials, including polymers, aluminum and titanium alloys, steels, ceramics, and other metals. Information can be retrieved via three search mechanisms-property match, category/property match, and property group. Properties used for searches include electrical resistivity and a variety of hardness classifications. Searches can also be limited by specifying one of over 50 material categories. MatWeb also provides links to related sites and a chart for converting between metric and English units.

1998-01-01

38

77 FR 71842 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proposed Disposal Procedures at the US Ecology Idaho Resource Conservation and Recovery...low-activity radioactive material, at the US Ecology Idaho (USEI) Resource Conservation and...Bay Power Plant Waste For Disposal at US Ecology, Inc'' [ADAMS Accession Number...

2012-12-04

39

Improvements in or relating to refractory materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

1980-01-01

40

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Research Related to Drinking Water Resources AGENCY: Environmental Protection...hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data...hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. EPA is undertaking a...

2012-11-09

 
 
 
 
41

Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

2013-08-06

42

Materials considerations relative to multibarrier waste isolation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental conditions associated with the storage of radioactive wastes are reviewed, and the corrosion of potential waste containment materials under these conditions is evaluated. The desired service life of about 1000 years is beyond the time period for which existing corrosion data can be extrapolated with certainty; however, titanium alloys seem to offer the most promise. The mechanical requirements for canisters and overpacks are considered and several candidate materials are selected. Designs for a canister and an overpack have been developed, and these are used to estimate the costs for three possible materials of construction

1981-01-01

43

Evaluation of Structure Influence on Thermal Conductivity of Thermal Insulating Materials from Renewable Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of new thermal insulation materials needs to evaluate properties and structure of raw material, technological factors that make influence on the thermal conductivity of material. One of the most promising raw materials for production of insulation material is straw. The use of natural fibres in insulation is closely linked to the ecological building sector, where selection of materials is based on factors including recyclable, renewable raw materials and low resource produc...

Ve?jeliene?, Jolanta; Gailius, Albinas; Ve?jelis, Sigitas; Vaitkus, Saulius; Balc?iu?nas, Giedrius

2011-01-01

44

Controlling the Flow of Material Resources of Restructuring Actions of Enterprises in the Housing ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article elaborated methodological support to control the flow of material resources in the event of restructuring enterprises in the housing in terms of reforming the property. The model of flow control material resources of restructuring activities is proposed, that, unlike existing ones, can analyze all departures on schedule control and make changes to eliminate them.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????...

Vodovozov Yevgeniy N.

2013-01-01

45

National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases~National Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chinese-Language Publications (??) NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ NIH National Resource Center Search Bookmark and Share | ... cfm Federal Partners The NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center is supported by the National ...

46

Material Resource Considerations for Ex Situ Carbon Sequestration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conclusions of this report are: (1) There are enough ultramafic resources to sequester all the CO{sub 2} produced by coal-fired powerplants in the US; (2) Sequestering all the CO{sub 2} would require a significant increase in the mining of ultramafic minerals; (3) The increased mining will have an environmental cost; (4) Some man made by product minerals could contribute to CO{sub 2} sequestration although many of these resources are small; and (5) It may be possible in some cases to sequester CO{sub 2} and eliminate hazardous waste in the same ex situ process.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, Gilbert E.

2005-05-01

47

Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers. Resource Materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

This high school resource package for the public television series "Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers" includes: (1) a teacher's guide that provides complete lesson plans for each program in the series; (2) a glossary that features definitions of the terms used in the series; (3) a bibliography containing books of interest to both teachers and…

Grippo, Lois; Kelso, Richard

48

Dressing-related trauma: clinical sequelae and resource utilization in a UK setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bruce Charlesworth,1 Claire Pilling,1 Paul Chadwick,2 Martyn Butcher31Adelphi Values, Macclesfield, 2Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, 3Northern Devon Healthcare Trust, Devon, UKBackground: Dressings are the mainstay of wound care management; however, adherence of the dressing to the wound or periwound skin is common and can lead to dressing-related pain and trauma. Dressing-related trauma is recognized as a clinical and economic burden to patients and health care providers. This study was conducted to garner expert opinion on clinical sequelae and resource use associated with dressing-related trauma in a UK setting.Methods: This was an exploratory study with two phases: qualitative pilot interviews with six wound care specialists to explore dressing-related trauma concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization; and online quantitative research with 30 wound care specialists to validate and quantify the concepts, sequelae, and resource utilization explored in the first phase of the study. Data were collected on mean health care professional time, material costs, pharmaceutical costs, and inpatient management per sequela occurrence until resolution. Data were analyzed to give total costs per sequela and concept occurrence.Results: The results demonstrate that dressing-related trauma is a clinically relevant concept. The main types of dressing-related trauma concepts included skin reactions, adherence to the wound, skin stripping, maceration, drying, and plugging of the wound. These were the foundation for a number of clinical sequelae, including wound enlargement, increased exudate, bleeding, infection, pain, itching/excoriation, edema, dermatitis, inflammation, and anxiety. Mean total costs range from £56 to £175 for the complete onward management of each occurrence of the six main concepts.Conclusion: These results provide insight into the hidden costs of dressing-related trauma in a UK setting. This research successfully conceptualized dressing-related trauma, identified associated clinical sequelae, and quantified resource utilization associated with a typical occurrence of each trauma concept. Further research is warranted into dressing-related trauma and the associated costs.Keywords: trauma, dressings, wounds, cost, resource use

Charlesworth B

2014-04-01

49

Resource Materials: Aids for Teaching about Tudor England.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high school or community college history teacher can use these background materials to teach about Tudor England (1529-1603) and the foundation of the Anglican Church. The materials might also be used by humanities or literature teachers. After an explanation of the Tudor family tree, there is a discussion about the wives and legitimate…

Holmes, Edward, Jr.

50

Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral fertiliser could be substituted by nutrients recovered from wastewater; for the case study of Arba Minch this substitution amounts to a maximum of 16%. Factors such as the transport of source separated flows or complex nutrient recovery processes can result in an increasing energy demand. However, source separation and recovery processes can also lead to energy reduction, for example, by urine diversion (minus 12% for the case of Hamburg) or by the use of biogas from anaerobic treatment plants (minus 38% for the case of Arba Minch). The energy efficiency depends on determinant parameters, e.g. the amount of co-digested organic waste. The impact of these parameters can be simulated in the model. Source-separating wastewater systems can reduce the use of natural water resources, for example, by reduced flush water consumption or greywater recycling. The integration of cost estimates with material and energy flow analyses, allows a cost-effectiveness appraisal of the system developments. Assumptions such as whether the costs refer to a new development or the modification of existing infrastructure have a major impact on the cost comparison. Where the sanitation system is improved, there is invariably an increase in costs when compared to the current situation. But in addition, financial benefits can be generated. For each case study, a discussion of the driving forces, preconditions and starting points for implementation, complements the comparative assessment. In addition, potential obstacles for transformation are discussed. The study shows that the method of using combined cost, energy and material flow analysis yields purposeful insights into the resource efficiency of alternative sanitation systems. This can contribute comprehensively to system analysis and decision support. (orig.)

Meinzinger, Franziska

2010-07-01

51

APS Archive of Teaching Resources: Dissemination: Strategies for Disseminating Your Materials and Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a powerpoint presentation from the 2009 Science Education Partnership Award Project Directors Meeting in St. Paul, MN. This presentation describes what digital resources are, and how to access these types of materials in the APS Archive.

Amy Feuerstein (The American Physiological Society Education)

2009-05-20

52

Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources  

CERN Multimedia

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of Materials Science and Eng

Bollinghaus, Thomas

2012-01-01

53

Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Missouri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal waste and industrial wastes of Missouri that are potential biomass energy resources.

1988-11-01

54

Open Access Internet Resources for Nano-Materials Physics Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Because a great deal of nano-material science and engineering relies on crystalline materials, materials physicists have to provide their own specific contributions to the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Here we briefly review two freely accessible internet-based crystallographic databases, the Nano-Crystallography Database (http://nanocrystallography.research.pdx.edu) and the Crystallography Open Database (http://crystallography.net). Information on over 34,000 full structure determinations are stored in these two databases in the Crystallographic Information File format. The availability of such crystallographic data on the internet in a standardized format allows for all kinds of web-based crystallographic calculations and visualizations. Two examples of which that are dealt with in this paper are: interactive crystal structure visualizations in three dimensions and calculations of lattice-fringe fingerprints for the identification of unknown nanocrystals from their atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

Moeck, Peter; Seipel, Bjoern; Upreti, Girish; Harvey, Morgan; Garrick, Will

2006-05-01

55

SRM Manual, Selected Resource Materials: Description and Evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided in the manual is descriptive and evaluative information on 67 instructional materials or programs frequently used with exceptional children in Alberta schools. A flow chart describes the three methods of using the manual: l) to obtain descriptive and evaluative information of an instruction program in the manual 2) to classify and record…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Educational Services Branch.

56

Materials challenges and testing for supply of energy and resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One major goal of the World Materials Research Institute Forum - WMRIF is to promote young scientists in the field of materials science and engineering. To enhance the international knowledge exchange between young postdoctoral scientists all over the world, WMRIF meanwhile regularly organizes joint workshops among the member institutes. These workshops also represent an increasingly appreciated platform to get known to each other and to build co-operations. For such workshops, various topics are selected, pointing to future perspectives and challenges in the field of materials science and engineering. This book contains the following contributions: I. Materials challenges for nuclear fission and fusion - Examination of Dust Particles from Present-Day Controlled Fusion Devices (Elzbieta Fortuna-Zalesna); Quantitative microstructural investigation of neutron-irradiated RAFM steel for nuclear fusion applications (Oliver J. Weiss), Controlling Welding Residual Stresses by means of Alloy Design (Arne Kromm); Degradation Mechanism of Creep Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steels for Power Plants (Kota Sawada); Electrochemical studies on pitting corrosion on Cr13 steel exposed to CO{sub 2} and artificial brine with high chloride concentration (Oleksandra Yevtushenko); Development of {sup 10}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} processing for use as a neutron conversion materials (Lars F. Voss). II. Materials challenges for water supply Water overlayers on Cu(110) studied by van der Waals density Functional (Sheng Meng). III. Challenges in conclusive, realistic and system oriented materials testing - Employment of high Resolution RBS to characterize ultrathin transparent electrode in high efficiency GaN based Light Emitting Diode (Grace Huiqi Wang); A possible route to the quantification of piezoresponse force microscopy through correlation with electron backscatter diffraction (Tim L. Burnett); High Resolution Analysis of Tungsten Doped Amorphous Carbon thin Films (Marcin Rasinski); Electron Microscopy Studies on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (Arup Dasgupta); Fabrication of Probes for in-situ Mapping of Electrocatalytic Activity at the Nanoscale (Andrew J. Wain); Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured Pd-based Catalyst and Its Application to On-Chip Fuel Cells (Satoshi Tominaka); Characterization and Synthesis of PtRu/C Catalysts for Possible Use in Fuel Cells (Eleanor Fourie); Synthesis and investigation of silver-peptide bioconjugates and investigation in their antimicrobial activity (Olga Golubeva); Characterization of Stabilized Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles (Lauren F. Greenlee); Combustion Synthesis of Nanoparticles CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} (Sumittra Charojrochkul); Understandings of Solid Particle Impact and Bonding Behaviors in Warm Spray Deposition (Makoto Watanabe); Mechanical properties of innovative metal/ceramic composites based on freeze-cast ceramic performs (Siddhartha Roy); Mini-Samples Technique in Tensile and Fracture Toughness Tests of Nano-Structured Materials (Tomasz Brynk). The use of Focused Ion Beam to Build Nanodevices with Graphitic Structures (Braulio Archanjo); Brasil Development of compact continuous-wave terahertz (THz) sources by photoconductive mixing (Hendrix Tanoto); Electrical Impedance Characterization of Cement-Based Materials (Supaporn Wansom); On the Use of Indentation Technique as an Effective Method for Characterising starch-based food gels (Chaiwut Gamonpilas); Photothermal Radiometry applied in nanoliter melted tellurium alloys (Andrea Cappella). IV. Extraction and recovery of scarce elements and minerals - Biological Treatment of Solid Waste Materials from Copper and Steel Industry (Elina Merta).

Boellinghaus, Thomas; Lexow, Juergen (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Kishi, Teruo [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kitagawa, Masaki [Isobe Mihamaku, Chiba (Japan)

2012-07-01

57

Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To help address these challenges and related issues, the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is working on behalf of the State of Texas with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The center directs three major programs that address the key aspects of the plutonium management issue: (1) the Communications, Education, Training and Community Involvement Program, which focuses on informing the public about plutonium and providing technical education at all levels; (2) the Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Program, which investigates the key ES and H impacts of activities related to the DOE weapons complex in Texas; and (3) the Nuclear and Other Materials Program, which is aimed at minimizing safety and proliferation risks by helping to develop and advocate safe stewardship, storage, and disposition of nuclear weapons materials. This paper provides an overview of the center's nuclear activities described in four broad categories of international activities, materials safety, plutonium storage, and plutonium disposition

1998-06-07

58

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

1993-01-01

59

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

1993-09-01

60

Training Materials Sourcebook. Welding, Brazing, and Flame-Cutting. Voc./Tec. Resources Series Number 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second in a resource series (see note), this annotated bibliography provides detailed information on training curriculum and instructional materials for welding, brazing, and flame-cutting. The materials are divided into thirty-fie sections by topic and type. Specific topic areas include gas and arc welding; arc welding; oxyacetylene welding and…

Canadian Commission of Employment and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

 
 
 
 
61

Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize th...

Blansit, B. D.; Connor, E.

1999-01-01

62

Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials  

CERN Document Server

Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

Smallwood, Carol

2012-01-01

63

THE IMPACT OF WEB BASED RESOURCE MATERIAL ON LEARNING OUTCOME IN OPEN DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most powerful educational option in open and distance education is web-based learning. A blended (hybrid course combines traditional face to face and web-based learning approaches in an educational environment that is nonspecific as to time and place. The study reported here investigated the impact of web based resource material practices on MPhil, Teacher Education course of Allama Iqbal Open University A sample of 68 students was selected. Thirty-eight students comprised the control group, whereas another group of 30 students was named as experimental group. The study package of control group included self instruction material comprising of two study guides (six credit hours course, recommended book, four assignments, and assignment submission schedule. Experimental group received the same package plus CD having web based articles related to each unit of study guide, and a list of web sites for further reading. After the submission of assignments a one week workshop was held. Participation in workshop was assessed by the oral presentation of student on the topic assigned to him/her before the commencement of workshop. The final examination was held at the end of semester. The marks obtained by both groups were compared by t-test. The scores of experimental group were higher on all assessment components. The study concluded that integration of IT in teaching-learning increased the understanding of subject related knowledge.

Rehana MASRUR

2010-04-01

64

Useful (energy) resources from the pyrolysis of polymeric materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymeric materials were pyrolyzed in a sieve-tray reactor at 300-500 degrees. The pyrolysis of polystyrene gave high yields of styrene monomer while under the same conditions a catalyst (Pt supported on zeolites) was needed for polyethylene and polypropylene to obtain medium light oils free from S. The pyrolysis of scrap tires at 500 degrees gave a liquid oil product with characteristics similar to those of fuel oils with very low S content and a char which shows very interesting adsorption properties.

Lucchesi, A.; Giusti, P.; Maschio, G.

1980-01-01

65

Permittivity and permeability measurements methods for particle accelerator related materials  

CERN Document Server

For the special requirements related to particle accelerators, knowledge of the different material parameters of dielectrics and other materials are needed in order to carry out simulations during the design process of accelerator components. This includes also properties of magnetically biased ferrites of which usually little information is available about material characteristics, especially in magnetic bias fields. Several methods of measurement are discussed and compared of which some require delicate sample preparation whereas others can work with unmodified material shapes that makes those methods also suited for acceptance checks on incoming materials delivered by industry. Applications include characterization of different materials, as absorbers in which dielectric losses play an increasing role, as well as low frequency measurements on ferrites that are used for tunable cavities. We present results obtained from both broadband and resonant measurements on different materials determined in the same s...

Vollinger, C; Jensen, E

2014-01-01

66

Uranium resources and production of nuclear fuel material in the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are summed up relating to uranium resources, the technology of nuclear fuel manufacture, the prices of U concentrate and the costs of the basic operations of the fuel cycle. Resources are sufficient for the needs of nuclear power production based on LWR's without closing the fuel cycle for at least up to the year 2010; in the subsequent period fuels of higher price categories would have to be used (> or approx. 130 $/kg U). The manufacture of U concentrate after culmination in the years 1979 to 1980 is declining as is its price. Fuel material on an operation scale (15a t/year and more) is now being manufactured in 11 countries, with the US leading followed by Canada and Japan. From the point of view of technology the following methods are interesting: processing complex ores (USSR), the use of wastes from the production of nuclear purity uranium in agriculture (Canada), single-stage reconversion of UF6 to UO2 (the so-called IDR process in the UK), chemical methods of uranium enrichment (France and Japan), etc. Great attention is being devoted to the design and construction of spent fuel reprocessing plants and thus the introduction of the closed fuel cycle which is the only way towards the full utilization of uranium, to the transition to fast reactors and the extended service life of nuclear power way into the next millenium. (author)

1983-03-22

67

NEW RELATIONS BETWEEN NATURAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials) to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a develop...

Sima, Cristian; Lina Bonciu, C. T.; Bulearca, Marius; Marinescu, Gheorghe

2012-01-01

68

Fusion materials activation characteristics as related to waste disposal requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lower activation materials for fusion reactors are technically possible, may be important to the public acceptance of fusion energy, and are a main goal of fusion energy development. Actual levels of radioactivation in a fusion reactor will depend on the material itself and on its alloying constituents and impurity content. The equilibrium activation level and post-shutdown decay rates affect three primary areas: long term waste material disposal; reactor maintainability, specifically, the prospects for limited hands-on or contact maintenance; and reactor safety. Goals relating to each of these three areas are proposed and used to develop four particular categories which classify both reactors and materials

1985-06-09

69

Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some building materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen samples of building materials were evaluated for relative toxicity using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. There appeared to be no major differences in relative toxicity under these conditions between different samples of cellulosic board products and roofing felts.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Gall, L. A.

1977-01-01

70

The ideal usage of sustainable materials and local resources of the interior space design in Jordan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large amount of waste is generated by buildings over their life cycle, from construction and operation to destruction. Sustainable design principles and recycling programs in buildings can help moderate this waste. The simplest way is directly through the materials used in the building's construction. The materials and resources used should focus on the health and productivity consequences for the building's inhabitants and its environmental, social and economic impacts. This aim of this study is to make certain recommendations with respect to the use of sustainable building materials and resources in indoor spaces in Jordan. A general overview of collection and storage of recyclable materials, waste management, material reuse, and green and rapidly renewable materials is given. Sustainable material usage in the elements of interior design in Jordan is also discussed in two case studies. A set of indicators is proposed which identify the ideal sustainable materials and resources for use in interior design in Jordan to provide a healthy living environment.

Fahmi Hussien, Mayyadah [Department of Interior Design, Faculty of Architect and Art, Petra University (Jordan)], Email: Mayada19732004@yahoo.com

2011-07-01

71

Maps and related cartographic materials cataloging, classification, and bibliographic control  

CERN Document Server

Make maps and other cartographic materials more easily accessible and usable!Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control is a format-focused reference manual for catalogers that should occupy a prominent place on your reference shelf.Outside of standard cartographic cataloging tools, the bibliographic treatment of all forms of cartographic materials has never been compiled into one useful source. This book separately examines the treatment of all major cartographic format types and outlines the way each should be cataloged.

Larsgarrd L, Mary

2013-01-01

72

Double Trouble at High Density: Cross-Level Test of Resource-Related Adaptive Plasticity and Crowding-Related Fitness  

Science.gov (United States)

Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels, we used an individual-based population model that is based on dynamic energy budget theory. Each of the hypotheses, represented by a sub-model, is based on specific assumptions on how the uptake and allocation of energy are altered under conditions of resource shortage or crowding. For cross-level testing of different hypotheses, we explored how well the sub-models fit individual level data and also how well they predict population dynamics under different conditions of resource availability. Only operating resource-related and crowding-related hypotheses together enabled accurate model predictions of D. magna population dynamics and size structure. Whereas this study showed that various mechanisms might play a role in the negative feedback between population density and individual life history, it also indicated that different density levels might instigate the onset of the different mechanisms. This study provides an example of how the integration of dynamic energy budget theory and individual-based modelling can facilitate the exploration of mechanisms behind the regulation of population size. Such understanding is important for assessment, management and the conservation of populations and thereby biodiversity in ecosystems.

Gergs, Andre; Preuss, Thomas G.; Palmqvist, Annemette

2014-01-01

73

Human resource issues related to an expanding nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that the IAEA develop guidelines on human resource management (including staffing) and training/education programmes for new nuclear power plant (NPP) designs. This recommendation was made in recognition that these future NPPs may have significantly different needs in this area compared to operating plants, and if so, NPP operating organizations should integrate these needs into their planning for future NPP projects. This report is primarily intended for use by NPP operating organizations that already have units in operation and that are considering adding to their fleet. Therefore, the addition of both new and current designs are addressed in this report. However, it should also be of value to those organizations that are considering the initial implementation of nuclear power, as well as decision makers in government, and in other nuclear industry organizations

2006-01-01

74

Resource partitioning and sympatric differentiation among closely related bacterioplankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying ecologically differentiated populations within complex microbial communities remains challenging, yet is critical for interpreting the evolution and ecology of microbes in the wild. Here we describe spatial and temporal resource partitioning among Vibrionaceae strains coexisting in coastal bacterioplankton. A quantitative model (AdaptML) establishes the evolutionary history of ecological differentiation, thus revealing populations specific for seasons and life-styles (combinations of free-living, particle, or zooplankton associations). These ecological population boundaries frequently occur at deep phylogenetic levels (consistent with named species); however, recent and perhaps ongoing adaptive radiation is evident in Vibrio splendidus, which comprises numerous ecologically distinct populations at different levels of phylogenetic differentiation. Thus, environmental specialization may be an important correlate or even trigger of speciation among sympatric microbes. PMID:18497299

Hunt, Dana E; David, Lawrence A; Gevers, Dirk; Preheim, Sarah P; Alm, Eric J; Polz, Martin F

2008-05-23

75

Human resource management and labour relations in the Indian industrial sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses gaps in research related to study and understanding of Human Resource Management in the context of Indian Automobile sector. The review is based on the available and published literature in peer reviewed journals of reputation and academic standing. A total of 138 papers were reviewed related to the general context of Human Resource Management practices. Of these, about 65 papers were found relevant and relating to understanding of HRM practices in India specifically in t...

Rai, Soumi

2012-01-01

76

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is:

Dicarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

77

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

78

Diamond and related nanostructures (carbon materials: chemistry and physics)  

CERN Document Server

Diamond and Related Nanostructures focuses on the advances in the area of diamond-like carbon nanostructures (hyper-structures built from fullerenes and/or carbon nanotube junctions) and other related carbon nanostructures. Each chapter contributes to the topic from different fields, ranging from theory to synthesis and properties investigation of these new materials. This volume brings together the major findings in the field and provides a source of inspiration and understanding to advanced undergraduates, graduates, and researchers ...

2013-01-01

79

Where Is the Discourse of Desire? Deconstructing the Irish Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) Resource Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by poststructuralist insights and the critical literature on the topic of school-based sexuality education, this paper is derived from a close examination of the Relationships and Sexuality Education (RSE) resource materials devised for teachers involved in delivering the programme in Irish schools. It seeks critically to uncover how…

Kiely, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

80

International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials  

CERN Document Server

The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Online Biomedical Resources for Malaria-Related Red Cell Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Warnings about the expected increase of the global public health burden of malaria-related red cell disorders are accruing. Past and present epidemiological data are necessary to track spatial and temporal changes in the frequencies of these genetic disorders. A number of open access biomedical databases including data on malaria-related red cell disorders have been launched over the last two decades. Here, we review the content of these databases, most of which focus on genetic diversity, an...

Piel, Frederic B.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Nyangiri, Oscar A.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Williams, Thomas N.; Weatherall, David J.; Hay, Simon I.

2013-01-01

82

Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companiesâ?? purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based on a literature review. The results show that buying behavior is much less rational than has been presumed. For example, it is revealed that a consultantâ??s personal relationships to customers can often compensate for the consultantâ??s lack of knowledge. This suggests that consultantsâ?? developing long-term personal relationships with customers is one of the most important key success factors in the consulting industry. Another importantresult that emerged from the study is customersâ?? specific desire to actively participate in the production of consulting services.

Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend

2013-01-01

83

Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice. PMID:15887634

2005-03-01

84

NEW RELATIONS BETWEEN NATURAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing.

Cristian SIMA

2012-11-01

85

NEW RELATIONS BETWEEN NATURAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing.

CRISTIAN SIMA

2012-05-01

86

Teachers addressing HIV&AIDS-related challenges resourcefully  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Teachers, in their relationship with children and their families, face challenges related to cumulative risk, including HIV&AIDS. In this paper we use Sense of Coherence to explain why teachers are able to address such barriers by using assets. We explore the way that teachers (N=28) in four South African schools opted to tackle the cumulative risk associated with HIV&AIDS, following participation in an asset-based intervention (STAR – Supportive Teachers Assets and Resilienc...

Loots, Tilda; Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, Ronel; Eloff, Irma F.

2012-01-01

87

Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful experimental tool for the investigations on local electronic and vibrational properties of solids. On the other hand, the recently developing field of 'spintronics', where spins of conduction electrons play a key role for transport phenomena, is requiring to control the size and physical properties of materials in nanoscales. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy it becomes possible to investigate local magnetism and electron-spin polarization of materials, while can be important information for further development of spintronics. In this article, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on spintronics-related materials in the early stage after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance effect are outlined briefly, and then recent studies on Heusler-alloy-based layered structures are introduced topically. (author)

2010-05-01

88

Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

1988-03-02

89

Materials-related regulatory aspects of converter reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NRC'S Principal mission is to assure that use of nuclear materials - as in the operation of nuclear power plants - are carried out with proper regard and provisions for the protection of public health and safety. To a large extent, this goal is accomplished by application of the ''defense-in-depth'' philosophy to the design and operation of nuclear power plants. The philosophy involves the use of three successive barriers for the containment of radioactive fission products. The uranium fuel itself must be sealed in a cladding material. The coolant surrounding the fuel must be maintained in a closed system. Finally, the reactor and its coolant system must be housed inside a containment building to protect the public should the previous two barriers fail, or leak, as a consequence of unexpected events. Many NRC regulatory requirements relate to the protection of the fission product barriers and, as such, are closely tied to the material properties of the barriers

1984-01-01

90

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model Law exists regionally to provide frameworks for how these resources are to be accessed and how the benefits obtained from their utilization should be allocated. As a signatory to the CBD, Ethiopia issued its ABS law in 2006. Ethiopia has signed material transfer agreements on teff (gluten free and nutritious and vernonia (the green chemical plant of the 21st Century with two European-based companies. This article seeks to interpret and discuss the terms of the agreements on teff and vernonia. Furthermore, it analyzes the implications of the terms of the agreement for the realization of the objective of the CBD (e.g. access, benefit sharing and conservation.

