Residual amplitude modulation in interferometric gravitational wave detectors.
Kokeyama, Keiko; Izumi, Kiwamu; Korth, William Z; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X
2014-01-01
The effects of residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in laser interferometers using heterodyne sensing can be substantial and difficult to mitigate. In this work, we analyze the effects of RAM on a complex laser interferometer used for gravitational wave detection. The RAM introduces unwanted offsets in the cavity length signals and thereby shifts the operating point of the optical cavities from the nominal point via feedback control. This shift causes variations in the sensing matrix, and leads to degradation in the performance of the precision noise subtraction scheme of the multiple-degree-of-freedom control system. In addition, such detuned optical cavities produce an optomechanical spring, which also perturbs the sensing matrix. We use our simulations to derive requirements on RAM for the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) detectors, and show that the RAM expected in aLIGO will not limit its sensitivity. PMID:24561943
Zhang, W; Martin, M J; Benko, C; Hall, J L; Ye, J; Hagemann, C; Legero, T; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Cole, G D; Aspelmeyer, M
2014-04-01
Active control and cancellation of residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in phase modulation of an optical carrier is one of the key technologies for achieving the ultimate stability of a laser locked to an ultrastable optical cavity. Furthermore, such techniques are versatile tools in various frequency modulation-based spectroscopy applications. In this Letter we report a simple and robust approach to actively stabilize RAM in an optical phase modulation process. We employ a waveguide-based electro-optic modulator (EOM) to provide phase modulation and implement an active servo with both DC electric field and temperature feedback onto the EOM to cancel both the in-phase and quadrature components of the RAM. This technique allows RAM control on the parts-per-million level where RAM-induced frequency instability is comparable to or lower than the fundamental thermal noise limit of the best available optical cavities. PMID:24686654
Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie
2015-12-29
Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.
Alternating-phase focusing with amplitude modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.
1993-08-01
We have previously developed a model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) applicable to ion linacs comprised of short independently controlled cavities. The main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters: Equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. In this paper we report on an extension of the analysis to include simultaneous modulation of the accelerating field amplitude. Two additional parameters are included: Relative phase between the amplitude and phase modulation and magnitude of the amplitude modulation. The effects of amplitude modulation on the stable regions and longitudinal acceptance are discussed.
Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bischoff, Svend
2000-01-01
Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...
Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise
Makarewicz, Rufin
2013-01-01
Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between the maximum and minimum of LpA characterizes thump modulation (Fig.2).
Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high-speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz
Amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise
Makarewicz, Rufin; Golebiewski, Roman
2013-01-01
Due to swish and thump amplitude modulation, the noise of wind turbines cause more annoyance than other environmental noise of the same average level. The wind shear accounts for the thump modulation (van den Berg effect). Making use of the wind speed measurements at the hub height, as well as at the top and the bottom of the rotor disc (Fig.1), the non-standard wind profile is applied. It causes variations in the A-weighted sound pressure level, LpA. The difference between the maximum and mi...
Amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves: Vlasov simulation
Umeda, T.
2006-12-01
Mechanisms for the generation of Langmuir wave packets are studied by performing a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present simulation of a weak-electron-beam instability without ion dynamics suggests two new processes for the amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves. The beam instability excites Langmuir modes over a wide wavenumber range, but the saturation of the most unstable Langmuir mode "filters" the growth of sideband modes. Specific upper and lower sideband modes linearly grow to a high saturation level. Then the primary Langmuir mode is amplified and strongly modulated through interaction with the sideband modes.
Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan
2013-01-01
The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While li...
Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis
Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan
2014-12-01
The ability to generate high-speed on-off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5?Gbit?s-1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on-off-keyed 10?Gbit?s-1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100?Gbit?s-1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.
Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck
2014-01-01
Amplitude modulation (AM) of noise from wind turbines and its more extreme version named “other amplitude modulation” OAM have been investigated intensively during the last few years due to the additional annoyance impact this type of noise has compared to broad band noise. In a recent published research by RenewableUK the hypothesis has been that one of the causes of OAM is transient stall on the blade due to non uniform inflow such as shear. Part of the RenewableUK research work was a contribution by DTU on analysis of data from the DANAERO MW experiment from 2009. In the DANAERO experiment a new 38.8m test blade for a 2MW NM80 turbine was manufactured and equipped with a massive instrumentation comprising flush mounted surface microphones, pressure taps and five hole pitot tubes. The correlation of the spectra from the surface microphones and the measured inflow angle (IA) confirmed the strong increase in the noise source for high IA. As only few 10min data sets were measured in the DANAERO project a data set with measured inflow angle from 2003 on the same turbine has been used to explore the statistical properties of AM and OAM based on assumed correlation to IA.
All-optical PT-symmetric conversion of amplitude (phase) modulation to phase (amplitude) modulation.
GutiÃ©rrez, Oscar Ignacio Zaragoza; Mendoza, Luis Felipe Salinas; RodrÃguez-Lara, B M
2016-02-22
We study electromagnetic field propagation through a planar three-waveguide coupler with linear gain or loss in a configuration that is the optical analog of a quantum PT-symmetric system. This model is experimentally feasible on at least four proven architectures: lossy waveguide couplers, pumped waveguides couplers, non-Hermitian electronics and coupled pumped whispering gallery mode resonators. We show that our device provides all-optical amplitude (phase) to phase (amplitude) conversion in the PT-symmetric regime at given propagation lenghts. The device has a Ï€ amplitude to phase conversion range if an extra binary phase is allowed in the reference signal, and a phase to amplitude conversion range that depends linearly on the gain-to-coupling ratio of the system. Our scheme may prove valuable in implementing phase shift keying formats, which have longer unrepeated transmission distance than intensity modulation schemes. PMID:26907051
Factorization of residues of off-shell string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All normalization factors are supplied for the calculation of off-shell string amplitudes in the formalism of Cohen et al. Wave function normalization constants are determined from the residues of poles in the two-point function. For amplitudes with one or two strings off-shell and an arbitrary number of on-shell particles, the residue of a pole in an off-shell channel factorizes into the product of the square root of the wave function normalization constant and the correctly normalized amplitude with the particle in the relevant channel on-shell. Factorization requires the same relation between the coupling constant defined by the topological term in the action and the coupling constant appearing in vertex operators that was derived previously from unitarity of S-matrix elements. (orig.)
Log-Likelihood Classification Of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savita Kamboj
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with amplitude-based log likelihood classification for quadrature amplitude modulation. We derive the amplitude density functions of received QAM signals first, then develop the required statistics for signal classification based on the maximum a posteriori probability criterion and demonstrate a schematic structure of classifier for M-ary QAM signals. It is illustrated successful classification rate reaches 100% for SNR>=15.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In many situations of interest amplitude modulation AFM is characterized by the coexistence of two solutions with different physical properties. Here, we compare the performance of those solutions in the imaging of cobalt nanoparticles. We show that imaging with the high amplitude solution implies an irreversible deformation of the nanoparticles while repeated imaging with the low solution does not produce noticeable changes in the nanoparticles. Theoretical simulations show that the maximum tip-surface force in the high amplitude solution is about 14 nN while in the low amplitude solution is about -4 nN. We attribute the differences in the high and low amplitude images to the differences in the exerted forces on the sample
Amplitude modulation detection by human listeners in sound fields
Zahorik, Pavel; Kim, Duck O.; Kuwada, Shigeyuki; Anderson, Paul W.; Brandewie, Eugene; Srinivasan, Nirmal
2011-01-01
The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) approach allows techniques from linear systems analysis to be used to predict how the auditory system will respond to arbitrary patterns of amplitude modulation (AM). Although this approach forms the basis for a standard method of predicting speech intelligibility based on estimates of the acoustical modulation transfer function (MTF) between source and receiver, human sensitivity to AM as characterized by the TMTF has not been extensively stud...
Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2006-01-01
In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critic...
Amplitude modulated sinusoidal signal decomposition for audio coding
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jakobsson, Andreas; Andersen, Søren Vang; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2006-01-01
In this letter, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in cr...
Amplitude Modulation in the ? Sct star KIC 7106205
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bowman Dominic. M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The ? Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.
CARRIER-FREQUENCY HARMONIZATION STRUCTURE FOR ENHANCED AMPLITUDE MODULATION FUNCTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.V.Subba Rao
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Amplitude Modulation was the major method of influencing sound on a radio signal and is still extensively used in the present days. The characteristic amplitude modulation radio receivers’ automatic gain-control to circumvent bass distortion, generally reacts extreme moreover slowly to average out or overwhelm these intercarrier beat modulations as a result, these extremely aggravating modulation effects are mainly distributed on unbroken to the eavesdropper. A GPS-referenced frequency-synchronizer unit could be organized at transmitter sites capable of holding both current and big transmitters as a result basically eradicating carrier beat interference between co-channel amplitude modulation stations. The beat-related properties are a main aspect in the deprivation of dusk and night-time amplitude modulation fringe-area function excellence and the subsequent damage of hearers for effectively all stations. Commonly, an amplitude modulation radio listener for the duration of the sundown and nightfall hours and to a slighter amount in the first day break, obtains undesired sky wave indications from numerous distant locations as well as the desired local signal. The simple oscillator is naturally a predictable high-stability quartz-crystal kind, temperature compensated. To stand long-term drifts, advanced years effects, and loading-circuit variations, the simple oscillator is somewhat adjusted through electronic or mechanical resources to path a high-precision cause of standard frequency. The steady local reference frequency is then used as a timer for a typical numerically applied frequency synthesizer, which is planned to create the speci?c receiver carrier frequency expected.
AMPLITUDE AND PHASE MODULATION FOR ULTRASONIC WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Gao
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Short range wireless communications have been used more and more frequently in our life. But the electromagnetic fields waves also have some disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is health problems. Many studies shows the electromagnetic field waves using for communication may damage our health. And in most hospitals, they also have bans on the use of mobile phones and wide area networks because of Electromagnetic Interference. So this paper studied the use of ultrasound for wireless communication in air, instead of using electromagnetic field wave. In order to find an advisable modulation method for ultrasound wireless communication, Amplitude modulation method and Phased modulation method has been test.
Superposed pulse amplitude modulation for visible light communication.
Li, J F; Huang, Z T; Zhang, R Q; Zeng, F X; Jiang, M; Ji, Y F
2013-12-16
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel modulation scheme called superposed pulse amplitude modulation (SPAM) which is low-cost, insensitive to non-linearity of light emitting diode (LED). Multiple optical pulses transmit parallelly from different spatial position in the LED array and overlap linearly in free space to realize SPAM. With LED arrangement, the experimental results show that using the modulation we proposed the data rate of 120 Mbit/s with BER 1 × 10(-3) can be achieved with an optical blue filter and RC post-equalization. PMID:24514674
Computational evaluation of amplitude modulation for enhanced magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.
Soetaert, Frederik; Dupré, Luc; Ivkov, Robert; Crevecoeur, Guillaume
2015-10-01
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can interact with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) to deposit localized energy for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Hyperthermia is useful in the context of multimodality treatments with radiation or chemotherapy to enhance disease control without increased toxicity. The unique attributes of heat deposition and transfer with MNPs have generated considerable attention and have been the focus of extensive investigations to elucidate mechanisms and optimize performance. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations are often conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the Pennes' bioheat equation. In the current study, the Pennes' equation was modified to include a thermal damage-dependent perfusion profile to improve model predictions with respect to known physiological responses to tissue heating. A normal distribution of MNPs in a model liver tumor was combined with empirical nanoparticle heating data to calculate tumor temperature distributions and resulting survival fraction of cancer cells. In addition, calculated spatiotemporal temperature changes were compared among magnetic field amplitude modulations of a base 150-kHz sinusoidal waveform, specifically, no modulation, sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular modulation. Complex relationships were observed between nanoparticle heating and cancer tissue damage when amplitude modulation and damage-related perfusion profiles were varied. These results are tantalizing and motivate further exploration of amplitude modulation as a means to enhance efficiency of and overcome technical challenges associated with magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH). PMID:26351900
Response of plasmonic terahertz detectors to amplitude modulated signals
Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Shur, Michael
2015-09-01
We present theoretical study of the response of two-dimensional gated electron gas to an amplitude modulated signals with carrier frequency in the terahertz range. The model is based on complete hydrodynamic equations, and includes effects of viscosity, pressure gradients and thermal transport in the conduction channel of a high electron mobility semiconductor transistor (HEMT). The modulation response was evaluated as a function of modulation frequency fM for a wide range of mobility values. Maximum modulation frequency fMAX was evaluated as a function of channel mobility, with typical values of fMAX in the subterahertz range of frequencies. Our analysis shows that short channel field effect transistors operating in the plasmonic regime can meet all the requirements for applications as terahertz detectors and modulators in ultra high-speed wireless communication circuits.
About the Phasor Pathways in Analogical Amplitude Modulation
de Oliveira, H M
2015-01-01
The Phasor diagrams have long been used in Physics and Engineering. In telecommunications, this is particularly useful to clarify how the modulations work. This paper addresses rotating phasor pathways derived from different standard Amplitude Modulation Systems (e.g. A3E, H3E, J3E, C3F). A cornucopia of algebraic curves is then derived assuming a single tone or a double tone modulation signal. The ratio of the frequency of the tone modulator (fm) and carrier frequency (fc) is considered in two distinct cases, namely: fm/fc=1. The geometric figures are some sort of Lissajours figures. Different shapes appear looking like epicycloids (including cardioids), rhodonea curves, Lemniscates, folium of Descartes or Lam\\'e curves. The role played by the modulation index is elucidated in each case.
Pulse Amplitude and Delay Modulation: Design and performance analysis
Slaiman, Iskandar; Tang, Tong Boon; Hamid, Nor Hisham
2015-06-01
Power efficient modulation techniques have previously been proposed to provide the uplink in visible light communication systems. However, such techniques have poor bandwidth utilization as multiple bits are mapped to single narrow pulse. When the bandwidth is limited, it has been found that degradation in optical power becomes very high and data rate poor. In this paper we introduce a new modulation technique called Pulse Amplitude and Delay Modulation (PADM). We compare its performance with Dual Header Pulse Interval Modulation (DH-PIM) that has the best reported bandwidth efficiency. Experiment results show that the data rate could be enhanced from 3.2 kps to 4.3 kbs using a red link (640 nm) under same error rate. This suggests PADM has better bandwidth efficiency than DH-PIM.
Amplitude modulation control of escape from a potential well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacón, R. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Martínez García-Hoz, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13400 Almadén (Ciudad Real) (Spain); Miralles, J.J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez, P.J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, E.I.N.A., Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)
2014-03-01
We demonstrate the effectiveness of periodic amplitude modulations in controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well through the universal model of a damped Helmholtz oscillator subjected to an external periodic excitation (the escape-inducing excitation) whose amplitude is periodically modulated (the escape-controlling excitation). Analytical and numerical results show that this multiplicative control works reliably for different subharmonic resonances between the two periodic excitations involved, and that its effectiveness is comparable to those of different methods of additive control. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of the multiplicative control against the presence of low-intensity Gaussian noise. -- Highlights: •Multiplicative control of escape from a potential well has been demonstrated. •Theoretical predictions are obtained from a Melnikov analysis. •It has been shown the robustness of the multiplicative control against noise.
Amplitude Modulation in the ZZ Ceti Star GD 244
Bognár, Zs.; Paparó, M.; Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Sódor, Á.
2015-06-01
Previous studies of GD 244 revealed seven pulsation frequencies (two doublets and three single periods) in the light variations of the star. The data obtained at McDonald Observatory between 2003 and 2006, and our additional measurements in 2006 and 2007 at Konkoly Observatory, allow the investigation of the long-term pulsational behaviour of GD 244. We found that the 307.1 s period component of one of the doublets show long-term, periodic amplitude modulation with a time scale of ˜ 740 days. Possible explanations are that nonlinear resonant mode coupling is operating among the rotationally split frequency components, or two modes, unresolved in the yearly data are excited at ˜ 307.1 s. This is the first time that such long-term periodic amplitude modulation is published on a ZZ Ceti star.
Amplitude Modulation in the ZZ Ceti Star GD 244
Bognár, Zs; Molnár, L; Plachy, E; Sódor, Á
2015-01-01
Previous studies of GD 244 revealed seven pulsation frequencies (two doublets and three single periods) in the light variations of the star. The data obtained at McDonald Observatory between 2003 and 2006, and our additional measurements in 2006 and 2007 at Konkoly Observatory, allow the investigation of the long-term pulsational behaviour of GD 244. We found that the 307.1 s period component of one of the doublets show long-term, periodic amplitude modulation with a time scale of ~740 days. Possible explanations are that nonlinear resonant mode coupling is operating among the rotationally split frequency components, or two modes, unresolved in the yearly data are excited at ~307.1 s. This is the first time that such long-term periodic amplitude modulation is published on a ZZ Ceti star.
Optical field terahertz amplitude modulation by graphene nanoribbons
Zhang, Hong; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Cheng, Xinlu; Rubio, Angel
2015-11-01
In this study, first-principles time-dependent density functional theory calculations were used to demonstrate the possibility to modulate the amplitude of the optical electric field (E-field) near a semiconducting graphene nanoribbon. A significant enhancement of the optical E-field was observed 3.34 Å above the graphene nanoribbon sheet, with an amplitude modulation of approximately 100 fs, which corresponds to a frequency of 10 THz. In general, a six-fold E-field enhancement could be obtained, which means that the power of the obtained THz is about 36 times that of incident UV light. We suggest the use of semiconducting graphene nanoribbons for converting visible and UV light into a THz signal.
Multi-hit time-to-amplitude CAMAC module (MTAC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Multi-Hit Time-to-Amplitude Module (MTAC) for the SLAC Mark III drift chamber system has been designed to measure drift time by converting time-proportional chamber signals into analog levels, and converting the analog data by slow readout via a semi-autonomous controller in a CAMAC crate. The single width CAMAC module has 16 wire channels, each with a 4-hit capacity. An externally generated common start initiates an internal precision ramp voltage which is then sampled using a novel shift register gating scheme and CMOS sampling switches. The detailed design and performance specifications are described
Vlasov simulation of amplitude-modulated Langmuir waves
Umeda, Takayuki
2006-09-01
Mechanisms for the generation of Langmuir wave packets are studied by performing a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present simulation of a weak-electron-beam instability without ion dynamics suggests two new processes for the amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves. The beam instability excites Langmuir modes over a wide wave number range, but the saturation of the most unstable Langmuir mode "filters" the growth of sideband modes. Specific upper and lower sideband modes linearly grow to a high saturation level. Then the primary Langmuir mode is amplified and strongly modulated through interaction with the sideband modes.
Vlasov simulation of amplitude-modulated Langmuir waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mechanisms for the generation of Langmuir wave packets are studied by performing a one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation. The present simulation of a weak-electron-beam instability without ion dynamics suggests two new processes for the amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves. The beam instability excites Langmuir modes over a wide wave number range, but the saturation of the most unstable Langmuir mode 'filters' the growth of sideband modes. Specific upper and lower sideband modes linearly grow to a high saturation level. Then the primary Langmuir mode is amplified and strongly modulated through interaction with the sideband modes
Amplitude modulation of atomic wave functions. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The major theoretical advance has been to show that one can modulate Rydberg wave functions using either of two methods: (1) the amplitude modulation technique which depends on autoionization to deplete part of the wave function, or (2) a phase modulation method, which uses a change in the core potential to create a localized phase shift in the wave function. Essentially, these two methods can both be seen as using the core potential to change the Rydberg wave function, using the imaginary part of the potential to do amplitude modulation, or using the real part of the potential to do phase modulation. This work will be published as the authors acquire experimental results which show the differences between the two methods. One of the results of this theoretical study is that the initial proposal to study Barium 6snd states had a significant flaw. Neither the autoionization time, nor the quantum defect shifts are very large in these cases. This means that the modulation is relatively small. This shows itself primarily in the difficulty of seeing significant population redistribution into different 6snd states. The authors intend to correct this in the next funding cycle either: (a) by using the more quickly decaying Ba 6pnf states to modulate 6snd states, or (b) by using Sr 5 snd states, as outlined in this report. Their first, low power experiments are complete. These experiments have used two pulses to do a temporal version of the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields excitation. The two pulses are generated by passing the single pulse through a Michelson-Morley interferometer, which is computer controlled to sweep one arm through 2.5 microm in steps of 10 nm. The second pulse's excitation interferes with that of the first pulse, and so the total excitation has a sinusoidal variation (with a time period equal to the optical period) on top of a constant background. The amplitude of the total variation should decay at half of the rate decay rate of the autoionizing state, so this produces a time-resolved measurement of the very rapid autoionization decay. Although this does not yet show that the atom stores modulations in the bound coherent state, it does demonstrate that the atom can be excited to an autoionizing state with high efficiency, and then brought back to a bound state at a later time. The second set of experiments takes the previous work to the strong coupling regime
Dispersion interferometer using modulation amplitudes on LHD (invited)
Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K.
2014-11-01
Since a dispersion interferometer is insensitive to mechanical vibrations, a vibration compensation system is not necessary. The CO2 laser dispersion interferometer with phase modulations on the Large Helical Device utilizes the new phase extraction method which uses modulation amplitudes and can improve a disadvantage of the original dispersion interferometer: measurement errors caused by variations of detected intensities. The phase variation within ±2 × 1017 m-3 is obtained without vibration compensation system. The measured line averaged electron density with the dispersion interferometer shows good agreement with that with the existing far infrared laser interferometer. Fringe jump errors in high density ranging up to 1.5 × 1020 m-3 can be overcome by a sufficient sampling rate of about 100 kHz.
Dispersion interferometer using modulation amplitudes on LHD (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akiyama, T., E-mail: takiyama@lhd.nifs.ac.jp; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-shi, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K. [Chubu University, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai-shi, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)
2014-11-15
Since a dispersion interferometer is insensitive to mechanical vibrations, a vibration compensation system is not necessary. The CO{sub 2} laser dispersion interferometer with phase modulations on the Large Helical Device utilizes the new phase extraction method which uses modulation amplitudes and can improve a disadvantage of the original dispersion interferometer: measurement errors caused by variations of detected intensities. The phase variation within Â±2 Ã— 10{sup 17} m{sup âˆ’3} is obtained without vibration compensation system. The measured line averaged electron density with the dispersion interferometer shows good agreement with that with the existing far infrared laser interferometer. Fringe jump errors in high density ranging up to 1.5 Ã— 10{sup 20} m{sup âˆ’3} can be overcome by a sufficient sampling rate of about 100 kHz.
Amplitude and polarization modulated hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy.
Andreana, Marco; Houle, Marie-Andrée; Moffatt, Douglas J; Ridsdale, Andrew; Buettner, Edlef; Légaré, François; Stolow, Albert
2015-11-01
We present a simple hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy method based on spectral focusing of chirped femtosecond pulses, combined with amplitude (AM) and polarization (PM) modulation. This approach permits the imaging of low concentration components with reduced background signals, combined with good hyperspectral resolution and rapid spectral scanning. We demonstrate, using PM-SRS in a Raman loss configuration, the spectrally resolved detection of deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) at concentrations as low as 0.039 % (5.5 mM). In general, background signals due to cross-phase modulation (XPM), two-photon absorption (TPA) and thermal lensing (TL) can reduce the contrast in SRS microscopy. We show that the nonresonant background signal contributing to the SRS signal is, in our case, largely due to XPM. Polarization modulation of the Stokes beam eliminates the nonresonant XPM background, yielding high quality hyperspectral scans at low analyte concentration. The flexibility of our combined AM-PM approach, together with the use of variable modulation frequency and lock-in phase, should allow for optimization of SRS imaging in more complex samples. PMID:26561083
Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)
Cusack, B J; Shaddock, D A; Gray, M B; Lam, P K; Whitcomb, S E; Cusack, Benedict J; Gray, Malcolm B; Lam, Ping Koy; Shaddock, Daniel A; Sheard, Benjamin S; Whitcomb, Stan E
2003-01-01
We report on the analysis and prototype-characterization of a dual-electrode electro-optic modulator that can generate both amplitude and phase modulations with a selectable relative phase, termed a universally tunable modulator (UTM). All modulation states can be reached by tuning only the electrical inputs, facilitating real-time tuning, and the device is shown to have good suppression and stability properties. A mathematical analysis is presented, including the development of a geometric phase representation for modulation. The experimental characterization of the device shows that relative suppressions of 38 dB, 39 dB and 30 dB for phase, single-sideband and carrier-suppressed modulations, respectively, can be obtained, as well as showing the device is well-behaved when scanning continuously through the parameter space of modulations. Uses for the device are discussed, including the tuning of lock points in optical locking schemes, single sideband applications, modulation fast-switching applications, and ...
External and internal limitations in amplitude-modulation processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten
2004-01-01
Three experiments are presented to explore the relative role of "external" signal variability and "internal" resolution limitations of the auditory system in the detection and discrimination of amplitude modulations (AM). In the first experiment, AM-depth discrimination performance was determined using sinusoidally modulated broadband-noise and pure-tone carriers. The AM index, m, of the standard ranged from -28 to -3 dB (expressed as 20 log m). AM-depth discrimination thresholds were found to be a fraction of the AM depth of the standard for standards down to -18 dB, in the case of the pure-tone carrier, and down to -8 dB, in the case of the broadband-noise carrier. For smaller standards, AM-depth discrimination required a fixed increase in AM depth, independent of the AM depth of the standard. In the second experiment, AM-detection thresholds were obtained for signal-modulation frequencies of 4, 16, 64, and 256 Hz, applied to either a band-limited random-noise carrier or a deterministic ("frozen") noise carrier, as a function of carrier bandwidth (8 to 2048 Hz). In general, detection thresholds were higher for the random- than for the frozen-noise carriers. For both carrier types, thresholds followed the pattern expected from frequency-selective processing of the stimulus envelope. The third experiment investigated AM masking at 4, 16, and 64 Hz in the presence of a narrow-band masker modulation. The variability of the masker was changed from entirely frozen to entirely random, while the long-term average envelope power spectrum was held constant. The experiment examined the validity of a long-term average quantity as the decision variable, and the role of memory in experiments with frozen-noise maskers. The empirical results were compared to predictions obtained with two modulation-filterbank models. The predictions revealed that AM-depth discrimination and AM detection are limited by a combination of the external signal variability and an internal "Weber-fraction" noise process.
nipi delta-doping superlattices for amplitude modulation
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
C. V.-B., Tribuzy; S. M., Landi; M. P., Pires; R., Butendeich; P. L., Souza; A. C., Bittencourt; G. E., Marques; A. B., Henriques.
2002-06-01
Full Text Available GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures containing an nipi delta-doping superlattice, where the n-type doping is inserted in the quantum wells and the p-type in the barriers, have been studied in detail to evaluate their potential for use in the fabrication of amplitude modulators. It is shown [...] that C is an adequate p-type dopant for such structures, however, little exibility is found in the growth conditions, in particular for the V to III uxes ratio, for obtaining such layers. It is also observed that the required balance between n and p type doping levels is not trivial to be achieved due to the presence of interface hole traps whose population depends on the quantum well doping concentration. In addition, the observed photoluminescence near-edge emission at room temperature occurs at essentially the same energy as that of an equivalent undoped structure. Finally, no deep level emissions are observed which could deteriorate the device performance.
Ma, Zong-Min; Mu, Ji-Liang; Tang, Jun; XUE, HUI; ZHANG, Huan; Xue, Chen-Yang; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan-jun
2013-01-01
In this paper, the potential sensitivity in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was investigated in frequency modulation (FM) and heterodyne amplitude modulation (AM) modes. We showed theoretically that the minimum detectable contact potential difference (CPD) in FM-KPFM is higher than in heterodyne AM-KPFM. We experimentally confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in FM-KPFM is lower than that in heterodyne AM-KPFM, which is due to the higher minimum detectable CPD dependence in FM-KPFM. W...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper
2009-01-01
We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors.......We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors....
All-optical $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric amplitude to phase modulator
GutiÃ©rrez, Oscar Ignacio Zaragoza; RodrÃguez-Lara, B M
2015-01-01
We study electromagnetic field propagation through a planar three-waveguide coupler with linear gain and loss, in a configuration that is the optical analog of a quantum $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric system, and provide its closed-form analytic propagator. At an specific propagation length, we show that the device provides all-optical amplitude to phase modulation with a $\\pi$ modulation range, if an extra binary phase is allowed in the reference signal, as well as phase to amplitude modulation, with an amplitude modulation range that depends linearly on the gain-to-coupling ratio of the system.
Stepp, Cara E; Matsuoka, Yoky
2012-01-01
Incorporating sensory feedback with prosthetic devices is now possible, but the optimal methods of providing such feedback are still unknown. The relative utility of amplitude and pulse train frequency modulated stimulation paradigms for providing vibrotactile feedback for object manipulation was assessed in 10 participants. The two approaches were studied during virtual object manipulation using a robotic interface as a function of presentation order and a simultaneous cognitive load. Despite the potential pragmatic benefits associated with pulse train frequency modulated vibrotactile stimulation, comparison of the approach with amplitude modulation indicates that amplitude modulation vibrotactile stimulation provides superior feedback for object manipulation. PMID:21997322
Trellis-coded pulse amplitude modulation for indoor visible light communication
Wang, Yu; Yang, Aiying; Wu, Yongsheng; Feng, Lihui; Sun, Yu-nan; Li, Yankun
2013-12-01
Trellis-coded pulse-amplitude modulation (TC-PAM) is applied in visible light communication (VLC) system using RGB-LED. Based on natural modulation, we propose a modified modulation to yield performance enhancement. Further, a decoding method of combing soft-decision Viterbi algorithm with most significant bit (MSB) decoding is developed. Finally, the results of Monte-Carlo simulation are presented to verify the best modulation and decoding method among the mentioned modulation and decoding techniques.