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-11-01

91

Material culture: the concrete dimension of social relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By investigating the emergence, maintenance and transformation of sociocultural systems, Archaeology basically works with three closely inter-related dimensions: space, time, and form. The latter has seen the greatest diversity in approaches over the course of Archaeology's construction as a discipline. This article presents the conceptions of material culture developed by various schools of archaeological thought. Wrongly understood until the 1980s as an unproblematic dimension, a passive reflection of human behavior, some authors since then have explored its active and transformative role in social negotiations, making it the concrete dimension of relations inside the society.

Tania Andrade Lima

2011-04-01

92

An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

1993-04-25

93

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: material and relational pathways  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association between parental separation occurring during childhood and adult psychological distress is well established, however the potential mechanisms involved in translating the experience of parental separation into the increased risk of reporting psychological distress is unclear and little investigated. Previous literature indicates that material and relational factors may be involved and that these two pathways are likely to be linked across the life course. The identification of ...

Lacey, R. E.

2012-01-01

94

Summary of Technical resource document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Technical Resource Document on Solidification/Stabilization and Its Application to Waste Materials (TRD) is a technical resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future applications of S/S processes. A potential hurdle for any S/S project is the fact that although the standard bulk materials handling and mixing equipment processes used in S/S processes make the technology appear simple, there are significant technical challenges to the successful application of S/S processes. In order to help users meet such challenges, the TRD describes technology screening procedures and summarizes the status of S/S processes to assist users and reviewers in their selection, planning, and application of S/S technology.

Means, J.L.; Smith, L.A.; Nehring, K.W.; Brauning, S.E. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (BMI), Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Technology Dept.; Mashni, C.I.; Wiles, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

95

Raw materials: Heading for a global resource crunch? | EurActiv  

...materials from Africa and Latin America, which are home to some of Earth's largest reserves of minerals and metals. According to the European ...Parliament, the price of non-fuel commodities rose by 159% between 2002 and 2008, metal and mineral prices by 285% and agricultural raw material prices by 133%...Society of London, said growing populations are putting so much pressure on Earth's natural resources that two planets will be required by the early ...driven by strong growth in emerging economies, led to a tripling of metal prices between 2002 and 2008,' the Commission underlined in its ...

96

Technical resource document: Solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes are effective in treating a variety of difficult to manage waste materials for reuse or disposal. S/S has been identified as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for treating a wide range of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) non-wastewater hazardous waste subcategories. S/S has been selected as the treatment technology of choice for 26% of the remedial actions complete at Superfund sites through fiscal year 1992. The standard bulk material handling and mixing equipment used in many S/S processes make the technology appear simple. The morphology and chemistry of S/S-treated waste are complex. Selection of the binder requires an understanding of the chemistry of the bulk material, the contaminants, and the binder. Battelle, under the direction of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared the Technical Resources Document (TRD) as a resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future application of S/S processes.

1993-06-01

97

Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons  

CERN Document Server

Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a $^3\\mathrm{He}$ counter had a small sensitivity to high-energy gamma rays because of inelastic interaction with its cathode-tube materials (Al or stainless steel). A $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counter with the intrinsic small sensitivity, if surrounded by thick materials, would largely detect thunderstorm-related gamma rays rather than those neutrons produced via photonuclear reaction in the atmosphere. On the other hand, the counter, if surrounded by thin materials and located away from a gamma-ray source, would observe neutron signals with little gamma-ray contamination. Compared with t...

Tsuchiya, H

2014-01-01

98

Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by 3He counters during thunderstorms (Gurevich et al., 2012) [11]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by 3He counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a 3He counter had a small sensitivity to high-energy gamma rays because of inelastic interaction with its cathode-tube materials (Al or stainless steel). A 3He counter with the intrinsic small sensitivity, if surrounded by thick materials, would largely detect thunderstorm-related gamma rays rather than those neutrons produced via photonuclear reaction in the atmosphere. On the other hand, the counter, if surrounded by thin materials and located away from a gamma-ray source, would observe neutron signals with little gamma-ray contamination. Compared with the Gurevich measurement, the present work allows us to deduce that the enhancements are attributable to gamma rays, if their observatory was very close to or inside a gamma-ray emitting region in thunderclouds.

Tsuchiya, H.

2014-05-01

99

Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the literature, and (3) identify and prioritize remaining information needs. To assist in the latter task, MMS convened the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting (the Planning Meeting) in Anchorage, Alaska, from November 28 through December 1, 2006. That meeting and its results are described in 'Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin Information Status and Research Planning Meeting' (the Planning Meeting report)1. Citations for recent literature (1996-2006) to support an assessment of the impacts of oil and gas development on natural, cultural, and socioeconomic resources in the North Aleutian Basin were entered in a database. The database, a series of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with links to many of the reference materials, was provided to MMS prior to the Planning Meeting and was made available for participants to use during the meeting. Many types of references were identified and collected from the literature, such as workshop and symposium proceedings, personal web pages, web pages of government and nongovernmental organizations, EISs, books and articles reporting research results, regulatory documents, technical reports, newspaper and newsletter articles, and theses and dissertations. The current report provides (1) a brief overview of the literature; (2) descriptions (in tabular form) of the databased references, including geographic area covered, topic, and species (where relevant); (3) synopses of the contents of the referenced documents and web pages; and (4) a full citation for each reference. At the Planning Meeting, subject matter experts with research experience in the North Aleutian Basin presented overviews of the area's resources, including oceanography, fish and shellfish populations, federal fisheries, commercial fishery economics, community socioeconomics, subsistence, seabirds and shorebirds, waterfowl, seals and sea lions, cetaceans, sea otters, and walruses. These presentations characterized the status of the resource, the current state of knowledge on the topic, and information needs re

Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

2008-01-31

100

Law related to management of natural resources And the determination of Its environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the help of my article I am discovering hypothesis about the law related to management of natural resources and present environment law & critical analysis of its environment effect. It is my belief that is root of origin of “Law” or origin of “Statutes” in world the main reason was the management of natural resources. On this basis it is necessary to add a new branch – Environment School of Jurisprudence in the branches of Jurisprudence.

VISHAWAS CHOUHAN

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Resources  

...Education I am new to teaching physics Resources I am new to teaching physics Student teachers Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) Established teachers who are new to teaching physics Resources Blogs Events Resources Teaching Supporting Physics Teachers (SPT)A valuable source of inspiration for lessons for 11-16-year-olds. SPT is packed full of interactive animations and tips to help you plan your teaching approach and spot when your pupils are on the wrong ...

102

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

103

Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4 Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop â?? 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop â?? velocity may be estimated 7 from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop â?? velocity relationships for air and water flow was 10 investigated using a common biofilter medium, Leca® consisting of rounded porous particles of 2 â?? 1611 mm diameter. Pressure drop â?? velocity relations for water flow were measured for 14 different Leca ® 12 particle size fractions and compared to measurements of the pressure drop â?? velocity relations for air 13 flow in 36 different Leca® particle size fractions (including the 14 used for water flow). The 14 measurements showed that it is indeed possible to predict the pressure drop â?? velocity relationship for 15 water flow from the corresponding relationship for air flow not only for a given particle size fraction 16 but also across different particle size fractions.

Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona

2013-01-01

104

Related Resources  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

metadata made simpler: a guide for libraries. gail hodge. 2001. (www.niso.org) dublin core metadata element set (std.) (www.niso.org) crossref and reference linking (www.crossref.org) digital object identifier (www.doi.org) ...

105

Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future. PMID:23834059

Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2013-08-01

106

Resource use in European countries: An estimate of materials and waste streams in the community, including imports and exports using the instrument of material flow analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective of this study is to support the development of a Thematic Strategy for Sustainable Use and Management of Resources through the provision of background information, in particular an estimate of materials and waste streams in the Community, including imports and exports (Article 8 a 6th EAP) using the method of material flow accounting. It further presents first ideas on how the resource use pattern of the EU can be assessed with regards to priority setting for possible policy measure...

Moll, Stephan; Bringezu, Stefan; Schu?tz, Helmut

2005-01-01

107

Analyses of natural resources in 10 CFR Part 60 as related to inadvertent human intrusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intent of the regulatory language of the portions of 10 CFR Part 60 which deal with considerations of the natural resources of a proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes as they relate to inadvertent human intrusion. Four Potentially Adverse Conditions (PAC) the requirements of 10 CFR 60.21(c)(13) are shown to be related to natural resources. Groundwater is identified as a natural resource known to be present at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For economic considerations of natural resources, the open-quotes foreseeable futureclose quotes is thought to be no more than 50 years. Two of the topics addressed by the PACs, subsurface mining and drilling at a proposed repository site, are pre-site-characterization activities which must be evaluated in the context of repository performance criteria set by the US EPA standard, 40 CFR Part 191. An alternative US DOE compliance demonstration to another PAC, 10 CFR 60.122(c)(17), might be to use an open-quotes explorationist perspectiveclose quotes of natural resource assessment. The Commission intends for DOE to evaluate the likelihood and consequence of inadvertent human intrusion into a geologic repository as a result of exploration or exploitation of natural resources within or near a proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository

1993-04-25

108

Model, Materialism, and Immanent Utopia in Relational Aesthetics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  This paper seeks to contribute to the development of socio-aesthetics by analysing the notion of model established in the discourse of relational art--that is of course with special reference to French art critic Nicolas Bourriad's theoretical writings. His seminal book, Relational Aesthetics (RA), is crucial for the understanding of contemporary, socially and politically oriented fine art of the mid-1990 and onwards and its challenge of established aesthetic conceptions within art as well as theory. The concept of model is a reoccurring figure in RA and connects to a widespread "lab" (laboratory) metaphor where social reality is staged and facilitated in order to document and present its development. At the same time however, the notion of model is difficult to dissociate from Bourriaud's materialism which draws on such different figures as the late Althusser, Lucretius, and Deleuze and which is tied up with a principle of immanence which is crucial for the understanding of Bourriaud's and many of his related artists' sense of utopia and avant-garde. Setting off from an analysis of the concept of model in RA, I would like to demonstrate the relationship between relational form, model, and utopia, and how this surprisingly lead to an ideal yet immanent conception of art. To contextualise and exemplify my analysis, I shall draw on my collaboration-based study of art collective Superflex as well as Bourriaud's later writings on post-production and alter-modernism.

Degn Johansson, Troels

109

EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

Butler, Graham

2014-01-01

110

Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

Dean Wesley R

2012-05-01

111

Collocational Relations in Japanese Language Textbooks and Computer-Assisted Language Learning Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we explore presence of collocational relations in the computer-assisted language learning systems and other language resources for the Japanese language, on one side, and, in the Japanese language learning textbooks and wordlists, on the other side. After introducing how important it is to learn collocational relations in a foreign language, we examine their coverage in the various learners’ resources for the Japanese language. We particularly concentrate on a few collocations at the beginner’s level, where we demonstrate their treatment across various resources. A special attention is paid to what is referred to as unpredictable collocations, which have a bigger foreign language learning-burden than the predictable ones.

Irena SRDANOVI?

2011-05-01

112

Comparing relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality in developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the social determinants of health has often considered education and economic resources as separate indicators of socioeconomic status. From a policy perspective, however, it is important to understand the relative strength of the effect of these social factors on health outcomes, particularly in developing countries. It is also important to examine not only the impact of education and economic resources of individuals, but also whether community and country levels of these factors affect health outcomes. This analysis uses multilevel regression models to assess the relative effects of education and economic resources on infant mortality at the family, community, and country level using data from demographic and Health Surveys in 43 low-and lower-middle-income countries. We find strong effects for both per capita gross national income and completed secondary education at the country level, but a greater impact of education within families and communities. PMID:22319768

Pamuk, Elsie R; Fuchs, Regina; Lutz, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

113

BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

2006-07-01

114

Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

John P. Selegue

2011-11-17

115

Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

Mays, Jimmy W. (Knoxville, TN); Deng, Suxiang (Knoxville, TN); Mauritz, Kenneth A. (Hattiesburg, MS); Hassan, Mohammad K. (Hattiesburg, MS); Gido, Samuel P. (Hadley, MA)

2011-11-22

116

Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

2009-03-01

117

Experience of work-related flow : Does high decision latitude enhance benefits gained from job resources?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flow is an experience of enjoyment, intrinsic motivation and absorption, which may occur in situations involving high challenges and high skill utilization. This study investigated the likelihood of experiencing work-related flow in relation to the job strain categories of the demand–control model, and to job resources such as social capital and an innovative learning climate. A questionnaire was sent out to employees in nine Swedish organizations (n = 3667, 57% response rate). Binary log...

2013-01-01

118

Social relations, human resource management, and knowledge transfer in work organisations: toward an integrated approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hailed as the basis for competitive advantage of contemporary firms, knowledge transfer has recently emerged as a key research topic in the organisation and management field. Despite wide recognition of the importance of social relations for effective knowledge transfer, there is little understanding of the micro-sociological foundations of this process, and even less understanding of the ways in which human resource management practices can support social relations conducive to knowledge tra...

Alexopoulos, Angelos

2008-01-01

119

Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

Hamdollah ESKANDARI

2011-03-01

120

Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

LarsBäckman

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Improvements in or relating to the drying of gel materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the drying of a gel material, comprising mixing together steam and gas in controlled amounts to form a mixture, feeding the mixture to a gel material to be dried thereby to contact the gel material with an atmosphere containing steam and gas in controlled amounts and thereby dry the gel material. One application of the process is in the production of ceramic particles for nuclear fuels. (author)

1981-01-01

122

Cultura material: a dimensão concreta das relações sociais / Material culture: the concrete dimension of social relations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao investigar a emergência, a manutenção e a transformação de sistemas socioculturais, a arqueologia trabalha basicamente com três dimensões fortemente interrelacionadas: espaço, tempo e forma. A última é a que vem sendo alvo da maior diversidade de olhares ao longo da construção da arqueologia como [...] um campo disciplinar. Neste artigo, são apresentadas as concepções sobre a natureza da cultura material desenvolvidas pelas diferentes vertentes do pensamento arqueológico. Entendida equivocadamente até a década de 1980 como uma dimensão não problemática, um reflexo passivo do comportamento humano, vem sendo demonstrado, desde então, seu caráter ativo e transformador nas estratégias de negociação social, o que faz dela a dimensão concreta das relações no interior da sociedade. Abstract in english By investigating the emergence, maintenance and transformation of sociocultural systems, Archaeology basically works with three closely inter-related dimensions: space, time, and form. The latter has seen the greatest diversity in approaches over the course of Archaeology's construction as a discipl [...] ine. This article presents the conceptions of material culture developed by various schools of archaeological thought. Wrongly understood until the 1980s as an unproblematic dimension, a passive reflection of human behavior, some authors since then have explored its active and transformative role in social negotiations, making it the concrete dimension of relations inside the society.

Lima, Tania Andrade.

123

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Related Health Resources Allocation in Hunan Province of China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs in Hunan Province of central south China.Methods: We randomly collected data from 57 Public Hospitals (PHs at 3 different levels in Hunan province as well as 893 pulmonary physicians (PPs who worked there in 2009. Questionnaires based on the recommendations of COPD guideline were designed, including availability of spirometers, inhaled agents for COPD and COPD-related health education for local residents, as well as PPs’ educational levels.Results: Spirometers equipped ratio in 3rd level PHs was much higher than 1st, 2nd PHs. The disparity varied vastly form 0% to 100%. The inhaled agents equipped ratio was 5.56%, 70.85% and 100% respectively for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels PHs. No 1st level PHs launched COPD-related healthcare education for local residents, only 10 of 24 for the 2nd level PHs and 10 of 15 for the 3rd level PHs. PPs of high educational levels concentrate in 3rd levels PHs, however, PPs working in 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs were mainly low and median educational levels PPs’ knowledge of COPD of 3rd levels PHs was much better than of 1st levels PHs and 2nd levels PHs.Conclusion: The extreme imbalance and disparity existed in COPD-related health resources allocation at three levels PHs in central south China. Inequity and insufficient in COPD-related health resources in 1stand 2nd levels PHs should be improved.

Chengli Bei

2013-06-01

124

Ferromagnetism in defect-ridden oxides and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existence of high-temperature ferromagnetism in thin films and nanoparticles of oxides containing small quantities of magnetic dopants remains controversial. Some regard these materials as dilute magnetic semiconductors, while others think they are ferromagnetic only because the magnetic dopants form secondary ferromagnetic impurity phases such as cobalt metal or magnetite. There are also reports in d0 systems and other defective oxides that contain no magnetic ions. Here, we investigate TiO2 (rutile) containing 1-5% of iron cations and find that the room temperature ferromagnetism of films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition is not due to magnetic ordering of the iron. The films are neither dilute magnetic semiconductors nor hosts to an iron-based ferromagnetic impurity phase. A new model is developed for defect-related ferromagnetism, which involves a spin-split defect band populated by charge transfer from a proximate charge reservoir-in the present case a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the oxide lattice. The phase diagram for the model shows how inhomogeneous Stoner ferromagnetism depends on the total number of electrons Ntot, the Stoner exchange integral I and the defect bandwidth W; the band occupancy is governed by the d-d Coulomb interaction U. There are regions of ferromagnetic metal, half-metal and insulator as well as non-magnetic metal and insulator. A characteristic feature of the high-temperature Stoner magnetism is an anhysteretic magnetization curve, which is practically temperature independent below room temperature. This is related to a wandering ferromagnetic axis, which is determined by local dipole fields. The magnetization is limited by the defect concentration, not by the 3d doping. Only 1-2% of the volume of the films is magnetically ordered.

2010-05-01

125

IAEA mode-related research in the safe transport of radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency sponsors Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) in the safe transport of radioactive material. The CRPs are intended to encourage research by Member States in identified areas and to facilitate co-ordination of exchange of information and resources to reach a common understanding of the problem and alternative solutions. Two of these programmes are: Accident Severity at Sea During the Transport of Radioactive Material and Accident Severity During the Air Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper will discuss these two programmes and their relationship to the continuing regulatory revision process and interfaces with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Some Member States and non-governmental organizations in IMO meetings expressed concerns that accidents on board ships may be more severe than the IAEA regulatory tests account for, and that package failure with subsequent release of radioactive material may occur. The CRP on accident severity at sea was established to develop further quantitative information on potential accident severities during the transport of radioactive material by ships. The primary objective of this programme is to collect and evaluate statistical data of marine accidents, perform analyses of potential accident conditions and evaluate the risks resulting from such shipments. The CRP on air transport was established to make a major international effort to collect relevant frequency and severity data and to analyze it so the accident forces to which a packages of radioactive material might be subjected to in a severe air accident can be more confidently quantified. Several countries have ongoing data collection activities related to aircraft accidents and severity and other sources of statistics for in-flight aircraft accidents will be explored. The International Civil Aviation Organization informed the IAEA of their plans to improve and update the data base for impact velocities resulting from aircraft accidents. (authors)

1998-05-10

126

First wall material issues and related activities at JET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To close the JET tritium material balance a comprehensive programme to determine the tritium inventory in a selected poloidal set of JET tiles was initiated. First results strongly suggest that a significant fraction of the tritium remaining in the machine is immobilised in flakes accumulated in the sub-divertor region. Measurements performed with tiles and flakes retrieved from JET after the DTE1 campaign revealed a chronic tritium release at room temperature, possibly caused by a radiation-induced mechanism. Deposited films of the order of 5 ?m thick are found at the vertical surfaces of the inner divertor. Recent analysis of the distribution of beryllium across the divertor shows factors of ?10 higher beryllium concentrations (relative to carbon) in these deposits than found in the main camber walls. Very little beryllium is found on the outer divertor. Also no beryllium is detectable in the thick deposits accumulated in the shadowed regions of the inner divertor. These results suggest that in ITER migration of beryllium from the main chamber to the divertor surfaces could substantially reduce the chemical erosion and consequently the retention of tritium

2002-12-01

127

Comparison of commercial battery cells in relation to material properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Test for cell characterisation on Li-ion and NiMh based on the 6 main international standards. ? Confrontation of the test results with the cathode chemistry and cell shape in a graphical way. ? Large differences are found; the manufacturer's knowhow is often decisive. ? Charge behaviour is underrated by manufacturers and test standards, but decisive. ? Test results mapped in a table to maximise the comparability, making an initial selection possible. - Abstract: This article evaluates the behaviour of lithium-ion cells of several chemistries and one nickel-metal hydride cell for automotive applications like (plug-in) hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The evaluation is based on an enhanced test methodology that enables the comparison of cell behaviour. Tests for high power and high energy application have been integrated. The characterisation tests exist of four test methods. The tests make large differences visible between the cell species. The 5 C efficiency for example is between 75 and 90% while the cell temperature varies from 29 to 52 °C. The power density is 80 W/kg for the NiMH cell and lies between 330 and 3100 W/kg for the lithium-ion cells. The cell results have been brought into relation to the material properties, the shape, referring to existing literature. The test plan made it possible to make an initial division in the cells. It appears that the manufacturer's knowhow is more important than the general electrode classification to produce outstanding cells.

2013-01-01

128

Physics Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of physics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including electromagnetism, classical mechanics, optics, oscillations and waves, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and other areas. Here may be found materials for physics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at physics research communities.

2008-03-14

129

Improving the organizational structures for managing material resources in the coal industry. Sovershenstvovaniye organizatsionnykh struktur upravleniya material'nymi resursami v ugolnoy promyshlennosti  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structures of the organizations which supply material resources to enterprises of the coal industry are examined. The technique for improving the organizational structures includes arrangement of a multitude of enterprises (associations) into smaller sumultitudes of similar type. The economic and geographic parameters of the region and the indicators which characterize the results of the activity of the system for supplying material resources to production are taken into consideration. The target function of a model for selecting organizational structure is justified. Four groups of production associations are developed. The necessity for enlarging organizations which supply material resources to production unions for extracting coal in the Ukrainian region of the Donbass (the first group of associations) is demonstrated.

Likhterman, S.S.; Zhuk, V.N.

1983-01-01

130

Theoretical Investigations of Boron Related Materials Using DFT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the history of Chemistry, materials chemists have developed their ideas mainly by doing experiments in laboratories. The underlying motivation for this laboratory work has generally been pure curiosity or the ambition to find a solution to a specific problem. Minor changes in the composition or structure of a material can cause major changes in its properties. The development of powerful computers has now opened up the possibility to calculate properties of new materials using quantum mech...

Arvidsson, Igor

2007-01-01

131

Parental divorce, personal psychological resources, and relational perspectives among college students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the potential associations between personal psychological resources (i.e., insight, hardiness, perceived gains associated with parental divorce) and relational perspectives (i.e., posttraumatic growth, commitment to marriage, attitudes toward divorce) among a group of college-age adults whose parents had divorced. The results indicated positive and significant associations among insight, hardiness, perceived gains, posttraumatic growth, commitment to marriage, and attitud...

2011-01-01

132

R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

NONE

2007-07-01

133

Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

1981-08-01

134

77 FR 12202 - Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

...Public Inspection of Material Relating to Tax-Exempt Organizations AGENCY: Internal...public inspection of material relating to tax-exempt organizations and final regulations...organizations exempt from Federal income tax, organizations that were exempt but...

2012-02-29

135

Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

2001-07-01

136

Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.)

137

Investigations on moisture damage-related behaviour of bituminous materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral thesis presents results of literature review on classical and contemporary aspects of stripping, as well as experimental investigations on moisture damage as influenced by bituminous materials. Previous research in the area of moisture damage was reviewed and synthesized into a state-of-the-art. Important parameters linked to moisture sensitivity, like bituminous material characteristics, dynamic loads from heavy vehicles, environmental factors, construction practice and nature ...

Bagampadde, Umaru

2005-01-01

138

PSI:Biology-materials repository: a biologist's resource for protein expression plasmids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Protein Structure Initiative:Biology-Materials Repository (PSI:Biology-MR; MR; http://psimr.asu.edu ) sequence-verifies, annotates, stores, and distributes the protein expression plasmids and vectors created by the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). The MR has developed an informatics and sample processing pipeline that manages this process for thousands of samples per month from nearly a dozen PSI centers. DNASU ( http://dnasu.asu.edu ), a freely searchable database, stores the plasmid annotations, which include the full-length sequence, vector information, and associated publications for over 130,000 plasmids created by our laboratory, by the PSI and other consortia, and by individual laboratories for distribution to researchers worldwide. Each plasmid links to external resources, including the PSI Structural Biology Knowledgebase ( http://sbkb.org ), which facilitates cross-referencing of a particular plasmid to additional protein annotations and experimental data. To expedite and simplify plasmid requests, the MR uses an expedited material transfer agreement (EP-MTA) network, where researchers from network institutions can order and receive PSI plasmids without institutional delays. As of March 2011, over 39,000 protein expression plasmids and 78 empty vectors from the PSI are available upon request from DNASU. Overall, the MR's repository of expression-ready plasmids, its automated pipeline, and the rapid process for receiving and distributing these plasmids more effectively allows the research community to dissect the biological function of proteins whose structures have been studied by the PSI. PMID:21360289

Cormier, Catherine Y; Park, Jin G; Fiacco, Michael; Steel, Jason; Hunter, Preston; Kramer, Jason; Singla, Rajeev; LaBaer, Joshua

2011-07-01

139

Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) activities in exploring its uranium resources, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: NMA was initiated as the Geology and Nuclear Raw Materials Department in the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt (established in 1957). However, due to the extended nature of NMA's work and it s increasingly expanded activities in the fields of prospection, exploration and evaluation of nuclear raw materials required for the peaceful uses application of nuclear energy, beside processing of their ores; this Department was converted into a separate authority; namely the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA) of Egypt, in 1977. Since several decades, Egypt started prospecting and regional exploration for radioactive raw materials using Airborne and ground surveys, carborne, and field reconnaissance in soft and hard rocks During this work activities, some promising U-occurrences were discovered. Airborne radiometric survey started in Egypt in 1958; The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)cooperated with NMA in 1998 for the construction of 4 sets of calibration pads for standardizing both aerial and ground survey instruments. Application of all these activities resulted in completing aerial radiometric prospection of about 40% of the Egyptian territories, among which some locations were also magnetically surveyed from the air. NMA organized several ground geophysical and geological expeditions to verify the registered anomalies, discover any possible mineralization and identify the promising locations using electric, electromagnetic , self-potential, induced polarization, radon, seismic, gravity, ets In the meantime, the necessary relevant field geologic studies were undertaken, together with site development works, involving percussion and core drilling. Geophysical well logging measurements, beside excavation works of some exploratory mining tunnels were conducted. The before mentioned activities led to the definition of three encouraging uranium occurrences in the granite; and metamorphic rocks of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and a fourth occurrence in the sedimentary rocks of west Central Sinai these are: Gabal Qattar, occurrences (Northern Eastern Desert). Al-Missikate, and Al-Aradiya occurrences, (Central Eastern Desert). Abu- Russhied, Seila, and Um-Ara occurrences, Southern Eastern Desert. Abu-Zeneima occurrences(west Central Sinai).These represent the main occurrences of Uranium resources which were variably developed by NMA, in addition to some other less-important uranium localities. These occurrences could be classified into conventional uranium resources, and non-conventional uranium resources (uranium production is a by-product). NMA undertaken different ore processing studies for the discovered mineralizations and was actually able to design several technological flow sheets for the preparation of uranium concentrate(yellow cake). NMA erected two experimental units for uranium recovery at Abu-Zeneima, and Qattar respectively; The preparation of yellow cake was executed using acid heap leaching, followed by uranium extraction with anion exchange resin. Kilograms of uranium concentrate(yellow cake) were prepared by such two units. NMA is also undertaking various works for the purification of the uranium concentrate(yellow cake) obtainable from the different experimental units whether from that at Inchass or from the two field experimental units at Gebel Gattar Abu Zeneima sites. Airborne surveys, recently conducted by NMA over the Mediterranean cost, demonstrated their use as a, powerful tool in evaluating mineral of beach mineral sand deposits. The most important economic minerals are: ilmenite, magnetite zircon, garnet, rutile and monazite.NMA started, since the year 2000 a detailed evaluation of the black sands at AL-Burullus - Balteem, Northern coast which could offer more than 200 million tons as reserves. (author)

2009-06-22

140

Annual view (1999) - aeronautic relation/space relation. Aeronautic relation - materials; Nenkan tenbo (1999) koku kankei uchu kankei. Zairyo kanre  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation of research papers related to aerospace materials is increasing also in Japan. Jointly with Ube Industries, Ltd. and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., National Aerospace Laboratory, Science and Technology Agency, developed and tested the CMC production method by PIP method for materials which stand the long-term exposure to air and show high strength for the use to Spaceplane/HOPE. National Space Development Agency of Japan made studies on attrition phenomena of C/C composites with SiC coating and on the application of CFRP to the extremely low temperature fuel tank of reusable space transport. The association of study of propulsion system technology for supersonic transport conducted tests on HYPR engine in terms of TIT of 1,700 degrees C, noise, etc. to confirm the validity. For the operation test, the 3rd generation SC wing, powder material disk, etc. were loaded on it. In Japan Aircraft Development Corp., a study of the low-cost head structure has started, and the development has been proceeded with of large precision casting of aluminum alloys, low-cost manufacturing technology of CFRP structure, etc. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-05

 
 
 
 
141

Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: The impact of the current skills shortage and demands for retaining talented and skilled staff in a rapidly changing careers context and the consequences for employee loyalty, morale and commitment have led to a renewed interest in the motives, values and career meta-competencies that determine individuals’ psychological attachment to their organisations and occupations.

Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory and organisational commitment (as measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.

Motivation for study: There appears to be a need for research on the psychological career resources that enhance individuals’ career agency in proactively managing their career and the way in which these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation in order to guide human resource and career-development support practices in retaining valuable staff.

Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services.

Main findings/results: Correlational and stepwise regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.

Practical implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s career preferences and career meta-competencies influence their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation.

Contribution: The findings add to existing career literature on the psychological factors that affect the retention of staff and provide valuable information that can be used to inform career-development support practices in the contemporary world of work.

How to cite this article:Ferreira, N., Basson, J., & Coetzee, M. (2010. Psychological career resources in relation to organisational commitment: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1, Art. #284, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.284

Melinde Coetzee

2010-03-01

142

[Relating briefly the natural resources and the population problems of China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Problems in population, manifested primarily as either "over" or "under" population, are ultimately related to the development of natural resources. Land is the most basic of natural resources. China's land mass is largely mountainous, with 56% of its more than 2000 counties, 1/3 of its population, 40% of its cultivated land and a majority of its forests, situated in mountainous regions. The quality and the distribution of the various kinds of land are complex and uneven. Although China is rich in forests, grazing, and arable land compared to the rest of the world, its 1 billion population makes the land a limited resource. The limitations of the land are also seen in soil erosion, soil that is increasingly turning into sand, and deforestation. Water resources are not considered scarce, yet compared to the rest of the world, it is limited. Its distribution is very uneven, with more water in the east and west, and less in the north and south. In the southwest mountainous border regions, for instance, water is abundant, but the population and arable land there is such that the demand for water is low. Moreover, droughts and heavy precipitation make the annual water supply unpredicatable. The demand for water becomes increasingly greater as agricultural production develops further, the population increases and as the cities continue to expand. living matter as a resource includes all the animal and plant life that is necessary for livelihood, but only forests and grasslands are discussed here. China's forests, if their use is not abused, can serve as a continuous supply for manufactured products. But its distribution is uneven and sparse. Population control will be ineffective if the forests are not replenished and developed. Grasslands are the primary source for animal products. The natural grasslands, found mainly in the north and west, are not as productive as that of other nations due to the nature of China's topography, the vagaries of climate, and deterioration. Energy, the source for fuel, includes such natural resources as coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydraulic, and solar power. China is among the world's richest in energy resources, yet the supply is sometimes insufficient when spread among 1 billion people. PMID:12312933

Lian, Y

1983-01-29

143

222Rn indoor concentration levels related to construction materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current work is dedicated to the procedure of measurements of average 222Rn concentration associated with civil construction materials and its infiltration shielding by masonry walls covering and painting. As a first step the instant measurements of 222Rn concentration associated with construction materials had been performed using ALPHA GUARD Professional Radon Monitor. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min and 222Rn concentration had been registered every 10 minutes. Among analyzed materials were sand, structure concrete blocks, granite and concrete paving stones, cement, etc. The samples were stored in an insulated acrylic chamber connected directly to ALPHA GUARD detector. Measured 222Rn concentrations were 90 ± 11 Bq/m3, 135 ± 20 Bq/m3, 154 ± 10 Bq/m3 and 281 ± 40 Bq/m3. Within the purpose to simulate residential and commercial environment and to associate 222Rn concentration with specific materials, wall size, room volume, etc., at the next step the measurements were performed using constructed cell chambers. During these measurements, different insulation layers, paintings as well as finishing materials have been tested. As it was reported previously, such extended measurements were performed using passive 222Rn detectors. The chemical development of alpha track detectors was made by two - step electrochemical etching technique. The alpha particle track identification and counting have been done using MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. (author)

2007-10-05

144

Improvements in or relating to the storage of material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is claimed for the convenient storage of noxious or radioactive material within solid material by an ion implantation and sputtering process. The solid material is bombarded with ions of the material to be stored so as to form a concentration of that material within the solid, and then building up the solid by sputtering. Implantation and sputtering may be carried out simultaneously or alternately. The solid can be chosen from a wide range of metallic or ceramic substances, but metals and alloys appear to offer the properties most suitable. The use of refractory metals has the advantage of high temperature stability. One application of the process is for the storage of radioactive gases evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuels, and "8"5Kr is described by way of example. Safe containment for this gas must be offered for 100 to 200 years. A glow discharge may be used for the implantation process. The method may also be applied to Xe, tritium or He. The bombardment is preferably carried out at an elevated temperature. The solid may be encapsulated after implantation. Apparatus for conducting the process is described. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

145

The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

1953-09-15

146

Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp) With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, L...

2013-01-01

147

The new UN international framework classification for reserves/resources and its relation to uranium resource classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resources traditionally are classified according to the degree of geological confidence and economic attractiveness. Various names are in use to describe nationally the different resource categories. Commonly, proven, probable or A+B are terms for the category RESERVES, meaning the recoverable portion of a resource under prevailing economic conditions. Since 1965 uranium resources are classified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and International Atomic Energy Agency using the terms Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) in combination with cost categories. The definitions for RAR and EAR have been refined over the time and cost categories have been adapted according to market developments. For practical purposes a comparison of RAR and EAR with major national classification systems is provided in each of the NEA-IAEA publication on 'Uranium Resources Production and Demand' (Red Book). RAR of uranium are defined as quantities recoverable at given production costs with proven mining and processing technology, commonly RAR of the lowest cost category are referred to as Reserves. In 1992 the Committee on Energy - Working Party on Coal of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) started to develop a new scheme for resource classification under the coordination of one of the authors (Kelter). The main purpose was to create an instrument permitting the classification of reserves and resources on an internationally consistent and uniform basis using market economic criteria. In April 1997 the UN/ECE approved the new 'United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources-Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities' at its 50th Anniversary Session. The new classification will enable the incorporation of national systems into an unified framework in order to make them compatible and comparable. Assistance will be given to economies in transition in reassessing their deposits according to market economy criteria and to facilitate investments. The UN Framework Classification provides information about: the stage of geological assessment, subdivided into: Reconnaissance, Prospecting, General Exploration and Detailed Exploration; the stage of feasibility assessment, subdivided into: Geological Study, Prefeasibility Study and Feasibility Study/Mining Report; the degree of economic viability, subdivided into: Economic, Potentially Economic and Intrinsically Economic. The Mineral Reserve is defined as the economically extractable part of the Total Mineral Resource, demonstrated by feasibility assessment. A numerical codification of the eight resource classes available was introduced to facilitate the application. Due to many similarities to the classification of uranium resources used by the NEA and IAEA the new UN Framework Classification can be used to classify uranium resources. In general Reasonably Assured Resources of the lowest cost category (presently economically extractable amounts) are consistent with the UN term Proved Reserve. It is therefore hoped that the UN Framework, which now will be tested internationally for three years, will be accepted by all countries and for all mineral commodities including uranium. (author)

2001-12-01

148

Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling

1976-04-22

149

Tritium-related materials problems in fusion reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressing materials problems that must be solved before tritium can be used to produce energy economically in fusion reactors are discussed. The following topics are discussed: (1) breeding tritium, (2) recovering bred tritium, (3) containing tritium, (4) fuel recycling, and (5) laser-fusion fueling. (MOW)

Hickman, R.G.

1976-04-02

150

Overview on spallation target design concepts and related materials issues  

Science.gov (United States)

From a modest beginning of a few kW of beam power spallation sources have now evolved into systems that must be able to handle several MW, mostly delivered in short pulses of less than microsecond duration. The high radiation field and high instantaneous heat deposition which spallation targets, in particular for the new high power sources, are subject to have led to several different design concepts which aim at circumventing or reducing the deleterious effects on the materials in the targets. Efficient cooling and high neutron source density are competing requirements which can be best reconciled by moving the target material out of the reaction zone and removing the heat elsewhere before returning the material back into the proton beam. One option is the use of a flowing liquid metal, which has been the method of choice in most of the recent spallation source designs, but requires solutions to a variety of new problems, such as liquid metal corrosion, cavitation erosion and e.g. in the case of PbBi, or Pb, high temperature gradients. Using a rotating solid target is an option in certain cases but still has to cope with the instantaneous load levels. While it may help to keep the average heat load and radiation damage in the target material low and thus extend the target life time by more than an order of magnitude, it still has its own design and materials issues. Opportunities to carry out research in this field are rather limited because the effects can hardly be simulated off line and, apart from spallation targets in operation, almost no facilities are available.

Bauer, G. S.

2010-03-01

151

78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...of Science as required by the Water Resources Development Act of 2007....

2013-03-27

152

78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007...

2013-05-24

153

78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub...evaluating, and comparing water resources projects, programs, activities...INFORMATION: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007...

2013-03-27

154

The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with food-related life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals. PMID:17913297

Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G; Raats, Monique M; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

2008-01-01

155

Material flow account and analysis of environmental load from import of resources; Material furo kantei to shigen yunyu no kankyo fuka bunseki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A material flow account (MFA) for Japan was prepared on a trial basis in accordance with the MFA having been studied at the Wuppertal Institute. The MFA identifies both of flow amount of materials inputted from the Ecosphere into the Technosphere areas and flow amount of emission therefrom in the reverse direction, as well as balance between them. Other than solids flow, gaseous and aqueous flows are also dealt with. With regard to imported raw materials including minerals, an indirect MFA generated during a period from when these materials are taken out from natural environment in the exporting countries until when they are exported are added as an ecological rucksack. The MFA for Japan in fiscal 1990 was about 2.2 billion tons in an input total summing the imported resources and domestically available resources. Such construction materials as gravels and crushed stones occupy about half of the amount. The MFA in the exporting countries for which the imported resources of about 700 million tons were put into the `rucksack` is estimated about 2.4 billion tons. A rucksack for agricultural and forest products would also reach about 200 million tons. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Moriguchi, Y. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-01-30

156

Electronegativity-related bulk moduli of crystal materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electronegativity (EN) can be used to estimate the bulk modulus of different types of crystal materials on the basis of a newly proposed bulk modulus model. The bulk moduli of A{sup N}B{sup 8-N} and A{sub m}B{sub n} type compounds, spinel- and chalcopyrite-structured compounds as well as polymorphic ABO{sub 4} compounds are calculated and the results agree well with the experimental values. Upon the concept of EN, bond modulus and effective ionicity are introduced to describe the resisting ability of a chemical bond to compression, which is the origin of the bulk modulus of crystals. The current work allows us to rationally design crystal materials with high bulk modulus on the basis of their element compositions, e.g. the suitable option of EN shown in this work. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH)

Li, Keyan; Ding, Zhongsheng; Xue, Dongfeng [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

2011-05-15

157

Bibliography of published material related to the Soviet PNE Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scientists in the Soviet Union have published many papers that provide details about the Soviet program for the peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Over the years much of this material has been gathered at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory into what has become a sizeable collection. The bibliography of 334 references provides a useful record of the material available in that collection. The bibliography is divided into three main parts. Part I lists articles alphabetically. In Part II, the same articles are arranged by subject; many of them are included under more than one subject category. Part III is a list of important collections of papers. These collections provide many of the articles listed in Parts I and II

1977-01-01

158

Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the mechanism, a simulation study of surrounding material impacts on measurement by $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ counters was performed with GEANT4. It was found that unlike previously thought, a $^3\\mathrm{He}$ counter had a small sensi...

Tsuchiya, H.

2014-01-01

159

Hydrogen Storage using Physisorption : Modified Carbon Nanofibers and Related Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis describes our research on adsorbent systems for hydrogen storage for small scale, mobile application. Hydrogen storage is a key element in the change-over from the less efficient and polluting internal combustion engine to the pollution-free operating hydrogen fuel cell. In general, hydrogen can be stored pressurized, liquefied, absorbed in metals and physisorbed on a suitable material (adsorbent). Our analysis was that storage by physisorption might be the most promising option. ...

Nijkamp, Marije Gessien

2002-01-01

160

Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube produ...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Ferromagnetism in defect-ridden oxides and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existence of high-temperature ferromagnetism in thin films and nanoparticles of oxides containing small quantities of magnetic dopants remains controversial. Some regard these materials as dilute magnetic semiconductors, while others think they are ferromagnetic only because the magnetic dopants form secondary ferromagnetic impurity phases such as cobalt metal or magnetite. There are also reports in d0 systems and other defective oxides that contain no magnetic ions. Here, we investigate ...

Venkatesan, Munuswamy; Coey, John Michael David; Stamenov, Plamen

2010-01-01

162

Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

2010-05-01

163

The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with foodrelated life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G.

2008-01-01

164

The standardization of data relational mode in the materials database for nuclear power engineering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relational database needs standard data relation ships. The data relation ships include hierarchical structures and repeat set records. Code database is created and the relational database is created between spare parts and materials and properties of the materials. The data relation ships which are not standard are eliminated and all the relation modes are made to meet the demands of the 3NF (Third Norm Form)

1996-12-01

165

Teacher's Resource Manual on Worldmindedness: An Annotated Bibliography of Curriculum Materials, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. Occasional Paper No. 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography lists resource and instructional materials for use by classroom teachers as they design and implement educational programs on worldmindedness. Worldmindedness is characterized as differing from international and/or multicultural education in that it includes a value orientation in addition to knowledge about and interest in…

Urso, Ida

166

Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

2011-07-10

167

Final environmental statement related to the Plateau Resources Limited Shootering Canyon Uranium Project (Garfield County, Utah)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Plateau Resources, Ltd., for the construction and operation of the proposed Shootering Canyon Uranium Project with a product (U3O8) production limited to 2.2 x 105 kg (4.9 x 105 lb) per year. Impacts to the area from the operation of the Shootering Canyon Uranium Project will include the following: alterations of up to 140 ha (350 acres) that will be occupied by the mill, mill facilities, borrow areas, tailings areas, and roads; an increase in the existing background radiation levels of the mill area as a result of continuous but small releases of uranium, radium, radon, and other, radioactive materials during construction and operation; socioeconomic effects on the local area, particularly the proposed community of Ticaboo, where the majority of workers will be housed during project construction and operation; and production of solid waste material (tailings) from the mill at a rate of about 680 MT (750 tons) per day and deposition as a slurry in an onsite impoundment area; construction and operation of the Shootering Canyon mill will provide employment and induced economic benefits for the region but may also result in some socioeconomic stress. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this Environmental Statement, it is proposed that any license issued for the Shootering Canyon mill should be subject to certain conditions for the protection of the environment. A list is included. Nine appendices are also included

1979-01-01

168

An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from differences within, rather than between, countries. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution within and across countries of the GMS. Most inequalities result from within countries. Given the inequalities, mismatches, and clustering of resources observed here, resource sharing and mobilization in a pandemic scenario could be crucial for more effective and equitable use of the resources that are available in the GMS.

Hanvoravongchai Piya

2012-12-01

169

Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

1996-03-22

170

[Mutual relations between plastic materials and bacteria (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex problems of microbiological degradation of synthetic plastics and a fairly wide variety of 62 testing materials, belonging to 14 major groups of plastics, are described. Adaequate and reliable testing techniques had to be devised. Drawing on the experiences of H. Braun, 1930, and of Bushnell and Haas, 1941, as to the metabolism of bacteria and the utilization of certain hydrocarbons by microorganisms, and previous research work by A. Schwartz in Berlin, 1959-60, on microbial corrosion of plastics, methods of laboratory testing were developed. The bacteriological technique was based on selection of aerobic microorganisms, which were, by starvation, adapted to use the plastic materials as their only carbon source; foreign carbon sources had to be strictly eliminated; emphasis was laid on proper, double control cultures. The test organisms involved included P. aeruginosa and fluorescens strains, also a certain species of Candida, and mixtures of soil, sewage and garbage organisms grown on exposed plastic surfaces. By means of series of passages the selective adaptation and conservation of these organisms was continued up to 4 1/2 years. An anaerobic adaptation method for Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was developed and used successfully. After preliminary experimentation (Soil burial, sewage and garbage exposure tests) in the laboratory as well as in the open, a large scale Field testing programme under realistic and to some extent extreme conditions was implemented: Nine different plastic materials comprising eight plain high polymer plastics and for comparison one synthetic Cellulose derivate, together with glass control samples, were exposed in twelve different sewage, garbage, and soil media over a period of 3 months to 2 years, and subsequently examined. On the basis of the bacteriological results obtained from the adaptation series the test materials were classified into three categories, corresponding to the stimulation of bacterial growth: Group one, which allowed strong proliferation, included certain types of plasticized P.V.C. and Cellulose esters, as expected, and, as a new result, Polyurethane rubber; the latter showed clear signs of surface corrosion. Group two, which induced a clear but moderate growth, comprised a nylon trade type of Polyamide. Gruop three, allowing weak but still recognisable growth, included Formaldehyde pressure resing (Bakelite). This was surprising as it was thought that the formaldehyde and phenol components would exert a bacteriocidic or at least bacteriostatic effect. The results of the long and time consuming adaptation series with Pseudomonas aeruginosa were confirmed by the manometric dissimilation method of O. Warburg by means of the Braun/Melsungen apparatus. With this subtle but elegant procedure results and graphical recordings were obtained within hours and days... PMID:828369

Toepfer, C T; Kanz, E

1976-12-01

171

Hardiness in relation to organisational commitment in the Human Resource Management field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: Employees’ hardiness is increasingly recognised as an aspect of their well-being and feelings of career success. Psychological well-being and feelings of subjective career success have positive implications for the motivation, satisfaction, performance and commitment of young talented staff.Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the relationship between an individual’s hardiness (measured by the Personal Views Survey II [PVS-II] and organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Scale.Motivation for the study: Research on an individual’s hardiness profile as an aspect of their career well-being and success and how these attributes influence their psychological attachment to the organisation, is needed to guide human resource career development support practices aimed at retaining valuable staff.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a convenience sample of predominantly Black (92.2% and female (71% employed adults (N = 355 at managerial and staff levels in the human resource management field.Main findings: Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant relationships between the two variables.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how people’s hardiness relates to their sense of psychological attachment to the organisation. Organisations concerned with the retention and well-being of their equity staff members need to find a way to enhance and develop their hardiness and commitment.Contribution/value-add: The research contributes new insights into and knowledge of the factors that influence their employees’ hardiness and how these relate to their organisational commitment. The results may be used to inform career development support interventions that aim to increase employees’ sense of career well-being and success.

Nadia Ferreira

2012-09-01

172

Waste materials - catalytic opportunities: an overview of the application of large scale waste materials as resources for catalytic applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this overview, we present examples of the use of high volume waste materials in catalysis or for catalyst synthesis. Waste materials derived from both industrial and biological sources have attracted interest and this is briefly summarized. The materials described include red mud, aluminium dross, fly ash, blast furnace slag, rice husk and various kinds of shell.

Balakrishnan, M.; Batra, V.S.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Pulford, I.D. [TERI University, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy & Environment

2011-01-15

173

The ionizing radiation in dwellings related to the building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimentally determined values were used to investigate the absorbed dose or concentration of radon and daughter products. The exposure rates, the concentrations of radon and daughter products and the ventilation rates have been determined in seven groups of houses built in the early 1970s in central Sweden. The activity concentrations in the building maerials used at the time for building the houses were measured earlier. The absorbed dose in the gonads was, as expected, found to be lower than the theoretical value, 1,5mGy/y. For the multi-family houses the values were about 1,0 mGy/y and for the single-family houses about half that value. The concentrations of radon in equilibrium with the daughter products normalized to one air change per hour and to the maximum concentration of radium-226 in the building material were found to be about 100Bq/m"3, for the multi-family houses. No significant difference from this value was found for the single-family houses despite the fact that the amounts of stony building materials were less than in the multi-family houses. (author)

1977-01-01

174

Synthesis Methods of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenge on carbon nanotubes is still the subject of many research groups. While in the first years the focus was on the new synthesis methods, new carbon sources and support materials, recently, the application possibilities are the principal arguments of the studies. The three main synthesis methods discussed in this review are the arc discharge, the laser ablation and the chemical vapour deposition (CVD with a special regard to the latter one. In the early stage of the nanotube production the first two methods were utilized mainly for the production of SWNTs while the third one produced mainly MWNTs. The principle of CVD is the decomposition of various hydrocarbons over transition metal supported catalyst. Single-walled (SWNT, multi-walled (MWNT and coiled carbon nanotubes are produced. In some case, interesting carbonaceous materials are formed during the synthesis process, such as bamboo-like tubes, onions, horn-like structures. In this paper, we refer to the progresses made in the field of the synthesis techniques of carbon nanotubes in the last decade.

Andrea Szabó

2010-05-01

175

Unconformity-related uranium-gold deposits of northern Australia: Resources, genesis and exploration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Australia has a uranium resource of 370 kt U3O8 (313 kt U) contained in unconformity-related deposits. Over 85% of this resource is located in the Alligator Rivers Province of the Northern Territory. In addition to uranium, several of the deposits here contain economic gold (38t have so far been delineated) and two contain major amounts of platinum-group metals. Uranium-gold deposits of the Alligator Rivers Provinces are in many ways similar to deposits of the Athabasca Basin in Saskatchewan (Canada). They are located at the unconformity between Mid Proterozoic clastic rocks and older metamorphic basement. Ore is associated with fault zones which in some cases transgress and offset the unconformity. Ore is enveloped by intense clay-sized phyllosilicate alteration haloes. Differences (i.e. lower grade, no ore in sandstone, no Ni-Co-As ore) can largely be attributed to the effects of extensive erosion and weathering which has exposed the Alligator Rivers deposits, and overall lack of exploration in areas of thick sandstone cover. All the known deposits in the Alligator Rivers Province were discovered by relatively simple airborne or ground radiometric surveys. Modern, geophysical methods as are routinely employed in Saskatchewan (such as airborne TEM), have not been tried in the Alligator Rivers Province. There has been a paucity of exploration in the Alligator Rivers Province in the past 15 years, as a result of creation of a national park over the most prospective area. (author). 31 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

1992-06-01

176

Relational Resources in Value Adding Webs : The case of a Southern Danish Firm Cluster  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The fact that the main source of value creation is rooted within networks raises the question of the impact of social capital on relational rents. The main objectives of this paper therefore are to investigate how value creation on the relational level of a cluster can be systematised to come to a better understanding of valuable resources. Empirically the study refers to a regional cluster in Southern Jutland in Denmark. We found that the horizontal actors in the cluster see the core of initiated cluster activities rather on the edge of their business activities but at the same time highlight the high value of informal cluster structures. The paper develops implications for the cluster firms as well as the cluster management in its role as a broker and a moderator.

Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

2014-01-01

177

Directory of M.I.T. Research Projects Related to Marine Resources, Ocean Utilization, and Coastal Zone Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The directory identifies, describes and provides references to all the marine-related studies underway at M.I.T. Research projects underway are grouped under the headings of marine resources, ocean utilization and coastal zone management.

B. Passero D. A. Horn

1974-01-01

178

SiC, natural and synthetic diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume addresses the burgeoning field of wide band gap materials. The 64 contributions and invited papers will do much to stimulate the well-justified ongoing work, both theoretical and experimental, in this area. The high standard of the papers attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. Among them are the problems of the growth of SiC on silicons in low pressure vertical reactors, electron channeling radiation, diamond and diamond simultants as studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron and nuclear structural characterization of natural, synthetic, homo-epitaxial and polycrystalline low pressure chemically vapour-deposited diamond, etc

1990-11-27

179

Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework

1997-04-02

180

Spatial and Dynamic Analysis of Regional Sustainable Development Using Geographic Information System and Relative Carrying Capacity of Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relative carrying capacity of resources is an index to measure sustainable development through carrying capacity. Case studies of eleven cities in Zhejiang (Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou and Lishui) illustrated regional sustainable development approach. In this study, to provide insight into spatial and dynamic analysis of region sustainable development, we calculated the relative carrying capacity of land resources and economical reso...

Qi Wang; Xiaodan Wang; Hua Tang; Jun Li; Haihu Ma; Tianxing Cheng

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. METHODS AND FRAMEWORK: The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority interventions, poverty reduction strategies, and training approaches. Multisectoral collaboration and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country determine health sector workforce development and potential emigration. CONCLUSIONS: Key determinants of success for achieving international development goals are closely related to human-resource development. PMID:15238166

Wyss, Kaspar

2004-07-01

182

Experiments to find constitutive relation for materials undergoing large deformation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, details about state of art custom built experimental set up to perform biaxial tests on thin sheets made of polymers or soft biological tissues is presented. This displacement controlled set up can apply and measure loads ranging from 0.01 N to 100 N. Then, the uniform or non-uniform surface deformation is determined from tracking a set of markers in 3D space using 2 CCD cameras. Using this setup both elastic and viscoelastic properties of the material could be characterized and the assumption of incompressibility verified. Following Rivlin and Saunders,1 the stored energy corresponding to vulcanized rubber, for stretch ratios less than 1.5, is found by systematically varying one of the variables in the stored energy function. This is achieved by performing biaxial extension tests in which the stretch ratio along one direction is held constant but varied between protocols and the stretch ratio in the perpendicular direction is increased gradually from 1 to 1.5. Then, the predictive capability of the stored energy function is examined by comparing its prediction for the uniaxial extension test with the actual experimental results. However, unlike Rivlin and Saunders, the stored energy is allowed to be either a function of the invariants of left Cauchy-Green stretch tensor (Rivlin2) or the invariants of Hencky strain (Criscione et al3) or the principal stretch ratios (Ogden4). None of the stored energy functions evaluated in this study is able to consistently predict the available experimental data.

Hariharaputhiran, H.; Saravanan, U.