Observations on auditory learning in amplitude- and frequency-modulation rate discrimination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Pablo F.
2010-01-01
Because amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds can be the basis for the synthesis of many complex sounds, they can be good candidates in the design of training systems aiming at improving the acquisition of perceptual skills that can benefit from information provided via the auditory channel. One of the key issues when designing such training systems is in the assessment of transfer of learning. In this study we present data on the learning of an auditory task involving sinusoidal amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. Modulation rate discrimination thresholds were measured during pre-training, training, a post-training stages. During training, listeners were divided into two groups; one group trained on amplitude-modulation rate discrimination and the other group trained on frequency-modulation rate discrimination. Results will be discussed in terms of their implications for training applications by addressing the transfer of learning across carrier frequency, modulation rate, and modulation type.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel microcomputer-based ultrasonic distance measurement system is presented. This study proposes an efficient algorithm which combines both the amplitude modulation (AM) and the phase modulation (PM) of the pulse-echo technique. The proposed system can reduce error caused by inertia delay and amplitude attenuation effect when using the AM and PM envelope square wave form (APESW). The APESW ultrasonic driving wave form causes a phase inversion phenomenon in the relative wave form of the receiver. The phase inversion phenomenon sufficiently identifies the ''measurement pulse'' in the received wave forms, which can be used for accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In addition, combining a countertechnique to compute the phase shifts of the last cycle for TOF, the presented system can obtain distance resolution of 0.1% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency of the ultrasonic wave. The standard uncertainty of the proposed distance measurement system is found to be 0.2 mm at a range of 50-500 mm. The APESW signal generator and phase detector of this measuring system are designed on a complex programmable logic device, which is used to govern the TOF measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The main advantages of this APESW system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation
Transport Enhancement of Irregular Optical Lattices with Polychromatic Amplitude Modulation
Pepino, R. A.; Teh, W. P.; Magness, L. J.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that the transport characteristics of deep optical lattices with one or multiple off-resonant external energy offsets can be greatly-enhanced by modulating the lattice depth in an exotic way. We derive effective stationary models for our proposed modulation schemes in the strongly interacting limit, where only one particle can occupy any given site. Afterwards we discuss the modifications necessary to recover transport when more than one particle may occupy the lattice sites. F...
Multisensory interaction in vibrotactile detection and discrimination of amplitude modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Kinneret; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Korman, Maria
synthesized auditory cues in groups of naive subjects and expert surgeons. Our results point toward the complex influence of multimodal experience during vibration perception. First, in naive subjects, we showed that detection and discrimination of amplitude change in complex vibro-tactile stimulus is...... skill of maxilla-facial surgery strongly relies on enhanced touch perception, as measured in reaction times and discrimination ability in bi-modal vibro-auditory conditions. These observations suggest that acquisition of mandibular surgery skill has brought to an enhanced representation of vibro-tactile......Perception of vibration during drilling demands integration of haptic and auditory information with force information. In this study we explored the ability to detect and discriminate changes in vibrotactile stimuli amplitude based either on purely haptic feedback or together with congruent...
Uncovering signals from measurement noise by electro mechanical amplitude modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an electromechanical parametric scheme to improve the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio of energy buffering type transducers. The method is based on periodic modulation of the stiffness in the sensory system which produces upconverted replicas of the signals of interest at frequencies where measurement is less troubled by noise or other detrimental effects. We demonstrate this principle by means of capacitive biomimetic hair flow sensors, where we modulate the rotational spring stiffness by periodic electrostatic spring softening, such that a replica of the original signal is formed around the modulation frequency. Using this replica we gain up to a 25-fold improvement of the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio and sensing threshold. For transient measurements we demonstrate that tiny signals, which are below the noise-levels in the base-band, are revealed well when upconverted to higher frequencies. (paper)
Uncovering signals from measurement noise by electro mechanical amplitude modulation
Droogendijk, H.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Krijnen, G. J. M.
2013-05-01
We present an electromechanical parametric scheme to improve the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio of energy buffering type transducers. The method is based on periodic modulation of the stiffness in the sensory system which produces upconverted replicas of the signals of interest at frequencies where measurement is less troubled by noise or other detrimental effects. We demonstrate this principle by means of capacitive biomimetic hair flow sensors, where we modulate the rotational spring stiffness by periodic electrostatic spring softening, such that a replica of the original signal is formed around the modulation frequency. Using this replica we gain up to a 25-fold improvement of the low-frequency signal-to-noise ratio and sensing threshold. For transient measurements we demonstrate that tiny signals, which are below the noise-levels in the base-band, are revealed well when upconverted to higher frequencies.
Dugué, Pierre; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard
2007-01-01
Amplitude modulation is an important feature of communication sounds. A phenomenological model of the auditory pathway that reproduces amplitude modulation coding from the outer ear to the inferior colliculus is presented. It is based on Hewitt and Meddis' work. To improve the temporal coding for high level stimuli, high spontaneous rate and low spontaneous rate auditory nerve fibers innervate chopper cells of the cochlear nucleus. Wideband inhibitory interneurons which limit high spontaneous...
Amplitude control of solid-state modulators for precision fast kicker applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beam centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL. (author)
Amplitude Control of Solid-State Modulators for Precision Fast Kicker Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beam centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pokorný, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Huta?, Pavel
Vol. C. Amsterdam : Elsevier Ltd, 2015 - (Papuga, J.; Ruži?ka, M.), s. 380-385 ISSN 1877-7058. - (Procedia Engineering. 101). [VAL 2015 - International Conference on Material and Component Performance under Variable Amplitude Loading /3./. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2015-26.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack * EA4T Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187770581500644X
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Zhang, Zhe
2013-01-01
Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considering...
A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...
Plasma based optical guiding of an amplitude-modulated electromagnetic beam
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.
2015-06-01
We propose the stronger optical guiding of an electromagnetic beam in a plasma by considering the amplitude modulation of the fundamental beam. With the advent of high power source of electromagnetic radiation, the electron velocity in a plasma may become quite large (comparable to the light velocity in free space). Thus, the effect of relativistic mass variation must be taken into account. The relativistic effect of the laser propagation in a plasma leads to self-focusing because of the dielectric constant of a plasma being an increasing function of the intensity. The ponderomotive force of the laser beam pushes the electrons out of the region of high intensity, which reduces the local electron density and increases the plasma dielectric function further, leading to even more selffocusing of the laser. In this work, we consider a short pulse laser of finite spot size as an amplitude modulation in time. Our findings show an efficient optical guiding mechanism based on amplitude modulation signal propagation in plasmas. Medium nonlinearity becomes stronger if an amplitude modulated beam is introduced, which contributes significantly in laser guiding in plasmas. Furthermore, the rate of laser self-focusing is increased with modulation index due the fact of stronger Kerr effect. The study related to amplitude modulated optical signal may be useful for communication technology.
Basic causes of amplitude modulation in climatic/weather parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The continuous interaction between the Earth's spinning motion and energy from the Sun gives rise to some (heat) energy oscillations in the Earth-atmosphere system (Njau, 1985a; 1985b; 1986a; 1986b). Recent results of large scale analysis of East African climatic records have proved that these oscillations significantly link the Sun to climatic/weather variations by systematically modulating key climatic/weather parameters like rainfall and air temperature (Njau, 1987a; 1987b; 1987c; 1987e; 1987f). In this paper, we re-develop the latter proof using a very different approach based upon theoretical analysis. The analysis has confirmed a general law suggested earlier (Njau, 1987d), that, with an exception of the diurnal cycle, any permanent cycle in the net solar energy incident upon a given part of the Earth-Atmosphere system gives rise to a quasi-permanent cycle whose period is approximately twice that of the former. Quasi-biennial as well as double sunspot cycles are shown to be a possible result of this general law. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Extending single molecule fluorescence observation time by amplitude-modulated excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a hardware-based method that can improve single molecule fluorophore observation time by up to 1500% and super-localization by 47% for the experimental conditions used. The excitation was modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) synchronized to the data acquisition and inherent data conversion time of the detector. The observation time and precision in super-localization of four commonly used fluorophores were compared under modulated and traditional continuous excitation, including direct total internal reflectance excitation of Alexa 555 and Cy3, non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) excited Cy5, and direct epi-fluorescence wide field excitation of Rhodamine 6G. The proposed amplitude-modulated excitation does not perturb the chemical makeup of the system or sacrifice signal and is compatible with multiple types of fluorophores. Amplitude-modulated excitation has practical applications for any fluorescent study utilizing an instrumental setup with time-delayed detectors. (technical note)
Analysis of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in aqueous salt solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karayaylal?, P?nar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Baykara, Mehmet Z., E-mail: mehmet.baykara@bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)
2014-11-01
Highlights: • Imaging contrast during AM-AFM performed in salt solutions is numerically analyzed. • Imaging contrast is only marginally improved (?15%) at high amplitude setpoints. • Sample indentation and maximum interaction force values remain relatively unaffected. - Abstract: We present a numerical analysis of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in aqueous salt solutions, by considering the interaction of the microscope tip with a model sample surface consisting of a hard substrate and soft biological material through Hertz and electrostatic double layer forces. Despite the significant improvements reported in the literature concerning contact-mode atomic force microscopy measurements of biological material due to electrostatic interactions in aqueous solutions, our results reveal that only modest gains of ?15% in imaging contrast at high amplitude setpoints are expected under typical experimental conditions for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, together with relatively unaffected sample indentation and maximum tip–sample interaction values.
Analysis of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in aqueous salt solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Imaging contrast during AM-AFM performed in salt solutions is numerically analyzed. • Imaging contrast is only marginally improved (?15%) at high amplitude setpoints. • Sample indentation and maximum interaction force values remain relatively unaffected. - Abstract: We present a numerical analysis of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in aqueous salt solutions, by considering the interaction of the microscope tip with a model sample surface consisting of a hard substrate and soft biological material through Hertz and electrostatic double layer forces. Despite the significant improvements reported in the literature concerning contact-mode atomic force microscopy measurements of biological material due to electrostatic interactions in aqueous solutions, our results reveal that only modest gains of ?15% in imaging contrast at high amplitude setpoints are expected under typical experimental conditions for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, together with relatively unaffected sample indentation and maximum tip–sample interaction values
Encoding and decoding amplitude-modulated cochlear implant stimuli--a point process analysis.
Goldwyn, Joshua H; Shea-Brown, Eric; Rubinstein, Jay T
2010-06-01
Cochlear implant speech processors stimulate the auditory nerve by delivering amplitude-modulated electrical pulse trains to intracochlear electrodes. Studying how auditory nerve cells encode modulation information is of fundamental importance, therefore, to understanding cochlear implant function and improving speech perception in cochlear implant users. In this paper, we analyze simulated responses of the auditory nerve to amplitude-modulated cochlear implant stimuli using a point process model. First, we quantify the information encoded in the spike trains by testing an ideal observer's ability to detect amplitude modulation in a two-alternative forced-choice task. We vary the amount of information available to the observer to probe how spike timing and averaged firing rate encode modulation. Second, we construct a neural decoding method that predicts several qualitative trends observed in psychophysical tests of amplitude modulation detection in cochlear implant listeners. We find that modulation information is primarily available in the sequence of spike times. The performance of an ideal observer, however, is inconsistent with observed trends in psychophysical data. Using a neural decoding method that jitters spike times to degrade its temporal resolution and then computes a common measure of phase locking from spike trains of a heterogeneous population of model nerve cells, we predict the correct qualitative dependence of modulation detection thresholds on modulation frequency and stimulus level. The decoder does not predict the observed loss of modulation sensitivity at high carrier pulse rates, but this framework can be applied to future models that better represent auditory nerve responses to high carrier pulse rate stimuli. The supplemental material of this article contains the article's data in an active, re-usable format. PMID:20177761
Superpixel-based spatial amplitude and phase modulation using a digital micromirror device
Sebastianus A. Goorden; Jacopo Bertolotti; Allard P. Mosk
2014-01-01
We present a superpixel method for full spatial phase and amplitude control of a light beam using a digital micromirror device (DMD) combined with a spatial filter. We combine square regions of nearby micromirrors into superpixels by low pass filtering in a Fourier plane of the DMD. At each superpixel we are able to independently modulate the phase and the amplitude of light, while retaining a high resolution and the very high speed of a DMD. The method achieves a measured f...
Observations on auditory learning in amplitude- and frequency-modulation rate discrimination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Pablo F.
2010-01-01
Because amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds can be the basis for the synthesis of many complex sounds, they can be good candidates in the design of training systems aiming at improving the acquisition of perceptual skills that can benefit from information provided via the auditory channel. One of the key issues when designing such training systems is in the assessment of transfer of learning. In this study we present data on the learning of an auditory task involving sinusoidal amplitude- ...
Amplitude modulation of sound from wind turbines under various meteorological conditions.
Larsson, Conny; Öhlund, Olof
2014-01-01
Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated "swishing" characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood. PMID:24437746
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silicon has been machined on lateral resolutions of micrometers and on depth resolutions of nanometers using a recently-developed process based on ion irradiation and electrochemical anodisation. Here we investigate its use as a recording medium for computer generated hologram patterns. We describe the fabrication of both amplitude and phase binary modulated reflective computer generated hologram patterns on a silicon surface with pixel sizes of 5 ?m. We further discuss the use of micromachined silicon to variably modulate both amplitude and phase in a continuous, rather than a binary fashion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ow, Y.S., E-mail: g0601170@nus.edu.s [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H.; Leng, Y.R.; Azimi, S.; Teo, E.J. [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)
2010-05-01
Silicon has been machined on lateral resolutions of micrometers and on depth resolutions of nanometers using a recently-developed process based on ion irradiation and electrochemical anodisation. Here we investigate its use as a recording medium for computer generated hologram patterns. We describe the fabrication of both amplitude and phase binary modulated reflective computer generated hologram patterns on a silicon surface with pixel sizes of 5 mum. We further discuss the use of micromachined silicon to variably modulate both amplitude and phase in a continuous, rather than a binary fashion.
Characterizing Alzheimer’s Disease Severity via Resting-Awake EEG Amplitude Modulation Analysis
Fraga, Francisco J.; Falk, Tiago H.; Kanda, Paulo A. M.; Anghinah, Renato
2013-01-01
Changes in electroencephalography (EEG) amplitude modulations have recently been linked with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Existing tools available to perform such analysis (e.g., detrended fluctuation analysis), however, provide limited gains in discriminability power over traditional spectral based EEG analysis. In this paper, we explore the use of an innovative EEG amplitude modulation analysis technique based on spectro-temporal signal processing. More specifically, full-band EEG signals are first decomposed into the five well-known frequency bands and the envelopes are then extracted via a Hilbert transform. Each of the five envelopes are further decomposed into four so-called modulation bands, which were chosen to coincide with the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Experiments on a resting-awake EEG dataset collected from 76 participants (27 healthy controls, 27 diagnosed with mild-AD, and 22 with moderate-AD) showed significant differences in amplitude modulations between the three groups. Most notably, i) delta modulation of the beta frequency band disappeared with an increase in disease severity (from mild to moderate AD), ii) delta modulation of the theta band appeared with an increase in severity, and iii) delta modulation of the beta frequency band showed to be a reliable discriminant feature between healthy controls and mild-AD patients. Taken together, it is hoped that the developed tool can be used to assist clinicians not only with early detection of Alzheimer’s disease, but also to monitor its progression. PMID:24015222
Human Neuromagnetic Steady-State Responses to Amplitude-Modulated Tones, Speech, and Music
Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta
2014-01-01
Objectives: Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears’ inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very complex, as they include many frequency components, pauses, and large temporal variations. To examine the utility of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) steady-state fields (SSFs) in the study of early cortical processing of complex natural sounds, the authors tested the extent to which amplitude-modulated speech and music can elicit reliable SSFs. Design: MEG responses were recorded to 90-s-long binaural tones, speech, and music, amplitude-modulated at 41.1 Hz at four different depths (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The subjects were 11 healthy, normal-hearing adults. MEG signals were averaged in phase with the modulation frequency, and the sources of the resulting SSFs were modeled by current dipoles. After the MEG recording, intelligibility of the speech, musical quality of the music stimuli, naturalness of music and speech stimuli, and the perceived deterioration caused by the modulation were evaluated on visual analog scales. Results: The perceived quality of the stimuli decreased as a function of increasing modulation depth, more strongly for music than speech; yet, all subjects considered the speech intelligible even at the 100% modulation. SSFs were the strongest to tones and the weakest to speech stimuli; the amplitudes increased with increasing modulation depth for all stimuli. SSFs to tones were reliably detectable at all modulation depths (in all subjects in the right hemisphere, in 9 subjects in the left hemisphere) and to music stimuli at 50 to 100% depths, whereas speech usually elicited clear SSFs only at 100% depth. The hemispheric balance of SSFs was toward the right hemisphere for tones and speech, whereas SSFs to music showed no lateralization. In addition, the right lateralization of SSFs to the speech stimuli decreased with decreasing modulation depth. Conclusions: The results showed that SSFs can be reliably measured to amplitude-modulated natural sounds, with slightly different hemispheric lateralization for different carrier sounds. With speech stimuli, modulation at 100% depth is required, whereas for music the 75% or even 50% modulation depths provide a reasonable compromise between the signal-to-noise ratio of SSFs and sound quality or perceptual requirements. SSF recordings thus seem feasible for assessing the early cortical processing of natural sounds. PMID:24603544
Focusing through a turbid medium by amplitude modulation with genetic algorithm
Dai, Weijia; Peng, Ligen; Shao, Xiaopeng
2014-05-01
Multiple scattering of light in opaque materials such as white paint and human tissue forms a volume speckle field, will greatly reduce the imaging depth and degrade the imaging quality. A novel approach is proposed to focus light through a turbid medium using amplitude modulation with genetic algorithm (GA) from speckle patterns. Compared with phase modulation method, amplitude modulation approach, in which the each element of spatial light modulator (SLM) is either zero or one, is much easier to achieve. Theoretical and experimental results show that, the advantage of GA is more suitable for low the signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments in comparison to the existing amplitude control algorithms such as binary amplitude modulation. The circular Gaussian distribution model and Rayleigh Sommerfeld diffraction theory are employed in our simulations to describe the turbid medium and light propagation between optical devices, respectively. It is demonstrated that the GA technique can achieve a higher overall enhancement, and converge much faster than others, and outperform all algorithms at high noise. Focusing through a turbid medium has potential in the observation of cells and protein molecules in biological tissues and other structures in micro/nano scale.
Drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy: From vacuum to liquids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miriam Jaafar
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We introduce drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy as a dynamic mode with outstanding performance in all environments from vacuum to liquids. As with frequency modulation, the new mode follows a feedback scheme with two nested loops: The first keeps the cantilever oscillation amplitude constant by regulating the driving force, and the second uses the driving force as the feedback variable for topography. Additionally, a phase-locked loop can be used as a parallel feedback allowing separation of the conservative and nonconservative interactions. We describe the basis of this mode and present some examples of its performance in three different environments. Drive-amplutide modulation is a very stable, intuitive and easy to use mode that is free of the feedback instability associated with the noncontact-to-contact transition that occurs in the frequency-modulation mode.
Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Farhangi, Shahrokh; Zhang, Zhe
2013-01-01
Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considering the optimization of the CHB dc sourcesâ€™ values along with the optimized switching angles. This paper proposes a new SHE-PWAM control strategy and its realization in a drive application. Analysis and...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, Ata-ur-, E-mail: ata797@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Kerr, Michael Mc, E-mail: mjamckerr@gmail.com; Kourakis, Ioannis, E-mail: IoannisKourakisSci@gmail.com [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); El-Taibany, Wael F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. Box 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, A., E-mail: anisaqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-02-15
A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes
Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation
Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM); Axline, Jr., Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-01-04
In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.
Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation.
Wen, Zhongquan; He, Yinghu; Li, Yuyan; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang
2014-09-01
In this paper, we numerically demonstrate the advantage of utilizing continuous amplitude and phase modulation in super-oscillation focusing lens design. Numerical results show that compared with simple binary amplitude modulation, continuous amplitude and phase modulation can greatly improve the super-oscillation focusing performance by increasing the central lobe intensity and the ratio of its energy to the total energy, reducing the sidelobe intensity, and substantially extending the field of view. Our study also reveals the role of phase distribution in reducing the spatial frequency bandwidth of the super-oscillation optical field on the focal plane. Based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation, a lens was designed with double layer metal slit array for wavelength of 4.6 µm. COMSOL is used to carry out the 2D simulation. The lens focal length is 40.18? and the focal spot FWHM is 0.308?. Two largest sidelobes are located right next to the central lobe with intensity about 40% of the central lobe intensity. Except for the two sidelobes, other sidelobes have intensity less than 25% of the central lobe intensity, which leads to a clear field of view on the whole focal plane. PMID:25321591
The effects of continuous and amplitude-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic waves on calcium efflux from 45Ca preloaded frog hearts were examined. rog hearts, electrically stimulated at their natural beating frequency, were exposed for 30 min to 240 MHz radiowaves in a Crawf...
Coding of amplitude-modulated signals in the cochlear nucleus of a grass frog
Bibikov, N. G.
2002-07-01
To study the mechanisms that govern the coding of temporal features of complex sound signals, responses of single neurons located in the dorsal nucleus of the medulla oblongata (the cochlear nucleus) of a curarized grass frog ( Rana temporaria) to pure tone bursts and amplitude modulated tone bursts with a modulation frequency of 20 Hz and modulation depths of 10 and 80% were recorded. The carrier frequency was equal to the characteristic frequency of a neuron, the average signal level was 20 30 dB above the threshold, and the signal duration was equal to ten full modulation periods. Of the 133 neurons studied, 129 neurons responded to 80% modulated tone bursts by discharges that were phase-locked with the envelope waveform. At this modulation depth, the best phase locking was observed for neurons with the phasic type of response to tone bursts. For tonic neurons with low characteristic frequencies, along with the reproduction of the modulation, phase locking with the carrier frequency of the signal was observed. At 10% amplitude modulation, phasic neurons usually responded to only the onset of a tone burst. Almost all tonic units showed a tendency to reproduce the envelope, although the efficiency of the reproduction was low, and for half of these neurons, it was below the reliability limit. Some neurons exhibited a more efficient reproduction of the weak modulation. For almost half of the neurons, a reliable improvement was observed in the phase locking of the response during the tone burst presentation (from the first to the tenth modulation period). The cooperative histogram of a set of neurons responding to 10% modulated tone bursts within narrow ranges of frequencies and intensities retains the information on the dynamics of the envelope variation. The data are compared with the results obtained from the study of the responses to similar signals in the acoustic midbrain center of the same object and also with the psychophysical effect of a differential sensitivity increase in the process of adaptation.
NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.
A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications
Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul
2012-09-30
A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4Â° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latifa Lazzouni
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Cortical auditory steady-state responses to amplitude modulated tones oscillate at the stimulation rhythm and show important spectral energy peaks in temporal areas at the modulation frequencies of the stimuli. Our objective is to show that spectral peaks can be used to asses the effects of blindfolding in temporal and occipital areas and that rapid cortical reorganisation is possible after short term sensory deprivation. Stimuli were amplitude modulated tones lasting 2 seconds (standard tones. The carrier frequency was 1000 Hz, at 2 modulation frequencies. Stimuli were presented monaurally left, right and binaurally (39 Hz right ear, 41 Hz left ear. Six subjects discriminated a deviant tone occurring 10% of the time, right hand pressing a button. The deviant differed from the standard by its carrier frequency (950 Hz and duration (150ms. Subject were tested a day before the blindfolding procedure for the control condition. The next day they were blindfolded using a night mask for a period of six hours. MEG data were recorded with a 275 channel whole head system. For each subject, 200 two-second epochs (pre-processed for ocular artefacts and baseline corrected were averaged and band-pass filtered (30-48 Hz to obtain Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSR. Spectral analysis was performed using Fast Fourier Transformations. Peaks at the modulation frequencies were calculated on the sensors covering the left and right temporal and occipital areas for each subject and condition. Statistical analyses used repeated measures ANOVA testing for factors: Area (temporal, occipital, Delay (before, after deprivation and Hemisphere (left, right. Results showed that spectral peaks in the temporal areas were significantly larger than those in the occipital areas. Moreover, there was a modulation of the peak amplitudes of the ASSR responses after a blindfold of six hours. A significant Area/Delay effect was also found with peaks in the occipital areas being larger after blindfolding. A significant Area/Hemisphere effect showed larger responses in the right hemisphere. In conclusion, we used spectral energy of the ASSR to amplitude modulated tones before and after a transient sensory visual deprivation to determine whether cortical reorganisation is possible after only six hours of total blindfolding. Results showed significant increases of the amplitude of the spectral peaks in occipital areas following the deprivation, suggesting fairly rapid functional reorganization.
Resonance monochromatization of transverse amplitude-modulated waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resonance interaction of plasma particles with transverse nonmonochromatic waves for which the group velocity coincides with the rate of energy transfer is considered on the basis of dynamical invariants of charged particles existing in the plane electromagnetic waves. The effect of decreasing of amplitude modulation (monochromatization) existing in such waves is studied both in a homogeneous plasma with rare collisions and a inhomogeneous collisionless plasma. It is shown that the effect of collisionless monochromatization in the inhomogeneous plasma is more significant and can lead to appearing of accelerated particles with the total absorption of amplitude modulation. The accuracy of preservation of the adiabatic invariant describing the confinement of the captured particles is investigated. It is shown the adiabatic invariant is preserved with an exponential accuracy while the condition of adiabaticity is fulfilled
Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas; Bak, Christian
2014-01-01
that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved if...... in form of a cyclic pitch of the blades. As a side effect, it is shown that it is also possible to reduce fatigue load on the blade using this cyclic pitch. The main goal is to reduce both amplitude modulation and fatigue load without compromising the energy harvested from the wind. A simulation tool...... such a strategy is to be implemented on an actual wind turbine, though at the expense of an increased wear and tear of the pitch control system....
O’Connor, Kevin N.; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Niwa, Mamiko; Noriega, Nigel C.; Marshall, Elizabeth A.; Sutter, Mitchell .L.
2011-01-01
Previous observations show that humans outperform non-human primates on some temporally-based auditory discrimination tasks, suggesting there are species differences in the proficiency of auditory temporal processing among primates. To further resolve these differences we compared the abilities of rhesus macaques and humans to detect sine-amplitude modulation (AM) of a broadband noise carrier as a function of both AM frequency (2.5 Hz–2 kHz) and signal duration (50–800 ms), under similar test...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack
The imaging spectrometer based on dual photoelastic modulator of unequal retardation amplitudes
Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhi-bin; Wen, Ting-dun; Wang, Yao-li; Li, Ke-wu
2015-10-01
As the existing photoelastic modulator (PEM) resonant frequency is high (tens to hundreds of kHz), the interference signal frequency is up to hundreds of MHz, even to several GHz. Signal frequency is so high that they can not effectively be detected by charge coupled device (CCD). This paper reports a method for measuring spectroscopy using two PEMs at different frequencies. The difference frequency of dual-PEM system is 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than any one modulation frequency of the two PEMs. Operating the PEMs at slightly different resonant frequencies f1 and f2 respectively, the dual-PEM system generates a difference frequency modulation signal. Therefore, interference signal contains low frequency modulation components which carry the information of the incident light. And low frequency modulation component consists of a series of frequency-multiplier signals whose fundamental frequency is equal to (f1-f2)/2. The low frequency modulation components can be detected by ordinary CCD. Through Fourier transform, modulation signal of CCD is to get a series of frequency-multiplier signals amplitude. Then the incident light spectra can be obtained by the corresponding matrix operations. Furthermore, this method is to realize object imaging spectral measurement by the way of combining with CCD. The peak retardation amplitude of two PEMs does not require being complete equal, and modulation frequencies f1 and f2 do not also require equality. So this can reduce the difficulty of the PEM processing. What's more, the method makes the traditional PEM have both imaging and spectroscopy measurement functions. The basic principle is introduced, the basic equations is derived, and the feasibility is verified through the corresponding numerical simulation and experiment.
Acuña, Alonso M.; Joris J. Snellenburg; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M
2015-01-01
Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1–1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (FM) and minimal fluorescence (F0), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determin...
Maillard, J.; Sansonetti, P.
1992-01-01
The emission properties of an Amplitude Modulated diffraction limited external cavity multi-stripe high power laser diode are here reported. When resolving the resulting electric phase in the far field, a stabilization of a factor of 10 is obtained compared to the free running laser diode. Such a device is of interest for free space optical communication and range-finding. An original method based on white-light interferometry is also reported for measuring the reflection coefficient of the a...
Hydrostatic Vibratory Drive of the Test Stand for Excitation of the Amplitude-Modulated Vibrations
Nizhegorodov, A. I.; Gavrilin, A. N.; Moyzes, B. B.
2016-01-01
The article reviews the problems arising during the development of the test stand hydrostatic vibratory drive, which synthesize controlled amplitude-modulated vibrations required testing of vibration strength and vibrostability of technological devices. The newly developed modification can adequately simulate the transport vibration and vibration of the operating power-supply units of technological machinery vibration by means of implementing of a continuous frequency spectrum of the vibration exposure in the desired frequency range.
Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.