2009-12-01

183

CaTiO3 RELATED MATERIALS FOR RESONATORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ceramics of Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb are prepared from mixtures of CaTiO3, MF2 and LiF powders by sintering at 950°C for 4 hours in free-air. The samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric measurements. The phase transitions of pure CaTiO3 are strongly influenced by the incorporation of the fluoride mixture MF2 + LiF into the host lattice whereas the orthorhombic symmetry at room temperature is not at all affected by the chemical substitutions Ca-M, Ti-Li and O-F. The dielectric permittivity e'r and losses tand are slightly dependent of temperature between 20°C and 200°C. At room temperature, e'r is stable over a large frequency range with tand < 1%. The Ca0.95M0.05(Ti0.95Li0.05O2.85F0.15 (M = Ca, Sr, Pb oxyfluorides are promising materials to manufacture resonators.

L. TaIbi - Benziada

2004-12-01

184

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

185

Uncertainties related to the use of remote sensing data in wind resource assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Remote sensing is a developing technology for wind resource assessment. This presentation discussed uncertainties related to the use of remote sensing data in wind resource assessments. It discussed the advantages and disadvantages of remote sensing, how it works, as well as uncertainty and bias. The advantages of remote sensing include ease of mobility; installation; permitting; maintenance; higher measurements; and more measurement heights. The disadvantages are the high cost and power requirements. Remote sensing is not the standard for the wind industry and may not perform well in certain weather or atmospheric conditions. Accuracy is also an issue with remote sensing technology, and it requires and experienced operator and analyst. Equipment cost and the potential use of SODAR/LIDAR measurements were presented. The use of remote sensing in energy estimates was also considered. It was concluded that remote sensing may be a good supplement, but not a replacement for meteorological towers. In addition, remote sensing measurements may reduce the uncertainty of an energy estimate. figs.

Briggs, K. [DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

2009-07-01

186

Assessment of Food Products and Virtual Water Trade as Related to Available Water Resources in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iran, with an average annual precipitation of about 252 mm (413 BCM and renewable freshwater resources of 130 BCM, has irregular distribution of water resources. With a high population growth rate, agriculture remains the greatest water user in Iran but its production still does not meet the total food demand of the country. Due to unreliable water availability, the competition for water from other sectors and the increasing demand for food and better diets, Iran will experience water stress. In this study, virtual water trade in relation to water resources availability has been assessed as a way of relaxing water stress in Iran. The results showed that from the 21 food products, cereals, pulses, nuts and oilseeds are water-intensive crops according to their estimated virtual water content, while fruits, vegetables and industrial crops are not water-intensive. Considering the volume of virtual water entering the country through food imports, more water will be available for other essential uses. However, the virtual water trade has been developed rather unconsciously regarding water use and crop water productivity during the past two decades. For instance, wheat with a share of 58.5% in the virtual water import to Iran, was the dominant imported crop during 1983-2003. By importing 10.4 Mt of wheat, 11.6 BCM of water has been saved within the country during 1999-2003. However, Iran became self-sufficient in wheat production in early 2005. Consequently, this latest drive for self-sufficiency in the production of wheat, as a water-intensive crop, put tremendous pressure on domestic water resources. The trend in crop trade in terms of quantity and virtual water for other groups of crops has also been shown in the study. Seemingly, crop production and import have been greatly influenced by the weather conditions. With the increasing water scarcity, the role of virtual water in food security is expected to rise continuously in Iran. Thus, conscious virtual water trade as a policy measure in water management and judicious adjustment in agricultural structure will ensure sustainable food security and water availability in Iran.

N Rouhani

2009-01-01

187

Laboratory and field studies related to the hydrologic resources management program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report we describe the work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY 1995 for the Hydrologic Resources Management Program funded by the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations office. Budgetary cuts have required us to scale back our activities, particularly field work at the Nevada Test Site. We have collaborated with a number of government agencies and universities in work related to radionuclide migration through geologic media. In cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have demonstrated the utility of high-sensitivity gamma logging and have successfully improved the design of a bailer routinely used for water sampling. We analyzed a suite of side-wall samples from the BASEBALL drill-back and have interpreted the distribution pattern of test-related radionuclides. Though heterogeneously distributed, they show a general separation of volatile and refractory fractions. The distribution pattern suggests that there has been little movement of radioactive material within this cavity, which is 13 years old and below the static water level. This characterization of the BASEBALL cavity/chimney complex may have important implications for radionuclide migration elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site

1995-01-01

188

A Survey and Resource Materials on the Use of Oxygen Supplementation in Fish Culture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygen supplementation is the process by which naturally occurring dissolved oxygen (DO) is supplemented with enriched oxygen to restore or enhance DO levels in water. In aquaculture this is usually done with relatively pure oxygen and the result has significant potential to improve fish health, aid hatchery economic considerations, or both. For example, oxygen supplementation can preclude both hypoxia and gas bubble disease, as well as allow more fish to be reared in the same space or water or both. However, the concepts and technology in oxygen supplementation are evolving rapidly and direct communication with the user groups would foster technology transfer and improve implementation. Therefore we undertook and now report a survey of organizations that either currently use or plan to use oxygen supplementation. Additionally we included various pertinent material, including literature sources, lists of consultants and equipment manufacturers and some current research in oxygen supplementation.

Colt, John; Orwicz, Kris; Bouck, Gerald R.

1988-09-01

189

Consolidating Two NSF Online Materials and Information Resource Centers for Manufacturing and Engineering Technology Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation describes the plan for the future of the Manufacturing and Engineering Resource Center (MERC Online), which integrates two existing National Science Foundation electronic clearinghouses for manufacturing and engineering technology educators.

2009-09-22

190

Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

2014-01-15

191

Learning Object Specification and Description of Pedagogical Resources in Respect to Material Structure and Content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, many E-Learning systems are currently available on the Web with various types of learning resources. Website becomes one of important communication lines between teacher and student. For teachers to prepare their courses, searching and collecting learning resources will be necessary in the primary step. Imagine in database scope, there are many courses that concerned with database in many levels, for example: introduction to database, database system principles, advanced topics in d...

Suksombo, P.; He?rin, Danie?le

2005-01-01

192

Exploitation and use of raw materials resources for manufacturing nuclear fuels. Present and future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel for Cernavoda Romanian nuclear power plant is based on natural uranium cycle implying mining, concentration-refining and UO2 manufacturing. For the Uranium National Company securing the raw materials necessary for fuel element manufacturing implies the following sources: - from the production cumulated till the year 2001 in the Security and Consumption Stock; - from the current production of uranium ore. Romania posses two categories of deposits which ensure at present and in the future the uranium ore production: active deposits and production center at Crucea-Botusana; - deposits proposed for the exploitation activity at Tulghes - Grinties. Other two important centers of production in Banat and Bihor ceased the production since 1999 due to the deposit depletion. The uranium reserve of Romania is estimated to 9,233 tones in geological deposits of high confidence level plus 6,344 tones in resources still not searched. The medium- and long-term strategy of CNU to fructify the uranium reserves of Romania is in concordance with the current government policy and is based upon two major investments: - opening a new production unit at Tulghes-Grinties; - Refurbishment of plants R1 and E1. The main amount of uranium currently used for making the needed nuclear fuel comes today from the production center Crucea-Botusana. Here the exploitation is based mainly on pitchblende-rich deposits. Uranium ore processing and concentration is made at 'R' and 'E' plants at Feldioara able to ensure an annual capacity of 300 tones UO2. In the assesment of the amount of uranium needed in the nuclear fuel fabrication the degree of uranium recovery was also taken into account. The uranium supply implied by the new electro-nuclear plants to be installed till 2025 was evaluated by taking into account the future advanced fuel solutions, SEU and RU, what will diminish the natural uranium consumption to 55% and 66%, respectively. The price of nuclear fuel has been estimated within the following assumptions: continuation of the present extraction and mining processing technologies; modernization and refurbishment of the extraction and processing technologies after 2010-2012. An increase of the uranium price is forecast and accordingly the current high cost of the Romanian uranium will approach the world costs what justifies maintaining the domestic uranium production and limitation of imports

2002-09-06

193

Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. ‘Embodied HANPP’ (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism.

Haberl, Helmut; Steinberger, Julia K.; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gaube, Veronika; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

2012-01-01

194

Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Review on geology and potential energic mineral of Indonesia related to nuclear resources is devided into the aspects of 1) geology, 2) potential energic mineral, 3) potential radioactive mineral, and 4) nuclear technigue application in exploration. Schematically, geology of Indonesia in composed by 1) mineralogical infertile area of subduction zone, 2) agricultural fertile land of volcanic arc, 3) possible nuclear energy resources area of old magmatic arc -metamorphic rock, and 4) tertiary basin sediment which is highly potential for oil, gas and coal. Considering its geologic and environmental components, there are 13 blocks which are potential for base metalic minerals, and all of the blocks exist in the magmatic belts. Based on their genetic environment, a base metal map could be made consisting of 1) acid igneous rock environment where Cu, Au and Pb metals could be obtained, 2) volcanic environmet, 3) ultra-basic rock environment where Ni, Co and Cr metals could be obtained, and 4) sediment rock environment where Cu, Au, Pb and Zn metals could be obtained. Radioactive minerals in Kalan (west Kalimantan) and Sumatra were formed in continental granite environment. Radioactive mineral survey on metamorphic rock in granitic belt had been done. Because of Australian plate which is rich of radioactive minerals is subducting under the east part of Maluku and Irian Jaya islands, it could be expected that those islands contain radioactive minerals. Nuclear technique in exploration has been used for 1) detecting of dam leakage, 2) logging in drilling for oil and coal, 3) determining the volcanic activity gradient using radioactive gas, 4) radioactive airbone survey for metallic mineral exploration, and 5) predicting earthquake caused by fault/volcano by measuring their radioactive gas released. (author). 1 refs, 2 figs

1994-10-27

195

The utilization of nonterrestrial materials. [resources for solar power satellite construction  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of research and technology programs on the user of nonterrestrial materials for space applications was considered with emphasis on the space power satellite system as a model of large space systems for which the use of nonterrestrial materials may be economically viable. Sample topics discussed include the mining of raw materials and the conversion of raw materials into useful products. These topics were considered against a background of the comparative costs of using terrestrial materials. Exploratory activities involved in the preparation of a nonterrestrial materials utilization program, and the human factors involved were also addressed. Several recommendations from the workshop are now incorporated in NASA activities.

1981-01-01

196

Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies

1993-10-24

197

Manufacturing Processes: New Methods for the "Materials Age." Resources in Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

To make the best use of new materials developed for everything from computers to artificial hearts to more fuel-efficient cars, improved materials syntheses and manufacturing processes are needed. This instructional module includes teacher materials, a student quiz, and possible student outcomes. (JOW)

Technology Teacher, 1990

1990-01-01

198

Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are a substantial resource for molybdenum metal and may have anomalous concentrations of tungsten. The deposits contain low-grade ore (0.03-0.22 percent molybdenum) as molybdenite, but are large-tonnage, making them amenable to bulk mining open-pit techniques. The mineralizing system usually has fluorine contents of less than 0.1 percent. The cogenetic intrusion is a differentiated calc-alkaline granitoid, typically granodiorite to quartz monzonite in composition, with low rubidium and niobium, and moderate to high strontium concentrations. Metals and hydrothermal fluids are sourced from these intrusions, with an additional meteoric fluid component contributing to peripheral alteration but not adding more metal. The lithology of the surrounding country rocks is not important to the formation of these deposits, but a surrounding carbonate unit may be altered to skarn that contains economic mineralization. The creation of contact-metamorphosed hornfels adjacent to the intrusion is common. Formation of arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits typically occurs within a continental arc environment related to arc-continent or continent-continent collision and subduction. Few deposits are found in an island arc setting. Most classified arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits are located in the western cordillera of North America, notably in British Columbia and Alaska. Hydrothermal alteration provides a key component to the identification of a deposit. Alteration usually is zoned from a core of potassic plus/minus silicic alteration outwards through phyllic to propylitic alteration. Argillic alteration may be irregular in shape and will overprint earlier hydrothermal alteration. Exploration should be limited to magmatic arc belts that have been unroofed and eroded to levels of a few kilometers depth. Important geological vectors toward areas of higher grade mineralization include intensity of hydrothermal alteration, veining, and faulting. Anomalous levels of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, lead, or zinc in soils, tills, stream sediments, and drainage waters may indicate the presence of an arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit. Geophysical exploration techniques have been met with minimal success because of the overall low concentration of associated sulfide and oxide minerals. Geoenvironmental concerns are generally low because of low volumes of sulfide minerals. Most deposits are marginally acid-generating to non-acid-generating with drainage waters being near-neutral pH because of the acid generating potential of pyrite being partially buffered by late-stage calcite-bearing veins. The low ore content results in a waste:ore ratio of nearly 1:1 and large tailings piles from the open-pit method of mining.

Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

2012-01-01

199

Title: Material Transfer Agreements on Teff and Vernonia– Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humans require plant resources to satisfy their basic needs for clothing, food, medication, shelter, and so on. In order to conserve and sustainably use these resources, the CBD, and the FAO-Treaty on PGRFA exist internationally, and for example the African Union Model ...

Abeba Tadesse Gebreselassie

2009-01-01

200

Teacher Use of Instructional Materials and Other Matters Related to Special Education IMC/LRC Collections. Theoretical Paper No. 59.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is the report of a study -- involving 1150 special education teachers and 25 instructional materials centers (IMCs) and learning resource centers (LRCs) -- to investigate the needs for, uses of, and priorities for instructional materials for teaching handicapped children. Listed are three methods of data collection: the use of materials…

Latham, Glenn

 
 
 
 
201

What Is the Impact of Online Resource Materials on Student Self-Learning Strategies?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to examine how students are incorporating online resources into their self-regulated learning strategies. The process of developing these learning strategies and the importance of these strategies has been widely researched, but there has been little empirical research into how the students are affected by online…

Dowell, David John; Small, Felicity A.

2011-01-01

202

Resisting the Marginalization of Science in an Urban School: Coactivating Social, Cultural, Material, and Strategic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the resources and strategies middle school teachers, urban fellows, and a district science staff developer coactivated to resist the marginalization of science in a high-poverty, low-performing urban school. Through critical narrative inquiry, I document factors that marginalized science in three teachers' classrooms. The…

Rivera Maulucci, Maria S.

2010-01-01

203

The Effect of Globalization, Labor Fexibilization and National Industrial Relations Systems on Human Resource Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes how changes to the global organization of capitalism have accompanied and intensified globalization as well as have affected the regulation of labor and employment relationship. One of the most significant of these changes has been the dramatic increase in the rate of cross-border merger and acquisition activity. Of equal significance, especially for the regulation of labor and the employment relationship, has been the pronounced tendency of global enterprises to transform themselves into coordinators and organizers of activities performed for them by contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers. Outsourcing and sub­contracting have allowed global enterprises to reduce and externalize the costs incurred from the direct employment of labor. This reorganization of the operations of global corporations has been greatly facilitated by the removal of barriers to trade and the global movement of capital, and labor market deregulation. Labor market deregulation has largely been brought about by the emasculation of national Industrial Relations Systems (IRSs in developed and developing nations alike. As national IRSs have been emasculated, so has the regulation of labor and the employment relationship increasingly been internalized in the firm by the use of Human Resource Management (HRM.

Mohammad Ziaul Hoq

2009-09-01

204

Health-related quality of life in psoriasis: important role of personal resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many patients with psoriasis demonstrate psychological disturbances, including decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate selected personal resources and HRQoL in 168 in-patients with psoriasis vulgaris. The following questionnaires were used: Skindex-29, General Health Questionnaire, Coping with Skin Disease Scale, Acceptance of Illness Scale, Life Orientation Test, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. It was demonstrated that younger patients experienced fewer problems in psychosocial functioning, and that they showed a correlation between worse HRQoL and both external powerful others and external chance domains in locus of health control. Subjective self-evaluation of health correlated with HRQoL irrespective of patient's age. Coping with stress strategies hopelessness/helplessness and distraction/catastrophization correlated with worse overall HRQoL, whereas fighting spirit strategy correlated with better overall HRQoL. Hopelessness/helplessness coping strategy, somatic symptoms, disease acceptance, psoriasis severity and patient's age explained 61% of overall HRQoL variance. Psychomedical interventions designed for psoriatic patients should take into account the above variables. PMID:23407910

Miniszewska, Joanna; Juczy?ski, Zygfryd; Ograczyk, Alicja; Zalewska, Anna

2013-09-01

205

Managing, marketing, maximising : creating an information resources development policy to further academic-library relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article outlines the development of a school information resources development policy and illustrates how these policies can be used to further liaison among academic libraries, to market library resources to our users and to ensure that library purchases accurately reflect the teaching and research needs of each school.

Kendlin, Valerie

2009-01-01

206

Empirical Study on Relations among Human Resource System, leadership Pattern and Organization Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on Chinese culture and competing values framework theory model, organization’s interaction between human resource management system and leadership pattern is examined. Different organization leadership pattern will make use of different human resource management system. Leadership pattern can be divided into four styles which are innovation adaptive leadership style, compassionate style, conservation style and objective-oriented style. This study finds that performance of organizations use balanced developed leadership pattern is far higher than other three leadership patterns. Different human resource system is adopted according to different leadership pattern. When different leadership pattern matches with human resource system, organization performance will prominently be varied. Furthermore, human resource system must be fit with organization situational factor.

Fei Guan

2013-01-01

207

The Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz relation for lead-free solder and intermetallic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead-free solders are replacing lead-rich solders in the electronics industry. Due to the limitation of available experimental data for thermal conductivity of lead-free solder and intermetallic compound (IMC) materials, the Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz (WFL) relation is presented in this paper as a possible solution to predict thermal conductivity with known electrical conductivity. The method is based upon the fact that heat and electrical transport both involve free electrons. The thermal and electrical conductivities of Cu, Ni, Sn and different Sn-rich lead-free solder and IMC materials are studied by employing the WFL relation. Generally, analysis of the experimental data shows that the WFL relation is obeyed in both solder alloy and IMC materials, especially matching close to the relation for Sn, with a positive deviation from the theoretical Lorenz number. Thus, with the available electrical conductivity data, the thermal conductivity of solder and IMC materials can be obtained based on the proper WFL relation, and vice versa. A coupled thermal–electrical three-dimensional finite element analysis is performed to study the behavior of lead-free solder/IMC interconnects. Solder and IMC material properties predicted using the WFL relation are adopted in the computational model. By applying the WFL relation, the number of experiments required to determine the material properties for different lead-free solder/IMC interconnects can be significantly reduced, which can lead to pronounced savings of time and cost

2013-03-01

208

The social relations of health care and household resource allocation in neoliberal Nicaragua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the transition to neoliberalism, Nicaragua's once-critically acclaimed health care services have substantially diminished. Local level social formations have been under pressure to try to bridge gaps as the state's role in the provision of health care and other vital social services has decreased. This paper presents a case study of how global and national health policies reverberated in the social relations of an extended network of female kin in a rural community during late 2002 - 2003. Methods The qualitative methods used in this ethnographic study included semi-structured interviews completed during bi-weekly visits to 51 households, background interviews with 20 lay and professional health practitioners working in the public and private sectors, and participant-observation conducted in the region's government health centers. Interviews and observational field notes were manually coded and iteratively reviewed to identify and conceptually organize emergent themes. Three households of extended kin were selected from the larger sample to examine as a case study. Results The ongoing erosion of vital services formerly provided by the public sector generated considerable frustration and tension among households, networks of extended kin, and neighbors. As resource allocations for health care seeking and other needs were negotiated within and across households, longstanding ideals of reciprocal exchange persisted, but in conditions of poverty, expectations were often unfulfilled, exposing the tension between the need for social support, versus the increasingly oppositional positioning of social network members as sources of competition for limited resources. Conclusions In compliance with neoliberal structural adjustment policies mandated by multilateral and bilateral agencies, government-provided health care services have been severely restricted in Nicaragua. As the national safety net for health care has been eroded, the viability of local level social formations and their ability to respond to struggles collectively has been put at risk as well. Bi-lateral and multilateral agencies need to take into account local needs and demands, and implement policies in a manner that respects national laws, and protects both the physical and social well-being of individuals.

Tesler Laura E

2010-05-01

209

Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

Faget, N. M.

1986-01-01

210

Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete

1977-01-01

211

Tensile testing of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials under Federal specified temperature and relative humidity conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small 10-ft x 12-ft temperature and relative humidity controlled room for tensile testing of parachute materials is presented. Tensile tests of nylon and Kevlar parachute materials indicate there is a negligible change in break strength of test samples soaked in the controlled environment vs samples soaked in ambient conditions.

Botner, W.T.

1980-01-01

212

Media: An Annotated Catalogue of Law-Related Audio-Visual Materials. Working Notes No. 8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 400 films, filmstrips, audio cassettes, video tapes, and mixed media kits are described in this annotated catalogue of law-related materials for elementary and secondary education. The catalogue is divided into seven major content areas. Part one lists the audiovisual materials that deal with the history of the U.S. system of law, as well as…

Davison, Susan E., Ed.

213

Microwave conductivities of high-Tc oxide superconductors and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of electromagnetic response at microwave- and millimetre-wave frequencies of the high-temperature cuprate superconductors and related materials are reviewed, with special interest in the experimental papers. These include the superfluid response in the superconducting state, quasi-particle responses below Tc, and characteristic charge excitations in related materials. We also discuss the electronic structure in the vortex core and superconducting fluctuation. (topical review)

2005-02-02

214

Qualitative indicators and the raw material resources for peat brick manufacturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are given from studies to evaluate the suitability of different types of high-moor peat and degrees of decomposition for use as a raw material for peat brick manufacturing. The requirements for the raw material are given, and the reserves and principal areas for its use are determined.

Karpenko, I.V.; Kuz' min, G.F.; Selennov, V.G.; Shchipitin, E.A.

1981-01-01

215

Actual question of marketing procurement, planning needs material resources for industrial enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the marketing effectiveness of procurement depends not only on obtaining and maximizing profits, but the main thing - the competitiveness of products, opportunities for the development of an industrial enterprise in the long term. The article analyzes the current trends of development of procurement logistics, practical recommendations on selection of the planning system needs physical resources, optimizing the cost of your order and support the size of the stocks of industrial companies.

N.V. Rozumnaya

2011-03-01

216

The Relative and Absolute Risks of Disadvantaged Family Background and Low Levels of School Resources on Student Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a long-lasting debate of whether the effects of family background are larger than those of school resources, and whether these effects are a function of national income level. In this study, we bring a new perspective to the debate by using the concepts of relative risk and population attributable risk in estimating family and…

Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Willms, J. Douglas

2010-01-01

217

GaAs and related materials bulk semiconducting and superlattice properties  

CERN Multimedia

This book covers the various material properties of bulk GaAs and related materials, and aspects of the physics of artificial semiconductor microstructures, such as quantum wells and superlattices, made of these materials. A complete set of the material properties are considered in this book. They are structural properties; thermal properties; elastic and lattice vibronic properties; collective effects and some response characteristics; electronic energy-band structure and consequences; optical, elasto-optic, and electro-optic properties; and carrier transport properties. This book attempts to

Adachi, Sadao

1994-01-01

218

Secondary Network Distribution Systems Background and Issues Related to the Interconnection of Distributed Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document addresses the technical considerations associated with the interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with secondary network distribution systems. It provides an overview of the characteristics of distribution systems and interconnection ...

M. Behnke W. Erdman S. Horgan D. Dawson W. Feero F. Soudi D. Smith C. Whitaker B. Kroposki

2005-01-01

219

Discord in relation to resource states for measurement-based quantum computation  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the issue of what should count as a resource for measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC). While a state that supports universal quantum computation clearly should be considered a resource, universality should not be necessary given the existence of interesting, but less computationally powerful, classes of MBQCs. Here, we propose minimal criteria for a state to be considered a resource state for MBQC. Using these criteria, we explain why discord-free states cannot be resources for MBQC, contrary to recent claims [Hoban et al., arXiv:1304.2667v1]. Independently of our criteria, we also show that the arguments of Hoban et al., if correct, would imply that Shor's algorithm (for example) can be implemented by measuring discord-free states.

Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Wiseman, Howard M.

2014-03-01

220

Relative Abundance of Renewable Resources in Asia and Europe and the Future Demand for Renewable Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Europe and in many other parts of the world, energy consumption has reached unsustainable levels. As such, efforts must be made both to expand the use of renewable energy and to reduce the total level of energy consumption. If there are any pertinent driving forces for this, they would be the need to reduce harmful emissions; to increase sustainable energy supply, security, poverty, eradication and access to dignity for billions of people - the ending of a vicious circle of exploitation of scarce natural resources for inefficient energy use. Most European nations belong to the relatively small group of wealthy countries enjoying a comparatively high standard of living. They comprise of approximately 20% of the world's population, producing 80% of the world's GNP, while at the same time, consuming 60% of the world's energy, Ironically, more than half of the world's population, or close to 3 billion people, have almost no access to energy services - 1.2 billion live in Asia. There is, however, enough renewable energy flow worldwide to meet all demands. Renewable energies in general now provide some 14% of the world's primary energy and is mostly covered by traditional biomass. In the field of electricity, where renewables account for 20% worldwide, it is mostly hydropower which is used as source. We need a rapid and courageous worldwide change towards an energy-efficient, Renewable Energy Systems powered energy. Asia already offers a set of successful initiatives and examples of how renewables can be promoted. Some countries have set national targets for the future share of renewable energy. Targets are an excellent strategy to demonstrate political willingness and create a stimulating investment climate for the private sector. Financing schemes, adapted to regional situations, in particular microfinance systems, demonstrate how small-scale installations of renewables could become affordable to the population.

Danielsson, Peter [European Renewable Energies Federation (Sweden)

2005-12-15

 
 
 
 
221

Managing Nicaraguan Water Resources Definition and Relative Importance of Information Needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital the Nicaraguan Water Resources Management Initiative, Issues process as implemented for a collaborative effort between the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Nicamgua. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for developing a project that will develop and implement an advanced information system for managing Nicaragua's water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to 1) develop a mission statement and evaluation criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Nicaragua 2) define and rank the vital issues; and 3) identify a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives- government, industiy, academe, and citizens' groups (through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs))-ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels. The already existing need for a water resource management information system has been magnified in the aftemnath of Hurricane Mitch. This information system would be beneficial for an early warning system in emergencies, and the modeling and simulation capabilities of the system would allow for advanced planning. Additionally, the outreach program will provide education to help Nicaraguan improve their water hygiene practices.

Engi, D.; Guillen, S.M.; Vammen, K.

1999-01-01

222

A data-driven review of thermoelectric materials: Performance and resource considerations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this review, we describe the creation of a large database of thermoelectric materials prepared by abstracting information from over 100 publications. The database has over 18,000 data points from multiple classes of compounds, whose relevant properties have been measured at several temperatures. Appropriate visualization of the data immediately allows certain insights to be gained with regard to the property space of plausible thermoelectric materials. Of particular note is that any cand...

Gaultois, Michael W.; Sparks, Taylor D.; Borg, Christopher K. H.; Seshadr, Ram; Boni?cio, William D.; Clarke, David R.