2015-01-01
Dipole-dipole interactions between helium atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number $n=53$ and approximately linear Stark energy shifts, resulting from induced electric dipole moments of approximately 7900 D, have been investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed in pulsed supersonic metastable helium beams, with particle number densities of up to $\\sim10^9$ cm$^{-3}$. In the presence of amplitude-modulated, radio-frequency electric fields, c...
Broadband homonuclear TOCSY with amplitude and phase-modulated RF mixing schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirschstein, Anika; Herbst, Christian; Riedel, Kerstin; Carella, Michela; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Research Group Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)], E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de
2008-04-15
We have explored the design of broadband scalar coupling mediated {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C and cross-relaxation suppressed {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H TOCSY sequences employing phase/amplitude modulated inversion pulses. Considering a variety of supercycles, pulsewidths and a RF field strength of 10 kHz, the Fourier coefficients defining the amplitude and phase modulation profiles of the 180 deg. pulses were optimised numerically so as to obtain efficient magnetisation transfer within the desired range of resonance offsets. The coherence transfer characteristics of the mixing schemes were assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements and were compared with commonly used sequences based on rectangular RF pulses. The efficacies of the clean {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H TOCSY sequences were also examined via numerical simulations for application to weakly oriented systems and sequences with efficient, broadband and clean dipolar transfer characteristics were identified. In general, the amplitude and phase modulated TOCSY sequences presented here have moderately better performance characteristics than the sequences currently employed in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy.
Broadband homonuclear TOCSY with amplitude and phase-modulated RF mixing schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have explored the design of broadband scalar coupling mediated 13C-13C and cross-relaxation suppressed 1H-1H TOCSY sequences employing phase/amplitude modulated inversion pulses. Considering a variety of supercycles, pulsewidths and a RF field strength of 10 kHz, the Fourier coefficients defining the amplitude and phase modulation profiles of the 180 deg. pulses were optimised numerically so as to obtain efficient magnetisation transfer within the desired range of resonance offsets. The coherence transfer characteristics of the mixing schemes were assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements and were compared with commonly used sequences based on rectangular RF pulses. The efficacies of the clean 1H-1H TOCSY sequences were also examined via numerical simulations for application to weakly oriented systems and sequences with efficient, broadband and clean dipolar transfer characteristics were identified. In general, the amplitude and phase modulated TOCSY sequences presented here have moderately better performance characteristics than the sequences currently employed in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy
Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2014-01-01
Using experimental data acquired during a wind turbine measurement campaign, it is shown that amplitude modulation of aerodynamic noise can be generated by the rotating blades in conjunction with the atmospheric wind shear. As an attempt to alleviate this phenomenon, a control strategy is designed in form of a cyclic pitch of the blades. As a side effect, it is shown that it is also possible to reduce fatigue load on the blade using this cyclic pitch. The main goal is to reduce both amplitude modulation and fatigue load without compromising the energy harvested from the wind. A simulation tool that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved if such a strategy is to be implemented on an actual wind turbine, though at the expense of an increased wear and tear of the pitch control system.
Lin, C.-C. K.; Liu, W.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Ju, M.-S.
2012-04-01
The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal.
Lin, C-C K; Liu, W-C; Chan, C-C; Ju, M-S
2012-04-01
The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal. PMID:22422279
Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC
Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.
2015-01-01
White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.
Amplitude and phase modulation of radiation in a travelling-wave amplifier based on a laser diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytical solution (in quadratures) to the problem of propagation of quasi-monochromatic optical signal in a semiconductor amplifier under harmonic modulation of its pump current is obtained for the first time. It is shown that the modulation of the output radiation has amplitude and phase features. The relation is found between the coefficients of the amplitude and phase modulation with the effect of gain saturation taken into account. Adequacy of the results obtained is confirmed experimentally. (control of laser radiation parameters)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sell, J. F.; Gulyuz, K.; Sprouse, G. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)
2009-12-15
Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized {sup 208-210}Fr ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}. Efficient neutralization ({>=}80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.
Sell, J. F.; Gulyuz, K.; Sprouse, G. D.
2009-12-01
Performing collinear laser spectroscopy on low intensity radioactive beams requires sensitive detection techniques. We explain our apparatus to detect atomic resonances in neutralized F208-210r ion beams at beam energies of 5 keV and intensities of 105 s-1. Efficient neutralization (?80%) is accomplished by passing the beam through a dense Rb vapor. Increased detection efficiency is achieved by amplitude modulating the exciting laser to decrease the scattered light background, allowing fluorescence detection only when the laser is near its minimum in the modulation cycle. Using this technique in a collinear geometry we achieve a background reduction by a factor of 180 and a signal-to-noise increase of 2.2, with the lifetime of the atomic state playing a role in the efficiency of this process. Such laser modulation will also produce sidebands on the atomic spectra which we illustrate.
Heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in liquids using amplitude and phase modulated mixing sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirschstein, Anika; Herbst, Christian; Riedel, Kerstin; Carella, Michela; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai [Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Research group Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy (Germany)], E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de
2008-04-15
The design of mixing sequences for heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in the liquid state has been examined employing supercycles of amplitude/phase modulated RF pulses. The Fourier coefficients defining the modulation profiles of the pulses were optimised numerically so as to achieve efficient magnetisation transfer within the desired range of resonance offsets. A variety of supercycles, pulsewidths and RF field strengths were considered in implementing heteronuclear anisotropic and isotropic mixing sequences. The coherence transfer characteristics of the sequences obtained were evaluated by numerical simulations. The experimental performances of the sequences were tested by measurements carried out on a moderate sized protein at 750 MHz. The results presented demonstrate that the approach adopted in this study can be employed effectively to tailor, as per the experimental requirements and constraints, the RF-field modulation profiles of the pulses constituting the mixing scheme for generating heteronuclear J cross-polarisation sequences.
Heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in liquids using amplitude and phase modulated mixing sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design of mixing sequences for heteronuclear J cross-polarisation in the liquid state has been examined employing supercycles of amplitude/phase modulated RF pulses. The Fourier coefficients defining the modulation profiles of the pulses were optimised numerically so as to achieve efficient magnetisation transfer within the desired range of resonance offsets. A variety of supercycles, pulsewidths and RF field strengths were considered in implementing heteronuclear anisotropic and isotropic mixing sequences. The coherence transfer characteristics of the sequences obtained were evaluated by numerical simulations. The experimental performances of the sequences were tested by measurements carried out on a moderate sized protein at 750 MHz. The results presented demonstrate that the approach adopted in this study can be employed effectively to tailor, as per the experimental requirements and constraints, the RF-field modulation profiles of the pulses constituting the mixing scheme for generating heteronuclear J cross-polarisation sequences
A 32x32 pixel focal plane array ladar system using chirped amplitude modulation
Stann, Barry L.; Aliberti, Keith; Carothers, Daniel; Dammann, John; Dang, Gerard; Giza, Mark M.; Lawler, William B.; Redman, Brian C.; Simon, Deborah R.
2004-09-01
The Army Research Laboratory is researching system architectures and components required to build a 32x32 pixel scannerless ladar breadboard. The 32x32 pixel architecture achieves ranging based on a frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique implemented by directly amplitude modulating a near-IR diode laser transmitter with a radio frequency (RF) subcarrier that is linearly frequency modulated (i.e. chirped amplitude modulation). The backscattered light is focused onto an array of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detectors where it is detected and mixed with a delayed replica of the laser modulation signal that modulates the responsivity of each detector. The output of each detector is an intermediate frequency (IF) signal (a product of the mixing process) whose frequency is proportional to the target range. Pixel read-out is achieved using code division multiple access techniques as opposed to the usual time-multiplexed techniques to attain high effective frame rates. The raw data is captured with analog-to-digital converters and fed into a PC to demux the pixel data, compute the target ranges, and display the imagery. Last year we demonstrated system proof-of-principle for the first time and displayed an image of a scene collected in the lab that was somewhat corrupted by pixel-to-pixel cross-talk. This year we report on system modifications that reduced pixel-to-pixel cross-talk and new hardware and display codes that enable near real-time stereo display of imagery on the ladar's control computer. The results of imaging tests in the laboratory will also be presented.
Limitations on accurate shape determination using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The limitations of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy to accurately measure the shape or form of features are investigated. The control feedback loop and the dynamics of the cantilever limit the response time of the atomic force microscope. Simply subtracting appropriately scaled amplitude (error) signal from the topography data significantly improves the accuracy of the data and can correct for the slow response time of the feedback loop. Two mechanisms were found to induce topographic errors independent of scan speed. The first is the change in tip/surface interaction at a step edge observed by comparison with results from a â€˜virtualâ€™ sample. The second is due to friction between the probe and sample but only for a specifically oriented step edge determined by the direction of oscillation of the cantilever. -- Highlights: â–º Three sources of error that effect shape measurements using an AFM are discussed. â–º Focus is solely on amplitude modulation AFM. â–º A simple scheme corrects for errors due to limitations in the feedback loop. â–º Effect of changing tip-surface interaction at step edge to shape is quantified. â–º Friction between tip and sample distorts measured shape.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The correspondance between amplitude and frequency modulations for a synchrocyclotron R.F. Voltage is firstly established. Optimal shapes are determined for these modulations for the Orsay synchrocyclotron. Shape of the rotative condenser static blades is then calculated to obtain the desired frequency modulation. Comparison is made between expected and obtained data. Values of working parameters are then proposed
Catalano, George D.
1998-06-01
The effects of noise modulation on the power spectral density functions of a sinusoidal wave are calculated in closed form. Frequency, phase, and amplitude modulation are considered. Noise processes are modeled using Butterworth filters of various integer orders. Increasing the order of the Butterworth filter increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated sinusoidal wave.
Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, Jorge R., E-mail: jorge.rr@cea.cu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid, España (Spain)
2014-07-28
The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Sergio [Laboratory of Energy and Nanosciences, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barcons, Victor [Departament de Disseny i Programacio de Sistemes Electronics, UPC - Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Av. Bases, 61, 08242 Manresa (Spain); Verdaguer, Albert [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CIN2) (CSIC-ICN), Esfera UAB, Campus de la UAB, Edifici CM-7, 08193-Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Chiesa, Matteo [Laboratory of Energy and Nanosciences, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)
2011-12-01
In ambient conditions, nanometric water layers form on hydrophilic surfaces covering them and significantly changing their properties and characteristics. Here we report the excitation of subharmonics in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy induced by intermittent water contacts. Our simulations show that there are several regimes of operation depending on whether there is perturbation of water layers. Single period orbitals, where subharmonics are never induced, follow only when the tip is either in permanent contact with the water layers or in pure noncontact where the water layers are never perturbed. When the water layers are perturbed subharmonic excitation increases with decreasing oscillation amplitude. We derive an analytical expression which establishes whether water perturbations compromise harmonic motion and show that the predictions are in agreement with numerical simulations. Empirical validation of our interpretation is provided by the observation of a range of values for apparent height of water layers when subharmonic excitation is predicted.
Tip radius preservation for high resolution imaging in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The acquisition of high resolution images in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is correlated to the cantilever's tip shape, size, and imaging conditions. In this work, relative tip wear is quantified based on the evolution of a direct experimental observable in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy, i.e., the critical amplitude. We further show that the scanning parameters required to guarantee a maximum compressive stress that is lower than the yield/fracture stress of the tip can be estimated via experimental observables. In both counts, the optimized parameters to acquire AFM images while preserving the tip are discussed. The results are validated experimentally by employing IgG antibodies as a model system.
Direct summands of syzygy modules of the residue class field
Takahashi, Ryo
2008-01-01
Let $R$ be a commutative Noetherian local ring. This paper deals with the problem asking whether $R$ is Gorenstein if the $n$th syzygy module of the residue class field of $R$ has a non-trivial direct summand of finite G-dimension for some $n$. It is proved that if $n$ is at most two then it is true, and moreover, the structure of the ring $R$ is determined essentially uniquely.
Mauras, N; Blizzard, R M; Link, K; Johnson, M L; Rogol, A D; Veldhuis, J D
1987-03-01
The augmentation of GH secretion that occurs during puberty has been attributed to changes in sex steroid levels that enhance the frequency and amplitude of GH pulses. To investigate the specific GH pulse characteristics responsible for such augmentation we analyzed the serum GH concentration profiles of 10 boys in Tanner stages I-II of sexual development (group A; aged 10 5/12-15 1/12 yr) and compared their GH pulse characteristics with those of 5 boys at Tanner stages IV-V of development (group B; aged 14 8/12-15 1/12 yr). We also reanalyzed previously reported data from 5 prepubertal boys (group C; aged 13 6/12-15 5/12 yr) before and after 10 weeks of treatment with testosterone enanthate (100 mg/4 weeks, im). Using a pulse detection algorithm that constrains the false positive pulse detection rate to less than 5% (Cluster), we found that group B boys had a significantly higher mean serum GH pulse amplitude compared to group A boys (17.1 +/- 2.6 vs. 8.6 +/- 1.7 ng/mL; P = 0.012), but both groups had the same mean GH pulse frequency (group B, 5.4 +/- 0.5 pulses/24 h vs. group A, 5.5 +/- 0.4 pulses/24 h; P greater than 0.05). Similar changes were found in group C boys before and after testosterone therapy; there was no significant change in GH pulse frequency (6.6 +/- 0.9 before vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 pulses/24 h after treatment; P greater than 0.05), but there was a significant increase in the GH pulse amplitude after therapy (6.8 +/- 1.6 before vs. 15.4 +/- 2.4 ng/mL after treatment; P = 0.04). When the 24-h GH concentration profiles were analyzed using a mathematically distinct method for the estimation of pulse amplitudes, namely the Fourier expansion time series, we confirmed a significant increase in GH pulse amplitude with later stages of puberty and androgen treatment. We conclude that the augmentation in GH secretion that occurs during either spontaneous puberty or exogenous testosterone therapy is an amplitude-modulated phenomenon, relatively independent of changes in pulse frequency. Such an effect may be secondary to the action of sex steroid hormones modulating either the responsivity of somatotrophs to endogenous GH-releasing hormone, the amount of GH-releasing hormone secreted, or the tonic inhibitory tone of somatostatin. PMID:3493255
Gramse, G.; Edwards, M. A.; Fumagalli, L.; Gomila, G.
2013-10-01
A theoretical analysis of amplitude modulated electrostatic force microscopy (AM-EFM) in liquid media at MHz frequencies, based on a simple tip-sample parallel plate model, is presented. The model qualitatively explains the main features of AM-EFM in liquid media and provides a simple explanation of how the measured electric forces are affected by: the frequency of the applied voltage, the tip-sample distance, the ionic concentration, the relative dielectric constant of the solution, and the relative dielectric constant and thickness of the sample. These results provide a simple framework for the design of AM-EFM measurements for localized dielectric characterization in liquid media.
Sensitive detection of vortex-core resonance using amplitude-modulated magnetic field
Cui, Xiaomin; Hu, Shaojie; Hidegara, Makoto; Yakata, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi
2015-12-01
Understanding and manipulating the dynamic properties of the magnetic vortices stabilized in patterned ferromagnetic structures are of great interest owing to the superior resonant features with the high thermal stability and their flexible tunability. So far, numerous methods for investigating the dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex have been proposed and demonstrated. However, those techniques have some regulations such as spatial resolution, experimental facility and sensitivity. Here, we develop a simple and sensitive method for investigating the vortex-core dynamics by using the electrically separated excitation and detection circuits. We demonstrate that the resonant oscillation of the magnetic vortex induced by the amplitude- modulated alternating-sign magnetic field is efficiently picked up by the lock-in detection with the modulated frequency. By extending this method, we also investigate the size dependence and the influence of the magneto-static interaction in the resonant property of the magnetic vortex.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian
2013-01-01
Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considering the optimization of the CHB dc sources’ values along with the optimized switching angles. This paper proposes a new SHE-PWAM control strategy and its realization in a drive application. Analysis and simulations are carried out on a fivelevel CHB inverter. Experimental verifications also validate the simulation results. The results demonstrate that the new SHEPWAM technique improves the performance of the drive compared to the conventional SHE-PWM.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tokle, Torger; Serbay, Murat; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Geng, Yan; Rosenkranz, Werner; Jeppesen, Palle
2006-01-01
We present experimental investigations of the receiver sensitivity and dispersion tolerance of multilevel optical communication systems with a symbol rate of 40 Gbaud. Four- and eight-level communication is obtained by combining binary amplitude modulation with either binary or quadrature...... differential phase modulation. We experimentally compare the dispersion tolerance, and show that multilevel modulation formats offer much better dispersion tolerance compared to binary formats. By combining multilevel modulation with polarization multiplexing, bit rates up to 240 Gb/s were obtained. We...
Nelson, Paul C.; Carney, Laurel H.
2006-01-01
Neural responses to amplitude-modulated (AM) tones in the unanesthetized rabbit inferior colliculus (IC) were studied in an effort to establish explicit relationships between physiological and psychophysical measures of temporal envelope processing. Specifically, responses to variations in modulation depth (m) at the cell’s best modulation frequency, with and without modulation maskers, were quantified in terms of average rate and synchronization to the envelope over the entire perceptual dyn...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunlong Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In order to solve the limitation of data rate caused by long rise and fall time of light emitting diodes, m-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation is proposed in this paper for improving the bandwidth efficiency of indoor visible light communication. M-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation transmits information through a subtle change of illumination intensity and supports both flicker mitigation and dimming control functions. An indoor communication link establishing process is introduced as a parameter training method based on the principle of successive approximation. Theoretical analysis shows that, m-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation can be used to achieve higher bandwidth efficiency without sacrificing the symbol error rate and bit error rate performance of an indoor visible light communication system. When the ratio of a_slot-a_BS is 0.1, then m-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation can provide 1.47 times bandwidth efficiency than that of on-off keying, 3.5 times than that of digital pulse interval modulation and 5.9 times than that of pulse position modulation. M-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation can be used as a candidate bandwidth efficiency modulation scheme to improving data rate of an indoor visible light communication system.
Yunlong Yang; Shengyang He; Guanghui Ren
2013-01-01
In order to solve the limitation of data rate caused by long rise and fall time of light emitting diodes, m-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation is proposed in this paper for improving the bandwidth efficiency of indoor visible light communication. M-ary return-to-zero optical pulse amplitude modulation transmits information through a subtle change of illumination intensity and supports both flicker mitigation and dimming control functions. An indoor communication link establ...
Improvement of the Spatial Amplitude Isotropy of a ^4He Magnetometer Using a Modulated Pumping Beam
ChÃ©ron, B.; Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Moreau, O.; NoÃ«l, E.
1997-08-01
Optically pumped magnetometers are scalar magnetometers. Contrary to vectoriel magnetometers, they measure the total magnetic field whatever the direction of the sensor. However, for some orientations of the magnetometer with respect to the magnetic field direction, the resonant signal vanishes and the measurement is impossible. In this paper we present a simple solution to reduce the amplitude spatial anisotropy and apply it to a ^4He magnetometer developed in our Laboratory. Les magnÃ©tomÃ¨tres Ã pompage optique sont des magnÃ©tomÃ¨tres scalaires. Contrairement aux magnÃ©tomÃ¨tres vectoriels, ils mesurent le module du champ magnÃ©tique quelle que soit l'orientation du capteur dans l'espace. Cependant, pour certaines orientations du magnÃ©tomÃ¨tre par rapport Ã la direction du champ Ã mesurer, l'amplitude du signal de rÃ©sonance s'annule et la mesure devient impossible. Dans cet article, nous prÃ©sentons une solution simple pour rÃ©duire l'anisotropie spatiale d'amplitude et nous l'appliquons Ã un magnÃ©tomÃ¨tre Ã hÃ©lium-4 dÃ©veloppÃ© dans notre Laboratoire.
Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian
2014-01-01
Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optical packaging. Therefore, increasing effort is now put into the possibility of exploiting higher order modulation formats with increased spectral efficiency and reduced optical transceiver complexity. As these type of links are based on intensity modulation and direct detection, modulation formats relying on optical coherent detection can not be straight forwardly employed. As an alternative and more viable solution, this paper proposes the use of carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) in a novel multiband approach (MultiCAP) that achieves record spectral efficiency, increases tolerance towards dispersion and bandwidth limitations and reduces the complexity of the transceiver. We report on numerical simulations and experimental demonstrations with capacity beyond 100 Gb/s transmission using a single externally modulated laser (EML). In addition, an extensive comparison with conventional CAP is also provided. The reported experiment uses MultiCAP to achieve 102.4 Gb/s transmission, corresponding to a data payload of 95.2 Gb/s error free transmission by using a 7% forward error correction (FEC) code. The signal is successfully recovered after 15 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in a system limited by a 3 dB bandwidth of 14 GHz.
Driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions with an amplitude-modulated optical lattice
Moore, Kaitlin; Anderson, Sarah; Raithel, Georg
2014-05-01
We demonstrate a novel spectroscopic method that couples Rydberg states using an amplitude-modulated optical lattice. The method is fundamentally different from traditional microwave spectroscopy: it engages the A2-term rather than the Ap -term of the atom-field interaction Hamiltonian. The method allows us to drive microwave transitions between Rydberg states with optical spatial resolution, and it is not subject to the usual electric-dipole selection rules. Both features are attractive for quantum computing and precision metrology, such as measuring an improved value for the dipolar polarizibility of the Rb ionic core. In the experiment, cold Rb Rydberg atoms are first excited and confined in an optical lattice of wavelength 1064 nm. Then, the electric-quadrupole transition 58 S --> 59 S is driven by modulating the intensity of the optical lattice using a tunable electro-optic fiber modulator. Maximum population transfer occurs at a lattice modulation frequency of 38.768610(30) GHz, in close agreement with calculations. We briefly explain the theoretical background of the new spectroscopic method, show experimental results and discuss applications. We acknowledge support from DOE SCGF and NSF.
Annoyance of wind-turbine noise as a function of amplitude-modulation parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ioannidou, Christina; Santurette, Sébastien
Amplitude modulation (AM) has been suggested as an important factor for the perceived annoyance of wind-turbine noise (WTN). Two AM types, typically referred to as “normal AM” and “other AM,” depending on the AM extent and frequency region, have been proposed to characterize WTN AM. The extent to which AM depth, frequency, and type affect WTN annoyance is a matter of debate. In most subjective studies, the temporal variations of WTN AM have not been considered. Here, a sinusoidally modulated WTN model accounting for temporal AM variations was used to generate realistic artificial stimuli in which the AM depth, frequency, and type, while determined from real on-site recordings, could be varied systematically. Subjective listening tests with such stimuli showed that a reduction in AM depth, quantified by the modulation depth spectrum, led to a significant decrease in annoyance. When the spectrotemporal characteristics of the original far-field stimuli were included in the model and the temporal AM variations were taken into account by varying the modulation index over time, neither AM frequency nor AM type were found to significantly affect annoyance. These findings suggest that the effect of AM parameters on WTN annoyance may depend on the intermittent nature of WTN AM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcium (45Ca2+) efflux was studied from preloaded cortex in cats immobilized under local anesthesia, and exposed to a 3.0-mW/cm2 450-MHz field, sinusoidally amplitude modulated at 16 Hz modulation depth 85%). Tissue dosimetry showed a field of 33 V/m in the interhemispheric fissure (rate of energy deposition 0.29 W/kg). Field exposure lasted 60 min. By comparison with controls, efflux curves from field exposed brains were disrupted by waves of increased 45Ca2+ efflux. These waves were irregular in amplitude and duration, but many exhibited periods of 20-30 min. They continued into the postexposure period. Binomial probability analysis indicates that the field-exposed efflux curves constitute a different population from controls at a confidence level of 0.96. In about 70% of cases, initiation of field exposure was followed by increased end-tidal CO2 excretion for about 5 min. However, hypercapnea induced by hypoventilation did not elicit increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Thus this increase with exposure does not appear to arise as a secondary effect of raised cerebral CO2 levels. Radioactivity measurements in cortical samples after superfusion showed 45Ca2+ penetration at about 1.7 mm/hr, consistent with diffusion of the ion in free solution
Travel Time Shifts due to Amplitude Modulation in Time-Distance Helioseismology
Nigam, R
2009-01-01
Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times has not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry, and then filtered by a phase speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wave...
Amplitude modulation depth discrimination in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ewert, Stephan D.; Volmer, Jutta; Dau, Torsten; Verhey, Jesko
2008-01-01
The processing of amplitude modulations (AM) of sounds is assumed to be crucial for decoding and understanding of speech in humans. Since hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often suffer from severely hampered speech intelligibility, particularly in reverberant or noisy environments, they might also ...... appeared to be an increased internal noise in the AM-depth domain. Consequences for speech perception are discussed....... investigates the differential processing of amplitude modulation depth in HI and NH listeners. AM-depth discrimination of a 4-, 8-, and 30-Hz sinusoidal AM, imposed on a 1- or 4-kHz pure-tone carrier, was measured. The AM of the standard ranged from being well detectable to near threshold. AM-depth...... discrimination thresholds strongly varied among HI listeners and were elevated in comparison to NH for high standard depths. A model of AM processing is suggested incorporating an individually adjusted simulation of the auditory periphery. To account for the data of HI listeners, however, the key element...
Regime of a wideband phase-amplitude modulation in a CW magnetron transmitter with a phase control
Kazakevich, G; Chase, B; Pasquinelli, R; Yakovlev, V
2014-01-01
A model of the CW high-power transmitter, utilizing frequency-locked magnetrons with a phase control studied initially as a prototype of controllable in phase and power an RF source for intensity-frontier superconducting linacs, was considered for telecommunication as a model of magnetron source, acceptable for a wideband phase-amplitude modulation at a precisely stable carrier frequency. The R&D conducted with CW, 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, microwave oven magnetrons demonstrated that the frequency locking of the magnetrons by the phase-modulated signal provides wideband phase and amplitude modulation at the modulating frequency at least up to 3 MHz and large magnitude, keeping the carrier frequency precisely stable, without broadening of the spectral line width. Performed experiments with power combining verified applicability of the transmitter based on the frequency-locked magnetrons for wideband phase and amplitude modulation, which may be used for telecommunication. Results of the experiments are described in t...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stein, A.; Ewert, Stephan; Wiegrebe, L.
2005-01-01
, autocorrelation is applied. Considering the large overlap in pitch and modulation perception, this is not parsimonious. Two experiments are presented to investigate the interaction between carrier periodicity, which produces strong pitch sensations, and envelope periodicity using broadband stimuli. Results show......Recent temporal models of pitch and amplitude modulation perception converge on a relatively realistic implementation of cochlear processing followed by a temporal analysis of periodicity. However, for modulation perception, a modulation filterbank is applied whereas for pitch perception...... that in the presence of carrier periodicity, detection of amplitude modulation is impaired throughout the tested range (8-1000 Hz). On the contrary, detection of carrier periodicity in the presence of an additional amplitude modulation is impaired only for very low frequencies below the pitch range...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we report on an approach allowing efficient parametric excitation of large-amplitude stable oscillations of a microstructure operated by a parallel-plate electrode, and present results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the device. The frame-type structure, fabricated from a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), consists a pair of cantilever-type suspensions connected at their ends by a link. The time-varying electrostatic force applied to the link by a parallel-plate electrode is transformed into a periodic tension of the beams, resulting in the modulation of their flexural stiffness and consequently the mechanical parametric excitation of the structure. The lateral compliance of the beams allows for large-amplitude in-plane oscillations in the direction parallel to the electrode while high axial stiffness prevents undesirable instabilities. The lumped model of the device, considered as an assembly of geometrically nonlinear massless flexures and a rigid massive link and built using the Rayleighâ€“Ritz method, predicted the feasibility of the excitation approach. The fabricated devices were operated in ambient air conditions by a combination of a steady (dc) and time-dependent (ac) components of voltage and the large-amplitude responses, up to 75 Âµm, in the vicinity of the principal parametric and primary resonances were registered by means of video acquisition and image processing. The shapes of the experimental resonant curves were consistent with those predicted by the model. The location and size of the instability regions on the frequencyâ€“voltage plane (parametric tongues) were quantitatively in good agrement with the model results. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the suggested approach can be efficiently used for excitation of various types of microdevices where stable resonant operation combined with robustness and large vibrational amplitudes are desirable
Strickland, E A; Dhar, S
2000-08-01
Experiments were performed to determine under what conditions quasi-frequency-modulated (QFM) noise and random-sideband noise are suitable comparisons for AM noise in measuring a temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF). Thresholds were measured for discrimination of QFM from random-sideband noise and AM from QFM noise as a function of sideband separation. In the first experiment, the upper spectral edge of the noise stimuli was at 2400 Hz and the bandwidth was 1600 Hz. For sideband separations up to 256 Hz, at threshold sideband levels for discriminating AM from QFM noise, QFM was indiscriminable from random-sideband noise. For the largest sideband separation used (512 Hz), listeners may have used within-stimulus envelope correlation in the QFM noise to discriminate it from the random-sideband noise. Results when stimulus bandwidth was varied suggest that listeners were able to use this cue when the carrier was wider than a critical band, and the sideband separation approached the carrier bandwidth. Within-stimulus envelope correlation was also present in AM noise, and thus QFM noise was a suitable comparison because it made this cue unusable and forced listeners to use across-stimulus envelope differences. When the carrier bandwidth was less than a critical band or was wideband, QFM noise and random-sideband noise were equally suitable comparisons for AM noise. When discrimination thresholds for QFM and random-sideband noise were converted to modulation depth and modulation frequency, they were nearly identical to those for discrimination of AM from QFM noise, suggesting that listeners were using amplitude modulation cues in both cases. PMID:10955640
Acousto-optic tomography using amplitude-modulated focused ultrasound and a near-IR laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel tomographic method that can be applied in strongly scattering optical media is proposed. 1-MHz focused ultrasound is used to tag the scattering photons in the biological tissue; it carries a 10-KHz sinusoidal wave to act as a detection wave through amplitude-modulation (AM). The scattering photons that come from the focused zone carry the modulated information. Their optoelectronic signal is demodulated by real-time FFT. By detecting and discriminating ultrasound-modulated information carried by scattered photons, the optical tomographic images of the media simulating biological tissue and of a buried object are reconstructed by the AM spectral intensity. This ultrasound-tagged optical tomography can be applied to tissue structures with different optical parameters. For the first time, by using this method, we obtained the tomographic image of a 5 mm-wide soft rubber cube buried in a biological tissue-simulating media with a detecting depth of 30 mm. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Luo, Huan; Wang, Yadong; Poeppel, David; Simon, Jonathan Z
2007-12-01
Complex natural sounds (e.g., animal vocalizations or speech) can be characterized by specific spectrotemporal patterns the components of which change in both frequency (FM) and amplitude (AM). The neural coding of AM and FM has been widely studied in humans and animals but typically with either pure AM or pure FM stimuli. The neural mechanisms employed to perceptually unify AM and FM acoustic features remain unclear. Using stimuli with simultaneous sinusoidal AM (at rate f(AM) = 37 Hz) and FM (with varying rates f(FM)), magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to investigate the elicited auditory steady-state response (aSSR) at relevant frequencies (f(AM), f(FM), f(AM) + f(FM)). Previous work demonstrated that for sounds with slower FM dynamics (f(FM) modulation" encoding. This study explores the neural coding mechanism for stimuli with faster FM dynamics ( 5 Hz), there is a transition from pure phase modulation encoding to a single-upper-sideband (SSB) response (at frequency f(AM) + f(FM)) pattern. We propose that this unexpected SSB response can be explained by the additional involvement of subsidiary AM encoding responses simultaneously to, and in quadrature with, the ongoing phase modulation. These results, using MEG to reveal a possible neural encoding of specific acoustic properties, demonstrate more generally that physiological tests of encoding hypotheses can be performed noninvasively on human subjects, complementing invasive, single-unit recordings in animals. PMID:17898148
Khaleghi, Salman
Technology has empowered people in all walks of life to generate, store, and communicate enormous amounts of data. Recent technological advances in high-speed backbone data networks, together with the growing trend toward bandwidth-demanding applications such as data and video sharing, cloud computing, and data collection systems, have created a need for higher capacities in signal transmission and signal processing. Optical communication systems have long benefited from the large bandwidth of optical signals (beyond tera-hertz) to transmit information. Through the use of optical signal processing techniques, this Ph.D. dissertation explores the potential of very-high-speed optics to assist electronics in processing huge amounts of data at high speeds. Optical signal processing brings together various fields of optics and signal processing---nonlinear devices and processes, analog and digital signals, and advanced data modulation formats---to achieve high-speed signal processing functions that can potentially operate at the line rate of fiber optic communications. Information can be encoded in amplitude, phase, wavelength, polarization, and spatial features of an optical wave to achieve high-capacity transmission. Many advances in the key enabling technologies have led to recent research in optical signal processing for digital signals that are encoded in one or more of these dimensions. Optical Kerr nonlinearities have femto-second response times that have been exploited for fast processing of optical signals. Various optical nonlinearities and chromatic dispersions have enabled key sub-system applications such as wavelength conversion, multicasting, multiplexing, demultiplexing, and tunable optical delays. In this Ph.D. dissertation, we employ these recent advances in the enabling technologies for high-speed optical signal processing to demonstrate various techniques that can process phase- and amplitude-encoded optical signals at the line rate of optics. We use nonlinear media, such as highly nonlinear fiber, periodically poled lithium niobate, and semiconductor optical amplifiers, for nonlinear mixing of optical signals. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel, fully tunable optical tapped-delay-line that is a key building block for signal processing functions. Applications such as finite impulse response filtering, equalization, correlation (pattern recognition), discrete Fourier transform, digital-to-analog conversion, and flexible optical signal conversion and generation are shown. The phase- and amplitude-preserving nature of the demonstrated techniques, together with their wide-tuning range, allows for processing of optical signals that carry different modulation formats with different data rates. The reconfigurability may apply to future optical networks that carry heterogeneous traffic with different modulation formats and baud rates.
Decoding Finger Flexion using amplitude modulation from band-specific ECoG
Liang, Nanying
2009-01-01
EEG-BCIs have been well studied in the past decades and implemented into several famous applications, like P300 speller and wheelchair controller. However, these interfaces are indirect due to low spatial resolution of EEG. Recently, direct ECoG-BCIs attract intensive attention because ECoG provides a higher spatial resolution and signal quality. This makes possible localization of the source of neural signals with respect to certain brain functions. In this article, we present a realization of ECoG-BCIs for finger flexion prediction provided by BCI competition IV. Methods for finger flexion prediction including feature extraction and selection are provided in this article. Results show that the predicted finger movement is highly correlated with the true movement when we use band-specific amplitude modulation.
Zhelyazkova, V
2015-01-01
Dipole-dipole interactions between helium atoms in Rydberg-Stark states with principal quantum number $n=53$ and approximately linear Stark energy shifts, resulting from induced electric dipole moments of approximately 7900 D, have been investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed in pulsed supersonic metastable helium beams, with particle number densities of up to $\\sim10^9$ cm$^{-3}$. In the presence of amplitude-modulated, radio-frequency electric fields, changes in the spectral intensity distributions associated with the transitions to these states that are attributed to dipole-dipole interactions within the ensembles of excited atoms have been observed. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with calculations of the Rydberg energy level structure carried out using Floquet methods, and excitations shared by up to 4 atoms. The use of these Rydberg-Stark states as sensors for non-resonant broadband radio-frequency electrical noise is also discussed.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.
2015-09-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.
Amplitude-modulated noise: an empirical model for the radio radiation received from pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The radio radiation received from pulsars shows erratic variations over time and frequency. Experimentally these have been characterized by the autocorrelation function of the observed intensity and radio power spectrum. This paper gives theoretical expressions for these functions, under the assumption that the received radiation is described by random Gaussian noise that has been amplitude modulated. Such a model contains no coherence in time, other than that introduced by interstellar dispersion and the receiver bandpass, and has been implicitly assumed by many observers. The conclusions are a specific test for unresolved pulse components, which are easily confused with system noise, and a test for the significance of pulsar spectrum variations. A subsequent paper will compare observations with this model, in a search for the effects of spatial coherence invoked by many theories of pulsar emission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cal Francis Rabang
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC receives ascending excitatory and inhibitory inputs from multiple sources, but how these auditory inputs converge to generate IC spike patterns is poorly understood. Simulating patterns of in vivo spike train data from cellular and synaptic models creates a powerful framework to identify factors that contribute to changes in IC responses, such as those resulting in age-related loss of temporal processing. A conductance-based single neuron IC model was constructed, and its responses were compared to those observed during in vivo IC recordings in rats. IC spike patterns were evoked using amplitude-modulated (AM tone or noise carriers at 20-40 dB above threshold and were classified as low-pass, band-pass, band-reject, all-pass, or complex based on their rate modulation transfer function (rMTF tuning shape. Their temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs were also measured. These spike patterns provided experimental measures of rate, vector strength and firing pattern for comparison with model outputs. Patterns of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence to IC neurons were based on anatomical studies and generalized input tuning for modulation frequency. Responses of modeled ascending inputs were derived from experimental data from previous studies. Adapting and sustained IC intrinsic models were created, with adaptation created via calcium-activated potassium currents. Short-term synaptic plasticity was incorporated into the model in the form of synaptic depression, which was shown to have a substantial effect on the magnitude and time course of the IC response. The most commonly observed IC response subtypes were recreated and enabled dissociation of inherited response properties from those that were generated in IC. Furthermore, the model was used to make predictions about the consequences of reduction in inhibition for age-related loss of temporal processing due to a reduction in GABA seen anatomically with age.
EEG amplitude modulation analysis for semi-automated diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
Falk, Tiago H.; Fraga, Francisco J.; Trambaiolli, Lucas; Anghinah, Renato
2012-12-01
Recent experimental evidence has suggested a neuromodulatory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this paper, we present a new electroencephalogram (EEG) based metric to quantitatively characterize neuromodulatory activity. More specifically, the short-term EEG amplitude modulation rate-of-change (i.e., modulation frequency) is computed for five EEG subband signals. To test the performance of the proposed metric, a classification task was performed on a database of 32 participants partitioned into three groups of approximately equal size: healthy controls, patients diagnosed with mild AD, and those with moderate-to-severe AD. To gauge the benefits of the proposed metric, performance results were compared with those obtained using EEG spectral peak parameters which were recently shown to outperform other conventional EEG measures. Using a simple feature selection algorithm based on area-under-the-curve maximization and a support vector machine classifier, the proposed parameters resulted in accuracy gains, relative to spectral peak parameters, of 21.3% when discriminating between the three groups and by 50% when mild and moderate-to-severe groups were merged into one. The preliminary findings reported herein provide promising insights that automated tools may be developed to assist physicians in very early diagnosis of AD as well as provide researchers with a tool to automatically characterize cross-frequency interactions and their changes with disease.
Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus
Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De
2015-01-01
Needle-like electromagnetic fields has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman Spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device(DMD). Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional(1D) and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We...
Immunological effects of amplitude-modulated radio frequency radiation: B lymphocyte capping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sultan, M.F.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.
1983-01-01
B lymphocytes collected from normal ICR Swiss mouse spleens were exposed in vitro in a Crawford cell to 147-MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation, amplitude modulated by a 9-, 16-, or 60-Hz sine wave. The power densities ranged between 0.11 and 48 mW/cm2. The irradiated samples and the controls were maintained at 37 degrees C or 42 degrees C, with temperature variations less than 0.1 degrees C. Immediately after a 30-minute exposure, the distribution of antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) complexes on the cell surface was evaluated at 37 degrees C by immunofluorescence. Under normal conditions (37 degrees C, no RF), Ag-Ab complexes are regrouped into a polar cap by an energy-dependent process. Our results demonstrate that the irradiated cells and the nonirradiated controls capped Ag-Ab complexes equally well after exposure at 37 degrees C. Capping was equally inhibited at 42 degrees C in both the controls and irradiated cells. No statistically significant differences in capping were observed between the RF-exposed and control samples at any of the modulation frequencies and power densities employed as long as both preparations were maintained at the same temperature.
Amplitude modulation of charge-density-wave domains in 1T-TaS2 at 300 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements of the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude modulation in 1T-TaS2 at room temperature have been made using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in the constant current mode. The amplitude profiles are in good agreement with the profile predicated by the CDW domain model of Nakanishi and Shiba. Interference effects between the atomic and CDW lattices have been analyzed and do not modify these profiles significantly. They represent the true CDW amplitude variation connected with the CDW domain structure
Nishihara, Masato; Kai, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshiki; Takahara, Tomoo; Li, Lei; Yan, Weizhen; Liu, Bo; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.
2013-12-01
Advanced multi-level modulation is an attractive modulation technique for beyond 100 Gbps short reach optical transmission system. Above all, discrete multi-tone (DMT) technique and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technique are the strong candidates. We compared the 100 Gbps transmission characteristics of DMT and PAM by simulation and experiment. The comparison was done by using same devices and only the digital signal processing was changed. We studied the transmission distance dependence for 0.5 to 40 km and the impact of the frequency responses of the optical devices. Finally we discuss the features of the both modulation techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin R. Timora
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Aims: Modulation masking refers to a disruption in the ability to detect amplitude modulation (AM in sound in the presence of an auditory masker with a similar temporal pattern. Previously, we have shown that multisensory presentations of acoustic and vibrotactile AM stimuli increase auditory and vibrotactile AM detection thresholds, suggesting a cross-modal modulation masking effect. Prior psychoacoustic research suggests that this masking effect is dependent on the phase of the AM masker. This study aimed to determine whether cross-modal phase differences for simultaneously presented acoustic and vibrotactile AM stimuli increase AM detection thresholds and whether this is reflected in the steady-state response (SSR elicited by the same multisensory stimulus combinations. Method: A 2I-3AFC psychophysical procedure was used to estimate AM detection thresholds for auditory and vibrotactile stimuli at two AM rates (27 and 40 Hz and three cross-modal phase conditions: None (AM stimulation in the target modality only; Same (AM in both modalities /no cross-modal phase difference; Different (AM stimulation in both modalities/180? phase difference. In a separate EEG session SSR activity was measured to the same stimulus combinations. Results: Vibrotactile AM thresholds significantly varied according to Phase F(2,28= 4.81,p = .02. Thresholds for the Same condition were higher relative to None F(1,14 = 8.06, p =.01. Differences between None and Different were non-significant. The influence of Phase on auditory 27 and 40 Hz SSR activity significantly varied according to AM rate F(2,16 = 8.65, p =.003, F(2,16 = 6.43, p=.01, with greater increases in activity at the EEG frequency corresponding to the AM rate. Conclusions: The increased sensitivity to vibrotactile AM stimuli resulting from a cross-modal phase difference suggests a release from masking and provides further evidence of cross-modal modulation masking. Cross-modal AM stimulation increases auditory SSR activity at the frequency of stimulation but has no effect on vibrotactile SSR activity which suggests a dissociation between SSR activity and AM detection.
Position of the pole and residue in the Msub(1+)sup(3/2) amplitude of the ?p?N? reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coordinates of the pole and the residue for the Msub(1+)sup(3/2) amplitude of the ?p ? N? reaction are estimated in the framework of various models. These quantities are compared with those for the ?N scattering. The coincidence of the phases of residues in the ?N scattering and the photoproduction is indicated
Hayrapetyan, Armen G; Goette, Joerg B
2015-01-01
We study the impact of spatially homogeneous yet non-stationary PT-symmetric dielectric permittivity in dynamical and spectral properties of light. For such a time-reversal optical system, we analytically construct the instantaneous amplitude and angular frequency of waves within the framework of Maxwell's equations and demonstrate PT modulations of light amplification and attenuation associated with the well-defined regions of gain and loss, respectively. Particularly strong enhancement of amplitude modulation towards the loss domain is shown to be expected depending on fine tuning of parameters of the complex permittivity profile. Moreover, we predict the split of extrema of angular frequency modulation and demonstrate the shrinkage of the modulation period. Our theory can be extended for investigating similar time-dependent effects with matter and acoustic waves in PT-symmetric structures.
Otte, E.; Schlickriede, C.; Alpmann, C.; Denz, C.
2015-03-01
We present a method to tailor not only amplitude and phase of a complex light field, but also the transverse states of polarization. Starting from the implementation of spatially inhomogeneous distributions of polarization, so called Poincaré beams, we realized a holographic optical technique that allows arbitrarily modulating the states of polarization by a single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). Moreover, the effective amplitude modulation of higher order beams performed by a phase-only SLM is shown. We will demonstrate the capabilities of our method ranging from the modulation of higher order Gaussian modes including desired polarization characteristics to the generation of polarization singularities at arbitrary points in the transverse plane of Poincaré beams.
A Psychophysical and EEG Investigation of Cross-Modal Amplitude Modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin R Timora
2014-10-01
Full Text Available It is well established that both auditory and tactile perceptual processing is dependent on the temporally dynamic features of sensory stimulation. Much less is known about how these temporal features are integrated across sensory modalities. According to the temporal principle of multisensory integration greater cross-modal temporal correspondence should enhance the integration of multisensory stimulation. Aim: Investigate how cross-modal temporal correspondence of amplitude modulation (AM rate of multimodal presentations of acoustic and vibrotactile AM stimuli influence perceptual sensitivity for both psychophysical and EEG steady state measures of multisensory integration. Method: A psychophysical procedure was used to estimate auditory and vibrotactile AM detection thresholds for a 32 Hz AM target stimuli while the cross-modal modulation rate was varied across six conditions (0, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 Hz. In a separate session EEG activity was recorded while participants were presented with the same stimulus conditions. FFT was then used to measure EEG entrainment at the frequency corresponding to AM rate of stimulation. Results: Cross-modal AM rate significantly influenced auditory thresholds with polynomial contrasts indicating a significant quadratic trend. Cross-modal AM rate also significantly influenced vibrotactile thresholds with polynomial contrasts revealing a significant linear trend. Analysis of the 32 Hz SSR activity revealed no significant effect of cross-modal AM rate on the magnitude of 32 Hz SSR activity. Conclusions: Results of the psychophysical analysis suggest that perceptual sensitivity to AM stimuli varied with cross-modal AM rate. Contrary to prior literature, auditory sensitivity was worst when the cross-modal AM rates matched while sensitivity to vibrotactile AM stimuli decreased as the cross-modal AM rate increased. SSR activity was not influenced by cross-modal AM rate suggesting that the oscillatory activity as measured by the SSR may not reflect entrained activity involved in multisensory integration.
Xing, Xiangjun; Jin, Qingli; Li, Shuwei
2015-02-01
Spin-wave devices are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for future computation and data processing. How to manipulate spin-wave propagation is a key issue in realizing the functionality of these of devices. The existing manipulation methods have serious drawbacks for constructing practical spin-wave devices. Here, we propose an approach to harness the amplitude and mode excitation of traveling spin waves by introducing unique micromagnetic textures in a permalloy waveguide directly exchange-coupled to a pair of cobalt nanomagnets. We demonstrate that the imprinted micromagnetic textures, i.e., the 360° domain wall and magnetic buckle, which play different roles in spin-wave manipulation, can be interchanged with each other repeatedly by using a sequence of homogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, the suggested architecture could easily be tailored to implement fundamental logic-NOT operation. In light of the internal-field profile of the micromagnetic textures, speculation is offered concerning the physical origin underlying the observed spin-wave modulation phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spin–wave devices are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for future computation and data processing. How to manipulate spin–wave propagation is a key issue in realizing the functionality of these of devices. The existing manipulation methods have serious drawbacks for constructing practical spin–wave devices. Here, we propose an approach to harness the amplitude and mode excitation of traveling spin waves by introducing unique micromagnetic textures in a permalloy waveguide directly exchange-coupled to a pair of cobalt nanomagnets. We demonstrate that the imprinted micromagnetic textures, i.e., the 360° domain wall and magnetic buckle, which play different roles in spin–wave manipulation, can be interchanged with each other repeatedly by using a sequence of homogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, the suggested architecture could easily be tailored to implement fundamental logic-NOT operation. In light of the internal-field profile of the micromagnetic textures, speculation is offered concerning the physical origin underlying the observed spin–wave modulation phenomena. (paper)
Hüser, Dorothee; Häßler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Hüser, Jonathan
2013-11-01
In nanotechnology and semiconductor fabrication geometry parameters of nanostructures such as curvatures and side wall angles are of increasing relevance with decreasing feature sizes. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is still one of the main measurement tools employed to investigate topographical parameters. It is generally operated in oscillation mode in order to avoid wear or damage of the probe. As imaging instruments deliver data that are influenced by the probing process, appropriate reconstruction processes are needed. This paper shows a significant contrast of the phase lag of the probe of an amplitude-modulated AFM (AM-AFM) and its driving force at the edge transition of nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. A simulation model reveals the relation between interaction forces and the observed phase behavior. It illustrates how the equilibrium positions of an oscillating probe differ from those of a sample geometry that is purely dilated by static probe tip contact. We show that AFM measurements in oscillation mode deliver a distorted topography image and that the greater the distortion the more energy dissipation is involved. An understanding of the distortion mechanism forms the basis for the development of reconstruction strategies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Wieckowski, Marcin; Pham, Tien Thang; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Turkiewicz, Jarek; Siuzdak, Jerzy; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs. © 2011 Optical Society of America....
Nony, Laurent; Bocquet, Franck; Loppacher, Christian; Glatzel, Thilo
2009-01-01
The influence of short-range electrostatic forces on the measured local Contact Potential Difference (CPD) by means of Amplitude Modulation- and Frequency Modulation-Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (AM- and FM-KPFM) is discussed on the base of numeric and analytic descriptions of both methods. The goal of this work is to help interpreting recent experimental results reporting atomically-resolved CPD images, in particular on bulk insulating samples. The discussion is carried out on the base of s...
Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M
2016-01-01
Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F M) and minimal fluorescence (F 0), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F 0 and F M are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PBfree), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PBfree contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PBfree and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching. PMID:25893897
Axial Flows in Kármán Vortices Due to Amplitude Modulation and a Free Surface
Voorhees, A.; Benaroya, H.; Wei, T.
2000-11-01
Fluid-structure interaction experiments were conducted in a large free-surface water tunnel facility using a low-mass ratio circular cylinder. The 2.54-cm cylinder was attached at the lower end to the tunnel floor by a leaf spring and the upper end protruded through the free surface. In this manner, the cylinder was free to oscillate as an inverted pendulum in response to the Kármán vortex shedding phenomenon. Far from the free-surface, strong axial flows directed toward the free-surface were observed along the cores of Kármán vortices shed from the oscillating cylinder; such flows were not observed for matched Reynolds number flows where the cylinder was held stationary. However, near the free-surface fluid motion along vortex cores traveled both up and down, i.e. to and from the free-surface. It has been found that this phenomenon is directly linked to an observed beating of the cylinder when the oscillation frequency approaches the cylinder's natural frequency. In this study, the Reynolds number based on cylinder diameter and free stream velocity was 3800. The problem to be discussed is that of the interaction between the amplitude modulated cylinder motion, the ensuing vortex-street, and the free-surface. These interactions will be described using DPIV measurements taken over a range of levels beneath the free-surface. A phenomenological description of the axial vortex induction process will be developed using Kármán vortex strength as a function of distance from the free-surface.
Borisov, Vladimir; Veniaminov, Andrey
2015-10-01
Amplitude and phase contributions to mixed volume holographic gratings were extracted from measured contours of angular selectivity. Holograms for the investigation were recorded in the glassy polymer material with phenan-threnequinone (PQ) using the DPSS CW laser (532 nm) and then self-developed due to molecular diffusion of PQ, reaching diffraction efficiency about 40%. Refractive index and absorbance modulation amplitudes of those holograms were obtained as adjustable parameters from theoretical equations by fitting angular dependencies of zeros and 1st orders diffraction efficiency measured at 450, 473, 532, and 633 nm at the different stages of hologram development. Mixed gratings manifest themselves in asymmetrical transmittance selectivity contours with one minimum and one maximum shifted with respect to the Bragg angle, while symmetrical contours with a minimum or a maximum at the Bragg angle are characteristic of pure phase and amplitude gratings, respectively. In the course of a hologram development, it converts from a predominantly amplitude-mixed to almost purely phase one in the case of readout using a light within the absorption band of PQ and maintains the phase nature besides it. The value of refractive index amplitude is ranging from 5×10-6 to 10-4 and the value of absorbance amplitude is up to 140 m-1.
Gorb, Yuliya
2010-11-01
We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herlory, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.herlory@gmail.com [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gilbin, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.gilbin@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire de Biogéochimie, Biodisponibilité et Transferts des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)
2013-09-15
Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F{sub 0}/F{sub v}. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F{sup ?}{sub q}/F{sup ?}{sub m}, EC{sub 50} = 303 ± 64 ?g U L{sup ?1} after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC{sub 50} = 142 ± 98 ?g U L{sup ?1} after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F?q/F?m, EC50 = 303 ± 64 ?g U L?1 after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50 = 142 ± 98 ?g U L?1 after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae
High-precision laser beam shaping using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator.
Liang, Jinyang; Kohn, Rudolph N; Becker, Michael F; Heinzen, Daniel J
2010-03-10
We have achieved high-precision laser beam shaping by using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator, a digital micromirror device (DMD), followed by an imaging telescope that contains a pinhole low-pass filter (LPF). An error diffusion algorithm was used to design the initial DMD pixel pattern based on the measured input beam profile. This pattern was iteratively refined by simulating the optically low-pass filtered DMD image and changing DMD pixels to lift valleys and suppress peaks. We noted the gap between the experimental result of 1.4% root-mean-square (RMS) error and the simulated result for the same DMD pattern of 0.3% RMS error. Therefore, we deemed it necessary to introduce iterative refinement based on actual measurements of the output image to further improve the uniformity of the beam. Using this method, we have demonstrated the ability to shape raw, non-spatially filtered laser beams (quasi-Gaussian beams) into beams with precisely controlled profiles that have an unprecedented level of RMS error with respect to the target profile. We have shown that our iterative refinement process is able to improve the light intensity uniformity to around 1% RMS error in a raw camera image for both 633 and 1064 nm laser beams. The use of a digital LPF on the camera image is justified in that it matches the performance of the pinhole filter in the experimental setup. The digital low-pass filtered results reveal that the actual optical beam profiles have RMS error down to 0.23%. Our approach has also demonstrated the ability to produce a range of target profiles as long as they have similar spatial-frequency content (i.e., a slowly varying beam profile). Circular and square cross-section flat-top beams and beams with a linear intensity variation within a circular and square cross section were produced with similarly low RMS errors. The measured errors were about twice the ultimate limit of 0.1% RMS error based on the number of binary DMD pixels that participate in the beam-formation process. PMID:20220887
Bourget, P.; Mawet, D.; Mardones, P.; Schuhler, N.; Pueyo, L.; Girard, J.; Haguenauer, P.; Gonte, F.
2013-09-01
We present a new Adaptive Phase Mask (APM) coronagraph design enabling Amplitude and Phase Modulation control (APM). The Adaptive Phase mask coronagraph is a technique proposed to provide both high dynamic and high angular resolution imaging of faint sources around bright objects. Discriminating faint sources from static speckles is a challenging problem. Our new system is based on synchronous demodulation that allows high dynamic range detection of a faint target immersed in a background. The APM2 uses the coherence of speckles to discriminate them from proper companions, using the mask itself as the electric field modulator. Synchronous detection in the radio frequency range is used to side-step the effect of atmospheric turbulence and enable the detection of low amplitude signals. The APM2 concept offers high dynamic range detection and provides a time- and cost-effective method to quantify the probability of presence of a faint object close to the central star.
Pezzopane, M.; Pignalberi, A.; Pietrella, M.
2016-01-01
Spectral analyses are employed to investigate how the diurnal periodicity of the critical frequency of the sporadic E (Es) layer varies with solar activity. The study is based on ionograms recorded at the ionospheric station of Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E), Italy, from 1976 to 2009, a period of time covering three solar cycles. It was confirmed that the diurnal periodicity is always affected by an amplitude modulation with periods of several days, which is the proof that Es layers are affected indirectly by planetary waves through their nonlinear interaction with atmospheric tides at lower altitudes. The most striking features coming out from this study is however that this amplitude modulation is greater for high-solar activity than for low-solar activity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A single-mode laser noise model driven by quadratic colored pump noise and biased amplitude modulation signal is proposed. The analytic expression of signal-to-noise ratio is calculated by using a new linearized procedure. It is found that there are three different typies of stochastic resonance in the model: the conventional form of stochastic resonance, the stochastic resonance in the broad sense, and the bona fide SR.
Pyragas, Kestutis; Novi?enko, Viktor
2015-01-01
The phase reduction method for a limit cycle oscillator subjected to a strong amplitude-modulated high-frequency force is developed. An equation for the phase dynamics is derived by introducing a new, effective phase response curve. We show that if the effective phase response curve is everywhere positive (negative), then an entrainment of the oscillator to an envelope frequency is possible only when this frequency is higher (lower) than the natural frequency of the oscillat...
The onion fly modulates the adult eclosion time in response to amplitude of temperature cycle
Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko
2011-08-01
To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time ( Ø E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, Ø E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammud Ershadul Haque
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is the new invention applying for assessment the damage of the historical or high rise civil building structural health. Technical challenges affecting deployment of wireless sensor network including the range of the transmission problem, low data transmission rate of the existing SHM strategies. The most vital factor of SHM wireless sensor systems is the modulator accuracy and reliability that qualify the wireless communication system to assess large building structure health Information. The objective of this article is to provide solution to measure both reliability and accuracy of the wireless sensor network modulator. we computed M-array QAM modulator BER and compare the simulation result with theoretical to find out optimum modulation technique for transmission System with considering maximum data rate, AWGN channel and also measured modulator accuracy based on ZigBee by computing M-array modulator Error Vector Magnitude (EVM to quantify the transmitter quality.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher J
2015-01-01
Musical expertise is associated with structural and functional changes in the brain that underlie facilitated auditory perception. We investigated whether the phase locking (PL) and amplitude modulations (AM) of neuronal oscillations in response to musical chords are correlated with musical expertise and whether they reflect the prototypicality of chords in Western tonal music. To this aim, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while musicians and non-musicians were presented with common prototypical major and minor chords, and with uncommon, non-prototypical dissonant and mistuned chords, while watching a silenced movie. We then analyzed the PL and AM of ongoing oscillations in the theta (4-8 Hz) alpha (8-14 Hz), beta- (14-30 Hz) and gamma- (30-80 Hz) bands to these chords. We found that musical expertise was associated with strengthened PL of ongoing oscillations to chords over a wide frequency range during the first 300 ms from stimulus onset, as opposed to increased alpha-band AM to chords over temporal MEG channels. In musicians, the gamma-band PL was strongest to non-prototypical compared to other chords, while in non-musicians PL was strongest to minor chords. In both musicians and non-musicians the long-latency (> 200 ms) gamma-band PL was also sensitive to chord identity, and particularly to the amplitude modulations (beats) of the dissonant chord. These findings suggest that musical expertise modulates oscillation PL to musical chords and that the strength of these modulations is dependent on chord prototypicality.