2013-01-01

223

Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

2002-05-01

224

Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

Viswanathan, Tito

2014-02-11

225

Local assessment of the risk on groundwater resources related to unconventional hydrocarbon development  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out in the Haldimand sector of Gaspé, Québec, Canada, to assess the potential link between a tight sandstone petroleum reservoir, whose potential is being evaluated, and the shallow fractured rock aquifer system. Petroleum exploration operations are taking place in the forested core of a hilly 40 km2 peninsula by the sea (up to 200 m amsl). Houses located on the periphery of the peninsula use wells for their water supply. This study served as a test case for a new framework proposed specifically to regulate oil and gas exploration and production activities. Significant concerns have been voiced in Quebec about such relatively new activities in the past few years. The study thus also aimed to provide a sound scientific perspective on the actual risk to groundwater resources related to oil and gas industry upstream activities. The study was based on the compilation of existing hydrogeological, geological and petroleum exploration data and on a field characterization. The field work involved 1) the installation of 17 observation wells and their hydraulic testing, including two fully-cored wells, 2) groundwater and surface water sampling in observation wells and more than 70 residential wells within a 2 km radius of a proposed new drill pad, and 3) geophysical logging of the open-hole observation wells. On all samples, chemical analyses involved major and minor inorganics, a wide range of organics, dissolved light hydrocarbon gases and CH4 isotopes, where present. More specialized analyses were done on observation wells (stable isotopes, tritium, 13C and 14C, noble gases, CFCs and SF6, organic acids). The hydrogeological conditions were then defined on the basis of existing and newly acquired data. Fracturing was found to control groundwater flow which is more intense in the upper 15 m of the rock aquifer. Recharge occurs on topographic highs where the rock is not covered by a low permeability glacial till, as found almost everywhere. Hydrogeochemical conditions were defined on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 16 chemical parameters. Quite wide variations in geochemistry were encountered, with evolved groundwater types affected by cation exchange or mixing with sea water. Groundwater residence time can thus be quite long, which may be due to the relatively high porosity (5-10%) of the rock. Methane is of mixed origin and preferentially associated with evolved water types. SALTFLOW, a variable-density flow and mass transport simulator, was used to represent the peninsula as well as the adjacent highlands in a 2D vertical section model. The interaction of the highland and peninsula recharge leads to nested flow systems with converging-diverging flow conditions under the peninsula, with a relatively shallow active flow zone. The observed and simulated conditions support a conceptual model that can be used to infer the level of risk for groundwater quality related to oil and gas industry activities.

Raynauld, Melanie; Peel, Morgan; Lefebvre, Rene; Crow, Heather; Gloaguen, Erwan; Molson, John; Ahad, Jason; Aquilina, Luc

2014-05-01

226

Research study on highly functional carbon related materials; Tansokei kokino zairyo no chosa kenkyu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study results on highly functional carbon related materials are reported as a part of the leading research in fiscal 1996. Synthesis of these novel materials is outlined, and R & D results on the following materials are described: diamond, hetero-diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, carbyne, fullerences, carbon nitride and chemically modified carbon materials. Their issues, future possibility and market in 2010 are also described. The markets are predicted of such electronic materials as electronic emitter, sensor, solid device and heat sink, such optical materials as X-ray lithography, and such chemical materials as electrode and catalyst. Promising characteristics of light-weight and high-hardness machine materials are presented, and some issues such as material synthesis, and intensive machining and application technologies are described. The future markets are predicted of their applications to tools, dies, information equipment, glass, automobiles, aircraft, spacecraft and industrial machines. Problems and their break through techniques of these novel materials are also presented. 220 refs., 68 figs., 16 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

227

Motion-related resource allocation in dynamic wireless visual sensor network environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates quality-driven cross-layer optimization for resource allocation in direct sequence code division multiple access wireless visual sensor networks. We consider a single-hop network topology, where each sensor transmits directly to a centralized control unit (CCU) that manages the available network resources. Our aim is to enable the CCU to jointly allocate the transmission power and source-channel coding rates for each node, under four different quality-driven criteria that take into consideration the varying motion characteristics of each recorded video. For this purpose, we studied two approaches with a different tradeoff of quality and complexity. The first one allocates the resources individually for each sensor, whereas the second clusters them according to the recorded level of motion. In order to address the dynamic nature of the recorded scenery and re-allocate the resources whenever it is dictated by the changes in the amount of motion in the scenery, we propose a mechanism based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm, combined with two restarting schemes that either exploit the previously determined resource allocation or conduct a rough estimation of it. Experimental simulations demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approaches. PMID:24144659

Katsenou, Angeliki V; Kondi, Lisimachos P; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E

2014-01-01

228

Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

Pemsler, P.

1981-02-01

229

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

1992-01-01

230

Material and Process Related Influences on the Particle Based Inductive Heating of High Density Polyethylene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, a new inductive heating method to process fibre reinforced polymer composites was introduced. This method uses particulate susceptors which are affected by an electromagnetic field. The innovative heating method can be used to heat up bulk as well as sheet like materials because the generated thermal energy is distributed intrinsically in the component. Since the heating performance was observed to be closely related to the used susceptor material, other important factors influencin...

Bayerl, Thomas; Mitschang, Peter

2013-01-01

231

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

232

Stainless Steel in Biological Environments – Relation between Material Characteristics, Surface Chemistry and Toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Triggered by the regulatory need of the industry to demonstrate safe use of their alloy products from an environmental and health perspective, and by the significant lack of metal release data and its correlation to material and surface characteristics for iron- and chromium-based alloys, a highly interdisciplinary in-depth research effort was undertaken to assess the relation between material/surface characteristics and toxicity with main emphasis on stainless steel alloys. This thesis focus...

Hedberg, Yolanda

2012-01-01

233

A clinical evaluation of materials for interocclusal registration in centric relation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four techniques for interocclusal registrations of centric relation based on materials or combinations of materials usually utilized were tested by means of mounting of casts for a patient with partial lower edentulousness, without a free end saddle. To ensure the correct position of centric relation a Lucia jig was utilized. The following conditions for the record of posterior section were tested: registrations with wax, wax plus zinc oxide-eugenol paste, wax plus Duralay acrylic resin, and condensation silicone (putty). The evaluation was made by the measure of vertical distance between reference points in the base of the casts and calculation of variations occurring with each material. The combinations of wax plus zinc oxide-eugenol paste and wax plus Duralay acrylic resin showed the smallest variations in centric relation position. PMID:11213793

Pagnano, V O; Bezzon, O L; de Mattos, M G; Ribeiro, R F

2000-01-01

234

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

2009-10-05

235

MAT-DB - A database for nuclear energy related materials data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The web-enabled materials database (Mat-DB) of JRC-IE has a long-term history in storing materials test data resulting from European and international research projects. The database structure and the user-guidance has bee permanently updated improved and optimized. The database is implemented in the secure ODIN portal: https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu of JRC-IE. This architecture guarantees fast access to confidential and public data and documentation which are stored in an inter-related document management database (DoMa). It is a part of JRC's nuclear knowledge management. Mat-DB hosts the whole pool of IAEA surveillance data of reactor pressure vessel materials from different nuclear power plants of the member states. Mat-DB contains also thousands of European GEN IV reactor systems related R and D materials data which are an important basis for the evaluating and extrapolating design data for candidate materials and setting up design rules covering high temperature exposure, irradiation and corrosion. Those data and rules would match also fusion related components. Mat-DB covers thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical properties data of engineering alloys at low, elevated and high temperatures for base materials and joints, including irradiated materials for nuclear fission and fusion applications, thermal barrier coated materials for gas turbines and properties of corroded materials. The corrosion part refers to weight gain/loss data of high temperature exposed engineering alloys and ceramic materials. For each test type the database structure reflects international test standards and recommendations. Mat-DB features an extensive library of evaluation programs for web-enabled assessment of uniaxial creep, fatigue, crack growth and high temperature corrosion properties. Evaluations can be performed after data retrieval or independently of Mat-DB by transferring other materials data in a given format to the programs. The fast evaluation processes help the user to get a detailed data analysis or data extrapolation for component design and life-time prediction. Mat-DB is an excellent tool to conserve and administrate experimental materials test data of nuclear-energy related projects together with extended documentation. The paper provides an overview over: security, access rights and data confidentiality, advantages of central data administration and data access, example of data entry user-guidance, example of data retrieval, overview of data evaluation, maintenance and upgrades of Mat-DB. (author)

2009-10-05

236

Relations between Faculty Use of Online Academic Resources and Student Class Attendance  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated connections between faculty use of online resources and student class attendance. Of particular interest was whether online submission of course assignments is detrimental to attendance. Students and faculty at a small, liberal arts college completed surveys about student attendance patterns, student reasons for non-attendance,…

Kinlaw, C. Ryan; Dunlap, Linda L.; D'Angelo, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

237

Are socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods deprived of health-related community resources? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

238

Effects of climate change on Pacific Northwest water-related resources: Summary of preliminary findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest Case Study is a multi-agency analysis of atmospheric/climatic change impacts on the Pacific Northwest (which includes Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of the Columbia River Basin in Western Montana). The purpose of the case study, which began in fiscal year 1991, was to develop and test analytical tools, as well as to develop an assessment of the effects of climate change on climate-sensitive natural resources of the Pacific Northwest and economic sectors dependent on them. The overall study, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Environmental Protection Agency, was a broad-based, reconnaissance-level study to identify potential climate impacts on agriculture, coastal resources, forest resources, and irrigation in the Pacific Northwest. DOE participated in the reconnaissance study, with responsibility for hydroelectric and water supply issues. While this report briefly discusses a broader array of water issues, attention is mainly focused on three aspects of the water study: (1) the effects of the region`s higher temperatures on the demand for electric power (which in turn puts additional demand on hydroelectric resources of the region); (2) the effects of higher temperatures and changes, both in precipitation amounts and seasonality, on river flows and hydroelectric supply; and (3) the effect of higher temperatures and changed precipitation amounts and seasonality on salmonid resources -- particularly the rearing conditions in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin. Because the meaning of regional climate forecasts is still quite uncertain, most of the preliminary findings are based on sensitivity analyses and historical analog climate scenarios.

Scott, M.J.; Sands, R.D.; Vail, L.W.; Chatters, J.C.; Neitzel, D.A.; Shankle, S.A.

1993-12-01

239

Guidelines for Inclusion of Mediated (Audio-Visual) Instructional Materials in the Resource and Diagnostic Systems at the University of New Hampshire.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report identifies special characteristics of AV materials and special considerations for their use, provides a brief overview of general recommendations for the incorporation of statistical AV materials into the resource system, diagnostic system, and summer sessions at the University of New Hampshire, and gives detailed procedures for…

Kleinbaum, David G.

240

Social Sciences Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Social Sciences Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources devoted to the interplay of science and the social realm, as well as social-science materials that draw heavily upon or are closely related to the life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and/or technology: for example, archaeology, physical anthropology, economics, human geography, linguistics, and psychology. Here may be found materials for educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at research communities at the nexus of the social, physical, and life sciences.

2008-03-14

 
 
 
 
241

The generalized Cauchy relation: a probe for local structure in materials with isotropic symmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The elastic properties of the isotropic state of condensed matter are given by the elastic constants ell and c44. In the liquid state the static shear stiffness c44 vanishes whereas at sufficient high probe frequencies a dynamic shear stiffness may appear. In that latter case the question about the existence of a Cauchy relation appears. It will be shown that a pure Cauchy relation can appear only under special conditions which are rarely fulfilled. For all investigated materials, including ceramics, liquids and glasses, a linear relation between ell and c44 called generalized Cauchy relation is observed, which, surprisingly, follows a linear transformation

2006-05-01

242

Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas of Edo State. Data analysis was carried out using t-test for the hypothesis and simple percentages for questions one and two. The results showed that instructional materials and resources available were grossly inadequate. It was also observed that there was no difference in the use of instructional materials between specialist social studies teachers and non-specialist teachers. It is therefore recommended that instructional materials and resources be made available for the teaching of social studies.

E.O. Okobia

2011-11-01

243

Comparison of Two User Interfaces for Accessing Context-Specific Information Resources Related to Hazards and Near Misses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Hazard and Near Miss Reporting System (HNMRS) was designed to promote patient safety mindfulness as part of a patient safety curriculum for Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) students. We are extending the functionality of the system beyond reporting to Just-in-Time learning by providing context-specific links to internal and external information resources related to the type of hazard or near miss reported. As part of this process, 55 APN nursing students compared two different interfaces o...

Yen, Po-yin; Jia, Haomiao; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne

2009-01-01

244

Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life of HIV-Positive Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH) is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1) assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQ...

2012-01-01

245

Practicing Human Resource strategy: Understanding the relational dynamcis in strategic HR work by means of a narrative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the results of a qualitative research project aimed at examining how Human Resource (HR) practitioners interpret HR strategy and strategic change. We will illustrate how they develop HR strategy by relying on a system of shared practices which, in turn, constitute the underlying relational dynamics. We argue that HR strategy is embedded in a (rhetorical) network of middle and top managers from HR departments and corresponding operational departments. This implies that HR...

Kaudela-baum, Stephanie; Endrissat, Nada

2009-01-01

246

Pre-test of questions on health-related resource use and expenditure, using behaviour coding and cognitive interviewing techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated instruments collecting data on health-related resource use are lacking, but required, for example, to investigate predictors of healthcare use or for health economic evaluation. The objective of the study was to develop, test and refine a questionnaire collecting data on health-related resource use and expenditure in patients with diabetes. Methods The questionnaire was tested in 43 patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 in Germany. Response behaviour suggestive of problems with questions (item non-response, request for clarification, comments, inadequate answer, “don’t know” was systematically registered. Cognitive interviews focusing on information retrieval and comprehension problems were carried out. Results Many participants had difficulties answering questions pertaining to frequency of visits to the general practitioner (26%, time spent receiving healthcare services (39%, regular medication currently taken (35% and out of pocket expenditure on medication (42%. These difficulties seem to result mainly from poor memory. A number of comprehension problems were established and relevant questions were revised accordingly. Conclusion The questionnaire on health-related resource use and expenditure for use in diabetes research in Germany was developed and refined after careful testing. Ideally, the questionnaire should be externally validated for different modes of administration and recall periods within a variety of populations.

Chernyak Nadja

2012-09-01

247

Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

1976-06-01

248

Proceedings of Seminar on Water Resources and Environment: application of nuclear and related technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope techniques have been used in solving problems in the fields of hydrology and environment since 1950s. It is acknowledged that of all the methods used to understand hydrologic processes, applications of tracers in particular have been the most useful in terms of providing new insights into the processes. Isotope techniques have been applied in the investigation of seepage losses from dams and canals, coastal sediment dynamics, surface water and groundwater resources, groundwater age dating, soil erosion and reservoir sedimentation, sediment movement and transport pathways, streamflow measurements, pollution transport behaviour and others. A total of sixteen papers were presented by Malaysian researchers involved in the field. The papers covered areas in dam surveillance, river management, water resources and stream flow measurement, estuary and coastal studies and slope stability investigations

2006-04-03

249

Solar energy and renewable resources in relation to the 11 PURPA standards. Guideline No. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 20, 1979, the President directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and publish within 120 days a voluntary guideline, applying specifically to solar energy and renewable resources, for the ratemaking and other regulatory policy standards established under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). On October 12, 1979, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Notice of Proposed Voluntary Guideline and Public Hearings for Solar Energy and Renewable Resources Respecting the Federal Standards Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) (44 FR 60236, October 18, 1979). This Notice summarizes in the Preamble the public comments DOE received and presents the voluntary guideline in its final form as the Appendix hereto.

None

1980-02-01

250

Gender Relations in Environmental Entitlements: Case of Coastal Natural Resources in Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper is about a study that rested on the mapping of how men and women gain entitlements (access to, ownership and control) of coastal resources through endowments, referred to herein as environmental entitlements. Environmental entitlements are enhanced by institutional means and mechanisms and the policy dimension of which demand specific forms of action to promote and protect them. The central role played by institutions (regularised patterns of behaviour between men and women...

Makalle, Albinus M. P.

2012-01-01

251

Secondary Network Distribution Systems Background and Issues Related to the Interconnection of Distributed Resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document addresses the technical considerations associated with the interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with secondary network distribution systems. It provides an overview of the characteristics of distribution systems and interconnection requirements and identifies unique issues specific to network interconnections. It also identifies the network-specific interconnection issues for which test protocols should be developed. Recommended criteria and requirements for the interconnection of DR with network distribution systems are presented.

Behnke, M.; Erdman, W.; Horgan, S.; Dawson, D.; Feero, W.; Soudi, F.; Smith, D.; Whitaker, C.; Kroposki, B.

2005-07-01

252

The Development of Digital Collections and Resources Organization Related Projects in Taiwan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the development of Internet, digital libraries/museums have received worldwide attention and many developed countries are doing extensive researches on digital libraries/museums. In Taiwan, many institutions have digitized their rare collections. This paper introduces the recent development of digital projects in Taiwan, including: Digital Museum Project, National Digital Collection Project and National Culture Database Project, and also especially introduces some resources organization ...

2001-01-01

253

PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during `lifetime`); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author) 2 refs.

Pays, M.F.; Le Courtois, T

1997-11-01

254

PWR composite materials use. A particular case of safety-related service water pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper shows the present and future uses of composite materials in French nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants. Electricite de France has decided to install composite materials in service water piping in its future nuclear power plant (PWR) at Civaux (West of France) and for the firs time in France, in safety-related applications. A wide range of studies has been performed about the durability, the control and damage mechanisms of those materials under service conditions among an ongoing Research and Development project. The main results are presented under the following headlines: selection of basic materials and manufacturing processes; aging processes (mechanical behavior during 'lifetime'); design rules; non destructive examination during manufacturing process and during operation. The studies have been focused on epoxy pipings. The importance of strong quality insurance policy requirements are outlined. A study of the use of composite pipes in power plants (hydraulic, fossil fuel, and nuclear) in France and around the world (USA, Japan, Western Europe) are presented whether it be safety related or non safety-related applications. The different technical solutions for materials and manufacturing processes are presented and an economic comparison is made between steel and composite pipes. (author)

1997-01-01

255

Human Development as semiotic-material Ordering: Sketching a Relational Developmental Psychology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presented here is an attempt at casting human development as a semiotic-material phenomenon which reflects power relations and includes uncertainty. On the ground of post-structuralist approaches, development is considered here as a performative concept, which does not represent but creates realities. Emphasis is put on the notions of ‘mediation’, ‘translation’ and ‘materiality’ in everyday practices of students and teachers in a concrete school setting, where I conducted ethnographical research for one school year. The analysis of discursive research material of teachers’ discussions and interviews with students proves the developmental discourse to be interrelated to teachers’ and students’ positioning in the school; the developmental discourse orders ongoing interaction and enables students and teachers to perform the past and witness the future in a way which corresponds with dominant values and state social/educational policies. By translating a variety of events into a line moving from the past to the future as well as by materializing this line as diagrams and other semiotic-material objects, development becomes a technology of the self of (late modernity which implies power relations and supports the maintenance of the modern order. On these grounds, a relational approach to development is suggested, which raises methodological and political issues.

Michalis Kontopodis

2007-04-01

256

Relative Error of the Mechanics of Material Solution on Simply Supported Beam under Uniform Load  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mechanics of material solution is a coarse analytical solution on the problem of simply supported beam under uniform load. This paper intends to determine the relative error of the mechanics of material solution. Solutions according to plane stress theory of elasticity theory are believed to be the true solution. Results indicate that material mechanics solution ?x seems applicable only when the ratio of beam height to beam length is less than 0.1 and the ratio of distance between beam studied cross section and midpoint in x direction to beam length is less than 0.49. When the ratio of beam height to beam length is less than 0.1 and the ratio of distance between beam studied cross section and midpoint in x direction to beam length is less than 0.49, maximum value of relative error for material mechanics solution ?x is no more than 12%. Material mechanics solution ?xy is always correct for the problem of simply supported beam under uniform load. Material mechanics solution ?x is not applicable for the problem of simply supported beam under uniform load.

Wen-jie Niu

2012-11-01

257

NIR SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO THE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF PRE-TREATED MATERIALS FROM MULTIPLE LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESOURCES FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) has been recognized as potential raw for bioethanol production. To facility LB bioconversion a pretreatment is applied, followed by simultaneous or separated saccharification and fermentation (SSF or SHF, respectively) steps. Characterization of pretreated materials, nee [...] ded to evaluate their ethanol yields, involves laborious and destructive methodologies. Therefore, saccharification is also time consuming and expensive step and some pretreated samples have not suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields. Since bioethanol production aims to be a multivariable process respect to lignocellulosic resources, this work attempts to use NIR spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize samples from multiple pretreatments and lignocellulosic resources simultaneously and estimate their ethanol yield after a SSF process using multivariate calibration. Selection of suitable samples to obtain high ethanol yields using a classification method is also evaluated. Partial least squares (PLS) and discriminant partial least squares (PLS-DA) were used as calibration and classification techniques, respectively. Results showed ability of NIR spectroscopy to predict the chemical composition of samples and their ethanol yields, even if different lignocellulosic materials were used in the models, with low prediction errors and high correlation coefficients with reference methods (r>0,96) in PLS models and low misclassification rates (20- 30%) in classification models. Use of these models could facility the fast selection of high number of samples with suitable characteristics to obtain high ethanol yields and as predictive tool of these ethanol yields after a SSF process under controlled conditions.

ROSABIO DEL P, CASTIIIO; CABOIINA, PABBA; EDUABDO, TBONCOSO; HEBIBEBTO, FBANCO; SAMUEL, PEÑA; JUANITA, FBEEB.

258

Field-flow fractionation: potential role in the analysis of energy related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general principles and scope of field-flow fractionation (FFF) are presented with descriptions of individual FFF subtechniques and the macromolecular, colloidal, and fine particle systems to which they have been applied. Several specific examples of energy-related materials are presented for which FFF is expected to yield important analytical information

1980-04-01

259

Relations between delta 18O values and material-structural parameters of silicates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A semiempirical formula has been developed for the description of the relation between delta 18O values and material-structural parameters (degree of cross-linking, aluminium content) of aluminosiliceous minerals. The formula has been testes for magmatic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The results obtained are compared and discussed in terms of geochemical aspects

1980-06-01

260

The Relation between Life Satisfaction and the Material Situation: A Re-Evaluation Using Alternative Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the surprising results of research on the relation between a person's material circumstances and his or her subjective well-being was the finding that this relationship appears to be rather weak (throughout this paper the terms "(general) life satisfaction", "(subjective) satisfaction", "happiness" and "subjective well-being" will be used…

Christoph, Bernhard

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Materials-Related Aspects of Thermochemical Water and Carbon Dioxide Splitting: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thermochemical multistep water- and CO2-splitting processes are promising options to face future energy problems. Particularly, the possible incorporation of solar power makes these processes sustainable and environmentally attractive since only water, CO2 and solar power are used; the concentrated solar energy is converted into storable and transportable fuels. One of the major barriers to technological success is the identification of suitable active materials like catalysts and redox materials exhibiting satisfactory durability, reactivity and efficiencies. Moreover, materials play an important role in the construction of key components and for the implementation in commercial solar plants. The most promising thermochemical water- and CO2-splitting processes are being described and discussed with respect to further development and future potential. The main materials-related challenges of those processes are being analyzed. Technical approaches and development progress in terms of solving them are addressed and assessed in this review.

Robert Pitz-Paal

2012-10-01

262

Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts

1993-01-01

263

Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R.B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R.J.

1993-09-01

264

Space exploration initiative fuels, materials and related nuclear propulsion technologies panel  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was prepared by members of the Fuels, Materials and Related Technologies Panel, with assistance from a number of industry observers as well as laboratory colleagues of the panel members. It represents a consensus view of the panel members. This report was not subjected to a thorough review by DOE, NASA or DoD, and the opinions expressed should not be construed to represent the official position of these organizations, individually or jointly. Topics addressed include: requirement for fuels and materials development for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP); overview of proposed concepts; fuels technology development plan; materials technology development plan; other reactor technology development; and fuels and materials requirements for advanced propulsion concepts.

Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Olsen, C.; Cooper, R.; Matthews, R. B.; Walter, C.; Titran, R. J.

1993-01-01

265

Soil pollution and water resources. Vol. 2. Materials volume; Bodenbelastung und Wasserhaushalt. Bd. 2. Materialienband  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The guidelines for soil protection measures approved by the Federal Government in 1987 demand protection of the multifarious functions of soils (multifunctionality). The intent of this is to ensure that soils can continue to serve human purpose over the long term. As the different demands placed on soils always tend to compete with each other, the challenge on us is to find ways of preserving the structure and functions of soils as the natural basis of existence of plants, animals, and humankind. The purpose of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in promoting research and development projects in the area of `Soil Pollution and Water Resources` is to find sustainable solutions to this problem as soon as possible. The main emphasis of its promotion strategy in this area is on preventive protection of soil functions and minimisation of anthropogenic damage to soils. The research concept presented here is the result of an accompanying evaluation of the research projects participating in the BMFT`s above-mentioned promotion programme. Those projects which started after the issue of the soil protection concept in 1985 are categorised in a process scheme. In preparation of the forthcoming promotion period the paper also presents proposals for streamlining the concept so as to provide a basis for both follow-up and new, problem-oriented projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die von der Bundesregierung 1987 verabschiedeten Leitlinien der Massnahmen zum Bodenschutz verlangen den Schutz der vielfaeltigen Funktionen des Bodens (Multifunktionalitaet), damit die an ihn gestellten Nutzungsansprueche langfristig realisiert werden koennen. Da die unterschiedlichen Ansprueche an den Boden immer in Konkurrenz stehen, muessen Wege gefunden werden, die Struktur und Funktionen des Bodens als natuerliche Lebensgrundlage fuer Pflanzen, Tiere und den Menschen zu erhalten. Um dies moeglichst schnell, aber auch nachhaltig zu erreichen, foerdert das BMFT Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben im Foerderschwerpunkt `Bodenbelastung und Wasserhaushalt`. Dabei stehen der vorbeugende Schutz der Bodenfunktionen und die Minimierung von nutzungsbedingten Schaeden im Vordergrund. Das vorliegende Forschungskonzept ist das Resultat einer begleitenden Auswertung der Ergebnisse der im o.g. Foerderschwerpunkt des BMFT eingebundenen Forschungsprojekte. Einerseits wurden die Projekte, die nach Erscheinen der Bodenschutzkonzeption 1985 begannen, in ein Prozessschema eingeordnet. Andererseits wurden fuer den nun folgenden Foerderzeitraum Vorschlaege zur Straffung des Konzeptes eingebracht, um damit die Basis fuer weiterzufuehrende und neue, problemorientierte Projekte zu legen. (orig./SR)

Schwertmann, U.; Schauder, H.; Beese, F.; Schmitt, M.; Matthies, M.; Drescher-Kaden, U.

1997-11-01

266

Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

Allan, M.L.

1998-06-01

267

SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

ALLAN,M.L.

1998-06-01

268

Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

1999-09-01

269

Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Background An association between parental separation or divorce occurring in childhood and increased psychological distress in adulthood is well established. However relatively little is known about why this association exists and how the mechanisms might differ for men and women. We investigate why this association exists, focussing on material and relational mechanisms and in particular on the way in which these link across the life course. Methods This study used the 1970 British Cohort Study (n?=?10,714) to investigate material (through adolescent and adult material disadvantage, and educational attainment) and relational (through parent–child relationship quality and adult partnership status) pathways between parental separation (0–16 years) and psychological distress (30 years). Psychological distress was measured using Rutter’s Malaise Inventory. The inter-linkages between these two broad mechanisms across the life course were also investigated. Missing data were multiply imputed by chained equations. Path analysis was used to explicitly model prospectively-collected measures across the life course, therefore methodologically extending previous work. Results Material and relational pathways partially explained the association between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress (indirect effect?=?33.3% men; 60.0% women). The mechanisms were different for men and women, for instance adult partnership status was found to be more important for men. Material and relational factors were found to interlink across the life course. Mechanisms acting through educational attainment were found to be particularly important. Conclusions This study begins to disentangle the mechanisms between parental separation in childhood and adult psychological distress. Interventions which aim to support children through education, in particular, are likely to be particularly beneficial for later psychological health.