Characterizations of regular local rings via syzygy modules of the residue field
Ghosh, Dipankar; Gupta, Anjan; Puthenpurakal, Tony J.
2015-01-01
Let $R$ be a commutative Noetherian local ring with residue field $k$. We show that if a finite direct sum of syzygy modules of $k$ surjects onto `a semidualizing module' or `a non-zero maximal Cohen-Macaulay module of finite injective dimension', then $R$ is regular. We also prove that $R$ is regular if and only if some syzygy module of $k$ has a non-zero direct summand of finite injective dimension.
Zhang, Qiushi; Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhu, Chaozhe; Yang, Xueqian; Yao, Li
2015-03-01
The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches on working memory have found that activation of cortical areas appeared dependent on memory load, and event-related potentials (ERP) studies have demonstrated that amplitudes of P300 decreased significantly when working memory load increased. However, the cortical activities related with P300 amplitudes under different memory loads remains unclear. Joint fMRI and EEG analysis which fusions the time and spatial information in simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording can reveal the regional activation at each ERP time point. In this paper, we first used wavelet transform to obtain the single-trial amplitudes of P300 caused by a digital N-back task in the simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording as the ERP feature sequences. Then the feature sequences in 1-back condition and 3-back condition were introduced into general linear model (GLM) separately as parametric modulations to compare the cortical activation under different memory loads. The results showed that the average amplitudes of P300 in 3-back significantly decreased than that in 1-back, and the activities induced by ERP feature sequences in 3-back also significantly decreased than that in the 1-back, including the insular, anterior cingulate cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus, which were relevant to the storage, monitoring, and manipulation of information in working memory task. Moreover, the difference in the activation caused by ERP feature showed a positive correlation with the difference in behavioral performance. These findings demonstrated the locations of P300 amplitudes differences modulated by the memory load and its relationship with the behavioral performance.
Lechinger, Julia; Heib, Dominik Philip Johannes; Gruber, Walter; Schabus, Manuel; Klimesch, Wolfgang
2015-11-01
Based on physiological models of neurovisceral integration, different studies have shown how cognitive processes modulate heart rate and how the heartbeat, on the other hand, modulates brain activity. We tried to further determine interactions between cardiac and electrical brain activity by means of EEG. We investigated how the heartbeat modulates EEG in 23 healthy controls from wakefulness to deep sleep and showed that frontocentral heartbeat evoked EEG amplitude and phase locking (as measured by intertrial phase locking), at about 300-400 ms after the R peak, decreased with increasing sleep depth with a renewed increase during REM sleep, which underpins the assumption that the heartbeat evoked positivity constitutes an active frontocortical response to the heartbeat. Additionally, we found that individual heart rate was correlated with the frequency of the EEG's spectral peak (i.e., alpha peak frequency during wakefulness). This correlation was strongest during wakefulness and declined linearly with increasing sleep depth. Furthermore, we show that the QRS complex modulates spindle phase possibly related to the correspondence between the frequency of the QRS complex and the spindle frequency of about 12-15 Hz. Finally, during deep sleep stages, a loose temporal coupling between heartbeats and slow oscillation (0.8 Hz) could be observed. These findings indicate that cardiac activity such as heart rate or individual heartbeats can modulate or be modulated by ongoing oscillatory brain activity. PMID:26268858
Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Zeiler, Michael; Lamm, Claus; Sailer, Uta
2014-01-01
•ERP responses to feedback stimuli with explicit or assigned valence information were investigated with blocked or randomized trial presentation modes.•Only P3b, but not feedback-related negativity amplitudes were affected by feedback type for both presentation modes.•Results suggest using blocked design when using different types of feedback stimuli.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Farhan Rashag
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.
Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S
2016-01-01
Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10â€‰GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3â€‰THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology. PMID:26976199
Travel Time Shifts due to Amplitude Modulation in Time-Distance Helioseismology
Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.
2009-01-01
Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times has not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppres...
Phase dependent modulation of tremor amplitude in essential tremor through thalamic stimulation.
Cagnan, H; Brittain, JS; Little, S.; Foltynie, T; Limousin, P.; Zrinzo, L.; Hariz, M; Joint, C; FitzGerald, J; Green, AL; Aziz, T.; Brown, P.
2013-01-01
High frequency deep brain stimulation of the thalamus can help ameliorate severe essential tremor. Here we explore how the efficacy, efficiency and selectivity of thalamic deep brain stimulation might be improved in this condition. We started from the hypothesis that the effects of electrical stimulation on essential tremor may be phase dependent, and that, in particular, there are tremor phases at which stimuli preferentially lead to a reduction in the amplitude of tremor. The latter could b...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Isaeva, Olga B.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.; Mosekilde, Erik
2011-01-01
The paper proposes an approach to constructing feasible examples of dynamical systems with hyperbolic chaotic attractors based on the successive transfer of excitation between two pairs of self-oscillators that are alternately active. An angular variable that measures the relations of the current amplitudes for the two oscillators of each pair undergoes a transformation in accordance with the expanding circle map during each cycle of the process. We start with equations describing the dynamics i...
Jauregui, Rigoberto; Portilla, Joaquin; Reynoso-Hernández, J A; Hirata-Flores, F I
2013-08-01
This paper presents a simple and reliable measurement system for characterizing the amplitude to phase modulation (AM-PM) characteristics of high frequency amplifiers and nonlinear devices. The AM-PM measurement system is based on a null detector implemented with a double balanced mixer, and requires a voltmeter and a calibrated phase shifter. A 12 W class A radio frequency power amplifier has been designed using a GaN transistor, and the AM-PM has been measured using both the method proposed in this work and the classical method with a calibrated vector network analyzer. A good correlation between both methods is observed, which validates the proposed method. PMID:24007089
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elekes, E.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D. [National Frederic Joliot-Curie Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)
1996-12-01
The effect of continuous (CW; 2.45 GHz carrier frequency) or amplitude-modulated (AM; 50 Hz square wave) microwave radiation on the immune response was tested. CW exposures (6 days, 3 h/day) induced elevations of the number of antibody-producing cells in the spleen of male Balb/c mice (+37%). AM microwave exposure induced elevation of the spleen index (+15%) and antibody-producing cell number (+55%) in the spleen of male mice. No changes were observed in female mice. It is concluded that both types of exposure conditions induced moderate elevation of antibody production only in male mice.
Line shape of amplitude or frequency-modulated spectral profiles including resonator distortions.
Suter, Martin; Quack, Martin
2015-05-10
We report experiments and an improved method of analysis for any harmonics of frequency-modulated spectral line shapes allowing for very precise determinations of the resonance frequency of single absorption lines for gigahertz spectroscopy in the gas phase. Resonator perturbations are implemented into the formalism of modulation spectroscopy by means of a full complex transmission function being able to model the asymmetrically distorted absorption line shapes for arbitrary modulation depths, modulation frequencies, and resonator reflectivities. Exact equations of the in-phase and the quadrature modulation signal, taking into account a full resonator transmission function, are simultaneously adjusted to two-channel lock-in measurements performed in the gigahertz regime to obtain the spectral line position. The determination of the absorption line position of the rotational transition J' = 7 ? J" = 6 of (16)O(12)C(32)S in the vibrational ground state is investigated while changing the resonator distortions. The results are subjected to the approach proposed here and compared to standard methods known from the literature. PMID:25967497
van Dijk, Hanneke; van der Werf, Jurrian; Mazaheri, Ali; Medendorp, W. Pieter; Jensen, Ole
2009-01-01
Event-related responses and oscillatory activity are typically regarded as manifestations of different neural processes. Recent work has nevertheless revealed a mechanism by which slow event-related responses are created as a direct consequence of modulations in brain oscillations with nonsinusoidal properties. It remains unknown if this mechanism applies to cognitively relevant event-related responses. Here, we investigated whether sustained event-related fields (ERFs) measured during working memory maintenance can be explained by modulations in oscillatory power. In particular, we focused on contralateral delayed activity (CDA) typically observed in working memory tasks in which hemifield specific attention is manipulated. Using magnetoencephalography, we observed sustained posterior ERFs following the presentation of the memory target. These ERFs were systematically lateralized with respect to the hemisphere in which the target was presented. A strikingly similar pattern emerged for modulations in alpha (9–13 Hz) power. The alpha power and ERF lateralization were strongly correlated over subjects. Based on a mechanistic argument pertaining to the nonsinusoidal properties of the alpha activity, we conclude that the ERFs modulated by working memory are likely to be directly produced by the modulations in oscillatory alpha activity. Given that posterior alpha activity typically reflects disengagement, we conclude that the CDA is not attributable to an additive process reflecting memory maintenance per se but, rather, is a consequence of how attentional resources are allocated. PMID:20080773
Comparison of carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Othman, M. B.; Pham, Tien-Thang; Deng, Lei; Jensen, Jesper Bo; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment.......We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoegger, B.A.; Schneider, H.; Vaucher, B.G. (Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique)
1982-06-30
Magnetoacoustic oscillations are excited in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma cylinder by amplitude modulation of a high frequency field (2.45 GHz, 3 kW PEP). The antenna is a long helical slow-wave structure. The axial field-oscillating with the modulation frequency (2/15 MHz) is monitored by means of electrostatically shielded magnetic probes. Resonance behaviour is observed around the eigenfrequency of the plasma cylinder. Power absorption is measured with diamagnetic loop technique. The plasma parameters are: mean electron density 3x10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, electron temperature 3.5 eV, magnetic field 1.6 kG, filling gas 7x10/sup -4/ Torr argon.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francucci M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager ( = 405?nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.
Residual Gas Noise in the Test-mass Module for DECIGO Pathfinder
Okutomi, K.; Akutsu, T.; Ando, M.; Nikaido, M.; Tanaka, N.; Torii, Y.; Sato, S.; Izumi, K.; Chen, D.
2015-05-01
DECIGO Pathfinder is the first milestone mission for DECIGO, a future gravitational wave antenna. In DPF, residual gas noise acting on the test mass is estimated to increase and exceed the requirement for force noise of 1 × 10-15 N/?Hz due to geometry of the test-mass module. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the residual gas noise and found that the engineering model of the test-mass module cannnot satisfy the requirement. To reduce the gas noise, we present revised geometry of the test-mass module using comb-like electrodes.
Phase-amplitude coupling characteristics in directly modulated quantum dot lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C. [Télécom ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, CNRS LTCI, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Osi?ski, M. [Télécom ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, CNRS LTCI, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4343 (United States); Even, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, Université Européenne de Bretagne, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Grillot, F. [Télécom ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, CNRS LTCI, 75634 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2014-12-01
We present a semi-analytical model for studying the phase-amplitude coupling (?-factor) in quantum dot (QD) semiconductor lasers, which takes into account the influence of carrier populations in the excited state and in the two-dimensional carrier reservoir on the refractive index change. Calculations of the ?-factor based on the amplified spontaneous emission method and on the “FM/AM” technique are both investigated. It is shown that the ?-factor of a QD laser strongly depends on the energy separation between the ground state and the off-resonant states. Through band structure engineering, the ?-factor can be reduced by enlarging this energy separation.
Phase-amplitude coupling characteristics in directly modulated quantum dot lasers
WANG, Cheng; Osi?ski, M; Even, J; Grillot, F
2014-01-01
We present a semi-analytical model for studying the phase-amplitude coupling (a-factor) in quantum dot (QD) semiconductor lasers, which takes into account the influence of carrier populations in the excited state and in the two-dimensional carrier reservoir on the refractive index change. Calculations of the a-factor based on the amplified spontaneous emission method and on the "FM/AM" technique are both investigated. It is shown that the a-factor of a QD laser strongly depends on the energy ...
Phase-amplitude coupling characteristics in directly modulated quantum dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a semi-analytical model for studying the phase-amplitude coupling (?-factor) in quantum dot (QD) semiconductor lasers, which takes into account the influence of carrier populations in the excited state and in the two-dimensional carrier reservoir on the refractive index change. Calculations of the ?-factor based on the amplified spontaneous emission method and on the “FM/AM” technique are both investigated. It is shown that the ?-factor of a QD laser strongly depends on the energy separation between the ground state and the off-resonant states. Through band structure engineering, the ?-factor can be reduced by enlarging this energy separation
Amplitude modulation for the Swift-Hohenberg and Kuramoto-Sivashinski equations
Kirkinis, Eleftherios; O'Malley, Robert E.
2014-12-01
Employing a harmonic balance technique inspired from the methods of Renormalization Group and Multiple Scales [R. E. O'Malley, Jr. and E. Kirkinis. "A combined renormalization group-multiple scale method for singularly perturbed problems," Stud. Appl. Math. 124(4), 383-410, (2010)], we derive the amplitude equations for the Swift-Hohenberg and Kuramoto-Sivashinski equations to arbitrary order in the context of roll patterns. This new and straightforward derivation improves previous attempts and can be carried-out with symbolic computation that minimizes effort and avoids error.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Past theoretical and numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of electromagnetic cyclotron waves are reviewed. Such waves are commonly observed in space plasmas such as Alfven waves in the solar wind or VLF whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere. The use of an electromagnetic full-particle code to study an electron cyclotron wave and of an electromagnetic hybrid code to study an ion cyclotron wave is demonstrated. Recent achievements in the simulations of nonlinear revolution of electromagnetic cyclotron waves are discussed. The inverse cascading processes of finite-amplitude whistler and Alfven waves is interpreted in terms of physical elementary processes. 65 refs
Comparison of carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Othman, M. B.; Pham, Tien-Thang
2014-01-01
We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment.
Sauer, K.; Sydora, R. D.
2015-01-01
origin of Langmuir amplitude modulations and harmonic waves observed in the solar wind and in planetary foreshock regions is investigated in beam plasmas where the saturation process of the beam instability is accompanied with the formation of a plateau distribution. This saturated state represents a current which is shown to drive homogeneous electric field oscillations at the plasma frequency. This simple mechanism has been ignored in most numerical studies based on Vlasov or particle-in-cell simulations because of the use of the Poisson equation which is not suitable to describe the mechanism of current drive in plasmas with immobile ions; instead, Ampere's law must be used. A simple fluid description of stable plateau plasmas, coupled with Ampere's law, is applied to illustrate the basic elements of current-driven Langmuir oscillations. If beam-generated Langmuir/electron-acoustic waves with frequencies above or below the plasma frequency are simultaneously present, beating of both wave modes leads to Langmuir amplitude modulations, thus providing an alternative to parametric decay. Furthermore, very important implications of our studies (presented separately) concern the electrostatic and electromagnetic second harmonic generation by nonlinear interaction of Langmuir oscillations with finite wave number modes which are driven by the plateau current as well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korman Maria
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Perception of vibration during drilling demands integration of haptic and auditory information with force information. In this study we explored the ability to detect and discriminate changes in vibrotactile stimuli amplitude based either on purely haptic feedback or together with congruent synthesized auditory cues in groups of naive subjects and expert surgeons. Our results point toward the complex influence of multimodal experience during vibration perception. First, in naive subjects, we showed that detection and discrimination of amplitude change in complex vibro-tactile stimulus is selectively sensitive to combination of modality and previous experience. In the domain of discrimination, our results suggest that bi-modal performance is always better than uni-modal performance regardless of order of experience. Second, experiments with expert surgeons revealed that expertise in complex skill of maxilla-facial surgery strongly relies on enhanced touch perception, as measured in reaction times and discrimination ability in bi-modal vibro-auditory conditions. These observations suggest that acquisition of mandibular surgery skill has brought to an enhanced representation of vibro-tactile modulations in relevant stimuli ranges. Altogether, our results provide basis to assume that during acquisition of mandibular drilling skill, trainees may benefit from training of relevant basic aspects of touch perception - sensitivity to vibration and accompanying modulations of sound.
Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers.
Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lo, Jui-Yung; Tseng, Wei-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, Gong-Ru
2013-10-21
With the intra-cavity nano-scale charcoal powder based saturable absorber, the 455-fs passive mode-locking of an L-band erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated. The size reduction of charcoal nano-particle is implemented with a simple imprinting-exfoliation-wiping method, which assists to increase the transmittance up to 0.91 with corresponding modulation depth of 26%. By detuning the power gain from 17 to 21 dB and cavity dispersion from -0.004 to -0.156 ps² of the EDFL, the shortening of mode-locked pulsewidth from picosecond to sub-picosecond by the transformation of the pulse forming mechanism from self-amplitude modulation (SAM) to the combining effect of self-phase modulation (SPM) and group delay dispersion (GDD) is observed. A narrower spectrum with 3-dB linewidth of 1.83-nm is in the SAM case, whereas the spectral linewidth broadens to 5.86 nm with significant Kelly sideband pair can be observed if the EDFL enters into the SPM regime. The mode-locking mechanism transferred from SAM to SPM/GDD dominates the pulse shortening procedure in the EDFL, whereas the intrinsic defects in charcoal nano-particle only affect the pulse formation at initial stage. The minor role of the saturable absorber played in the EDFL cavity with strongest SPM is observed. PMID:24150360
Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine
2007-02-01
The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed. PMID:16514106
Spiegel, Daniel R; Johnson, Elliot R; Saucedo, Skyler R
2006-03-01
We report a liquid-crystal pattern-formation experiment in which we break the lateral (translational) symmetry of a nematic medium with a laser-induced thermal gradient. The work is motivated by an improved measurement (reported here) of the temperature dependence of the electroconvection threshold voltage in planar-nematic 4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline. In contrast with other broken-symmetry-pattern studies that report a uniform drift, we observe a strip of counterpropagating rolls that collide at a sink point, and a strong temporally periodic amplitude modulation within a width of 3-4 rolls about the sink point. The time dependence of the amplitude at a fixed position is periodic but displays a nonsinusoidal relaxation-oscillation profile. After reporting experimental results based on spacetime contours and wave number profiles, along with a measurement of the change in the drift frequency with applied voltage at a fixed control parameter, we propose some potential guidelines for a theoretical model based on saddle-point solutions for Eckhaus-unstable states and coupled complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. PMID:16605661
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Danielle Gomes, Pinto; Silvana Maria Sobral, Griz; Otávio Gomes, Lins.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a utilização do estímulo ruído branco, modulado em amplitude, no exame de Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Estado Estável (PEAEE). MÉTODO: foram avaliados 30 neonatos e lactentes, na Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da UFPE, que realizaram os exames de Emissões Otoacústicas Tran [...] sientes (EOAT) e PEAEE, com ruído branco de amplitude modulada. RESULTADOS: para o exame de PEAEE, sugere-se que a intensidade ideal para o ponto de corte seja 50 dB NPS, para os casos com passa na triagem auditiva, com o exame de EOAT. CONCLUSÃO: o exame de PEAEE, realizado com ruído branco, modulado em amplitude, parece ser promissor como ferramenta de triagem auditiva. Entretanto, estudos são necessários para observar a relação entre os limiares das respostas auditivas de estado estável utilizando-se tons puros e ruído branco, a fim de melhor elucidar e definir parâmetros e protocolos de sua utilização. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to check the use of amplitude modulated white noise as a stimulus for the auditory steady state response. METHOD: thirty neonates were evaluated with transient otoacoustic emissions and auditory steady state response, with amplitude modulate white noise, at the Clinical Hospital in the Fede [...] ral University of Pernambuco. RESULTS: for the auditory steady state response, it is suggested that the cut point intensity related with normal hearing is 50 dB SPL, as it was related to the presence of transient otoacoustic emissions. CONCLUSION: the auditory steady state response, evoked with amplitude modulate white noise seems to be promissory as a tool for hearing screening. More studies need to be done in order to better establish the hearing threshold and to define more precise protocols for its employment.
Kifle, Muli; Vanderaar, Mark
1994-02-01
Union bounds and Monte Carlo simulation Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance results are presented for various 32-ary and 64-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) schemes. Filtered and unfiltered modulation formats are compared for the best packing arrangement in peak power limited systems. It is verified that circular constellations which populate as many symbols as possible at the peak magnitude offer the best performance. For example: a 32-ary QAM scheme based on concentric circles offers about 1.05 dB better peak power improvement at a BER of 10(exp -6) over the scheme optimized for average power using triangular symbol packing. This peak power improvement increases to 1.25 dB for comparable 64-ary QAM schemes. This work serves as a precursor to determine the feasibility of a combined modem/codec that can accommodate Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) at a rate of 155.52 Mbps through typical transponder bandwidths of 36 MHz and 54 MHz.
Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769
Aerts, C; Catala, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M; Castro, N; Schmid, V S; Scardia, M; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Papics, I; Degroote, P; Bloemen, S; Oestensen, R H; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Michel, E; Samadi, R
2013-01-01
{We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD\\,46769 ($V=5.79$). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target.} {We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending, as well as spectroscopic follow-up data, by using standard Fourier analysis and Phase Dispersion Minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assumping a dipole field.} {In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84\\,d with an amplitude of 87\\,ppm, and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69\\,d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not revea...
Thanassoulas, C; Klentos, V.; Verveniotis, G
2010-01-01
Starting from the observation that quite often the Earth's oscillating electric field varies in amplitude, a mechanism is postulated that accounts for these observations. That mechanism is the piezoelectric one driven by the M1 and K1 tidal components. It is demonstrated how the system: piezoelectricity triggered in the lithosphere - M1 and K1 tidal components is activated and produces the amplitude modulated Earth's oscillating electric field. This procedure is linked to th...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Alexandra de Oliveira, Claro; Bruna Akie, Kanezawa; Michele de, Camargo; Vanessa Maria, Paes; José Luiz Marinho, Portolez; Gladson Ricardo Flor, Bertolini.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A corrente interferencial é um método de eletroestimulação bastante utilizado com finalidades analgésicas, porém, existem controvérsias com relação aos seus parâmetros de uso. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar diferentes frequências de amplitude modulada, da corrente inte [...] rferencial, sobre o limiar de dor à pressão e ao frio, em voluntários saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio cruzado, aleatório e com avaliadores e avaliados encobertos, de caráter quantitativo. Participaram deste estudo 20 voluntários subdivididos em quatro grupos, que durante quatro semanas passaram por diferentes frequências de amplitude modulada. Foram avaliados os limiares da dor à pressão e ao frio em quatro momentos distintos - no início, logo após eletroestimulação, 20 e 60 minutos após. Como forma de eletroestimulação foi utilizada a corrente interferencial nas frequências de amplitude modulada de 1Hz, 10Hz e 100Hz, com frequência de base de 4.000Hz, sendo que em uma determinada semana os voluntários recebiam placebo (0Hz). RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa nas comparações dentro das frequências, nem entre elas e o grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da corrente interferencial nas frequências de amplitude modulada de 1Hz, 10Hz e 100Hz não produziu alterações nos limiares de dor ao frio e à pressão, semelhante ao encontrado para o grupo placebo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The interferential current is an electrical stimulation method widely used with analgesic purposes; however, there are controversies regarding their usage parameters. The aim of this study was to compare different amplitude modulated frequencies of the interferential curr [...] ent on the pressure and cold pain threshold in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This is a crossover, randomized and blinded evaluators and evaluated in quantitative character test. Participants were 20 volunteers divided into four groups, who for four weeks were subject to different modulated frequencies. Thresholds of pressure and cold pain in four different times were evaluated - at the beginning, right after electric stimulation, 20 and 60 minutes after. As a form of electrical stimulation, interferential current was used at modulated amplitude frequencies of 1Hz, 10Hz and 100Hz with base frequency of 4,000Hz, being that in a particular week volunteers received placebo (0Hz). RESULTS: There has been no significant difference in comparisons within frequencies or between them and the placebo group. CONCLUSION: The use of amplitude modulated frequencies of interferential current of 1Hz, 10Hz and 100Hz did not change cold and pressure pain thresholds, similar to what has been found for the placebo group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules
Solares, Santiago D.
2008-01-01
The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules.
Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2015-03-01
We apply the eight-state trellis-coded modulation (TCM) using signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (4D-MQAM) to optical communication systems for the first time to our knowledge. In the TCM scheme, the free distance of the trellis diagram is equal to the minimum distance between constellation points in partitioned subsets, which enlarges the coding gain effectively. In fact, its asymptotic power efficiency is 3-dB larger than that of the set-partitioned 4D-MQAM (SP-4D-MQAM) format, while their spectral efficiencies are the same. Such theoretical predictions are confirmed through computer simulations on eight-state TCM with constellations of 4D-4QAM (i.e., 4D quadrature phase-shift keying: 4D-QPSK) and 4D-16QAM. In particular, eight-state TCM with 4D-QPSK constellations is practically important because of its simple encoder structure, relatively low computational cost, and high coding gain against dual-polarization QPSK (DP-QPSK) and SP-4D-QPSK. Through measurements of its bit-error rate (BER) performance, we confirm that the coding gain against DP-QPSK is about 3 dB at BER=10(-3). PMID:25836886
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Janakiraman
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50?Hz input signal to 0.04?s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6?m to 6?m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)
Wydro, Marc J; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob
2015-05-19
Amplitude-modulated atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has been used to study the nanostructure of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)-hexanol-0.2 M NaCl sponge (L3) and lamellar (L?) phases near a mica surface. For both phases, membrane volume fractions of 22, 27, and 32 vol % were investigated, with the L3 or L? phase selected by adjusting the co-surfactant/surfactant ratio (hexanol/CPCl). For the L3 phase, the presence of the surface flattens the three-dimensional bulk structure. AM-AFM clearly resolves the membrane and solvent passages in the near surface layer. Increasing the membrane volume fraction decreases the size of the image features because of the lower solvent content. Within error, the average passage sizes in the near surface layer are the same as those in the bulk at the same concentration. Images of the L? phase reveal undulating near surface sheets. At the highest membrane concentration, the image is very smooth, because the lamellar sheet is confined between the surface and the next near surface layer, which is in close proximity as a result of the low solvent content. As the membrane concentration is reduced, the space between layers is increased and undulations appear in the near surface lamellar structure. Undulations are more pronounced at the lowest membrane volume fraction. PMID:25906083
Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren
2015-01-01
Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosyntheti...
Alvarez, Clarisa E; Detarsio, Enrique; Moreno, Silvia; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F
2012-06-01
Two highly similar plastidic NADP-malic enzymes (NADP-MEs) are found in the C(4) species maize (Zea mays); one exclusively expressed in the bundle sheath cells (BSCs) and involved in C(4) photosynthesis (ZmC(4)-NADP-ME); and the other (ZmnonC(4)-NADP-ME) with housekeeping roles. In the present work, these two NADP-MEs were analyzed regarding their redox-dependent activity modulation. The results clearly show that ZmC(4)-NADP-ME is the only one modulated by redox status, and that its oxidation produces a conformational change limiting the catalytic process, although inducing higher affinity binding of the substrates. The reversal of ZmC(4)-NADP-ME oxidation by chemical reductants suggests the presence of thiol groups able to form disulfide bonds. In order to identify the cysteine residues involved in the activity modulation, site-directed mutagenesis and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) analysis of ZmC(4)-NADP-ME were performed. The results obtained allowed the identification of Cys192, Cys246 (not conserved in ZmnonC(4)-NADP-ME), Cys270 and Cys410 as directly or indirectly implicated in ZmC(4)-NADP-ME redox modulation. These residues may be involved in forming disulfide bridge(s) or in the modulation of the oxidation of critical residues. Overall, the results indicate that, besides having acquired a high level of expression and localization in BSCs, ZmC(4)-NADP-ME displays a particular redox modulation, which may be required to accomplish the C(4) photosynthetic metabolism. Therefore, the present work could provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms potentially involved in the recruitment of genes for the C(4) pathway during evolution. PMID:22514092
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The influence of short-range electrostatic forces on the measured local contact potential difference (CPD) by means of amplitude-modulation and frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy (AM- and FM-KPFM) is discussed on the base of numerical and analytical descriptions of both methods. The goal of this work is to help in interpreting recent experimental results reporting atomically resolved CPD images, in particular on bulk insulating samples. The discussion is carried out on the basis of spectroscopic curves. The expression of the bias-dependent electrostatic force is derived from a previous work and is estimated between a tip with simple geometry and the (001) facet of a perfect alkali halide single crystal. The force, with a short-range character, scales as a second-order polynomial function of the bias voltage. It is stated that the linear term is responsible for the occurrence of the atomic-scale CPD contrast, while the quadratic one, involving the sample polarization, accounts for the detected signal by the KPFM methods. Nevertheless, analytical and numerical approaches stress the influence of the linear term on the measured CPD which intrinsically hinders the possibility to perform quantitative CPD measurements, but also makes the measured 'pseudo-CPD' strongly deviating from the surface potential. Hence, in the short-range regime, AM- or FM-KPFM measurements neither reflect the CPD nor the local surface potential, but rather an effective value which is convoluted by the geometric parameters of the tip, the so-called local CPD. It is also stated that the local CPD measured by means of AM- or FM-KPFM differs when sub-nanometer vibration amplitudes of the cantilever are used. Otherwise, AM- and FM-KPFM measurements should be almost similar. At last, the influence of long-range, capacitive, electrostatic forces is discussed in conjunction with the short-range ones. This allows us to draw conclusions regarding the distance dependence of the local CPD which then exhibits a resonant behavior as a function of the tip-surface separation. This phenomenon is expected to play a role in the KPFM imaging process.