2014-01-01

270

Assessing the impact of relative social position and absolute community resources on depression and obesity among smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested two competing hypotheses-relative social position and community resources-in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactively) was associated with the presence of co-occurring health problems. We found that lower individual education was related to poorer health for all outcomes (Depression: OR = 1.25; Obesity: OR = 1.24; Both: OR = 1.46), lower community education was only related to obesity (OR = 1.20). Lower individual income was related to higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.64) and both health problems (OR = 1.55); a significant interaction of individual and community income (Wald = 6.13, p < .05) revealed that high income individuals were less likely to be depressed if they lived in lower-income communities and became more likely to be so as community income increased. Relative social position was confirmed for depression, whereas community resources were prominent only for obesity. Higher individual education most consistently predicted positive health outcomes, making it a potentially powerful target to reduce health disparities. PMID:22278773

Aguilera, Adrian; Leykin, Yan; Adler, Nancy; Muñoz, Ricardo F

2012-09-01

271

Gendered Resource Access and Utilisation in Swedish Family Farming  

Subject: Gendered relations in resource access and farming are two important intersecting themes of gender studies ...form: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014 Abstract: Gendered relations in resource access and farming are two ...policies and rural gender studies from a new material feminist approach.Access to resources, typically land,

272

Research issues relating to material degradation mechanism in the aging management of cable insulating materials used in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymeric insulating materials used for safety related cables in nuclear power plants are subject to thermal and radiation environment. The durability of such materials has been confirmed through environmental qualification tests, but recently some international organizations have also mentioned the necessarily to develop condition monitoring methods for condition-based qualifications and plant aging management programs. Thanks to this trend and recent demands for scientific rationality, it is encouraged to carry out a research on understanding the difference of aging phenomena in actual environment and the ones in testing environment. Such research activities will also reflect the validation of testing manner used for environmental qualification. The present research completed a map of technological issues that still need to be solved for the management program. Each issue, found through a bibliographic survey, is categorized into the following three fields: 1) investigation of aging mechanism and development of degradation model, 2) development of condition monitoring methods for global inspection and/or mechanism-based analysis, and 3) concept and procedure of environmental qualification. The main goals of the management program may be accomplished thanks to a synergy of these three fields. An example of such goal is an assessment of remaining life based on condition monitoring. (author)

2013-04-01

273

Resource Allocation and Related Transactions of Listed Company: Based on Perspective of the Implicit Transaction Costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implicit related-party transaction has its own particularity on the background of Chinese listed companies. It has strong significance of study the implicit related-party transaction. The study thinks that the related party transaction within the group of decrease implicit transaction costs but increased the cost of small shareholders. Hidden costs have stronger influence on hidden related party transactions. Hidden costs increase agency costs but the relationship between the hidden costs and the size of related party transactions is uncertain. So it is necessary to distinguish related-party transactions from the point of normative research.

L.I. Zhiguo

2013-01-01

274

Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The silicon oxycarbide material can provide potential applications of the Eu luminescent materials to challenging conditions like high temperatures or aggressive environments where the silica has weaknesses. In some approaches, silicon rich silicon oxide that contain silicon nanoclusters emit red to near infrared luminescence due to quantum confinement effects while luminescence at shorter wavelength is difficult due to the interplay of defects and quantum confinement effects. In addition it is applicable as low-k dielectric, etch-stop and passivation layers. It also has an optical band-gap that is smaller than that of SiO2 which may facilitate carrier injection at lower voltages that is suitable for optoelectronics. From materials perspective of emerging materials, it seems distant to consider system related issues. The future demands on communication and lighting devices require higher information flows in modernized optical devices, for example by replacing electrical interconnects with their optical counterparts and tunable backgrounds filters for integrated optics or photonics applications. However, there are materials issues related to such device performance, for example by a non-linearity, that provide the possibility for selective removal or addition of wavelengths using hetero structures in which one side of the structure enhances the light-to-dark sensitivity of long and medium wavelength channels and diminish others, and an opposite behavior in other face of the structure. Certainly materials may be applied in various innovative ways to provide new performances in devices and systems. In any materials and device evaluation, reliability issues in passivation and packaging of semiconductor device structures provide a base knowledge that may be used to evaluate new concepts. Fundamental aspects of dielectric constant, bandgap and band offsets between the valence and conduction band edges between the passivation layer and the semiconductor create a foundation for understanding the device performance. In relation to these, the surface pre-treatment and deposit

Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

2014-03-01

275

Vegetation and carbon sequestration and their relation to water resources in an inland river basin of Northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Heihe River Basin in the arid inland area of northwest China, the distribution of water resources in vegetation landscape zones controls the ecosystems. The carbon sequestration capacity of vegetation is analyzed in relation to water resources and vegetation growing conditions. During the last 20 years, the vegetation ecosystems have degenerated in the Heihe River Basin. Simulation using the C-FIX model indicates that, at present, the total amount of NPP of vegetation accounts for about 18.16 TgC, and the average value is 106 gC/m(2)/yr over the whole basin. NPP has generally the highest value in the upperstream mountain area, middlestream artificial oases area, downstream river bank area, alluvial fan and the terminal lake depression where vegetation grows relatively well. The lowest value is found in the vast downstream desert and Gobi area. Protection of vegetation ecosystems and enhancement of carbon sequestration require such inland river basins as the Heihe River Basin to be brought under management in a comprehensive way, taking water as a key, to carry out a rational and efficient allocation and utilization of water resources. PMID:17126989

Kang, E; Lu, L; Xu, Z

2007-11-01

276

Economic viability of distributed energy resources relative to substation and feeder facilities expansion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Distributed energy resources have numerous benefits, of which is transmission network upgrade deferral. This application is particularly important where there are constraints in upgrading of the existing or construction of new generation units and transmission circuits. This paper presents a cost comparison of the central plant option and DG in meeting additional load demand. The economic analysis for a twenty-year planning horizon is carried out in this study using present worth factor. The results obtained with a 30-bus test radial distribution network using MATPOWER show the economic viability of DG when compared with upgrading the existing substation and feeder facilities, especially when incremental load is considered. ©2010 IEEE.

Akorede, M. F.; Hizam, H.

2010-01-01

277

Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs2, n-Hg1-xCdxTe, n-In1-xGaxAsyP1-y lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

2010-09-15

278

Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content â?? water potential relation of building materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content â?? water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content â?? water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht

2008-01-01

279

Comparison of Two User Interfaces for Accessing Context-Specific Information Resources Related to Hazards and Near Misses  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hazard and Near Miss Reporting System (HNMRS) was designed to promote patient safety mindfulness as part of a patient safety curriculum for Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) students. We are extending the functionality of the system beyond reporting to Just-in-Time learning by providing context-specific links to internal and external information resources related to the type of hazard or near miss reported. As part of this process, 55 APN nursing students compared two different interfaces on ease of use and reported their perceptions of usefulness and intention to use the information resources links integrated into the HNMRS. The students demonstrated a significant preference for the Category-based Interface as compared to the Question-based Interface (p< .001). Mean scores for perceptions of usefulness and intention to use the context-specific links in the HNMRS for reference purposes reflected moderate to strong agreement.

Yen, Po-Yin; Jia, Haomiao; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne

2010-01-01

280

Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy. PMID:12288639

Zhang, Z; Zhu, L

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Trophic partitioning among three littoral microcrustaceans: relative importance of periphyton as food resource  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The high species richness of zooplankton communities in macrophytes littoral zones could result from the diversity of potential trophic niches found in such environment. In macrophytes littoral zones, in addition to phytoplankton, neustonic, benthic and epiphytic biofilms can also be potential components of the microcrustacean diet. Here, we investigated the ability of three large cladocerans: Daphnia longispina, Simocephalus vetulus and Eurycercus lamellatus, to develop on periphyton as their only food source or as a complement to a phytoplankton resource in scarce supply. D. longispina exhibited a very low growth and reproduction rates on the periphytic resource and as S. vetulus seems unable to scrape on periphyton. In contrast, E. lamellatus could not grow on phytoplankton, and appears to be an obligatory periphyton scraper. This latter finding contrasts with previous studies suggesting that E. lamellatus could be able to scrap periphyton as well as filter-feed on suspended matter. These differences in feeding strategy probably reflect the different trophic niches occupied by these three species in macrophytes littoral zones, and may explain at least in part their ability to coexist in the same environment.

Alexandre Bec

2012-07-01

282

Yb:FAP and related materials, laser gain medium comprising same, and laser systems using same  

Science.gov (United States)

An ytterbium doped laser material remarkably superior to all others, including Yb:YAG, comprises Ytterbium doped apatite (Yb:Ca.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F) or Yb:FAP, or ytterbium doped crystals that are structurally related to FAP. The new laser material is used in laser systems pumped by diode pump sources having an output near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns, such as InGaAs and AlInGaAs, or other narrowband pump sources near 0.905 microns or 0.98 microns. The laser systems are operated in either the conventional or ground state depletion mode.

Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Chase, Lloyd L. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Larry K. (Salida, CA)

1994-01-01

283

Evaluation Of Major Issues Relating To The Functional Efficiency Of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (erp With Special Reference To Lack Of Proper Human Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP is being widely used in almost all level of functionsnowadays. This ERP is based on Technology enabled activities for various corporate functions such as distribution,supply chain management, production, finance, HR, materials, etc. There are certain areas in the field of HumanRelations which are not being covered by ERP, but it affects the process and implementation of the same such asInterpersonal Skills, Leadership Skills, Communication Skills, Learning, etc., as all these are covered in anumbrella namely Soft Skills. No technology can attain maximum efficiency without the Human Intervention evenit is fully automated. This paper attempts to explain the problems faced by the ERP consultants before, during andafter the implementation.

Senthil K. Nathan And Sw. Rajamanoharane

2013-08-01

284

IAEA programme on fast reactor, related fuels, and structural materials technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For obvious sustainability reasons, spent fuel utilization and breeding are returning to centre stage, and with this the fast reactor as the necessary linchpin. The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term of fast reactors and the associated fuel cycles is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on research and technology development efforts. Achieving the full potential of fast neutron systems and closed fuel cycle technologies with regard to both efficient utilization of the fissile resources and waste management is conditional on continued advances in research and technology development to ensure improved economics and maintain high safety levels with increased simplification of fast reactors. The IAEA's fast reactor technology development activities are pursued within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). Currently, the TWG-FR comprises 14 IAEA Member States, the European Commission (EC), the ISTC, and the OECD/NEA, as well as Belgium and Sweden as observers. The TWG-FR assists in the implementation of IAEA activities, and ensures that all technical activities performed within the framework of the IAEA project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems are in line with expressed needs from Member States. The scope of the TWG-FR is broad, covering all technical aspects of fast reactors and sub-critical systems, including: research and development, design, deployment, operation, and decommissioning. The TWG-FR has focused on experimental and theoretical aspects of fast reactor technology and safety. A benchmark test with experimental data was conducted to verify and improve the codes used for the seismic analysis of reactor cores. A coordinated research project (CRP) was conducted to apply acoustic signal processing for the detection of boiling or sodium/water reactions in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Benchmark analyses addressed accident behaviour and design improvements of the Russian BN-800 reactor. In cooperation with the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety, assistance was provided to ensure safe operation during the remaining lifetime and the development of an effective decommissioning programme for the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan. A CRP is being conducted with the objective of reducing the calculational uncertainties of fast reactor reactivity effects. Another CRP is contributing to the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation (FRKP) initiative through bibliographic catalogues and synthesis (lessons learned) reports related to feedback from fast reactor operational experience in the areas of steam generators, fuel and blanket subassemblies, and structural materials. Advanced reactor technology options for effective utilization and transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is addressed in another CRP. Its focus is on the transient behaviour of advanced transmutation systems, both critical and sub-critical. An ongoing CRP is performing computational and experimental benchmarking of ADS and non-spallation neutron source driven sub-critical systems. Two new CRPs were initiated in 2009: the first one aiming at the validation of multi-dimensional fluid dynamics codes based on thermal stratification measurements performed during the 1995 Monju start-up experiments; the second one performing blind benchmarking and post-experiment analyses for two Phenix end-of-life tests, viz. the Control Rod Withdrawal Test and the Sodium Natural Circulation Test. More CRPs are planned for 2010/2011 and beyond, e.g. on the estimation of the source term in a fast reactor for radioactivity release, and on thermal hydraulics code verification and validation of liquid metal and molten salt coolants. The IAEA maintains a database to foster information exchange in the field of advanced fast reactor technology development. It is planned to establish a 'living' (WWW-based) innovative fast reactor technology status report. Last but not least, topical tech

2009-12-07

285

Fault-related amorphous materials and their influence on the rheological behavior of fault zones (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of fault-related amorphous materials in both nature as well as experiment has significantly increased over the last years. Amorphous materials provide new possibilities for our understanding of the rheological behavior of fault zones and the seismic cycle. We performed a series of experiments on granitoid fault rocks under a range of temperatures (T ? 300 to 600°C), confining pressures (Pc ? 300 to 1500 MPa) and slow displacement rates of (10-8 ms-1 PAM). During higher strain deformation (? > 2.5) some C' - C slip zones continue to accommodate strain and further change their microstructure. Up to 25 vol% of the sample consists of PAM as well as fully TEM-amorphous material (AM). This material shows injection veins, flow structures and contains quartz clasts surrounded by a thin layer of different z-contrast material. At highest stresses (> 1.1 GPa) and lowest temperatures (300°C) stretched bubbles, and bubble trains following the local flow pattern are observed. The chemical composition of the amorphous zones varies depending on the precursor material and is in general more ferromagnesian and basic compared to the bulk rock. Amorphous materials exhibit a wide range of rheological behavior from solid-like to fluid-like. Depending on many parameters (the amount of short-, medium- and long-range order, presence of second-phase particles, chemical composition, bond strength, degree of polymerization, sress-relaxation timescales and temperature with respect to the glass transition temperature) amorphous materials can either flow or fracture. We conclude that the observed mechanical response (temperature and rate dependence as well as abrupt failure under highest stresses) is well explained by the inferred visco-elastic nature of the AM and PAM. Hence, AM and PAM is not the result but the cause of failure in our experiments. At last, we note the many similarities of the AM with naturally occurring pseudotachylites.

Pec, M.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Drury, M. R.

2013-12-01

286

Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures  

Science.gov (United States)

Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current conceptual design optimization of future spacecrafts as being coordinated by the Vehicle Analysis Branch where this research is being conducted.

Bao, Han P.

1995-01-01

287

Status of experimental data related to Be in ITER materials R and D data bank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To keep traceability of many valuable raw data that were experimentally obtained in the ITER Technology R and D Tasks related to materials for In-Vessel components (divertor, first wall, blanket, vacuum vessel, etc.) and to easily make the best use of these data in the ITER design activities, the `ITER Materials R and D Data Bank` has been built up, with the use of Excel{sup TM} spread sheets. The paper describes status of experimental data collected in this data bank on thermo-mechanical properties of unirradiated and neutron irradiated Be, on plasma-material interactions of Be, on mechanical properties of various kinds of Be/Cu joints (including plasma sprayed Be), and on thermal fatigue tests of Be/Cu mock-ups. (author)

Tanaka, Shigeru [ITER Joint Central Team, Muenchen (Germany)

1998-01-01

288

Application of the dose limitation system to problems related to radioactivity in building materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is a first attempt to apply the ICRP dose limitation system to problems related to radioactivity in building materials. It is shown that the hitherto existing practice of using building materials with radioactive substances is justified. Concerning the individual dose limitation it is certain that the ICRP limit of 5mSv/a for members of the public will be exceeded in some houses, if not only the external but also the internal exposure is taken into account. The available data are too scarce to make a complete optimization in the sense of ICRP-22. It is shown that pulling down existing houses is not justified. It is difficult to decide whether it is justified to reduce the collective dose by regulatory requirements for the radioactive content of building materials. More data are needed for this optimization process. (author)

1981-10-23

289

UVR attenuation in lakes: relative contibutions of dissolved and particulate material  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar radiation in lakes is attenuated by dissolved material, especially dissolved organic material (DOC), particulate material (PM), and water. DOC is a strong predictor of the attenuation of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) in lakes. Phytoplankton and detritus are known to contribute substantially to PAR attenuation but relatively little is known about their role in attenuation of UVR. This study investigated the relative contributions of dissolved and particulate material to the attenuation of UVR in lakes by combining an adapted Quantitative Filter Technique (QFT) with laboratory measurements of absorption by DOC and field measurements of UVR diffuse attenuation. The absorption of filtrate and PM filtered onto glass fiber filters were scanned by a UV-visible dual beam spectrophotometer. Total absorption coefficient (at) was computed as the sum of the absorption coefficients for water (aw), dissolved material (ad), and PM (ap). The value of at was compared with the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) measured directly in the lakes by a Profiling UV radiometer. The ratio at/Kd ranged between 0.9 and 1.3 for UVR. Ratios less than unity may be attributed to scattering and to sun angle effects, especially at the longer UVR wavelengths. Ratios occasionally were measured above unity, suggesting errors in estimating at. Particles played a significant and seasonally-varying role in lake UVR attenuation. Within oligotrophic, low DOC Lake Giles, the relative contribution of ap varied from 30 percent to 53 percent for 320 nm UVR. In mesotrophic, higher DOC Lake Lacawac the seasonal range was 7.6 percent to 57 percent. In each case, the highest contribution of PM was found during early spring and late fall.

Ayoub, L. M.; Hargreaves, B. R.; Morris, D. P.

1997-02-01

290

Evaluation of the chemical compatibility of plastic contact materials and pharmaceutical products; safety considerations related to extractables and leachables.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review is provided on the general topic of the compatibility of plastic materials with pharmaceutical products, with specific emphasis on the safety aspects associated with extractables and leachables related to such plastic materials. PMID:17701994

Jenke, Dennis

2007-10-01

291

Defect-related properties of nuclear materials studied by electrical method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the basic principles of various electrical methods such as electrical conductivity measurement, electromotive-force measurement and electrochemical potentiostatic technique applied for the determination of defect-related properties are briefly summarized in the first section as a general background. In the second section defect- related properties i.e. the phase equilibria, defect structure, thermodynamic property, chemical diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity obtained by the electrical methods are shown for the nuclear reactor materials, such as binary and ternary uranium oxides and uranium alloys with emphasis on nonstoichiometry. (orig.)

1997-01-01

292

Defect-related properties of nuclear materials studied by electrical method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the basic principles of various electrical methods such as electrical conductivity measurement, electromotive-force measurement and electrochemical potentiostatic technique applied for the determination of defect-related properties are briefly summarized in the first section as a general background. In the second section defect- related properties i.e. the phase equilibria, defect structure, thermodynamic property, chemical diffusion coefficient and thermal conductivity obtained by the electrical methods are shown for the nuclear reactor materials, such as binary and ternary uranium oxides and uranium alloys with emphasis on nonstoichiometry. (orig.)

Matsui, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1997-02-01

293

Ion beam synthesis of silicon-carbon structures and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[eng] The goal of this dissertation is the study and characterisation of high dose Carbon (C) implantation processes into Silicon (Si) and related materials for the synthesis of Silicon Carbide (SiC). The attainment of well-characterised multilayer structures useful to fabricate sensor and electronic devices based on them constitutes the main objective of this work. SiC constitutes a very promising semiconductor, thermally and chemically stable with excellent physical properties, which has st...

Calvo Barrio, Lorenzo

1999-01-01

294

Ion beam synthesis of silicon-carbon structures and related materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this dissertation is the study and characterisation of high dose Carbon (C) implantation processes into Silicon (Si) and related materials for the synthesis of Silicon Carbide (SiC). The attainment of well-characterised multilayer structures useful to fabricate sensor and electronic devices based on them constitutes the main objective of this work.SiC constitutes a very promising semiconductor, thermally and chemically stable with excellent physical properties, which has started t...

Calvo Barrio, Lorenzo

1999-01-01

295

The Art of Living with a Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in its relation to Resources and Norms in Swedish Society  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The overall aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the art of living with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in its relation to resources and norms in Swedish society. The thesis originates in part from a prevalence group of SCI individuals and is based on four studies. One is longitudinal and register based, and one is interview based. A paper on “ethics in the making” elaborates how general versus situated ethics might influence design. A norm perspective is applied in another study hi...

Nordgren, Camilla

2008-01-01

296

Material-Model-Based Determination of the Shock-Hugoniot Relations in Nanosegregated Polyurea  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous experimental investigations reported in the open literature have indicated that applying polyurea external coatings and/or internal linings can substantially improve ballistic penetration resistance and blast survivability of buildings, vehicles, and laboratory/field test-plates, as well as the blast-mitigation capacity of combat helmets. The protective role of polyurea coatings/linings has been linked to polyurea microstructure, which consists of discrete hard-domains distributed randomly within a compliant/soft matrix. When this protective role is investigated computationally, the availability of reliable, high-fidelity constitutive models for polyurea is vitally important. In the present work, a comprehensive overview and a critical assessment of a polyurea material constitutive model, recently proposed by Shim and Mohr (Int J Plast 27:868-886, 2011), are carried out. The review revealed that this model can accurately account for the experimentally measured uniaxial-stress versus strain data obtained under monotonic and multistep compressive loading/unloading conditions, as well as under stress relaxation conditions. On the other hand, by combining analytical and finite-element procedures with the material model in order to define the basic shock-Hugoniot relations for this material, it was found that the computed shock-Hugoniot relations differ significantly from their experimental counterparts. Potential reasons for the disagreement between the computed and experimental shock-Hugoniot relations are identified.

Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.

2013-10-01

297

Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to this critically endangered species. PMID:24523893

Rivers, James W; Johnson, J Matthew; Haig, Susan M; Schwarz, Carl J; Glendening, John W; Burnett, L Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

2014-01-01

298

Factors in the effective utilization of a LANDSAT related inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

Hall, L.

1982-01-01

299

The distribution and spread of schistosomiasis in relation to water resources development in Mali.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosomiasis prevalence is known to be high in water resources development projects. Data from 225 villages and 34,434 persons were used to compare areas with irrigation in agricultural development projects, villages in the vicinity of small dams, settlements around a large artificial lake, communities along the Niger river and places in savanna areas without any irrigation programmes. For ten villages the prevalence rates before and after the creation of the large lake were analysed. In irrigated areas the risk of schistosomiasis infection was found to be six times higher than in savanna villages. Even in the vicinity of natural bodies of water the prevalence of infection was three times less than in agricultural development projects employing irrigation. A pre-valence of intense infections above 5%, indicating that schistosomiasis requires specialized interventions was observed only in areas with irrigation. Therefore schistosomiasis may be considered a man-made health problem in rural Mali although the infection is endemic in the whole country. PMID:3140361

Brinkmann, U K; Korte, R; Schmidt-Ehry, B

1988-06-01

300

Resource partitioning in relation to cohabitation of Lactobacillus species in the mouse forestomach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic analysis of gut communities of vertebrates is advanced, but the relationships, especially at the trophic level, between commensals that share gut habitats of monogastric animals have not been investigated to any extent. Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 and Lactobacillus johnsonii strain 100-33 cohabit in the forestomach of mice. According to the niche exclusion principle, this should not be possible because both strains can utilise the two main fermentable carbohydrates present in the stomach digesta: glucose and maltose. We show, based on gene transcription analysis, in vitro physiological assays, and in vivo experiments that the two strains can co-exist in the forestomach habitat because 100-23 grows more rapidly using maltose, whereas 100-33 preferentially utilises glucose. Mutation of the maltose phosphorylase gene (malA) of strain 100-23 prevented its growth on maltose-containing culture medium, and resulted in the numerical dominance of 100-33 in the forestomach. The fundamental niche of L. reuteri 100-23 in the mouse forestomach can be defined in terms of 'glucose and maltose trophism'. However, its realised niche when L. johnsonii 100-33 is present is 'maltose trophism'. Hence, nutritional adaptations provide niche differentiation that assists cohabitation by the two strains through resource partitioning in the mouse forestomach. This real life, trophic phenomenon conforms to a mathematical model based on in vitro bacterial doubling times, in vitro transport rates, and concentrations of maltose and glucose in mouse stomach digesta. PMID:22094343

Tannock, Gerald W; Wilson, Charlotte M; Loach, Diane; Cook, Gregory M; Eason, Jocelyn; O'Toole, Paul W; Holtrop, Grietje; Lawley, Blair

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

The impact of climate change on agriculture and related resources in the Great Plains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in the four Great Plains states Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (MINK), using the anomalously hot and dry weather of the 1930s as a model for climate in the year 2030 and a mechanistic crop simulation model known as the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), are described. EPIC was modified for climate impact analysis by compiling data sets providing detailed descriptions of farms representative of the MINK region, representing the effect of increased carbon dioxide on crop water use and photosynthetic efficiency, and incorporating daily temperature and precipitation data, monthly solar radiation and humidity levels. Technologies assumed to become available include advances in breeding and biotechnology to increase harvest index, boosting of photosynthetic efficiency, and advances in pest management. If no technological adjustment was incorporated, corn yielded 20% less than baseline, soybeans 15% less and sorghum 8% less. Wheat and alfalfa yielded slightly higher. Incorporation of technological advances greatly reduced negative effects of climate change, with yields raised above baseline for every crop but corn

1990-09-11

302

Research building gamma Compton scattering measurement system and related exercises for training nuclear human resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this subject we have designed and manufactured Compton scattering gamma measurement system based on the calculated optimal configuration as well as the conditions of protect radiation by using Monte-Carlo simulation program and fabrication with the optimal conditions were selected. Monte-Carlo simulation calculation of Compton scattering gamma follow different angles on copper, surveying gamma radiation attenuation characteristics of materials: lead, iron, aluminum, and compared with the experimental results performed on the same measurement system has been built and given for evaluation, comments. (author)

2013-12-01

303

Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production. PMID:20146851

Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

2010-02-01

304

AAUAP 1996 Resource Guide to Organizations Concerned with Developmental & Related Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory provides a comprehensive guide to the staff of agencies and organizations concerned with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and related disabilities. Street addresses, contact numbers (phone or fax), e-mail addresses, Web page addresses, and names of individuals holding staff positions are usually provided for each…

American Association of Univ. Affiliated Programs, Silver Spring, MD.