Tao, Li; Wang, Yiguang; Gao, Yuliang; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Chi, Nan; Lu, Chao
2013-03-11
Carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation can be a good candidate for short range optical communications for considerable computational complexity reduction and simple system structure. In this paper, a detailed investigation on the digital filters in CAP modulation system is presented. An adaptive equalizer based on cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) is used for the demodulation at the receiver. The impact of digital filter taps on system performance is investigated through comprehensive simulations and a 10 Gb/s CAP16 modulation system is demonstrated experimentally. The BER performance for different length of fiber link is measured. Compared with back-to-back (BTB) transmissions, 2 dB and 3.5 dB receiver power penalty are observed at BER of 10(-3) for 20 km and 40 km fiber link respectively. It clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the CAP16 modulation for the short range transmission systems. PMID:23482215
Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769
Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.
2013-09-01
Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6 m telescope, under programme LP185.D-0056. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph attached to the 1.2 m Mercator telescope, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientific (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. Based on observations obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi (France), which is operated by the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, R.; Bhattacharyya, S.R.; Bhar, R. [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, A.K., E-mail: msakp2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Instrumentation Science, USIC Building, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2011-10-01
Residual stress modulation in the diamond-like carbon coatings with incorporation of gold nanoparticles was studied critically. The films were deposited on glass and Si (1 0 0) substrates by using capacitatively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition. Stresses in the films were determined from the broadening of the optical absorption tail and were found to decrease from 2.3 GPa to 0.48 GPa with increasing gold content (2-7 at.% Au) in the DLC matrix. Gold incorporation also made the films harder than the corresponding DLC coatings. Modulation of stress with nanocrystalline gold content in the DLC matrix was related to the relative amount of sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} content in the DLC films.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual stress modulation in the diamond-like carbon coatings with incorporation of gold nanoparticles was studied critically. The films were deposited on glass and Si (1 0 0) substrates by using capacitatively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition. Stresses in the films were determined from the broadening of the optical absorption tail and were found to decrease from 2.3 GPa to 0.48 GPa with increasing gold content (2-7 at.% Au) in the DLC matrix. Gold incorporation also made the films harder than the corresponding DLC coatings. Modulation of stress with nanocrystalline gold content in the DLC matrix was related to the relative amount of sp2/sp3 content in the DLC films.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J.L., Vargas-Luna; W., Mayr; J.A., Cortés-Ramírez.
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una metodología para la extracción de la actividad respiratoria derivada de un ECG (EDR, por sus siglas en ingles), basado en el enfoque de amplitud modulada (AM). Esto permite redefinir las metodologías actuales para obtener una señal EDR más continua, con altos factores de co [...] rrelación y un retraso menor entre la EDR y la actividad respiratoria. Se implementaron dos algoritmos: uno utilizando la modulación de la amplitud del pico R (EDRAM) y el otro aplicando un filtro paso-banda en el espectro de frecuencia de la respiración. A diferencia de otros trabajos en la literatura, se utilizan filtros convencionales de bajo orden pero sin sacrificar el factor de correlación (0.76 y 0.67) y manteniendo un retardo de ?0.27s (con EDRAM) en un ciclo de ?6s. Se realizó una prueba de robustez, donde se muestra una tolerancia a ruido blanco de hasta un 20% del valor máximo antes de que el factor de correlación bajara considerablemente. El algoritmo EDRAM se aplicó con éxito en un prototipo de sistema portable. Las dos metodologías propuestas muestran ventajas como el procesamiento en tiempo real y robustez bajo ciertos ruidos. La perspectiva de AM propuesta soporta el uso de ambos algoritmos para aplicaciones típicas con alta eficiencia, bajo costo computacional y facilidad de implementación. Estas características hacen que esta técnica facilite el desarrollo de sistemas portátiles, así como para incrementar la información de las bases de datos actuales. Abstract in english This work presents the development of an ECG-Derived Respiration (EDR) methodology based on the amplitude modulation approach. It allows to redefine actual methodologies in order to obtain a continuous EDR signals with high correlations and small delay between EDR and respiration activity. Two algor [...] ithms are implemented: one of them using the amplitude modulation of the R-peak (EDRAM) and another one applying a band-pass filter in the bandwidth of respiration. Unlike other techniques in literature, conventional low order filters are applied without sacrifice of correlation factor (0.76 and 0.67) and a minimum delay of 0.27s (with EDRAM) in a ?6s cycle. A robustness test was performed, and it shows a noise tolerance of up to 20% of the maximum value before its correlation factor drops considerably. The application into a wearable sensor was successfully implemented. The two methodologies proposed show advantages like real-time processing and robustness under certain noises. The proposed AM perspective supports the use of both algorithms for typical applications with high efficiency, low computational cost and ease of implementation. These characteristics result on a technique that facilitates the development of wearable systems, and to increase the information of actual databases.
Wu, Yan; Gupta, Chaitanya; Shannon, Mark A
2008-10-01
The dynamic response of amplitude-modulated atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) is studied at the solid/water interface with respect to changes in ionic concentration, applied surface potential, and surface protonation. Each affects the electric double layer in the solution, charge on the tip and the sample surface, and thus the forces affecting the dynamic response. A theoretical model is developed to relate the effective stiffness and hydrodynamic damping of the AFM cantilever that is due to the tip/surface interaction with the phase and amplitude signals measured in the AM-AFM experiments. The phase and amplitude of an oscillating cantilever are measured as a function of tip-sample distance in three experiments: mica surface in potassium nitrate solutions with different concentrations, biased gold surface in potassium nitrate solution, and carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold in potassium nitrate pH buffers. Results show that, over the range where the higher harmonic modes of the oscillation are negligible, the effective stiffness of the AFM cantilever increases to a maximum as the tip approaches the surface before declining again as a result of the repulsive electrical double layer interaction. For attractive electrical double-layer interactions, the effective stiffness declines monotonically as the tip approaches the surface. Similarly, the hydrodynamic damping of the tip increases and then decreases as the tip approaches the solid/water interface, with the magnitude depending on the species present in the solution. PMID:18763814
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The evolution of strongly modulated wave packets in a dispersive plasma that propagate parallel to the magnetic field is studied. Modulation effects are shown to reduce significantly (?30%) the rate of spreading from that due to dispersion alone. For fluidlike behavior, nonlinearity has its greatest impact on evolution when the linear sound speed and initial wave packet speeds are well matched, resulting in a strong coupling between the wave magnetic and sonic components. Ion kinetic processes reduce the impact of nonlinearity and cause the rate of spreading to approach that expected from dispersion alone as the ratio of ion and electron temperatures, Ti/Te?4. For ? approx-gt 1 and Ti/Te?1, the coupled waveforms correspond qualitatively to kinetic treatments of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation
Self-similarities in the frequency-amplitude space of a loss-modulated CO$_2$ laser
Bonatto, Cristian; Garreau, Jean Claude; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2005-01-01
We show the standard two-level continuous-time model of loss-modulated CO$_2$ lasers to display the same regular network of self-similar stability islands known so far to be typically present only in discrete-time models based on mappings. For class B laser models our results suggest that, more than just convenient surrogates, discrete mappings in fact could be isomorphic to continuous flows.
Syzygies Probing Scattering Amplitudes
Chen, Gang; Xie, Ruofei; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Yehao
2015-01-01
We propose a new efficient algorithm to obtain the linearly independent basis of syzygies for an ideal, which are widely used in the current study of scattering amplitudes. This new algorithm, which can deal with more syzygies effectively owing to a new generation of syzygy in each step is given to verify the independence, is described in detail. We generalize this efficient algorithm to the module case, and partially guarantee the basis independence of the module. We also show a typical example to illustrate the potential application of this method in scattering amplitudes, especially the IBP relations of characteristic two-loop diagrams in the Yang-Mills theory.
Lierke, E. G.
2000-07-01
A 21 kHz standing-wave amplifier at the focus of a 36 cm diameter parabolic mirror (ka=70) is used for highly directive radiation of low frequency sine waves, voice signals and even music (of poor quality). The low frequency waves are amplitude-modulated onto the ultrasonic carrier wave and radiated into a solid angle of ±1° (-3 dB). Low frequency sound waves with frequencies between 50 Hz and 3 kHz are radiated over a distance of more than 20 m. The achievable audio sound pressure levels decrease with approximately 20 dB per distance doubling and reached about 30 dB at 20 m distance. The discussion of the measurements is based on Blackstock's weak shock theory [5] and on the nonsaturated radiation pressure at saturated sound pressure levels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Sinha
Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not inconsistent with our observations.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere – ionosphere interactions Ionosphere (ionosphere – magnetoshere interactions; ionospheric irregularities
Branstetter, Brian K; DeLong, Caroline M; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly
2016-01-01
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519
Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli
2015-12-01
A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solving a two-dimensional LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) code, simulation of Ar-CO2 and Ar-N2 PMITP (Pulse Modulated Induction Thermal Plasma) has been carried out. The active plasma power, fundamental frequency and gas flow rate are 27 kW, 0.45 MHz and 100/102.5 slpm, respectively. It has been found that the injection of excess dissociative molecular gases, shrinks the plasma and slows down the plasma response at the instant of off-to-on-pulsing transition, which results mainly from the molecular dissociation and ionization. Plasma response has been found faster at higher SCL (Shimmer Current Level) for the same duty factor during the on pulsing transition, and hardly affected by SCL and molecular gas addition during off pulsing transition. Pressure does not appreciably affect the response of Ar-CO2 plasma, whereas response of Ar-N2 plasma becomes a bit faster at increased pressure. Part of the simulated results is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The agreement is found in some cases, and the remaining discrepancies between the results are critically evaluated with regard to various possible reasons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bali?ski
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Describes how to obtain a soluble sodium silicate with a density of 1.40 g/cm3, 1.45 g/cm3, 1.50 g/cm3, and silica module M = 2.1obtained from the silica- sodium glass with module M = 3.3 and M = 2.1. Residual (final strength of molding samples made with thesebinders, were determined at temperatures corresponding to the characteristic temperatures of phase and temperature transitions of silica gel. Indicated the type of soluble sodium silicate capable of obtain the smallest value of the final strength of molding sand in the specified range of temperatures.
A. Bali?ski
2013-01-01
Describes how to obtain a soluble sodium silicate with a density of 1.40 g/cm3, 1.45 g/cm3, 1.50 g/cm3, and silica module M = 2.1obtained from the silica- sodium glass with module M = 3.3 and M = 2.1. Residual (final) strength of molding samples made with thesebinders, were determined at temperatures corresponding to the characteristic temperatures of phase and temperature transitions of silica gel. Indicated the type of soluble sodium silicate capable of obtain the smallest value of the fina...
Ser and Thr residues modulate the conformation of pro-kinked transmembrane alpha-helices.
Deupi, Xavier; Olivella, Mireia; Govaerts, Cedric; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Campillo, Mercedes; Pardo, Leonardo
2004-01-01
Functionally required conformational plasticity of transmembrane proteins implies that specific structural motifs have been integrated in transmembrane helices. Surveying a database of transmembrane helices and the large family of G-protein coupled receptors we identified a series of overrepresented motifs associating Pro with either Ser or Thr. Thus, we have studied the conformation of Pro-kinked transmembrane helices containing Ser or Thr residues, in both g+ and g- rotamers, by molecular dynamics simulations in a hydrophobic environment. Analysis of the simulations shows that Ser or Thr can significantly modulate the deformation of the Pro. A series of motifs, such as (S/T)P and (S/T)AP in the g+ rotamer and the TAP and PAA(S/T) motifs in the g- rotamer, induce an increase in bending angle of the helix compared to a standard Pro-kink, apparently due to the additional hydrogen bond formed between the side chain of Ser/Thr and the backbone carbonyl oxygen. In contrast, (S/T)AAP and PA(S/T) motifs, in both g+ and g-, and PAA(S/T) in g+ rotamers decrease the bending angle of the helix by either reducing the steric clash between the pyrrolidine ring of Pro and the helical backbone, or by adding a constrain in the form of a hydrogen bond in the curved-in face of the helix. Together with a number of available experimental data, our results strongly suggest that association of Ser and Thr with Pro is commonly used in transmembrane helices to accommodate the structural needs of specific functions. PMID:14695254
Ser and Thr Residues Modulate the Conformation of Pro-Kinked Transmembrane ?-Helices
Deupi, Xavier; Olivella, Mireia; Govaerts, Cedric; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Campillo, Mercedes; Pardo, Leonardo
2004-01-01
Functionally required conformational plasticity of transmembrane proteins implies that specific structural motifs have been integrated in transmembrane helices. Surveying a database of transmembrane helices and the large family of G-protein coupled receptors we identified a series of overrepresented motifs associating Pro with either Ser or Thr. Thus, we have studied the conformation of Pro-kinked transmembrane helices containing Ser or Thr residues, in both g+ and g? rotamers, by molecular dynamics simulations in a hydrophobic environment. Analysis of the simulations shows that Ser or Thr can significantly modulate the deformation of the Pro. A series of motifs, such as (S/T)P and (S/T)AP in the g+ rotamer and the TAP and PAA(S/T) motifs in the g? rotamer, induce an increase in bending angle of the helix compared to a standard Pro-kink, apparently due to the additional hydrogen bond formed between the side chain of Ser/Thr and the backbone carbonyl oxygen. In contrast, (S/T)AAP and PA(S/T) motifs, in both g+ and g?, and PAA(S/T) in g+ rotamers decrease the bending angle of the helix by either reducing the steric clash between the pyrrolidine ring of Pro and the helical backbone, or by adding a constrain in the form of a hydrogen bond in the curved-in face of the helix. Together with a number of available experimental data, our results strongly suggest that association of Ser and Thr with Pro is commonly used in transmembrane helices to accommodate the structural needs of specific functions. PMID:14695254
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munz, M., E-mail: martin.munz@npl.co.uk
2013-08-15
In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been employed to image a photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. The same area was imaged both in amplitude modulation (AM) and in frequency modulation (FM) mode and the latter allowed for excellent resolution of the hydrogel microstructure. It shows globular domains with typical diameters in the range of ?10–100 nm. The hydrogel morphology has been analysed using grain size analysis as well as roughness analysis. Based on AFM topography images of hydrogel nano-domains, a set of roughness parameters has been identified which can be readily used as descriptors for spatial resolution. It includes the density of summits, S{sub ds}, the mean summit curvature, S{sub sc}, the surface area ratio, S{sub dr}, and the correlation length parameter, S{sub cl37}. The latter describes the length over which the autocorrelation function decays to 37% of its peak value. These parameters allow for better discrimination than the widely used root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, S{sub q}, and are available with common image processing software packages. Systematic variation of the virtual tilt angle has indicated that these parameters are robust to small variations in plane levelling. Such image processing is frequently needed to separate the inherent surface microstructure from the global topography related to sample tilt or surface waviness. Hydrogels are an important group of biomaterials as they find numerous applications in biomedical engineering, ranging from adhesives, to controlled release of water-soluble drugs, to encapsulation of cells, to tissue engineering. Optimisation of their interactions with bioentities, such as bacteria, cells or proteins, requires accurate surface characterisation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been employed to image a photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. The same area was imaged both in amplitude modulation (AM) and in frequency modulation (FM) mode and the latter allowed for excellent resolution of the hydrogel microstructure. It shows globular domains with typical diameters in the range of âˆ¼10â€“100 nm. The hydrogel morphology has been analysed using grain size analysis as well as roughness analysis. Based on AFM topography images of hydrogel nano-domains, a set of roughness parameters has been identified which can be readily used as descriptors for spatial resolution. It includes the density of summits, Sds, the mean summit curvature, Ssc, the surface area ratio, Sdr, and the correlation length parameter, Scl37. The latter describes the length over which the autocorrelation function decays to 37% of its peak value. These parameters allow for better discrimination than the widely used root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, Sq, and are available with common image processing software packages. Systematic variation of the virtual tilt angle has indicated that these parameters are robust to small variations in plane levelling. Such image processing is frequently needed to separate the inherent surface microstructure from the global topography related to sample tilt or surface waviness. Hydrogels are an important group of biomaterials as they find numerous applications in biomedical engineering, ranging from adhesives, to controlled release of water-soluble drugs, to encapsulation of cells, to tissue engineering. Optimisation of their interactions with bioentities, such as bacteria, cells or proteins, requires accurate surface characterisation.
Jinkins, K.; Camacho, J.; Farina, L.; Wu, Y.
2015-12-01
The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO2. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO2 substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM.
Javahiraly, Nicolas; Perrotton, Cédric; Chakari, Ayoub; Meyrueis, Patrick
2009-05-01
The reliable, accurate and low cost measurement of angular position is an important challenge for numerous industries such as aerospace or automotive industries. We propose a new optical fiber angular position sensor connected to an automotive power steering column. This sensor allows the measurement of the angular position of a car steering wheel over a large range (+/- 3 turns of wheel). The wheel rotation induces micro-bending in the transducer part of the optical fiber sensing system. This system operates as an amplitude modulation sensor based on mode coupling in the transducing fiber in the case when all the modes are equally excited. We study the sensor's response both theoretically and experimentally with a multimode step index optical fiber [Rf (fiber radius) = 300?m rc (core radius) = 50?m nc (core index) = 1,457; N.A. = 0, 22 and the wavelength is 632, 8 nm at the ambient Temperature (20°C)]. This sensor has been tested between (-3x360) and (+3x360) degrees with 0,147 sensitivity. We show that the sensitivity can be controlled as a function of the sensor's length and the study of the sensor's output power as a function of the angular position has been achieved. We compare modeling and experimental validation and we conclude by a perspective of what could be soon an industrial sensor.
Neuropathic and inflammatory pain are modulated by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues
Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Kuo, Jonathan; Kohno, Kenji; Usdin, Ted B.
2013-01-01
Nociceptive information is modulated by a large number of endogenous signaling agents that change over the course of recovery from injury. This plasticity makes understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in descending inhibition of pain scientifically and clinically important. Neurons that synthesize the neuropeptide TIP39 project to many areas that modulate nociceptive information. These areas are enriched in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). We previously found tha...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hancke, Kasper; Hancke, Torunn
2008-01-01
Short-term temperature effects on photosynthesis were investigated by measuring O2 production, PSII-fluorescence kinetics, and 14C-incorporation rates in monocultures of the marine phytoplankton species Prorocentrum minimum (Pavill.) J. Schiller (Dinophyceae), Prymnesium parvum f. patelliferum ( J. C. Green, D. J. Hibberd et Pienaar) A. Larsen (Coccolithophyceae), and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), grown at 15 oC and 80 umol photons m-2 s-1. Photosynthesis versus irradiance curves were measured at seven temperatures (0oC to 30oC) by all three approaches. The maximum photosynthetic rate (PCmax) was strongly stimulated by temperature, reached an optimum for Pro. minimum only (20oC–25oC), and showed a similar relative temperature response for the three applied methods, with Q10 ranging from 1.7 to 3.5. The maximum light utilization coefficient (alfaC) was insensitive or decreased slightly with increasing temperature. Absolute rates of O2 production were calculated from pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry measurements in combination with biooptical determination of absorbed quanta in PSII. The relationship between PAM-based O2 production and measured O2 production and 14C assimilation showed a species-specific correlation, with 1.2–3.3 times higher absolute values of PCmax and alfaC when calculated from PAM data for Pry. parvum and Ph. tricornutum but equivalent for Pro. minimum. The offset seemed to be temperature insensitive and could be explained by a lower quantum yield for O2 production than the theoretical maximum (due to Mehler-type reactions). Conclusively, the PAM technique can be used to study temperature responses of photosynthesis in microalgae when paying attention to the absorption properties in PSII.
Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren
2015-01-01
Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosynthetic efficiency of B. europaea specimens exposed in aquaria to the annual range of temperatures experienced in the field (13, 18, and 28°C), and two extreme temperatures expected for 2100 as a consequence of global warming (29 and 32°C). The indicators of photosynthetic performance analyzed (maximum and effective quantum yield) showed that maximum efficiency was reached at 20.0-21.6°C, slightly higher than the annual mean temperature in the field (18°C). Photosynthetic efficiency decreased from 20.0 to 13°C and even more strongly from 21.6 to 32°C. An unusual form of bleaching was observed, with a maximum zooxanthellae density at 18°C that strongly decreased from 18 to 32°C. Chlorophyll a concentration per zooxanthellae cell showed an opposite trend as it was minimal at 18°C and increased from 18 to 32°C. Since the areal chlorophyll concentration is the product of the zooxanthellae density and its cellular content, these trends resulted in a homogeneous chlorophyll concentration per coral surface across temperature treatments. This confirms that B. europaea photosynthesis is progressively depressed at temperatures >21.6°C, supporting previous hypotheses raised by the studies on growth and demography of this species. This study also confirms the threats posed to this species by the ongoing seawater warming. PMID:26582993
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael R Markham
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Energetic demands of action potential (AP generation are a major cost of electrical signaling by excitable cells in the central nervous system and periphery. Energy consumption by AP generation is particularly acute in the electric organ (EO of weakly electric fish, and some species regulate AP energetic demands by dynamically regulating AP amplitude. These fish navigate and communicate by generating and sensing electric fields, known as electric organ discharges (EODs produced by the synchronized action potentials (APs of electrogenic cells (electrocytes in the EO. Electrocyte ionic currents are often several microAmperes, many orders of magnitude larger than currents in central neurons, creating significant energetic costs of AP generation. One class of South American electric fish, wave-type fish, generate sinusoidal waveforms produced by EODs emitted at highly regular rates with interpulse intervals equal to the EOD duration. Most wave-type fish generate EODs at individually-fixed frequencies throughout the lifespan, creating high energetic demands and predation risk from electroreceptive predators. We have shown previously that the wave-type fish Sternopygus macrurus (EOD frequencies 70-150 Hz manages EOD energetic/predation costs by reducing EOD amplitude during times of inactivity and increasing EOD amplitude during active periods and social interaction. These circadian and socially-induced EOD modulations are produced by rapid changes in AP amplitude controlled by circulating melanocortin hormones that up-regulate Na+ channel trafficking into the electrocyte membrane. The increased Na+ current magnitude also broadens AP and EOD pulse width with little consequence because of the relatively long intervals (5-8 ms between individual EODs. Here we investigated the ionic mechanisms of EOD amplitude modulation in Eigenmannia virescens, a related gymnotiform fish that discharges at much higher frequencies (200-600 Hz likely incurring increased energetic demands of EOD generation. EOD amplitude in this species appears to be particularly sensitive to energetic constraints, and E. virescens exhibits large day-night changes in EOD amplitude, potentially a mechanism of energetic regulation. The ionic currents of its electrocytes are not known nor have the ionic mechanisms of EOD amplitude modulation been determined. We also studied Eigenmannia because its high electrocyte AP frequencies require mechanisms for changing EOD amplitude while maintaining stable EOD pulse width. With inter-pulse intervals less than 2 ms, increases in AP width would shorten the interpulse interval, preventing recovery of Na+ channels sufficient to maintain EOD waveform. We found that melanocortin peptides applied in vitro increased electrocyte AP amplitude but not AP width. E. virescens electrocytes exhibited a voltage-gated Na+ current with extremely rapid kinetics, an inwardly rectifying K+ current, and a Na+-activated K+ current (KNa that has not been identified in any gymnotiform species to date. Melanocortin peptides increased the magnitude of all three currents, but increased KNa current is a direct function of enhanced Na+ influx. Numerical simulations suggest that KNa channels are necessary for maintaining stable AP width during AP amplitude modulations. Thus, E. virescens overcomes the challenges of modulating EOD amplitude in a high-frequency signal through ultra-rapid Na+ channel kinetics and a KNa channel that scales repolarizing K+ currents to the magnitude of Na+ currents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, D.J., E-mail: d.hughes@warwick.ac.uk [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Koukovini-Platia, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heeley, E.L. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)
2014-02-15
Highlights: • Residual stresses were determined in a welded EUROFER blanket assembly with integrated cooling channels. • Good agreement was seen between experimentally determined and predicted stresses. • We show that microstructure changes that occur in EUROFER steels during welding must be considered for residual stress determination. • An experimental route is proposed for validation of predicted stresses in reactor components using non-destructive diffraction techniques. - Abstract: Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.
Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R
2014-10-18
GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510
Ser and Thr Residues Modulate the Conformation of Pro-Kinked Transmembrane ?-Helices
Deupi, Xavier; Olivella, Mireia; Govaerts, Cedric; Ballesteros, Juan Antonio; Campillo, Mercedes; Pardo, Leonardo
2004-01-01
Functionally required conformational plasticity of transmembrane proteins implies that specific structural motifs have been integrated in transmembrane helices. Surveying a database of transmembrane helices and the large family of G-protein coupled receptors we identified a series of overrepresented motifs associating Pro with either Ser or Thr. Thus, we have studied the conformation of Pro-kinked transmembrane helices containing Ser or Thr residues, in both g+ and g? rotamers, by molecular d...
Aguilera, Paulina; Marcoleta, Andrés; Lobos-Ruiz, Pablo; Arranz, Rocío; Valpuesta, José M.; Monasterio, Octavio; Lagos, Rosalba
2016-01-01
Microcin E492 (MccE492) is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well-characterized, however, it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in Escherichia coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophilic probes, 2-4?-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54–63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59), which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54–63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although with different efficiency, all formed fibrils morphologically similar to wild-type MccE492. The physiological implication of MccE492 intracellular amyloid formation is probably similar to the inactivation process observed for extracellular amyloids, and could be used as a mean of sequestering potentially toxic species inside the cell when this bacteriocin is produced in large amounts.
Modulation of copper site properties by remote residues determines the stability of plastocyanins
Muñoz-López, F. J.; Frutos-Beltrán, Estrella; Díaz-Moreno, Sofía; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Subías, G.; Rosa, Miguel A. de la; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio
2010-01-01
The metal cofactor determines the thermal stability in cupredoxins, but how the redox state of copper modulates their melting points remains unknown. The metal coordination environment is highly conserved in cyanobacterial plastocyanins. However, the oxidised form is more stable than the reduced one in thermophilic Phormidium, but the opposite occurs in mesophilic Synechocystis. We have performed neutral amino-acid substitutions at loops of Phormidium plastocyanin far from the copper site. No...
Hughes, D J; Heeley, E L
2014-01-01
Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.
Swann, William C; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Newbury, Nathan R
2011-11-21
Low phase-noise microwave generation has previously been demonstrated using self-referenced frequency combs to divide down a low noise optical reference. We demonstrate an approach based on a fs Er-fiber laser that avoids the complexity of self-referenced stabilization of the offset frequency. Instead, the repetition rate of the femtosecond Er-fiber laser is phase locked to two cavity-stabilized cw fiber lasers that span 3.74 THz by use of an intracavity electro-optic modulator with over 2 MHz feedback bandwidth. The fs fiber laser effectively divides the 3.74 THz difference signal to produce microwave signals at harmonics of the repetition rate. Through comparison of two identical dividers, we measure a residual phase noise on a 1.5 GHz carrier of -120 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset. PMID:22109466
Neuropathic and inflammatory pain are modulated by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues.
Dimitrov, Eugene L; Kuo, Jonathan; Kohno, Kenji; Usdin, Ted B
2013-08-01
Nociceptive information is modulated by a large number of endogenous signaling agents that change over the course of recovery from injury. This plasticity makes understanding regulatory mechanisms involved in descending inhibition of pain scientifically and clinically important. Neurons that synthesize the neuropeptide TIP39 project to many areas that modulate nociceptive information. These areas are enriched in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). We previously found that TIP39 affects several acute nociceptive responses, leading us to now investigate its potential role in chronic pain. Following nerve injury, both PTH2R and TIP39 knockout mice developed less tactile and thermal hypersensitivity than controls and returned to baseline sensory thresholds faster. Effects of hindpaw inflammatory injury were similarly decreased in knockout mice. Blockade of ?-2 adrenergic receptors increased the tactile and thermal sensitivity of apparently recovered knockout mice, returning it to levels of neuropathic controls. Mice with locus coeruleus (LC) area injection of lentivirus encoding a secreted PTH2R antagonist had a rapid, ?-2 reversible, apparent recovery from neuropathic injury similar to the knockout mice. Ablation of LC area glutamatergic neurons led to local PTH2R-ir loss, and barley lectin was transferred from local glutamatergic neurons to GABA interneurons that surround the LC. These results suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates sensory thresholds via effects on glutamatergic transmission to brainstem GABAergic interneurons that innervate noradrenergic neurons. TIP39's normal role may be to inhibit release of hypoalgesic amounts of norepinephrine during chronic pain. The neuropeptide may help maintain central sensitization, which could serve to enhance guarding behavior. PMID:23878240
Hanzo, Lajos
2004-01-01
"Now fully revised and updated, with more than 300 pages of new material, this new edition presents the wide range of recent developments in the field and places particular emphasis on the family of coded modulation aided OFDM and CDMA schemes. In addition, it also includes a fully revised chapter on adaptive modulation and a new chapter characterizing the design trade-offs of adaptive modulation and space-time coding." "In summary, this volume amalgamates a comprehensive textbook with a deep research monograph on the topic of QAM, ensuring it has a wide-ranging appeal for both senior undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practicing engineers and researchers."--Jacket.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubinyi, G.; Thuroczy, G.; Bakos, J.; Boeloeni, E.; Sinay, H.; Szabo, L.D. [National Frederic Joliot-Curie Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)
1996-12-31
Investigations have been carried out concerning the effects of microwave (MW) exposure on the aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase of the progeny of females that were exposed during their entire period of gestation (19 days). The changes caused by continuous-wave (CW) and amplitude-modulated (AM) MW radiation have been compared. CFLP mice were exposed to MW radiation for 100 min each day in an anechoic room. The MW frequency was 2.45 GHz, and the amplitude modulation had a 50 Hz rectangular waveform (on/off ratio, 50/50%). The average power density exposure was 3 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was 4.23 {+-} 0.63 W/kg. The weight and mortality of the progeny were followed until postnatal day 24. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes and tRNA from the brains and livers of the offspring (461 exposed, 487 control) were isolated. The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activities were determined. The postnatal increase of body weight and organ weight was not influenced by the prenatal MW radiation. The activity of enzyme isolated form the brain showed a significant decrease after CW MW exposure, but the changes were not significant after 50 Hz AM MW exposure. The activity of the enzyme isolated from liver increased under CW and 50 Hz modulated MW.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stenmark, Matthew H.; Vineberg, Karen; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2012-10-01
To determine whether residual interfraction seminal vesicle (SV) displacement necessitates specific planning target volume (PTV) margins during fiducial-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate. A planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 2 subsequent CT scans were prospectively obtained for 20 prostate cancer patients with intraprostatic fiducial markers. After CT registration, SV displacement relative to the prostate was quantified as a function of margin size for both the proximal (1 cm) SV (PSV) and the full SV (FSV). Two IMRT plans were simulated for each patient (prostate + PSV and prostate + FSV) both with a uniform 5-mm PTV margin. Minimum clinical target volume (CTV) dose (D{sub min}) and the volume of SV receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V{sub 95%}) were assessed during treatment and compared with the initial plan. In all cases, SV displacement with respect to the prostate was greater for the FSV compared with the PSV. To ensure at least 95% geometrical coverage of the CTV for 90% of patients, margins of 5 and 8 mm were required for the PSV and FSV, respectively. Dosimetrically, residual SV displacement had minimal impact on PSV coverage compared with FSV coverage. For the PSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in 90% of patients with an overall mean V{sub 95%} of 99.6 {+-} 0.8%; for the FSV D{sub min} was {>=}95% of the prescribed dose in only 45% of patients with a mean V{sub 95%} of 97.9 {+-} 2.4%. The SVs move differentially from the prostate and exhibit greater variation with increasing distance from the prostate. For plans targeting just the prostate and PSVs, 5-mm PTV expansions are adequate. However, despite daily localization of the prostate, larger PTV margins are required for cases where the intent is to completely cover the FSV.