305

Disambiguating Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Italian Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the role of number agreement on verb and of animacy in the comprehension of subject and object relative clauses in 51 monolingual Italian-speaking children, mean age 9:33, tested through a self-paced listening experiment with a final comprehension question. A "digit span test" and a "listening span test" were also administered to…

Arosio, Fabrizio; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Stucchi, Natale

2011-01-01

306

Water Resources Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

307

Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

1993-01-01

308

Relating to fossil energy resource characterization, research, technology development, and technology transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological, geophysical and petroleum engineering aspects of oil recovery from low-permeability reservoirs have been studied over the past three years. Significant advances were made in using Formation Microscanner Surveys (FMS) data to extrapolate fracture orientation, abundance, and spacing from the outcrop to the subsurface. Highly fractured zones within the reservoir can be detected, thus the fracture stratigraphy defined. Multi-component,vertical-seismic profile (VSP), shear wave data were used to improve the detection of fractures. A balancing scheme was developed to improve the geophysical detection of fractures based on balanced source magnitudes and geophone couplings. Resistivity logs can be used to identify the zone of immature organic material, the zone of storage where oil is generated but held in the matrix and the zone of migration whee oil is expelled from the rock to fractures. Natural fractures can be detected in many wells by the response of density logs in combination with gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs. Theoretical studies and analysis of daily production data, from field case histories, have shown the utility of the Chef Type Curves to derive reservoir character from production test data. This information is ordinarily determined from transient pressure data. Laboratory displacement as well as MI and CT studies show that the carbonated water imbibition oil displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from saturated, low-permeability core material. The created gas drive, combined with oil shrinkage significantly increased oil recovery. A cyclic-carbonated-water-imbibition process improves oil recovery. A semi-analytical model (MOD) and a 3-dimensional, 3-phase, dual-porosity, compositional simulator (COMAS) were developed to describe the imbibition carbonated waterflood performance. MOD model is capable of computing the oil recovery and saturation profiles for oil/water viscosity ratios other than one.

Poston, S.W.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.M.; Gangi, A.F.; Wu, C.H.

1993-12-01

309

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references

1983-04-13

310

Deep-eutectic solvents playing multiple roles in the synthesis of polymers and related materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to provide an exposition of some of the most recent applications of deep-eutectic solvents (DESs) in the synthesis of polymers and related materials. We consider that there is plenty of room for the development of fundamental research in the field of DESs because their compositional flexibility makes the number of DESs susceptible of preparation unlimited and so do the range of properties that DESs can attain. Ultimately, these properties can be transferred into the resulting materials in terms of both tailored morphologies and compositions. Thus, interesting applications can be easily envisaged, especially in those fields in which the preparation of high-tech products via low cost processes is critical. We hope that the preliminary work surveyed in this review will encourage scientists to explore the promising perspectives offered by DESs. PMID:22695767

Carriazo, Daniel; Serrano, María Concepción; Gutiérrez, María Concepción; Ferrer, María Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

2012-07-21

311

Solitons and polarons in quasi-one dimensional conducting polymers and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years it has become increasingly appreciated that fundamentally nonlinear excitations - solitons - play an essential role in an incredible variety of natural systems. These solitons, which frequently exhibit remarkable stability under interactions and perturbations, often dominate the transport, response, or structural properties of the systems in which they occur. In this article, we present an introduction to the solitons that occur in quasi-one-dimensional conducting polymers (synmetals) and related systems. The relevance of this subject to molecular electronic devices is twofold. First, many of these materials have molecular structures similar to possible prototype molecular switches. Second, to understand in detail how a molecular electronic device could work, it is essential to have a broad perspective on the nature of possible excitations in a variety of natural and synthetic molecular materials. 51 references.

Campbell, D.K.

1983-01-01

312

Development of a relational database for nuclear material (NM) accounting in RC and I Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relational database for the nuclear material accounting in RC and I Group has been developed with MYSQL for Back-End and JAVA for Front-End development. Back-End has been developed to avoid any data redundancy, to provide random access of the data and to retrieve the required information from database easily. JAVA Applet and Java Swing components of JAVA programming have been used in the Front-End development. Front-End has been developed to provide data security, data integrity, to generate inventory status report at the end of accounting period, and also to have a quick look of some required information on computer screen. The database has been tested for the data of three quarters of the year 2009. It has been implemented from 1st January, 2010 for the accounting of nuclear material in RC and I Group. (author)

2011-02-22

313

Human resource management and labour relations in post-transitional Russia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the role of the personnel function as described in the research literature before the background of the particular characteristics of the Russian HR conditions which have evolved during the transition period. It describes the characteristics of wage and incentive systems in Russian private enterprises, of personnel development systems, and of work organisation on the shop floor. Leadership styles and work- behaviour and work values are discussed as well as industrial relat...

2012-01-01

314

Criticality safety studies related to advisory material for the IAEA regulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criticality safety studies are reviewed related to Advisory Material for 1996 Edition of the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Criticality calculations based on the perturbation theory are given with and without small variations in fuel concentrations for UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O and PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O. They show that variations in fuel concentrations of 5% can give at most a 0.4% {delta}k/k increase in the neutron multiplication factor. Heterogeneity effect of fuel is examined for arrays of low-enriched UO{sub 2} fuel particles immersed in water. In case of fuel particles having a diameter of 50 {mu}m, the relative increase in the neutron multiplication factor is shown to be less than 0.1% {delta}k/k. Isolation thickness of water is discussed in term of the Reflector Factor, which is defined as a relative increase in the neutron multiplication factor of fuel with finite thick isolator to that with infinite thick isolator. Thirty cm is regarded as a practical value for isolation thickness of water. (authors)

Okuno, H. [JAERI, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sakai, T. [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-07-01

315

Road to energy freedom: can Mexico help. [U. S. energy/foreign policy and relation to Mexico resource potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

President Carter's call for a special interagency review of U.S.--Mexican relations, with primary focus on energy, may well represent the most significant turning point in the U.S. energy supply picture to date. A DOE policy document states that the current interagency review, to explore the possibility of broad-based trade talks with Mexico, comes partly because of our heightened awareness of (Mexico's) energy resources potential..., and adds that the timing of the review is critical because Mexico's new source of wealth has created a state of flux which increases the opportunities for, and the potential benefits of U.S.--Mexican trade. This special report on the potential U.S.--Mexican energy includes four components: (1) size of the resource: a DOE staff report on Mexican production of oil and gas shows that Mexico may be exporting up to 3-million b/d of oil by 1990; a team of geologists recently said that Mexico's recent estimates on proved reserves for oil and gas are extremely conservative and that the resource base might be twice as large; (2) consultant critique; National Economic Research Associates, a leading energy consultant, has attacked U.S. reluctance to tap massive Mexician oil and gas reserves; Nera calls for a major redirection on energy policy; (3) nuclear involvement: DOE staff has recommended that the U.S. add nuclear energy to the list of energy topics in future U.S.--Mexican talks; and (4) electricity exchange: DOE has decided to expedite an application for an intertie between San Diego Gas and Electric and Mexico's state-owned utility, Comision Federal de Electricidad, thus changing its recent middle-of-the-road position.

1978-09-25

316

DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials  

Science.gov (United States)

High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

2002-05-14

317

Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. PMID:21316077

Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

2011-06-01

318

A Research on Competitive Strategies, Environmental Factors and Human Resources Architecture Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a widespread notion that organizational strategies are the dominant factors in the creation of humanresources (HR management policies in enterprises. This study examines the relation between an organization’sstrategies, corporate HR policies and operating performance. At the end of the research, it was observed that (1The high rate of change of the environment orientates establishments towards a more participative managementperception, towards empowerment and flexibility. (2 While innovative differentiation orientates establishmentstowards participative management, empowerment, and proactive selection and placement policies, competitivedifferentiation influences only the empowerment factor in a sense of a provision of initiative. The cost leadershipstrategy does not have any meaningful effect on HR policies. The only meaningful influence of the focusstrategy on the HR policies is on the proactive selection and placement policies, and this influence is a negativeone. (3 When the results related with the harmony between the competitive strategy and the HR architecture areexamined, it turns out that the participative management, the long term training policies, the proactive HRpolicies, and partly the generous compensation policies are more successful even under different strategies incomparison with the dictating, short term, reactive and ungenerous HR policies. In terms of quantitativeperformance, to select a differentiation strategy and apply HR policies that are participative, proactive andgenerous is much more effective than to look for the perfect harmony between strategy and HR policies.

Binali Dogan

2014-02-01

319

Certification of environmental reference materials using relative local density graph by ADT-4300 computer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three fly ash reference samples were prepared at the institute. 34 laboratories in the world participated in a study in which independent analyses were made. The IAEA Vienna Laboratory technique was selected for statistical evaluation. The so-called relative local density graph, also used by IAEA, was chosen for more exact graphical representation of the distribution of the results. In view of labor consuming calculations and the need for their accuracy, software was written for reference material certification, consisting of a program for input data analysis, a program for the calculation of the relative local density graph, and of a program for graphic output. The application of this certification method can, among others, reveal the grouping of values into multiple areas and can also establish the reasons for this effect (e.g., a systematic error). (E.S.) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

1986-01-01

320

Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
321

Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as nonreligious were all negatively associated with SAD as measured by the seven newly identified latent factors.Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrate that the HIV-related stigma scale is valid and reliable when used in resource-poor settings. Considering the local situation, health care managers and researchers may use this scale to measure and characterize HIV-related SAD among health care providers. Tailoring for local regions may require further development of the tool.Keywords: stigma, discrimination, health care providers, HIV

Feyissa GT

2012-03-01

322

[The regulation of labor relations and human resources management in nursing].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is aimed at discoursing on the regulation of labor relations in Nursing and at giving subsidies to the nurse's managerial practice concerning the rights and obligations of employees and employers based on the Brazilian Labor Law and the Federal Constitution. It emphasizes some regulations that are not clear enough and give rise to doubts and conflicts on the nurse's daily professional activities, such as working hours, resting periods in and between journeys, extra pay for overtime work, weekly paid rest and changes in work schedule. The adequacy of nursing practice to legal rules should allow nurses to get more knowledge, resulting in more confidence and safer actions. By having professional and patient's rights respected, occasional juridical problems inherent to labor rights and obligations will be reduced. PMID:17094329

de Freitas, Genival Fernandes; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Prado

2006-09-01

323

Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor radon gas ({sup 222}Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the {sup 238}U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6{+-}4.9Bqm{sup -3} and 46.5{+-}5.3Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8{+-}5.4Bqm{sup -3}. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm{sup -3}.

Mireles, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La penuela, Zacatecas, Zac., CP 98068 (Mexico)], E-mail: fmireles@uaz.edu.mx; Garcia, M.L.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La penuela, Zacatecas, Zac., CP 98068 (Mexico); Montero, M.E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih., CP 31109 (Mexico); Colmenero, L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Chihuahua II, Ave de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Villalba, L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Circuito No. 1, Nuevo Campus Universitario, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31125 (Mexico)

2007-09-15

324

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

325

Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

2007-09-01

326

Archaeology in the Classroom: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource guide contains information about a wide range of archaeology related education materials available in North America. Resources listed include books, magazines, curriculum guides, resource packets, films, videos, kits of simulated artifacts, computer programs, games, museums, site specific resources, historical societies and…

O'Brien, Wendy, Ed.; Cullen, Tracey, Ed.

327

Pulsed laser deposition and processing of wide band gap semiconductors and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work describes the novel, relatively simple, and efficient technique of pulsed laser deposition for rapid prototyping of thin films and multi-layer heterostructures of wide band gap semiconductors and related materials. In this method, a KrF pulsed excimer laser is used for ablation of polycrystalline, stoichiometric targets of wide band gap materials. Upon laser absorption by the target surface, a strong plasm a plume is produced which then condenses onto the substrate, kept at a suitable distance from the target surface. We have optimized the processing parameters such as laser fluence, substrate temperature, background gas pressure, target to substrate distance, and pulse repetition rate for the growth of high quality crstalline thin films and heterostructures. The films have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling spectrometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence, and electrical transport measurements. We show that high quality AlN and GaN thin films can be grown by pulsed laser deposition at relatively lower substrate temperatures (750-800°C) than those employed in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), (1000-1100°C), an alternative growth method. The pulsed laser deposited GaN films (˜0.5 µm thick), grown on AlN buffered sapphire (0001), shows an x-ray diffraction rocking curve full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5-7 arc-min. The ion channeling minimum yield in the surface region for AlN and GaN is ˜3%, indicating a high degree of crystallinity. The optical band gap for AlN and GaN is found to be 6.2 and 3.4 eV, respectively. These epitaxial films are shiny, and the surface root mean square roughness is ˜5-15 nm. The electrical resistivity of the GaN films is in the range of 10-2-102 ?-cm with a mobility in excess of 80 cm2V-1s-1 and a carrier concentration of 1017-1019 cm-3, depending upon the buffer layers and growth conditions. We have also demonstrated the application of the pulsed laser deposition technique for integration of technologically important materials with the III-V nitrides. The examples include pulsed laser deposition of ZnO/GaN heterostructures for UV-blue lasers and epitaxial growth of TiN on GaN and SiC for low resistance ohmic contact metallization. Employing the pulsed laser, we also demonstrate a dry etching process for GaN and AlN films.

Vispute, R. D.; Choopun, S.; Enck, R.; Patel, A.; Talyansky, V.; Sharma, R. P.; Venkatesan, T.; Sarney, W. L.; Salamancariba, L.; Andronescu, S. N.; Iliadis, A. A.; Jones, K. A.

1999-03-01

328

Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

2003-01-01

329

Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

1993-01-01

330

Analysis of Commercial Vegetable Tannin materials and Related Polyphenols of Selected Acacia Species in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tannins and related polyphenols from twelve indigenous and exotic woody plant species were studied by different methods (Hide powder method, combined method, Folin-Denis method, and Hagerman Butler method with objectives of evaluating the quantity and quality of extractable tannins for comparison with standard Acacia mearnsii (wattle tannins. The result showed that of the sixteen parts studied, nine had more than 10% tannin content and were thus suitable for commercial exploitation. Thin layer and paper chromatography indicated and confirmed the differences of the chemical nature of the materials as mixed (Hydrolysable-condensed and condensed tannins. The protein precipitation behaviours confirmed complexity and differences in their nature and potentiality for tanning or other uses compared with A. mearnsii. The tannin type of Acacia nilotica species was of hydrolysable-condensed while that of A. mearnsii was of condensed type.

Mahdi Haroun

2013-01-01

331

Hydrogen generation and storage over transition metal-decorated fullerenes and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Economical ways to generate and store hydrogen are crucial steps towards the hydrogen economy and fuel-cell technologies. By using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we found out that transition metal-decorated fullerenes and related materials can simultaneously dissociate small molecules like water to produce and store hydrogen. Hydrogen production from water will allow us to have a clean hydrogen economy by using renewable source rather than fossil fuels so that we can stop releasing carbon into the atmosphere. Our studies show that the bonding between transition metal and hydrogen is of a combination of chemical and physical adsorption, which is essential for reversible hydrogen uptake/release. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that these systems are stable and exhibit associative desorption of H2 upon heating without breaking the bond between carbon and transition metal. This fulfills another requirement for reversible hydrogen storage.

Huang, Liping; Santiso, Erik; Gubbins, Keith; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

2007-03-01

332

Anisotropic thermal expansion in silicates: A density functional study of ?-eucryptite and related materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Linear response density functional calculations of the structures, phonon spectra, and thermal expansion have been performed for the hexagonal silicate ?-eucryptite [?-LiAlSiO4] and related materials, extending and refining earlier work using direct diagonalization of the dynamical matrix. The temperature (T) dependence of the lattice constants of ?-eucryptite agrees well with measurements, including the minimum in a(T) found at low T. Mg ions are predicted to occupy octahedral sites in Mg0.5SiAlO4, in agreement with neutron scattering data. We present calculations of the thermal expansion coefficients in ?-quartz that are free of adjustable parameters, and we extend the earlier work to calculate the thermal expansion coefficients of the low-T form of ?-eucryptite (84 atoms per unit cell).

Lichtenstein, A. I.; Jones, R. O.; de Gironcoli, S.; Baroni, S.

2000-11-01

333

The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

V. Palenskis

2014-04-01

334

Proceedings of low temperature (LT) GaAs and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book discusses low temperature (LT) GaAs and Related Materials. The gradual and incomplete understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for the remarkable properties of these materials have produced a confusion of names. At time the common phrase low temperature or LT GaAs was adopted reluctantly. In doing so, it was realized that this phrase is misleading and inaccurate. More appropriate are two other phrases: GaAs with arsenic precipitates or GaAs: As and low temperature grown or LTG GaAs. This issue of terminology remains to be resolved. More basic issues than terminology continue as challenges. The most important of these is the understanding of the roles played by deep level defects (found in unprecedented samples). The presentation of the two main points of view on this matter is handicapped by the absence of two key papers read at the meeting. However, the papers in Parts I and II provide a good background and list the key references. The potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications of LTG GaAs is made apparent by the papers in Part III. An excellent introduction is provided by the Overview paper by Frank Smith, one of the originators of this subject. It is interesting that at least one company has incorporated LTG GaAs buffer layers in commercial products at this early stage of understanding

1991-12-02

335

Availability and Teachers’ Use of Instructional Materials and Resources in the Implementation of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary school educational system. This study is designed to assess the availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of junior secondary school social studies curriculum in Edo state. Three research questions were raised and one hypothesis was formulated. A sample of fifty social studies teachers were randomly selected from fifty junior secondary schools in five local government areas o...

Okobia, E. O.

2011-01-01

336

Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System  

Science.gov (United States)

Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system abundance in the formation and trace element systematics of serpentine group minerals.

Ryan, J. G.

2007-12-01

337

Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Important levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leading multinational and national companies. In this article we raise questions about the governmentâ??s and private companiesâ?? capability to give enough institutional support to this transformation process. We focus on the problem of providing skilled labour by analysing the production of graduates in secondary and tertiary educations and especially labour market related courses, and ask to what extent do institutions promote the upgrading efforts? In order to frame and contrast the Malaysian transformation efforts we make a comparison with Denmark, which also is in a transformation process to a more knowledge-based economy but began this process at an earlier stage than Malaysia. The countries have different traditions regarding participation and relations between the labour market and the government influencing supporting institutions. Our aim is to analyse some of the difficulties for a newly industrialising country to build up a new â??softâ? infrastructure (educational and human resource development institutions) to a more knowledge-based economy.

Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

2010-01-01

338

Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Tebes, C.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

339

Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

340

Relative attenuation characteristics of some shielding materials for PuB neutrons. [2. 2 MeV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relative attenuation measurements of 2.2 MeV neutrons in up to 12 inches of shield are reported for the following shielding materials: polyethylene, water, spodumene-gypsum, Gypsum (wet and dry), and concrete. (SDF)

Bringham, P.S.; McCaslin, J.B.

1977-01-03

 
 
 
 
341

Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity  

Science.gov (United States)

The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

342

Using community service to promote awareness of health care-related resources, volunteerism, and teamwork in an incoming medical school class.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community service has a documented correlation with improved medical school performance. To promote community service and awareness of community resources, a Community Service Day was integrated into orientation for incoming first-year students at Baylor College of Medicine. One hundred seventy-five first-year medical students and 31 second-year leaders volunteered at 11 community sites. We hoped this early introduction to community service would make students more aware of community resources and motivate them to continue volunteering throughout their medical training. Students were surveyed about their experiences. Seventy percent of responding students reported the service day helped them learn about the community's resources related to health care, and 92% reported it helped them get to know their classmates. We concluded that integrating a Community Service Day into medical student orientation is a successful way to expose students to community resources, while simultaneously encouraging camaraderie and teamwork among classmates. PMID:24327181

Guidry, Jacqueline; Sarkar, Arindam; Little, Amanda; Harris, Toi; Brandt, Mary

2013-12-01

343

Responsiveness Summary for the Study Plan for Mink Injury Determination. Investigation of Mink Abundance and Density Relative to Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contamination Within the Hudson River Drainage. Hudson River Natural Resource Damage Assessment. Final.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pursuant to the Hudson River Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) Plan (Hudson River Natural Resource Trustees 2002), the Trustees developed a Study Plan for Mink Injury Determination, Investigation of Mink Abundance and Density Relative to Polychlor...

2012-01-01

344

Chemistry Prospective Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Using Internet Resources and Difficulties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays needs to digital materials are rapidly increasing related to widespread use of computer. Internet including countless contents has an important role in obtaining these materials. Teachers tend to develop specific contents by separating materials into sub contents and aggregating them considering self needs.There are many operations such as searching, saving, arrangement, aggregating in the process of developing new materials by using of internet resources. In this study, it was aimed to determine chemistry prospective teachers’ attitudes towards using of internet resources and the difficulties they have experienced in the process of material development by using these resources.

Selçuk KARAMAN

2006-12-01

345

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales dated 28 February 2003 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology. The purpose of the Note Verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Notes Verbales is attached. The attachment to these Notes Verbales is also reproduced in full

2003-02-28

346

Electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide related materials and first-principles theory of electrochromism  

Science.gov (United States)

Tungsten trioxide WO3 is an interesting semiconductor with a wide-range of potential applications. One important property of WO 3 is its electrochromic behavior, which has generated significant research interest. Electrochromic materials exhibit reversible and persistent changes of the optical properties, hence their color, upon applying an electrical pulse. The applications of the electrochromic WO3 range from information display, light shutters, to energy efficient smart windows. Although there are many materials that exhibit electrochromic behavior, tungsten trioxide is one of the most extensively studied ones due to its superior coloration efficiency, short response time and reversibility. Enhanced electrochromic properties in WO3 nanowires have been reported recently. Despite much research effort, a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in this material has not emerged. In this work, we establish a first-principles theory for the coloration mechanism in NaxWOx, which is also able to explain the electrochromism in WO3. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to electrochromism in WO3 and related materials. In Chapter 2, we summarize the theories and computational methods used in this work including the local density approximation (LDA) within density functional theory (DFT), pseudopotential planewave formalism and the GW approximation. We study the crystal and electronic structures of WO3 in Chapter 3. WO3 has a basic octahedron structure. From -140 ˜ 830°C, the crystal structure changes from monoclinic to triclinic, again monoclicnic, then successively orthorhombic, tetragonal, and again tetragonal. Several groups have investigated the electronic structure of WO3 within DFT, but the band gap is severely underestimated compared with experiment. We have carried out quasiparticle calculations within the GW approximation. The calculated band gap is much closer to experimental results. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 discuss the optical properties and coloration mechanism of WO3 upon charge insertion. The calculated dielectric functions, reflectance, transmission and absorption coefficient agree very well with experiments. Our results explain the systematic change in color of Na3WO3 from blue to golden-yellow with increasing sodium concentration x. We find that proper accounts for the free-carriers contribution to the optical response are critical for a quantitative understanding of the coloration mechanism in this system. Besides WO3, we have studied another "smart material", VO2. The results are reported in chapter 6. The most interesting property of VO2 is its metal-insulator transition (MIT) at T c=340 K. The crystal structure changes from a high-temperature rutile phase to a low-temperature monoclinic phase at Tc. The MIT in VO2 has led to many practical applications such as thermocoatings, optical switching devices etc. However, it has long been a controversial issue regarding the mechanism behind the MIT. It is still not clear whether the insulating behavior is driven by the electron correlation or structural distortions. In this work, we perform first-principles electronic structure calculation using both LDA and LDAU method. It is found that the correlation effect is very important to explain the insulating phase of VO2. However, correlation effects alone cannot help open a band gap for the insulating phase of VO2. Structural distortion also plays an important role. It seems that it is the subtle interplay between the electron-electron correlation and electron-lattice interaction that ultimately drives the development of an insulating gap.

Xue, Yu

347

Positron probing of electron momentum density in GaAs-AlAs superlattices and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The band structure calculations based on the method proposed by Jaros et al. (Phys. Rev. B 31, 1205 (1985)) have been performed for the defect-free GaAs-AlAs superlattice and related AlAs and GaAs single crystals; the electron-positron momentum density distributions have been computed and analyzed. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained ad hoc for GaAs and AlAs bulk materials by measuring the angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (ACAR). Small (but marked) features of the electron-positron momentum density of the valence band have been revealed both for constituent materials and GaAs-AlAs superlattice. The delocalization of positron in 'perfect' defect-'free' AlAs and GaAs single crystals to be observed experimentally is borne out by the results of pseudo-potential band calculations performed on the basis of method proposed by Sekkal et al. (Superlattices and Microstructures, 33, 63 (2003)). The prediction of the possibility of a certain confinement of positron in the interstitial area of GaAs- AlAs superlattice is confirmed by the agreement between the results of calculations and relevant experimental data obtained for GaAs and AlAs single crystals. No considerable effect of the enhancement of the annihilation rate (due to electron-positron interaction) upon the electron-positron momentum density distribution both in the superlattice and its constituent bulk materials has been found. The results of ACAR measurements and calculations performed suggest that a tangible improvement of the sensitivity of existing positron annihilation techniques is necessary for studying details of the electron-positron momentum density distributions in defect-'free' superlattices to be created on the basis of the diamond-like semiconductors possessing close values of the electron momentum densities. On the contrary, the positron-sensitive vacancy-type defects of various types in the superlattice may become a source of the annihilation radiation whose momentum density distribution has its own peculiarities, different from the ones to be detected for defect-'free' crystal structure. Being a 'fingerprint' of a certain type of defects these peculiarities make it possible the nondestructive characterization of the heterostructures and superlattices by means of the positron particle microprobe. (author)

2008-01-01

348

Materials  

...Biosensors Brain Sciences Buildings Cancers Catalysts Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies ...it/research/amd/staff/biasiol.htm Interests: compound semiconductor thin films and nanostructures; crystal growth and epitaxy; kinetics of epitaxial growth;...composite materials; waste recycling; carbon nanotubes; electrophoretic deposition; vascularization; bioceramics; biofabrication; bioactive coatings; drug delivery Contribution: Special Issue: Tissue Engineering Scaffolds ...ca/~dchen/ Interests: mechanical properties; fatigue; fracture; deformation; microstructural characterization; welding and joining; lightweight materials (magnesium alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium ...

349

The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of the proposed facilities and utility trenches. The public cannot be directly exposed to the vapor plume beneath MDA C because Pajarito Road is closed to the public.

Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-02

350

Ground Water Education in America's Schools: A Catalog of Resource Materials for Elementary and Secondary Education Professionals.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 13 million privately-owned wells and over 100,000 public water supply sources pump ground water to approximately 123 million Americans daily for personal, commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Yet, even as the nation's need for water grows, the prevailing lack of public knowledge and understanding about this resource leads to…

American Ground Water Trust, Dublin, OH.