Guo, Ying; Yu, Xuemei; Rihani, Kayla; Wang, Qing-Yin; Rong, Lijun
2004-04-16
One common feature of the more than 1,000 complement-type repeats (or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-A modules) found in LDL receptor and the other members of the LDL receptor superfamily is a cluster of five highly conserved acidic residues in the C-terminal region, DXXXDXXDXXDE. However, the role of the third conserved aspartate of these LDL-A modules in protein folding and ligand recognition has not been elucidated. In this report, using a model LDL-A module and several experimental approaches, we demonstrate that this acidic residue, like the other four conserved acidic residues, is involved in calcium-dependent protein folding. These results suggest an alternative calcium coordination conformation for the LDL-A modules. The proposed model provides a plausible explanation for the conservation of this acidic residue among the LDL-A modules. Furthermore, the model can explain why mutations of this residue in human LDL receptor cause familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:14749324
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Beatriz Gavassa de, Araújo; Karina Maria, Filipin; Tathiane, Pasqualli; Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko, Ribeiro; Gladson Ricardo Flor, Bertolini.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar do uso generalizado da corrente interferencial, há controvérsias na literatura sobre os parâmetros ideais de estimulação utilizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o limiar e o número total de acomodações em indivíduos estimulados por diferentes frequências mo [...] duladas pela amplitude. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico, cruzado, com amostra de conveniência aleatorizada e encoberta, composta por 20 indivíduos saudáveis, com idade média de 20,35 anos, de ambos os gêneros. Os voluntários foram submetidos a corrente interferencial por 20 minutos, na forma bipolar, com os eletrodos localizados na articulação do cotovelo, sendo posicionados um sobre a superficialidade do nervo ulnar e outro do nervo mediano. Os parâmetros do equipamento foram: frequência base de 4.000Hz, frequências moduladas pela amplitude de 1, 10 ou 100Hz (de acordo com o subgrupo do dia). Foi avaliado o limiar de acomodação e o número total de acomodações. RESULTADOS: Para o limiar de acomodação não foram encontradas diferenças significativas (p>0,05); quanto ao número de acomodações houve diferenças significativas entre as frequências de 10 e 100Hz (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the widespread use of interferential current, controversy exists in the literature on the optimal stimulation parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the threshold and the total number of accommodations in subjects stimulated by different amplitude-modul [...] ated frequencies. METHODS: The study is a clinical, cross-over trial with randomized and blinded convenience sample consisted of 20 healthy subjects, with mean age of 20.35 years, of both genders. Volunteers underwent interferential current for 20 minutes, the bipolar form, with electrodes placed on the elbow joint being positioned one above the superficiality of the ulnar nerve and the other of the median nerve. Equipment parameters were: base frequency of 4,000Hz, amplitude-modulated frequencies 1, 10 or 100Hz (according to the subgroup). Threshold and total number of accommodations were assessed. RESULTS: For the accommodation threshold no significant differences were found (p>0.05). With regard to the number of accommodations, there have been significant differences between the frequencies of 10 and 100Hz (p
Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories
Schubert, Ulrich
2014-01-01
This thesis is focused on the development of new mathematical methods for computing multi-loop scattering amplitudes in gauge theories. In this work we combine, for the first time, the unitarity-based construction for integrands, and the recently introduced integrand-reduction through multivariate polynomial division. After discussing the generic features of this novel reduction algorithm, we will apply it to the one- and two-loop five-point amplitudes in ${\\cal N}=4$ sYM. The integrands of the multiple-cuts are generated from products of tree-level amplitudes within the super-amplitudes formalism. The corresponding expressions will be used for the analytic reconstruction of the polynomial residues. Their parametric form is known a priori, as derived by means of successive polynomial divisions using the Gr\\"obner basis associated to the on-shell denominators. The integrand reduction method will be exploited to investigate the color-kinematic duality for multi-loop ${\\cal N}=4$ sYM scattering amplitudes. Our a...
Pahari, Mayukh; Mukherjee, Arunava; Yadav, J S; Pandey, S K
2013-01-01
Using the flux resolved spectroscopy for the first time, we analyse the RXTE/PCA data of the black hole X-ray binaries GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, when both sources show large amplitude, quasi-regular oscillations in 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray light curves. For different observations, we extract spectra during the peak (spectrally soft) and dip (spectrally hard) intervals of the oscillation, and find that their spectra are phenomenologically complex, requiring at least two distinct spectral components. Besides a thermal Comptonization component, we find that the disc emission is better modelled by an index-free multicolour disc blackbody component (p-free disc model) rather than that from a standard accretion disc. While the peak and dip spectra are complex, remarkably, their difference spectra constructed by treating dip spectra as the background spectra of the peak spectra, can be modelled as a single p-free disc component. Moreover, the variability at different time-scales and energy bands of the peak flux l...
Li, Heng-Yu; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Chapuis, Valentin; Ballif, Christophe; Luo, Yun
2015-01-01
A high-quality encapsulation process is crucial to ensuring the performance and long-term reliability of photovoltaic (PV) modules. In crystalline Si technology-based modules, poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) is the most widely used PV encapsulant. Its encapsulation process is usually performed in a flat-bed vacuum bag laminator. In certain types of laminators, cooling press can be applied to the module cooling process after the module encapsulation, leading to a much higher cooling rat...
Construction of diffractive amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from a simple parametrization of production amplitudes an explicit construction of the diffractive elastic amplitude through multiparticle unitarity is given. It is shown that the phase cancellation effect is essential in order to obtain an elastic amplitude which displays a diffractive peak in qualitative agreement with the data
Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
SØgaard, Mads
2015-01-01
This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of tree-level amplitudes. Several explicit examples are provided
Amplitude mediated chimera states
Sethia, Gautam C; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L.
2013-01-01
We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the non-local Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude mediated chimera states (including stationary and non-stationary two cluster chimera states), that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The exis...
Periods and Feynman amplitudes
Brown, Francis
2016-01-01
Feynman amplitudes in perturbation theory form the basis for most predictions in particle collider experiments. The mathematical quantities which occur as amplitudes include values of the Riemann zeta function and relate to fundamental objects in number theory and algebraic geometry. This talk reviews some of the recent developments in this field, and explains how new ideas from algebraic geometry have led to much progress in our understanding of amplitudes. In particular, the idea that certain transcendental numbers, such as $\\pi$, can be viewed as a representation of a group, provides a powerful framework to study amplitudes which reveals many hidden structures.
Korobov, A. I.; Izosimova, M. Yu.; Odina, N. I.
2015-05-01
Nonlinear scanning laser vibrometry is used for diagnostics of cylindrical resonators made of polycrystalline aluminum alloy with residual stresses and defects. The diagnostics is performed with flexural Lamb waves. The eigenmode frequency of such a resonator is found to depend on the amplitude of flexural Lamb waves excited in it (the fast dynamics effect), which points to the presence of a nonclassical nonlinear elasticity in the resonator material. Studying the nonlinear interactions between amplitude-modulated flexural Lamb waves in resonators allow the determination of the coordinates of defects and residual strains in them.
Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation
Fakher Chaari; Walter Bartelmus; Radoslaw Zimroz; Tahar Fakhfakh; Mohamed Haddar
2012-01-01
Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity) ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.
Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloor, Robert
1998-12-31
Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Uchino
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 (q and target range were demonstrated using airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 Î¼m differential laser absorption spectrometry (LAS. The LAS system is useful for discriminating between ground and cloud return signals and has a demonstrated ability to suppress the impact of integrated aerosol signals on differential absorption optical depth (Î”Ï„ measurements. A high correlation coefficient (R of 0.99 between Î”Ï„ observed by LAS and Î”Ï„ calculated from in-situ measurements of CO2 was obtained. The averaged difference in q obtained from LAS (qLAS and validation data (qval was within 1.5 ppm for all spiral measurements. A significant profile was observed for both qLAS and qval, in which lower altitude CO2 decreases compared to higher altitude CO2 attributed to the photosynthesis over grassland in the summer. In the case of an urban area where CO2 and aerosol are highly distributed in the lower atmosphere in the winter, the difference of qLAS to qval is âˆ’1.5 ppm, and evaluated qLAS is in agreement with qval within the measurement precision of 2.4 ppm (1Ïƒ.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of the production of extended (?1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2–0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (?100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3–5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (?0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (?1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse. (extreme light fields and their applications)
Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.
2013-04-01
The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.
Residues in the 5th module of the low-density lipoprotein receptor that bind apoE and apoB-100
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) binds and removes cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from the circulation. Its ligand-binding (LB) domain consists of seven cysteine-rich LB modules that bind apoB-100 and apoE. These modules fold into well-defined structures with three disulfide bonds, in the presence of Ca2+. The 5th module (LB5) is unique in that it is required to bind both apoB-100 and apoE. The aim of the current study was to map residues in human LB5 that are required for ligand binding. This was done by alanine mutagenesis of a series of residues that are conserved in human, mouse, rat and rabbit LB5 (E9, S14, E16, H19, S21, K31, and K33), but not in the other six modules. E37 (R37 in the rabbit) was included, since it has been previously hypothesized to play a role in binding. The variant LB5 modules were first produced as recombinant peptides, and subjected to oxidative folding to determine whether the mutations interfered with Ca2+'-dependent folding. Only the S14A and E16A mutations interfered significantly with folding, suggesting that S14 and E16 are required for the structural framework of LB5 and that their substitution in the LDLR may interfere with its folding. The native LDLR and E9A, H19A, S21A, K31A, K33A and E37A LDLRs were expressed in LDLR negative IdlA-7 CHO cells. Labeling with 125I-lgG-C7 showed that all receptors were expressed on the cell surface. Binding of Dil-labeled LDL (Dil-LDL) and Dil-labeled DMPC, complexed with the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of apoE3 (Dil-E3), at 4 deg C, was used to assess receptor binding. Binding of Dil-E3 (0.1 ?/ml) to the H19A, S21A, K31A, K33A and E37A LDLRs was 65-92% of binding to the native LDLR. In contrast, the E9A LDLR only bound 3% of that of the native LDLR. The binding of Dil-LDL (0.5 Ag/ml) to the E9A LDLR was 23% of that of the native LDLR, while binding to the remaining variant LDLRs ranged from 44-70% of what of the native LDLR. We conclude that (i) E9 of LB5 plays a key role in the binding of apoE and LDL, consistent with ionic interactions with basic residues on apoE and apoB-100. (ii) that H19, S21, K31, and K33 and E37 play a minor role in binding apoE, and (iii) that these residues play a small, but significant role in the binding of LDL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assentoft, Mette; Larsen, Brian R
2014-01-01
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and is mainly expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet at the brain-blood interface. AQP4 serves as a water entry site during brain edema formation and regulation of AQP4 may therefore be of therapeutic interest. Phosphorylation of aquaporins can regulate plasma membrane localization and, possibly, the unit water permeability via gating of the AQP channel itself. In vivo phosphorylation of six serine residues in the C-terminus of AQP4 has been detected by mass spectrometry: Ser(276), Ser(285), Ser(315), Ser(316), Ser(321), and Ser(322). To address the role of these phosphorylation sites for AQP4 function, serine-to-alanine mutants were created to abolish the phosphorylation sites. All mutants were detected at the plasma membrane of transfected C6 cells, with the fraction of the total cellular AQP4 expressed at the plasma membrane of transfected C6 cells being similar between the WT and mutant forms of AQP4. Activation of protein kinases A, C and G in primary astrocytic cultures did not affect the plasma membrane abundance of AQP4. The unit water permeability was determined for the mutant AQP4s upon heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes (along with serine-to-aspartate mutants of the same residues to mimic a phosphorylation). None of the mutant AQP4 constructs displayed alterations in the unit water permeability. Thus, phosphorylation of six different serine residues in the C-terminus of AQP4 appears not to be required for proper plasma membrane localization of AQP4 or to act as a molecular switch to gate the water channel.
Open bosonic string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theory of the partially U(1) compactified scalar massless field on the domain on the compact Riemann surface with Nambu-Goto action is defined. The partition function is determined completely by a choice of the finite-dimensional approximations. The correlation functions are the correctly defined objects of the theory. The averages of the correlation function asymptotic values provide the amplitudes. The Nielsen's conjecture for the scattering amplitudes is correctly proved. 8 refs
Salmon, Loïc; Giamba?u, George M; Nikolova, Evgenia N; Petzold, Katja; Bhattacharya, Akash; Case, David A; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M
2015-10-14
Approaches that combine experimental data and computational molecular dynamics (MD) to determine atomic resolution ensembles of biomolecules require the measurement of abundant experimental data. NMR residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) carry rich dynamics information, however, difficulties in modulating overall alignment of nucleic acids have limited the ability to fully extract this information. We present a strategy for modulating RNA alignment that is based on introducing variable dynamic kinks in terminal helices. With this strategy, we measured seven sets of RDCs in a cUUCGg apical loop and used this rich data set to test the accuracy of an 0.8 ?s MD simulation computed using the Amber ff10 force field as well as to determine an atomic resolution ensemble. The MD-generated ensemble quantitatively reproduces the measured RDCs, but selection of a sub-ensemble was required to satisfy the RDCs within error. The largest discrepancies between the RDC-selected and MD-generated ensembles are observed for the most flexible loop residues and backbone angles connecting the loop to the helix, with the RDC-selected ensemble resulting in more uniform dynamics. Comparison of the RDC-selected ensemble with NMR spin relaxation data suggests that the dynamics occurs on the ps-ns time scales as verified by measurements of R1? relaxation-dispersion data. The RDC-satisfying ensemble samples many conformations adopted by the hairpin in crystal structures indicating that intrinsic plasticity may play important roles in conformational adaptation. The approach presented here can be applied to test nucleic acid force fields and to characterize dynamics in diverse RNA motifs at atomic resolution. PMID:26306428
High-frequency accelerating field amplitude programmer for electron synchrotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A system for forming the amplitude modulation of the high-frequency accelerating voltage of an electronic synchrotron based on information about the guiding magnetic field of the synchrotron is described. The circuit permits regulating the scale factors of the hf voltage modulation independently of one another which makes it possible to modulate the hf voltage amplitude over a wide range. The system employs analog functional units which enable automatic formation of the required modulation law when the accelerator is tuned from one energy to another. The modulation law is set with a relative accuracy of plus or minus 1%
Detecting Pesticide Residue by Using Modulating Temperature Over a Single SnO2-Based Gas Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zengliang Yu
2003-09-01
Full Text Available A new rapid detecting method (called dynamic measurements was reported to detect and distinguish the presence of two pesticide gases in the ambient atmosphere. The method employed only a single SnO2-based gas sensor in a rectangular temperature mode to perform the qualitative analysis of a binary gas mixture (acephate and trichlorphon in air. Polar plots was used for quantitative analysis which the feature extraction was performed by FFT. Experimental results showed that high selectivity of the sensor achieved in the range of 250~3000C and modulating frequency 20mHz, one can easily observe the qualitative difference among the response to pure acephate and trichlorphon gases of the same concentration and to the mixture, and the concentration of pesticide gases can be obtained based on the changes of polar plots.
Resonant ?+? ??+?0 Amplitude from Quantum Chromodynamics
Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Shultz, Christian J.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Wilson, David J.; Hadron Spectrum Collaboration
2015-12-01
We present the first ab initio calculation of a radiative transition of a hadronic resonance within quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We compute the amplitude for ? ? ?? ??, as a function of the energy of the ? ? pair and the virtuality of the photon, in the kinematic regime where ? ? couples strongly to the unstable ? resonance. This exploratory calculation is performed using a lattice discretization of QCD with quark masses corresponding to m??400 MeV . We obtain a description of the energy dependence of the transition amplitude, constrained at 48 kinematic points, that we can analytically continue to the ? pole and identify from its residue the ? ?? ?? form factor.
Amplitude interference and interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The performance of the electron beam interformeter are discussed. When the interferometer is based on the observation of an interference pattern the original incident beam has to be well-collimated and the allowable misalignment is small. This allowable misalignment increasing with the angle spread of the incident electron beams a convergent electron beam can be used. The electron interferometer based on amplitude interferences is more advantageous. The amplitude interference may be accomplished through the Fraunhofer diffraction of two coherent beams by a crystal, a convergent electron beam is also used
Sewing closed string amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlip, S.
1988-08-11
We give a prescription for combining the Polyakov amplitudes for two string world-sheets with boundary by functionally integrating over boundary values of the embedding and ghost fields. The relationship between the moduli of the sewn surface and its components is investigated, and implications for string field theory are discussed.
Sewing closed string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a prescription for combining the Polyakov amplitudes for two string world-sheets with boundary by functionally integrating over boundary values of the embedding and ghost fields. The relationship between the moduli of the sewn surface and its components is investigated, and implications for string field theory are discussed. (orig.)
Sewing closed string amplitudes
Carlip, Steven
1988-08-01
We give a prescription for combining the Polyakov amplitudes for two string world-sheets with boundary by functionally integrating over boundary values of the embedding and ghost fields. The relationship between the moduli of the sewn surface and its components is investigated, and implications for string field theory are discussed.
Large amplitude gravitational waves
Ali, G.; Hunter, J. K.
1998-01-01
We derive an asymptotic solution of the Einstein field equations which describes the propagation of a thin, large amplitude gravitational wave into a curved space-time. The resulting equations have the same form as the colliding plane wave equations without one of the usual constraint equations.
Hodges, Andrew
2015-08-01
A brief review is given of why twistor geometry has taken a central place in the theory of scattering amplitudes for fundamental particles. The emphasis is on the twistor diagram formalism as originally proposed by Penrose, the development of which has now led to the definition by Arkani-Hamed et al. of the 'amplituhedron'. PMID:26124244
Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo
2014-01-01
Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ?5 µs) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ?20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities. PMID:25084457
Lewis, Martin A; Hunihan, Lisa; Watson, John; Gentles, Robert G; Hu, Shuanghua; Huang, Yazhong; Bronson, Joanne; Macor, John E; Beno, Brett R; Ferrante, Meredith; Hendricson, Adam; Knox, Ronald J; Molski, Thaddeus F; Kong, Yan; Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Rockwell, Kristin L; Weed, Michael R; Cacace, Angela M; Westphal, Ryan S; Alt, Andrew; Brown, Jeffrey M
2015-09-01
The present studies represent the first published report of a dopamine D1 positive allosteric modulator (PAM). D1 receptors have been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. However, the clinical utility of orthosteric agonist compounds is limited by cardiovascular side effects, poor pharmacokinetics, lack of D1 selectivity, and an inverted dose response. A number of these challenges may be overcome by utilization of a selective D1 PAM. The current studies describe two chemically distinct D1 PAMs: Compound A [1-((rel-1S,3R,6R)-6-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)bicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-yl)-4-(2-bromo-5-chlorobenzyl)piperazine] and Compound B [rel-(9R,10R,12S)-N-(2,6-dichloro-3-methylphenyl)-12-methyl-9,10-dihydro-9,10-ethanoanthracene-12-carboxamide]. Compound A shows pure PAM activity, with an EC50 of 230 nM and agonist activity at the D2 receptor in D2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells. Compound B shows superior potency (EC50 of 43 nM) and selectivity for D1 versus D2 dopamine receptors. Unlike Compound A, Compound B is selective for human and nonhuman primate D1 receptors, but lacks activity at the rodent (rat and mouse) D1 receptors. Using molecular biology techniques, a single amino acid was identified at position 130, which mediates the species selectivity of Compound B. These data represent the first described D1-selective PAMs and define critical amino acids that regulate species selectivity. PMID:26109678
Multiplex measuring of amplitude and time parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The methods and apparatus for spectrometry and diagnosis of high-speed processes with a great number of measured and analysed amplitude and time parameters are briefly considered. Some characteristics of measuring channels with the interrogation time of 100 and 10 ?s per a given parameter are presented. The channels comprise multiplexers of analog signals of high level; analog converters of amplitude and time intervals into voltage signal. The modules are realized in the CAMAC standard and they can process data from more than 100 channels
Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Talreja, R.
1979-01-01
A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The met...
Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis:
Dey, A.K.
2011-01-01
The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes. Currently, the seismic value chain paradigm is in a feed-forward mode. Modern seismic data now have the potential to yield the best images in terms of spatial resolution, amplitude accuracy, and incre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To estimate the dosimetric impact of residual setup errors on parotid sparing in head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated treatments and to evaluate the effect of employing an PRV (planning organ-at-risk volume) margin for the parotid gland. Patients and methods: Ten patients treated for H and N cancer were considered. A nine-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was planned for each patient. A second optimization was performed prescribing dose constraint to the PRV of the parotid gland. Systematic setup errors of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were simulated. The dose-volume histograms of the shifted and reference plans were compared with regard to mean parotid gland dose (MPD), normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP), and coverage of the clinical target volume (V95% and equivalent uniform dose [EUD]); the sensitivity of parotid sparing on setup error was evaluated with a probability-based approach. Results: MPD increased by 3.4%/mm and 3.0%/mm for displacements in the craniocaudal and lateral direction and by 0.7%/mm for displacements in the anterior-posterior direction. The probability to irradiate the parotid with a mean dose > 30 Gy was > 50%, for setup errors in cranial and lateral direction and 95% and EUD variations < 1% and < 1 Gy). Conclusion: The parotid gland is more sensitive to craniocaudal and lateral displacements. A setup error of 2 mm guarantees an MPD ? 30 Gy in most cases, without adding a PRV margin. If greater displacements are expected/accepted, an adequate PRV margin could be used to meet the clinical parotid gland constraint of 30 Gy, without affecting target volume coverage. (orig.)
Lam, C S
2015-01-01
The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes are extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes are M\\"obius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalar and vector boson amplitudes.
About amplitude fluctuations of the Pi1C geomagnetic pulsations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amplitude fluctuations of the Pi1C geomagnetic pulsations are analyzed. Applicability of the Landau theory for describing this type of pulsations is verified. The conclusion is made that in the case of Pi1C the Landau theory should be supplemented by a special hypothesis of the origin of chaotic modulation of the oscillation amplitude
Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten
2003-01-01
Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that i...
Residual deposits (residual soil)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is normal in high energy physics to measure the time of flight of a particle in order to determine its mass. This can be done by the method which consists in transforming the time measurement into an analysis of amplitude, which is easier; a time-amplitude converter has therefore been built for this purpose. The apparatus here described uses a double grid control tube 6 BN 6 whose resolution time, as measured with a pulse generator, is 5 x 10-11 s. The analysis of the response of a particle counter, made up of a scintillator and a photomultiplier, indicates that a time of resolution of 5 x 10-10 s. can be obtained. A time of this order of magnitude is obtained experimentally with the converter. This converter has been used in the study of the time of flight of particles in a secondary beam of the accelerator Saturne. It has thus been possible to measure the energy spectrum of ?-mesons, of protons, and of deutons emitted from a polyethylene target bombarded by 1,4 and 2 GeV protons. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delana, Anna; Menegotti, Loris; Valentini, Aldo [Dept. of Medical Physics, S. Chiara Hospital, APSS Trento (Italy); Bolner, Andrea; Tomio, Luigi; Vanoni, Valentina [Div. of Radiation Oncology, S. Chiara Hospital, APSS Trento (Italy); Lohr, Frank [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Medical Center Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)
2009-07-15
Purpose: To estimate the dosimetric impact of residual setup errors on parotid sparing in head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated treatments and to evaluate the effect of employing an PRV (planning organ-at-risk volume) margin for the parotid gland. Patients and methods: Ten patients treated for H and N cancer were considered. A nine-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was planned for each patient. A second optimization was performed prescribing dose constraint to the PRV of the parotid gland. Systematic setup errors of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were simulated. The dose-volume histograms of the shifted and reference plans were compared with regard to mean parotid gland dose (MPD), normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP), and coverage of the clinical target volume (V{sub 95%} and equivalent uniform dose [EUD]); the sensitivity of parotid sparing on setup error was evaluated with a probability-based approach. Results: MPD increased by 3.4%/mm and 3.0%/mm for displacements in the craniocaudal and lateral direction and by 0.7%/mm for displacements in the anterior-posterior direction. The probability to irradiate the parotid with a mean dose > 30 Gy was > 50%, for setup errors in cranial and lateral direction and < 10% in the anterior-posterior direction. The addition of a PRV margin improved parotid sparing, with a relative reduction in NTCP of 14%. The PRV margin compensates for setup errors of 3 mm and 5 mm (MPD {<=} 30 Gy in 87% and 60% of cases), without affecting clinical target volume coverage (V{sub 95%} and EUD variations < 1% and < 1 Gy). Conclusion: The parotid gland is more sensitive to craniocaudal and lateral displacements. A setup error of 2 mm guarantees an MPD {<=} 30 Gy in most cases, without adding a PRV margin. If greater displacements are expected/accepted, an adequate PRV margin could be used to meet the clinical parotid gland constraint of 30 Gy, without affecting target volume coverage. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been shown that the process du-bar ? W-? has a radiation amplitude zero and, hence, the angular distribution is very sensitive to the magnetic-moment parameter ? of the W boson. Sharp dips persist in p anti p or pp ? W-?X and also in the higher-order processes du-bar ? W?g and p anti p or pp ? W-?gX. Here, we study the energy-dependence of these processes. We find that for du-bar ? W-?, pp ? W-?X and pp ? W-?gX the dips are enhanced with increasing energy, whereas for p anti p ? W-?X, du-bar ? W-?g and p anti p ? W-?gX the magnitude of the dips is decreased with increasing energy. (author)
Poretti, Ennio; Weiss, Werner W; Bognar, Zsofia; Moya, Andy; Niemczura, Ewa; Suarez, Juan Carlos; Auvergne, Michel; Baglin, Annie; Baudin, Frederic; Benko, Jozsef M; Debosscher, Jonas; Garrido, Rafa; Mantegazza, Luciano; Paparo, Margit
2011-01-01
The detection of small-amplitude nonradial modes in high-amplitude Delta Sct (HADS) variables has been very elusive until at least five of them were detected in the light curve of V974 Oph obtained from ground-based observations. The combination of radial and nonradial modes has a high asteroseismic potential, thanks to the strong constraints we can put in the modelling. The continuous monitoring of ASAS 192647-0030.0=CoRoT 101155310 (P=0.1258 d, V=13.4) ensured from space by the CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) mission constitutes a unique opportunity to exploit such potential. The 22270 CoRoT measurements were performed in the chromatic mode. They span 152 d and cover 1208 consecutive cycles. After the correction for one jump and the long-term drift, the level of the noise turned out to be 29 micromag. The phase shifts and amplitude ratios of the coloured CoRoT data, the HARPS spectra, and the period-luminosity relation were used to determine a self-consistent physical model. In turn, it ...
Full one-loop amplitudes from tree amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We establish an efficient polynomial-complexity algorithm for one-loop calculations, based on generalized D-dimensional unitarity. It allows automated computations of both cut-constructible and rational parts of one-loop scattering amplitudes from on-shell tree amplitudes. We illustrate the method by (re)-computing all four-, five- and six-gluon scattering amplitudes in QCD at one-loop
Full one-loop amplitudes from tree amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giele, Walter T.; /Fermilab; Kunszt, Zoltan; /Zurich, ETH; Melnikov, Kirill; /Hawaii U.
2008-01-01
We establish an efficient polynomial-complexity algorithm for one-loop calculations, based on generalized D-dimensional unitarity. It allows automated computations of both cut-constructible and rational parts of one-loop scattering amplitudes from on-shell tree amplitudes. We illustrate the method by (re)-computing all four-, five- and six-gluon scattering amplitudes in QCD at one-loop.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)
2010-09-23
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.
Higher-order amplitude squeezing
Shchukin, E.; Vogel, W.
2006-04-01
A brief review of nonclassicality conditions in terms of moments of the creation and annihilation operators is given. By introducing k-th power amplitude squeezing, the notions of ordinary quadrature squeezing and amplitude-squared squeezing are generalized. Minimum uncertainty states are considered as a special class of k-th power amplitude squeezed states. These states can be characterized by a special, rather simple nonclassicality condition.
Higher-order amplitude squeezing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A brief review of nonclassicality conditions in terms of moments of the creation and annihilation operators is given. By introducing k-th power amplitude squeezing, the notions of ordinary quadrature squeezing and amplitude-squared squeezing are generalized. Minimum uncertainty states are considered as a special class of k-th power amplitude squeezed states. These states can be characterized by a special, rather simple nonclassicality condition
Model selection for amplitude analysis
Guegan, Baptiste; Hardin, John; Stevens, Justin; Williams, Mike
2015-01-01
Model complexity in amplitude analyses is often a priori under-constrained since the underlying theory permits a large number of possible amplitudes to contribute to most physical processes. The use of an overly complex model results in reduced predictive power and worse resolution on unknown parameters of interest. Therefore, it is common to reduce the complexity by removing from consideration some subset of the allowed amplitudes. This paper studies a method for limiting model complexity fr...
Hidden Beauty in Multiloop Amplitudes
Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2006-01-01
Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying the iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and argue that t...
Amplitude dependent closest tune approach
Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.
Graviton amplitudes from collinear limits of gauge amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Stieberger
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We express all tree-level graviton amplitudes in Einstein's gravity as the collinear limits of a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills amplitudes in which each graviton is represented by two gauge bosons, each of them carrying exactly one half of graviton's momentum and helicity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Regenerative amplification of single and multiple ultrashort subpicosecond UV pulses in a wide-aperture KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator was investigated on the GARPUN-MTW hybrid laser system. Amplitude-modulated 100-ns long UV radiation pulses with an energy of several tens of joules were obtained at the output of the system. The pulses were a combination of a quasi-stationary oscillation pulse and a train of amplified ultrashort pulses (USPs) with a peak power of 0.2–0.3 TW, which exceeded the power of free-running lasing pulse by three orders of magnitude. The population inversion recovery time in the active KrF laser medium was estimated: ?c ? 2.0 ns. Trains of USPs spaced at an interval ?t ? ?c were shown to exhibit the highest amplification efficiency. The production of amplitude-modulated UV pulses opens up the way to the production and maintenance of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air. (extreme light fields and their applications)
Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia
2008-01-01
A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...
High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aktham Asfour
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.
Closed string amplitudes as single-valued open string amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2014-04-15
We show that the single trace heterotic N-point tree-level gauge amplitude A{sub N}{sup HET} can be obtained from the corresponding type I amplitude A{sub N}{sup I} by the single-valued (sv) projection: A{sub N}{sup HET}=sv(A{sub N}{sup I}). This projection maps multiple zeta values to single-valued multiple zeta values. The latter represent a subclass of multiple zeta values originating from single-valued multiple polylogarithms at unity. Similar relations between open and closed string amplitudes or amplitudes of different string vacua can be established. As a consequence the ?{sup ?}-expansion of a closed string amplitude is dictated by that of the corresponding open string amplitude. The combination of single-valued projections, Kawai–Lewellen–Tye relations and Mellin correspondence reveal a unity of all tree-level open and closed superstring amplitudes together with the maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills and supergravity theories.
Fringe free holographic measurements of large amplitude vibrations
Joud, Fadwa; Laloë, Franck; Michael, Atlan; Hare, Jean; Gross, Michel
2010-01-01
In the measurement of the amplitude of vibration of objects, holographic imaging techniques usually involve fringe counting; due to the limited resolution of images, measurements of large amplitudes are not accessible. We demonstrate a technique that suppresses the necessity of fringe counting: frequency sideband imaging, where the order of the sideband is considered as a marker of the amplitude. The measurement is completely local: no comparison with another reference point on the object is necessary. It involves a sharp variation of a signal, which makes it robust against perturbations. The method is demonstrated in an experiment made with a vibrating clarinet reed; phase modulations as large as 1000 radians have been measured.
Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams
Chille, Vanessa; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph
2016-01-01
We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices up to 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB$\\pm$0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters.
Connection between the period and the amplitude of the Blazhko effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benk? József M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We found a possible relationship between the modulation period and the amplitude of the Blazhko RR Lyrae stars: long modulation period generally implies high modulation amplitude while the short modulation period results in small amplitude. Although this effect is much more a tendency than a strict rule, it can be detected easily in the space-born time series data produced by Kepler and CoRoT. Good quality ground-based data show this relation, too. This phenomenon could give us constraints for the physics of the Blazhko effect.
Penkett, CJ; Dobson, CM; Smith, LJ; Bright, JR; Pickford, AR; Campbell, ID; Potts, JR
2000-01-01
Many pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria express cell surface proteins that bind to components of the extracellular matrix. This paper describes studies of the interaction between ligand binding repeats (D3 and D1-D4) of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus with a module pair ((4)F1(5)F1) from the N-terminal region of fibronectin. When D3 was added to isotope-labeled (4)F1(5)F1, (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C NMR chemical shift changes indicate that binding is primarily via residues...
The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed
Amplitude-mediated chimera states
Sethia, Gautam C.; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L.
2013-10-01
We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the nonlocal complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude-mediated chimera states (including stationary and nonstationary two-cluster chimera states) that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The existence regions of the single-cluster chimera state and both types of two-cluster chimera states are mapped numerically in the parameter space of C1 and C2, the linear and nonlinear dispersion coefficients, respectively, of the NLCGLE. They represent a new domain of dynamical behavior in the well-explored rich phase diagram of this system. The amplitude-mediated chimera states may find useful applications in understanding spatiotemporal patterns found in fluid flow experiments and other strongly coupled systems.
Positive Amplitudes In The Amplituhedron
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Trnka, Jaroslav
2014-01-01
The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting...
Small amplitude quasibreathers and oscillons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quasibreathers (QB) are time-periodic solutions with weak spatial localization introduced in G. Fodor et al. in [Phys. Rev. D 74, 124003 (2006)]. QB's provide a simple description of oscillons (very long-living spatially localized time dependent solutions). The small amplitude limit of QB's is worked out in a large class of scalar theories with a general self-interaction potential, in D spatial dimensions. It is shown that the problem of small amplitude QB's is reduced to a universal elliptic partial differential equation. It is also found that there is the critical dimension, Dcrit=4, above which no small amplitude QB's exist. The QB's obtained this way are shown to provide very good initial data for oscillons. Thus these QB's provide the solution of the complicated, nonlinear time dependent problem of small amplitude oscillons in scalar theories.
Model selection for amplitude analysis
Guegan, Baptiste; Stevens, Justin; Williams, Mike
2015-01-01
Model complexity in amplitude analyses is often a priori under-constrained since the underlying theory permits a large number of amplitudes to contribute to most physical processes. The use of an overly complex model results in reduced predictive power and worse resolution on unknown parameters of interest. Therefore, it is common to reduce the complexity by removing from consideration some subset of the allowed amplitudes. This paper studies a data-driven method for limiting model complexity through regularization during regression in the context of a multivariate (Dalitz-plot) analysis. The regularization technique applied greatly improves the performance. A method is also proposed for obtaining the significance of a resonance in a multivariate amplitude analysis.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Henn, Johannes M
2014-01-01
At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...
Model selection for amplitude analysis
Guegan, B.; Hardin, J.; Stevens, J.; Williams, M.
2015-09-01
Model complexity in amplitude analyses is often a priori under-constrained since the underlying theory permits a large number of possible amplitudes to contribute to most physical processes. The use of an overly complex model results in reduced predictive power and worse resolution on unknown parameters of interest. Therefore, it is common to reduce the complexity by removing from consideration some subset of the allowed amplitudes. This paper studies a method for limiting model complexity from the data sample itself through regularization during regression in the context of a multivariate (Dalitz-plot) analysis. The regularization technique applied greatly improves the performance. An outline of how to obtain the significance of a resonance in a multivariate amplitude analysis is also provided.
On the parametrization of the ? residue function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The complex residues at the ?(1236) and ?(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the ? Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u2. The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering. (Auth.)
Large amplitude electron plasma oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodin, G. [Department of Physics, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Stenflo, L. [Department of Physics, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)
2014-04-01
We consider a cold plasma in order to find new large-amplitude wave solutions in the long-wavelength limit. Accordingly we derive two generic coupled equations which describe the energy exchange between the electrostatic and electromagnetic waves. A new kind of quasi-periodic behavior is found. Our derivations may be considered as a prerequisite to extended studies of stimulated Raman scattering for cases where the wave amplitudes are so large that standard perturbation techniques are not applicable.
Analytic Scattering Amplitudes for QCD
Vaman, Diana
2008-01-01
By analytically continuing QCD scattering amplitudes through specific complexified momenta, one can study and learn about the nature and the consequences of factorization and unitarity. In some cases, when coupled with the largest time equation and gauge invariance requirement, this approach leads to recursion relations, which greatly simplify the construction of multi-gluon scattering amplitudes. The setting for this discussion is in the space-cone gauge.
Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav
2015-08-01
The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.
Cross-Channel Amplitude Sweeps Are Crucial to Speech Intelligibility
Prendergast, Garreth; Green, Gary G. R.
2012-01-01
Classical views of speech perception argue that the static and dynamic characteristics of spectral energy peaks (formants) are the acoustic features that underpin phoneme recognition. Here we use representations where the amplitude modulations of sub-band filtered speech are described, precisely, in terms of co-sinusoidal pulses. These pulses are…
Generator coordinate amplitude for scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihailovic, M.V.; Poljsak, M. (Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia))
1982-10-25
In the generator coordinate method for scattering the proper boundary conditions is accomplished by requiring the GC amplitude to satisfy an integral equation of the first kind. Attempts to solve this problem are first reviewed and then an improved approximation is proposed which is applicable to a wider class of scattering problems in addition to the Coulomb scattering. A better approximation is obtained in the asymptotic region, where the generator coordinate, i.e., the distance between two shell-model wells of the fragments, is larger than the touching distance of the colliding nuclei, by deriving partial differential equations of first order for the terms of an asymptotic series in 1/E, where E is the scattering energy. Extracting the information on the GC amplitude for small values of the generator parameter from the integral equation of the first kind is an ill-posed problem. It is shown that the method of statistical regularization offers a powerful and controllable procedure to uncover the GC amplitude. The unknown GC amplitude is treated as a random function with an a priori distribution of probability which is based on the assumption that the amplitude is bounded and that the errors in the input are random with zero expectation value. A useful procedure is found for fixing parameters of the a priori distribution. The solution for small values of the GC parameter is expressed in the form of a Dini series. The method is applied to the calculation of the GC amplitude for scattering of two ..cap alpha..-particles at 15 MeV c.m. energy. The measure of the accuracy is the difference between the input wave function of relative motion and the result of folding of the GC amplitude with the kernel of the integral equation. The prescribed accuracy is reached with this method on a much larger interval than with any previously proposed method.
Generator coordinate amplitude for scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the generator coordinate method for scattering the proper boundary conditions is accomplished by requiring the GC amplitude to satisfy an integral equation of the first kind. Attempts to solve this problem are first reviewed and then an improved approximation is proposed which is applicable to a wider class of scattering problems in addition to the Coulomb scattering. A better approximation is obtained in the asymptotic region, where the generator coordinate, i.e., the distance between two shell-model wells of the fragments, is larger than the touching distance of the colliding nuclei, by deriving partial differential equations of first order for the terms of an asymptotic series in 1/E, where E is the scattering energy. Extracting the information on the GC amplitude for small values of the generator parameter from the integral equation of the first kind is an ill-posed problem. It is shown that the method of statistical regularization offers a powerful and controllable procedure to uncover the GC amplitude. The unknown GC amplitude is treated as a random function with an a priori distribution of probability which is based on the assumption that the amplitude is bounded and that the errors in the input are random with zero expectation value. A useful procedure is found for fixing parameters of the a priori distribution. The solution for small values of the GC parameter is expressed in the form of a Dini series. The method is applied to the calculation of the GC amplitude for scattering of two Î±-particles at 15 MeV c.m. energy. The measure of the accuracy is the difference between the input wave function of relative motion and the result of folding of the GC amplitude with the kernel of the integral equation. The prescribed accuracy is reached with this method on a much larger interval than with any previously proposed method. (orig.)
Finite amplitude waves on barotropic shear layers and jets
Meacham, S. P.; Flierl, G. R.
We give a detailed derivation of the amplitude equations governing weak, slowly modulated, varicose wavetrains on a barotropic, triangular jet on a -plane. As one might expect, at wavenumbers that are neutral by linear theory, well-behaved wavetrain solutions can be found. Such solutions are not unique. The properties of the wavetrain (in particular, the form of the nonlinear coefficient in the amplitude equation) depend upon assumptions that one makes about the structure of the wave field in the region far from the jet. Such assumptions turn out to be equivalent to assumptions made about the initial conditions of the problem. This link is established by a wave packet analysis that retains separate, nondimensional parameters for the amplitude of the wavetrain and the length scale of the modulation envelope. We briefly state similar results for sinuous waves on a triangular jet and for waves on a shear layer composed of a strip of uniform potential vorticity.
Chen, Hao; Ding, Jianping; Li, Guoqiang
2015-01-01
We present an approach that enables complete control over the amplitude, phase and arbitrary polarization state on the Poincar\\'e sphere of an optical beam in a 4-f system with a spatial light modulator (SLM). The beams can be constructed from a coaxial superposition of x- and y-linearly polarized light, each carrying structured amplitude profile and phase distributions by using an amplitude-modulated mask imposed on the SLM. The amplitude, phase and polarization distribution of vector beams with four free parameters can be tailored independently and simultaneously by the SLM.
Factorization of Chiral String Amplitudes
Huang, Yu-tin; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2016-01-01
We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: As found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.
Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe
2008-01-01
A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t + Lambda[1 - cos( 2 pi Omega(epsilon) over dot(0)t)] where epsilon is the Hencky strain, (epsilon) over dot(0) is a constant elongational rate for the base elongational flow, Lambda the strain amplitude ( Lambda >= 0), and Omega the strain frequency. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept agrees qualitatively with the experiments.
Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Belitsky
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.
Nonsinglet pentagons and NHMV amplitudes
Belitsky, A V
2014-01-01
Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respected to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available low-loop perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes.
Cattani, Eduardo; Dickenstein, Alicia; Sturmfels, Bernd
2000-01-01
A binomial residue is a rational function defined by a hypergeometric integral whose kernel is singular along binomial divisors. Binomial residues provide an integral representation for rational solutions of A-hypergeometric systems of Lawrence type. The space of binomial residues of a given degree, modulo those which are polynomial in some variable, has dimension equal to the Euler characteristic of the matroid associated with A.
Topological amplitudes in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that certain type II string amplitudes at genus g are given by the topological partition Fg discussed recently by Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. These amplitudes give rise to a term in the four-dimensional effective action of the form ?gFgW2g, where W is the chiral superfield of N = 2 supergravitational multiplet. The holomorphic anomaly of Fg is related to non-localities of the effective action due to the propagation of massless states. This result generalizes the holomorphic anomaly of the one loop case which is known to lead to non-harmonic gravitational couplings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M
1972-01-01
Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli
Simultaneous tailoring of complete polarization, amplitude and phase of vector beams
Yu, Zhongliang; Chen, Hao; Chen, Zhaozhong; Hao, Jingjing; Ding, Jianping
2015-06-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate the complete and simultaneous modulation of the amplitude, phase and arbitrary state of polarization spanning the entire surface of the Poincaré sphere. By using a single spatial light modulator (SLM), we can create vector beams from a coaxial superposition of x- and y-linearly polarized light, each carrying the structured amplitude profile and phase distribution, which result from a two-dimensional holographic grating pattern that is imposed on the SLM. By manipulating four free modulation parameters imbedded in the SLM grating we can realize the independent and simultaneous tailoring of the amplitude, phase and polarization distribution of vector beams.
The face amplitude of spinfoam quantum gravity
Bianchi, Eugenio; Regoli, Daniele; Rovelli, Carlo
2010-01-01
Abstract The structure of the boundary Hilbert-space and the condition that amplitudes behave appropriately under compositions determine the face amplitude of a spinfoam theory. In quantum gravity the face amplitude turns out to be simpler than originally thought.
Toward complete pion nucleon amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathieu, Vincent [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN; Danilkin, Igor V. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Fernández-Ramírez, Cesar [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Pennington, Michael R. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Schott, Diane M. [George Washington University, Washington, DC; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN; Fox, G. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
2015-10-01
We compare the low-energy partial wave analyses piN scattering with a high-energy data via finite energy sum rules. We construct a new set of amplitudes by matching the imaginary part from the low-energy analysis with the high-energy, Regge parametrization and reconstruct the real parts using dispersion relations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
N=4 scattering amplitudes and the deformed Graßmannian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferro, Livia, E-mail: livia.ferro@lmu.de [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); ?ukowski, Tomasz, E-mail: lukowski@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Staudacher, Matthias, E-mail: staudacher@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2014-12-15
Some time ago the general tree-level scattering amplitudes of N=4 Super Yang–Mills theory were expressed as certain Graßmannian contour integrals. These remarkable formulas allow to clearly expose the super-conformal, dual super-conformal, and Yangian symmetries of the amplitudes. Using ideas from integrability it was recently shown that the building blocks of the amplitudes permit a natural multi-parameter deformation. However, this approach had been criticized by the observation that it seemed impossible to reassemble the building blocks into Yangian-invariant deformed non-MHV amplitudes. In this note we demonstrate that the deformations may be succinctly summarized by a simple modification of the measure of the Graßmannian integrals, leading to a Yangian-invariant deformation of the general tree-level amplitudes. Interestingly, the deformed building blocks appear as residues of poles in the spectral parameter planes. Given that the contour integrals also contain information on the amplitudes at loop-level, we expect the deformations to be useful there as well. In particular, applying meromorphicity arguments, they may be expected to regulate all notorious infrared divergences. We also point out relations to Gelfand hypergeometric functions and the quantum Knizhnik–Zamolodchikov equations.
Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-06
Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)
All-fibre source of amplitude squeezed light pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An all-fibre source of amplitude squeezed solitons utilizing the self-phase modulation in an asymmetric Sagnac interferometer is experimentally demonstrated. The asymmetry of the interferometer is passively controlled by an integrated fibre coupler, allowing for the optimization of the noise reduction. We have carefully studied the dependence of the amplitude noise on the asymmetry and the power launched into the Sagnac interferometer. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between the experimental results, a semi-classical theory and earlier numerical calculations (Schmitt et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2446). The stability and flexibility of this all-fibre source makes it particularly well suited to applications in quantum information science
Loop Integrands for Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere
Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2015-09-01
The scattering equations on the Riemann sphere give rise to remarkable formulas for tree-level gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Adamo, Casali, and Skinner conjectured a one-loop formula for supergravity amplitudes based on scattering equations on a torus. We use a residue theorem to transform this into a formula on the Riemann sphere. What emerges is a framework for loop integrands on the Riemann sphere that promises to have a wide application, based on off-shell scattering equations that depend on the loop momentum. We present new formulas, checked explicitly at low points, for supergravity and super-Yang-Mills amplitudes and for n -gon integrands at one loop. Finally, we show that the off-shell scattering equations naturally extend to arbitrary loop order, and we give a proposal for the all-loop integrands for supergravity and planar super-Yang-Mills theory.
Loop Integrands for Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere.
Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2015-09-18
The scattering equations on the Riemann sphere give rise to remarkable formulas for tree-level gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Adamo, Casali, and Skinner conjectured a one-loop formula for supergravity amplitudes based on scattering equations on a torus. We use a residue theorem to transform this into a formula on the Riemann sphere. What emerges is a framework for loop integrands on the Riemann sphere that promises to have a wide application, based on off-shell scattering equations that depend on the loop momentum. We present new formulas, checked explicitly at low points, for supergravity and super-Yang-Mills amplitudes and for n-gon integrands at one loop. Finally, we show that the off-shell scattering equations naturally extend to arbitrary loop order, and we give a proposal for the all-loop integrands for supergravity and planar super-Yang-Mills theory. PMID:26430983
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.)
Infrared singularities in QCD amplitudes
Gardi, Einan
2009-01-01
We review recent progress in determining the infrared singularity structure of on-shell scattering amplitudes in massless gauge theories. We present a simple ansatz where soft singularities of any scattering amplitude of massless partons, to any loop order, are written as a sum over colour dipoles, governed by the cusp anomalous dimension. We explain how this formula was obtained, as the simplest solution to a newly-derived set of equations constraining the singularity structure to all orders. We emphasize the physical ideas underlying this derivation: the factorization of soft and collinear modes, the special properties of soft gluon interactions, and the notion of the cusp anomaly. Finally, we briefly discuss potential multi-loop contributions going beyond the sum-over-dipoles formula, which cannot be excluded at present.
Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations
Carrasco, John Joseph M
2015-01-01
In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.
Multiscalar amplitudes in perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the high-multiplicity limit of amplitudes involving scalar particles (Higgs) does not respect unitary bounds at any order in perturbation theory. Possible restoration of a unitary-respecting behaviour within the Standard Model is discussed. It relies on the existence of relations that express the masses of all known elementary particles in terms of the mass of the Higgs particle. 1 fig., 14 refs
Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Born, N., E-mail: norman.born@physik.uni-marburg.de [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, M. [Faculty of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)
2014-03-10
We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.)
VCSEL with intracavity modulator: fast modulation options
Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Sergeev, A.; Oktyabrsky, S.
2009-02-01
An integrated optoelectronic device, comprising VCSEL and intracavity electro-absorption modulator within the same epitaxial structure, has been previously developed by several research groups. Such a combination device, despite having relatively weak DC modulation, exhibits strong optical feedback, resulting in strong optoelectronic resonance feature in small-signal modulation response characteristic . At large modulation amplitude, device demonstrates pulsed response. Similar to Q-switching operation, energy accumulated in the gain medium over full modulation cycle is released in a single short pulse once cavity Q-factor is increased. As a result, traditional NRZ amplitude modulation becomes ineffective. We are proposing a phase-pulse modulation approach to drive this device, when strong optical feedback is used for obtaining very fast rise and fall times of short pulses. Such transient times can be on the order of few photon lifetimes, e.g. few picoseconds. Gain medium depletion can be avoided by variation of Q-factor both above and below steady-state value and keeping total emitted energy per cycle at a constant level. Data showing modulation properties (pulse energy >100 fJ, FWHM 40 ps non-controlled pulse length at 4 GHz,) and device characteristics, along with numerical analysis of such device for different modulation waveforms is presented.
Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.
Thin Photoresponding Elements with Frequency and Amplitude Modulations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kluso?, Petr; Morozová, Magdalena; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.
Praha : ?eská spole?nost chemického inženýrství, 2013, s. 83. ISBN 978-80-02-02500-9. [Konference chemického a procesního inženýrství CHISA 2013 /60./. Srní, Šumava (CZ), 14.10.2013-17.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : metal oxide * electrochemical properties * photoelectrocatalytic activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2013
Modulated Electron Bunch with Amplitude Front Tilt in an Undulator
Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni
2015-01-01
In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radi...
Forward amplitude in pion deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The data on total cross section for ?d scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author)
Interpolating axial anomaly induced amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose an interpolating formula for the amplitude induced by the axial anomaly, concentrating on the ?0?*?* transition form factor. Our form factor is constructed by the 'vector meson pole terms' and the 'anomaly terms', in which the anomaly terms can be essentially evaluated by the triangle quark graph. We pay our attention to the anomaly term and make intensive analysis of the existing experimental data, i.e., the electromagnetic ?0 and ? transition form factors. Our result shows that it is essential to use the constituent quark mass instead of the current quark mass in evaluating the anomaly term from the triangle graph. (author)
Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Adamson, Justus
2012-02-01
PURPOSE: To quantify the dosimetric effect and margins required to account for prostate intrafractional translation and residual setup error in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostate position after online correction was measured during dose delivery using simultaneous kV fluoroscopy and posttreatment CBCT in 572 fractions to 30 patients. We reconstructed the dose distribution to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) using a convolution of the static dose with a probability density function (PDF) based on the kV fluoroscopy, and we calculated the minimum dose received by 99% of the CTV (D(99)). We compared reconstructed doses when the convolution was performed per beam, per patient, and when the PDF was created using posttreatment CBCT. We determined the minimum axis-specific margins to limit CTV D(99) reduction to 1%. RESULTS: For 3-mm margins, D(99) reduction was <\\/=5% for 29\\/30 patients. Using post-CBCT rather than localizations at treatment delivery exaggerated dosimetric effects by ~47%, while there was no such bias between the dose convolved with a beam-specific and patient-specific PDF. After eight fractions, final cumulative D(99) could be predicted with a root mean square error of <1%. For 90% of patients, the required margins were <\\/=2, 4, and 3 mm, with 70%, 40%, and 33% of patients requiring no right-left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior margins, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For protocols with CBCT guidance, RL, AP, and SI margins of 2, 4, and 3 mm are sufficient to account for translational errors; however, the large variation in patient-specific margins suggests that adaptive management may be beneficial.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tribius, Silke; Raguse, Marieclaire; Voigt, Christian; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Muenscher, Adrian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Groebe, Alexander [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Bergelt, Corinna [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Psychology, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Susanne [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany)
2015-03-08
Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie von Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (LFKHT) geht mit einschneidenden Veraenderungen einher und beeinflusst die Lebensqualitaet (LQ) erheblich. Diese prospektive Studie untersucht die LQ waehrend des ersten Jahres nach intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT) und hat Praediktoren dieser Veraenderungen herausgearbeitet, um Therapieergebnisse verbessern zu koennen. Patienten mit LFKHT fuellten Lebensqualitaetsfrageboegen der European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) aus; Hauptfragebogen (QLQ-C30) und Kopf-Hals-Tumor-Fragebogen (QLQ-HN35) jeweils vor definitiver oder adjuvanter IMRT (t0), am Ende der IMRT (t1), nach weiteren 6-8 Wochen (t2), 6 Monaten (t3) und nach 1 Jahr (t4). Insgesamt haben 111 Patienten zu allen fuenf Zeitpunkten die Frageboegen ausgefuellt und wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen (Responserate t0: 99%; Ausfallrate t0-t4: 5 %). Waehrend der IMRT verschlechterten sich alle Domaenen der LQ und besserten sich langsam ueber das erste Folgejahr. Viele Lebensqualitaetswerte kehrten zum Ausgangsniveau zurueck, waehrend Probleme mit Riechen und Schmecken, trockener Mund und klebriger Speichel problematisch blieben. Probleme mit klebrigem Speichel wurden von Patienten nach definitiver IMRT haeufiger berichtet als von Patienten nach adjuvanter Therapie (F = 3,5; P = 0,05). Nach einer IMRT dauert es bei Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren bis zu 1 Jahr bis die LQ wieder ihr Ausgangsniveau erreicht; einige Domaenen bleiben auch noch nach 1 Jahr darunter. Obwohl es Ziel der IMRT ist, Funktion und LQ zu erhalten, bleiben trockener Mund und klebriger Speichel teilweise als Langzeiteffekte bestehen, insbesondere bei Patienten nach primaerer IMRT. Patienten sollten diesbezueglich vor Beginn der Therapie aufgeklaert werden, um ihnen Unzufriedenheit mit der Geschwindigkeit der Rekonvaleszenz zu ersparen. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
X-ray fractography is a method of analysing the causes of accidental fracture of machine components or structures. Almost all of the previous research on this problem has been carried out using constant amplitude fatigue tests. However, the actual loads on components and structures are usually of variable amplitudes. In this study, X-ray fractography was applied to fatigue fractured surfaces produced by variable amplitude loading. Fatigue tests were carried out on Ni-Cr-Mo steel CT specimens under the conditions of repeated, two-step and multiple-step loading. Residual stresses were measured on the fatigue fractured surface by an X-ray diffraction method. The relationships between residual stress and stress intensity factor or crack propagation rate were studied. They were discussed in terms of the quantitative expressions under constant amplitude loading, proposed by the authors in previous papers. The main results obtained were as follows : (1) It was possible to estimate the crack propagation rate of the fatigue fractured surface under variable amplitude loading by using the relationship between residual stress and stress intensity factor under constant amplitude loading. (2) The compressive residual stress components on the fatigue fractured surface correspond with cyclic softening of the material rather than with compressive plastic deformation at the crack tip. (author)
Multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications
Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Dress, William B. (Camas, WA)
2008-03-04
Systems and methods are described for multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications. A method includes modulating a carrier signal in a first domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; modulating the carrier signal in a second domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; and modulating the carrier signal in a third domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread.
Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...
Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2011-12-09
The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.
Similarities of gauge and gravity amplitudes
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Ita, H; Dunbar, David C.; Ita, Harald
2006-01-01
We review recent progress in computations of amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity. We compare the perturbative expansion of amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills and N=8 supergravity and discuss surprising similarities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses when and how the Verlinde dimensions of a rational conformal field theory can be expressed as correlation functions in a topical LG theory. It is seen that a necessary condition is that the RCFT fusion rules must exhibit an extra symmetry. The authors consider two