351

Dante, Seventh Centennial, 1265-1965: Resource Materials for Teachers. Curriculum Bulletin, 1965-66 Series, Number 16.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-part curriculum bulletin pays tribute to the life and works of Dante Alighieri during the 700th annivarsary of his birth. Part One includes his biography, a discussion of his minor works, a summary of "The Divine Comedy", Dante's impact on other lands, and Dantean thought. Suggestions for teaching a resource unit for elementary and junior…

Cavicchia, Gida; Costadasi, Virginia

352

QTL for traits related to humoral immune response estimated from data of a porcine F2 resource population.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to humoral innate immune defence. Therefore, haemolytic complement activity in the alternative and the classical pathway, serum concentration of C3c and of haptoglobin (HP) were measured in blood samples obtained from F2 piglets (n = 457) of a porcine F2 resource population before and after Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky's disease virus (Suid herpesvirus I, SuHVI) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age. Animals were genotyped at 88 autosomal markers. QTL analysis was performed under the line cross and the half sib. Phenotypic data were adjusted for systematic effects by mixed models with and without repeated measures statement. In total, 46 and 21 estimated QTL positions were detected with genome-wide significance at the 0.05 and 0.01 level, respectively. The proximal region of SSC2 (orthologous to HSA11 0-70 Mb), the distal region of SSC4 (HSA1 95-155 Mb), and the intermediate region of SSC16 (HSA5 0-73 Mb and 150-174 Mb) showed a clustering of estimated QTL positions for complement activity based on the different models. A common genetic background, i.e. a single true QTL, might underlie these QTL positions for related traits. In addition, QTL for antibody titres were detected on SSC1, 2, 6 and 7. With regard to number and magnitude of their impact, QTL for humoral innate immune traits behave like those for other quantitative traits. Discovery of such QTL facilitates the identification of candidate genes for disease resistance and immune competence that are applicable in selective breeding and further research towards improving therapeutic and prophylactic measures. PMID:19490209

Wimmers, K; Murani, E; Schellander, K; Ponsuksili, S

2009-06-01

353

Advisory group meeting on safeguards related to final disposal of nuclear material in waste and spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is primarily concerned with Section 11 of INFCIRC/153 which provides for the possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material in question has been consumed, has been diluted, or has become practicably irrecoverable. Two distinctly different categories of nuclear material have been suggested for possible termination of safeguards based on a determination that the nuclear material has become practicably irrecoverable: One relates to a variety of low concentration waste materials, meaning thereby materials which the State or plant operator considers to be of questionable economic recoverability and the other relates to the spent fuel placed in facilities described as ''permanent repositories'' which are at least claimed to represent ''final disposal'' facilities and are candidates for a possible determination of practicably irrecoverable. 26 refs, tabs

1988-01-01

354

Relative Humidity and Temperature Effects on the Viscosity of Secondary Organic Material from ?-pinene Ozonolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary organic aerosol particles are abundant in the troposphere, comprising the majority of the total particle mass in some areas. Secondary organic particles may play an important role in climate, air quality, and health. Particle viscosity may influence atmospheric particle sizes and concentrations in the troposphere, as well as reaction rates with various atmospheric oxidants. A quantitative measure of particle viscosity is needed in order to predict the effects of particle viscosity on various atmospheric processes. To date, the viscosities of atmospheric particles including SOA particles remains poorly understood. Furthermore, the relative humidity and temperature dependence of the particle viscosities remain uncertain. A major obstacle to measuring viscosities of atmospheric or environmental chamber samples is the small sample volumes typically collected from these media (on the order of milligrams after long collection times). The minimum sample volumes required for existing microviscometry techniques are on the order of 10's of ?L's and are limited to measuring viscosities of low-viscosity liquids (<0.1 Pa s). Other existing viscometers for measuring higher viscosities require much greater sample volumes. Presented here are the results of two novel approaches to measuring the viscosity of organic aerosol particles, which together are capable of measuring a wide range of viscosities using significantly less than 1mg of material. These techniques are applied across the ambient tropospheric RH range. A third technique is used to determine the extent to which the particle viscosity may change over a wide range of tropospheric temperatures (-10 to 20 degrees C). These techniques not only provide visual evidence that the water-soluble fraction of atmospheric samples may behave as semi-solids or solids under tropospheric relative humidity and temperature conditions, but also provide quantitative information as to their viscosities.

Wolff, L. R.; Grayson, J. W.; Bateman, A. P.; Kuwata, M.; Sellier, M.; Murray, B. J.; Shilling, J. E.; Martin, S. T.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-12-01

355

Program Resource Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

The program resource handbook brings together individuals, groups and organizations who are constantly looking for resource materials for programs and those who are looking for opportunities to present their programs and services to the public. Among the resources listed in the handbook, there is information on speakers, materials, meeting rooms…

Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

356

Soft tetragonal distortions in ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa and related materials from first principles  

CERN Multimedia

A detailed examination of the energy landscape, density of states and magnetic moment of tetragonally distorted ferromagnetic Ni_2MnGa was performed using first-principles local-spin-density (LSD) pseudopotential calculations, varying V as well as c/a. The energy of tetragonal Ni_2MnGa is found to be nearly constant for values of c/a over a wide range, with shallow minima near c/a = 1 and 1.08 in addition to that near 1.2. This flat energy surface is consistent with the wide range of observed values of c/a. It also explains the observation of pseudomorphic growth of Ni_2MnGa on GaAs, despite a nominal 3% lattice mismatch. The related materials Ni_2MnAl, Ni_2MnIn and ferromagnetic NiMn were examined for similar behavior, but all are seen to have a single well-defined minimum at c/a near 1, consistent with available experimental information. For NiMn, the ground state antiferromagnetic ordering and structural parameters are correctly predicted within the LSD approach.

Godlevsky, V V

2000-01-01

357

Overview of recent magnetic studies of high Tc cuprate parent compounds and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies of the magnetic properties of several high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) cuprate parent compounds and related materials will be reviewed. The observations of a Heisenberg to XY-like crossover upon cooling below ? 300 K towards the Neel temperature TN=257 K and a subsequent magnetic field-induced XY-like to Ising-like crossover near TN in single crystals of the K2NiF4-type spin 1/2 model compound Sr2CuO2Cl2 will be described. The spin 1/2 linear chain compound Sr2CuO3, the parent of the Sr2CuO3+? oxygen-doped superconductors, is found to exhibit classic Bonner-Fisher magnetic behavior, with a large antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange coupling constant. Studies of the evolution of La2-xSrxCuO4 with Sr doping in the insulating regime (x 2.1, a copper-oxygen cluster compound, exhibits ferromagnetic rather than antiferromagnetic Cu-Cu superexchange interactions. Finally, a summary of the magnetic properties of single crystals of the recently discovered RNi2B2C layered structure superconductors will be given. (orig.)

1995-09-11

358

Quantitative Determination of Di (2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP in Hemodialysis-Related Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Phthalates are founded in medical devices such as filters and dialysis catheters. Scientific evidences show health disadvantages due to exposure to phthalates. In this study, level of Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in Iranian hemodialysis-related materials was measured. Methods: Ten samples of Iranian dialysis catheters (five samples from SUPA medical devices company (SUPA-MDC and five samples from Helal Ahmar- MDC were randomly selected. The level of DEHP for each sample was measured by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Mean concentrations of DEHP (mg per ml for each brand was reported separately.Results: Means of DEHP concentration for SUPA- MDC and Helal Ahmar- MDC were 1.36±0.11 and 0.97±0.11 mg/ml, respectively. Range of measured concentrations differed from 1.47 to 1.21 mg/ml and 1.13 to 0.83 mg/ml, for SUPA- and Helal Ahmar-MDCs respectively. Conclusion: Application of alternative medical products without or with less phthalate could reduce exposure of patients to phthalates.

Mitra Mahdavi mazdeh

2012-07-01

359

Collecting and Preserving Videogames and Their Related Materials: A Review of Current Practice, Game-Related Archives and Research Projects  

CERN Document Server

This paper reviews the major methods and theories regarding the preservation of new media artifacts such as videogames, and argues for the importance of collecting and coming to a better understanding of videogame artifacts of creation, which will help build a more detailed understanding of the essential qualities of these culturally significant artifacts. We will also review the major videogame collections in the United States, Europe and Japan to give an idea of the current state of videogame archives, and argue for a fuller, more comprehensive coverage of these materials in institutional repositories.

Winget, Megan A

2008-01-01

360

Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized microscopy revealed selfassembly formation of the enhanced composites indicating that the reinforcement was influenced by the CNC nanoscale structure on the matrix. These structures were found to be distributed in different directions along the extrusion line, suggesting that an angled CNC orientation favored a higher toughness as observed in natural cellulose fibers. PLA was also modified by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA), which provided a stiffer and more hydrophilic surface for the addition of unmodified CNCs. In this case, the toughness of the PLA copolymer decreased with CNC concentration, while the tensile modulus increased. This effect was attributed to an increase of polymer crystallinity upon addition of CNCs, probably due to an enhanced compatibility provided by the PAA chains. For the purpose of obtaining a more efficient separation of proteins and fats from RMs, liquid and supercritical CO2 (LCO2 and SCCO2) were explored as solvents for the extraction, demonstrating the ability to extract up to 97% of the fat in the RMs. Higher fat solubilities in LCO2 were obtained compared to SCCO2, a result attributed to a retrograde phenomenon. These results are advantageous for the separation of rendered fats at relatively low temperatures and pressures, obtaining higher yields than screw pressing currently used in the industry. However, this extraction requires high amounts of CO2 due to low fat solubilities. This issue was addressed using CO2-assisted mechanical extraction, resulting in yields up to 81%, representing a 98% increase compared to conventional extraction, and significantly reducing the amount of CO2 for the extraction.

Orellana, Jose Luis

 
 
 
 
361

Supports filmiques transversaux en pratique de la langue : document authentique ou authentiquement intéressant ? Transversal film resources for language practice : authentic or authentically interesting materials ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une réflexion sur les supports filmiques dans l’enseignement des langues, nous nous proposons de revisiter la notion de document authentique pour apporter une contribution théorique à l’appréhension de l’attractivité d’une ressource filmique et à l’appréhension de la nature de l’acte pédagogique que représente l’utilisation de ces ressources. Des exemples de vidéos disponibles sur Internet montrent que l’opposition entre le didactique et l’authentique laisse place à la transversalité des thématiques, fédér??es par le concept de « question socialement vive ».Si les ressources filmiques n’ont pas le monopole des questionnements éthiques, le « regarder ensemble pédagogique » en fait un vecteur privilégié pour aborder les questions vives.Avec ces ressources capables de générer une « écoute engagée », la langue devient le vecteur d’une modification d’un système de connaissances, au-delà de la poursuite d’objectifs langagiers mis au service d’une interpellation citoyenne.As part of a reflection on films and videos for language teaching, this paper re-examines the notion of authentic material and presents a theoretical contribution to understanding a video resource’s attractiveness, and to understanding what pedagogical act is represented by the use of such resources. Examples of videos from the Internet show that the traditional opposition between didactic and authentic documents is replaced by the transversal nature of certain topics, connected through the controversies they can generate.While it is true that films and videos are not the only resource allowing one to tackle ethical issues, watching them as a group in class makes them a most adequate vector for work on controversial topics.With these resources capable of triggering engagement in the process of listening, language becomes the way to challenge a knowledge system, far beyond linguistic objectives that are used to serve a wider questioning by the citizen.

Joséphine Rémon

2012-05-01

362

Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduc...

Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjo?rg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P.

2013-01-01

363

Resources efficiency in milling of dies and molds with various hard coating materials and modified machine dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complexity of highly loaded molds and dies with increased demands for lifetime and resources efficiency combined with requirements for higher performance, improved economy and better ecological behaviour makes it necessary to use new hard coating technologies. A complete or a partial hard layer coating of a component offers huge economic potentials, but requires an additional finish milling process. The investigations refer to milling of Plasma Transfer Arc (PTA)-welded Cobalt alloys (Ste...

Neugebauer, Reimund; Wertheim, R.; Ho?sel, D.; Hochmuth, C.; Georgi, R.

2011-01-01

364

Heat treatment and property co-relation for Incoloy-800 material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Steam Generator is one of the critical equipment in Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) of nuclear power plant. Considerable research work has been performed on steam generator tubing material. Incoloy 600, 800 and 690 with different heat treatments and surface finish are mainly used as tubing material. Incoloy 800 is used as tubing material for PHWR steam generators. Indigenous development of these tubes was jointly taken-up by L and T and NFC and selection of raw material and heat treatment was one of the important considerations. Cleanliness of material was important selection criteria and was established through ASTM E 381 and ASTM E 604. Solution annealing was carried out on raw material at different temperatures from 950-1020 deg C with varying times. Microstructure studies, mechanical testing and different form of corrosion mechanisms like SCC, IGC, and pitting and crevice corrosion were studied in detail. Property co-relationship with regard to heat treatment is studied in this paper. (author)

2011-01-01

365

Development of ion beam techniques for the study of special nuclear materials related problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scientific objective of this project was to develop the ion beam techniques for the characterization of actinides and their effects on other materials. It was designed to enhance their ability to quantitatively understand the oxidation, corrosion, diffusion, stability, and radiation damage of actinides and the materials with which they are in contact. The authors developed and applied several low-energy nuclear techniques (resonant and nonresonant backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle-induced x-ray emission) to the quantitative study of the near surfaces of actinide and tritide materials, and determined the absolute accuracy and precision of ion beam measurements on these materials. They also demonstrated the use of variable-energy alpha beams for the study of accelerated aging of polymeric materials in contact with actinide materials.

Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; Martz, J.C. [and others

1998-11-01

366

Development of ion beam techniques for the study of special nuclear materials related problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The scientific objective of this project was to develop the ion beam techniques for the characterization of actinides and their effects on other materials. It was designed to enhance their ability to quantitatively understand the oxidation, corrosion, diffusion, stability, and radiation damage of actinides and the materials with which they are in contact. The authors developed and applied several low-energy nuclear techniques (resonant and nonresonant backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, and particle-induced x-ray emission) to the quantitative study of the near surfaces of actinide and tritide materials, and determined the absolute accuracy and precision of ion beam measurements on these materials. They also demonstrated the use of variable-energy alpha beams for the study of accelerated aging of polymeric materials in contact with actinide materials

1998-01-01

367

Synthesizing Community Wisdom: A Model for Sharing Cancer-Related Resources through Social Networking and Collaborative Partnerships  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the availability of community-based support services, cancer patients and survivors are not aware of many of these resources. Without access to community programs, cancer survivors are at risk for lower quality of care and lower quality of life. At the same time, non-profit community organizations lack access to advanced consumer informatics applications to effectively promote awareness of their services. In addition to the current models of print and online resource guides, new commu...

2008-01-01

368

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

Achatz, Philipp

2009-05-15

369

Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration nc for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (? 500 cm-1) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance gc. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap ? in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum-doped 4H SiC by Raman spectroscopy. (orig.)

2009-05-01

370

"It's Not Their Job to Share Content": A Case Study of the Role of Senior Students in Adapting Teaching Materials as Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's landmark decision to make its teaching and learning materials freely available to the public as OpenCourseWare (OCW), many other higher education institutions have followed suit sharing resources now more generally referred to as Open Educational Resources (OER). The University of Cape…

Hodgkinson-Williams, Cheryl; Paskevicius, Michael

2013-01-01

371

Relative status regulates risky decision-making about resources in men: Evidence for the co-evolution of motivation and cognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relative social status strongly regulates human behavior, yet this factor has been largely ignored in research on risky decision-making. Humans, like other animals, incur risks as they compete to defend or improve their standing in a social group. Among men, access to culturally important resources is a locus of intrasexual competition and a determinant of status. Thus, relative status should affect men’s motivations for risk in relevant domains. Contrasting predictions about such effects w...

Ermer, Elsa; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

2008-01-01

372

Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Notes Verbales received by the Director General of the IAEA on 20 October 1999 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America relating to the transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

1999-10-20

373

Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology

2005-12-01

374

Use of the 2002 Materials Margin for Consolidation of LHC Related Infrastructure  

CERN Multimedia

In the June 2003 Medium Term Plan (CERN/SPC/828-CERN/FC/4690) it was proposed to use the 2002 materials margin for the consolidation of essential infrastructure associated with the LHC programme. The present document describes the consolidation programme in detail and the items to which allocations from the 2002 materials margin will be directed.

2003-01-01

375

Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Materials at the Urban Scale-Relating Existing Process Life Cycle Assessment Studies to Urban Material and Waste Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although many cities are engaged in efforts to calculate and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, most are accounting for “scope one” emissions i.e., GHGs produced within urban boundaries (for example, following the protocol of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives. Cities should also account for the emissions associated with goods, services and materials consumed within their boundaries, “scope three” emissions. The emissions related to urban consumption patterns and choices greatly influence overall emissions that can be associated with an urban area. However, data constraints and GHG accounting complexity present challenges. In this paper we propose one approach that cities can take to measure the GHG emissions of their material consumption: the solid waste life cycle assessment (LCA based approach. We used this approach to identify a set of materials commonly consumed within cities, and reviewed published life cycle assessment data to determine the GHG emissions associated with production of each. Our review reveals that among fourteen commonly consumed materials, textiles and aluminum are associated with the highest GHG emissions per tonne of production. Paper and plastics have relatively lower production emissions, but a potentially higher impact on overall emissions owing to their large proportions, by weight, in the consumption stream.

William E. Rees

2013-03-01

376

Simulator Network project report: a tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network). PMID:23467581

Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P

2013-01-01

377

Materials-related problems and investigations during Test Series 2. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The materials monitoring and evaluation programme is a part of the overall experimental programme for the IEA Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Facility at Grimethorp, South Yorkshire, UK. Its objectives include materials testing and evaluation, component monitoring and component failure analysis. Such work forms part of the Project remit to develop a comprehensive set of PFBC performance data on combustion efficiency, sulphur retention, gaseous emissions, heat transfer, hot gas clean up, and component reliability. This report describes the results of the materials programme for the period of operation of the Facility from June 1982 to April 1983. 22 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

1985-06-01

378

Definition of Terms Relating to Reactions of Polymers and to Functional Polymeric Materials, VII.2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactions of polymers, particularly polymers with functional groups (crosslinking, grafting, complexation, reactive blending, etc. enable the preparation of polymeric materials of various properties (swelling, conductivity, photosensitivity, catalytic activity, etc. and functions (superabsorber, ion-exchanger, polyelectrolyte, supporter, surfactant, compatibilizer, etc.. Such an interdisciplinary branch of polymer chemistry requires clear and unified terminology. The present IUPAC recommendations fulfill this demand with definitions of 64 general and specific terms divided into three sections: reactions involving polymers; polymer reactants and reactive polymeric materials; functional polymeric materials. The document will contribute to the proper scientific and technological understanding of the field.

Jarm, V.

2009-10-01

379

New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food packaging application as no significant growth was seen within 28 d of incubation at 30 degreesC.

Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

2002-01-01

380

Nuclear and related techniques in the characterisation of materials for electronics industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compositional characterisation aspects of materials of interest to the electronics industry are briefly reviewed based on the work carried out in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

{sup 237}Np Moessbauer studies on actinide superconductors and related materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Actinide materials play a special role in condensed matter physics, spanning behaviours of itinerant d-electron and localized 4f-electron materials. This duality of the 5f electrons confer to actinide-based intermetallic compounds a broad variety of physical properties such as magnetic or multipolar ordering, heavy fermion behaviour, quantum criticality, unconventional superconductivity... {sup 237}Np Moessbauer spectroscopy is a unique microscopic tool for gaining information on the electronic and magnetic properties of Np systems.

Colineau, Eric, E-mail: eric.colineau@ec.europa.eu; Gaczynski, Piotr; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Eloirdi, Rachel; Caciuffo, Roberto [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)

2012-03-15

382

High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

Michael Felderhoff; Borislav Bogdanović

2009-01-01

383

High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanovic?, Borislav

2009-01-01

384

High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

Borislav Bogdanović

2009-01-01

385

Relation of capsular materials and colony opacity to virulence of Vibrio vulnificus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Colonies which varied in opacity were isolated from the four strains of Vibrio vulnificus. Opaque and translucent colonial types of the strains were distinguished from the corresponding parent strains. Variation in the opacity of colonies formed by each strain was accompanied by variation of capsular material formation, which was clarified by electron microscopy of the organisms stained with ruthenium red. The opaque-type colonies of the strains had capsular materials. On the other hand, thre...

1985-01-01

386

Studies on the Optimum Mechanical Response of Anisotropic Materials Related to Elastic Constants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, mechanical and elastic behaviour of anisotropic materials are investigated in order to understand the optimum mechanical behaviour of them in selected directions. For an anisotropic material with known elastic constants, it is possible to choose the best set of elastic constants (effective elastic constants which determine the optimum mechanical and elastic properties of it. For this reason, bounds on the anisotropic elastic constants have been constructed symbollicaly for all anisotropic elastic symmetries. As illustrative examples, materials from different symmetries are selected and their elastic constants are used to compute bounds on the anisotropic elastic constants. Finally, by examining numerical results of bounds given in tables, it is seen that the materials selected from the same symmetry type which have larger interval between the bounds, are more anisotropic, whereas some materials which have smaller interval between the bounds, are closer to isotropy. The construction of bounds on anisotropic elastic constants is a significant and critical case in design of any engineering and structural materials.

Ç??DEM D?NÇKAL

2011-05-01

387

Health resource utilization and the economic burden of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To determine healthcare resource utilization and the economic burden associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD in ThailandMETHODS:This study included patients diagnosed with wet AMD that were 60 years old or older, and had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA measured at least two times during the follow-up period. We excluded patients having other eye diseases. Two separate sub-studies were conducted. The first sub-study was a retrospective cohort study; electronic medical charts were reviewed to estimate the direct medical costs. The second sub-study was a cross-sectional survey estimating the direct non-medical costs based on face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. For the first sub-study, direct medical costs, including the cost of drugs, laboratory, procedures, and other treatments were obtained. For the second sub-study, direct non-medical costs, e.g. transportation, food, accessories, home renovation, and caregiver costs, were obtained from face-to-face interviews with patients and/or caregivers.RESULTS: For the first sub-study, sixty-four medical records were reviewed. The annual average number of medical visits was 11.1±6.0. The average direct medical costs were $3 604±4 530 per year. No statistically-significant differences of the average direct medical costs among the BCVA groups were detected (P=0.98. Drug costs accounted for 77% of total direct medical costs. For direct non-medical costs, 67 patients were included. Forty-eight patients (71.6% required the accompaniment of a person during the out-patient visit. Seventeen patients (25.4% required a caregiver at home. The average direct non-medical cost was $2 927±6 560 per year. There were no statistically-significant differences in the average costs among the BCVA groups (P=0.74. Care-giver cost accounted for 87% of direct non-medical costs.CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that wet AMD is associated with a substantial economic burden, especially concerning drug and care-giver costs.

Piyameth Dilokthornsakul

2014-02-01

388

Material problems and requirements related to the development of fusion blankets: The designer point of view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structural materials considered for solid and liquid metal breeder blankets are the austenitic and martensitic steels and vanadium alloys. The principal concerns with these materials are: (a) the high-temperature-induced swelling of the austenitic steels, (b) the low temperature irradiation embrittlement of martensitic steels, and (c) the exact specification of the preferred alloy composition(s), properties during and following irradiation, and technological aspects (fabrication and welding) for the vanadium alloys. Solid breeder blankets are based on the use of lithiated ceramics such as Li2O, LiAlO2, Li4SiO4 and Li2ZrO3 and beryllium as a neutron multiplier. The main uncertainty with these materials is their behaviour under irradiation, particularly at higher burnups and fluences than have been achieved hitherto. Liquid metal blankets, utilising pure Li or the LiPb eutectic as the tritium breeding material, can be either self- or separately-cooled; separate coolants include water (with LiPb) and helium. The important materials issues with the LiPb are the development of permeation barriers to contain the tritium and, for the self-cooled option, electrical insulators to reduce the MHD pressure drop to acceptable levels. ((orig.))

1994-09-01

389

State of and prospects for the development of the use of secondary material resources in the alcohol industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uses of waste materials from the alcohol fermentation of molasses are described. The CO/sub 2/ evolved is collected and made into dry ice and yeast cells are used by the baking industry. Several potential and possible uses of the spent molasses are given, including fermentation to vitamin B-12 or natural gas.

Gorovoi, V.I.

1980-01-01

390

Comportamento estratégico da empresa e a visão baseada em recursos: um estudo no setor varejista de material de construção / Strategic behavior and resource-based view: a study in construction material retail sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar o relacionamento dos recursos da organização quanto ao seu comportamento estratégico na percepção dos gestores das lojas de material de construção. Para tanto, aborda a teoria de recursos, a partir da RBV (Resource-based View), e a tipologia de Miles e Snow ( [...] 1978), na determinação do comportamento estratégico das organizações. Com a finalidade de atingir o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma abordagem qualiquantitativa. A pesquisa qualitativa foi exploratória, utilizando focus group e a quantitativa descritiva, a partir de uma survey. Os resultados, quanto ao comportamento estratégico, indicam que 34,3% das empresas são defensoras, 27,1% são reativas, 20,0% são analistas e 18,6% prospectoras. Com relação às hipóteses propostas, inexistência de diferenças nas capacidades segundo os comportamentos estratégicos, nenhuma mostrou significância estatística. Com Respeito à associação mensurada entre o comportamento estratégico e as capacidades, os prospectores são os que possuem a maior correlação positiva, verificada com as capacidades de administração. Já os reativos são os que apresentam a maior correlação negativa, também com as capacidades de administração. Conclui-se que há ausência de ajuste entre comportamentos estratégicos e os recursos e capacidades, o que pode, segundo a RBV, deixar de gerar vantagem competitiva sustentável. Abstract in english This study aims to investigate the relationship between the organization resources and the strategic behavior from construction material stores viewpoint. The RBV (Resource-Based View) and the Miles and Snow Typology (1978) are used in this study for determining the organization's strategic behavior [...] . A quali-quantitave approach was used. The qualitative study was exploratory making use of the focus group technique and the quantitative descriptive analysis through a survey. The results indicated that, according to the strategic behavior, 34.3% of the organizations are defenders, 27.1% are reactors, 20% are analyzers, and 18.6% are prospectors. With regard to proposed hypothesis, there was no statistically significant capability difference according to the Studying the correlation between strategic behavior and capabilities, one can see that the prospectors are the ones that exhibit the strongest positive correlation according to the management capabilities. On the other hand, the reactors exhibit the strongest negative correlation also according to the management capabilities. One can therefore conclude that there is lack of adjustment between the strategic behavior and the resources and capabilities, which, according to the Resource-Based View, may prevent sustainable competitive advantages.

Ribeiro, Ronaldo; Rossetto, Carlos Ricardo; Verdinelli, Miguel Angel.

391

Resources, Instruction, and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers who study the relations between school resources and student achievement have worked from a causal model, which typically is implicit. In this model, some resource or set of resources is the causal variable and student achievement is the outcome. In a few recent, more nuanced versions, resource effects depend on intervening…

Cohen, David K.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg

2003-01-01

392

Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance. PMID:23995242

Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

2013-10-01

393

IE Information Notice No. 85-08: Industry experience on certain materials used in safety-related equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This information notice is being issued to provide licensees and construction permit holders with information pertaining to the behavior of certain materials used in safety-related equipment. The materials, as described below, were observed to have the potential of degrading the operability of safety-related equipment. These observations were made during environmental qualification testing and/or during routine inspection of in-service equipment. The notice describes the following: elastomeric seals used in personnel air locks for the reactor containment systems; epoxy phenolic coating applied to the lower portion of the interior surface of diesel oil storage tanks; the use of Viton elastomer as the seal material in hydrogen recombiner applications; and environmental qualification of ASCO NP valves with Viton and ethylene propylene parts

1992-01-01

394

Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response  

Science.gov (United States)

The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

US Agency for International Development, 2009

2009-01-01

395

Experience gained from some incidents related to the shipment of radioactive materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of accidents occurring during shipment of dangerous materials in France varies between 200 and 250 each year. Those concerning radioactive materials represent one or two events per year. Six incidents or accidents recorded these last few years have been selected as particularly significant; they include not only events on public highways but also events on nuclear sites relevant to transportation safety. These events are summarized together with corrective actions engaged after analysis of the causes of the events. Finally, more general conclusions drawn from these abnormal events are presented from the point of view of emergency preparedness

1989-06-11

396

Scientific report. Plasma-wall interaction studies related to fusion reactor materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This scientific report summarises research done on erosion and deposition mechanisms affecting the optical reflectivity of potential materials for use in the mirrors used in fusion reactors. Work done in Juelich, Germany, at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, the JET laboratory in England and in Basle is discussed. Various tests made with the mirrors are described. Results obtained are presented in graphical and tabular form and commented on. The influence of various material choices on erosion and deposition mechanisms is discussed

2006-01-01

397

Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectros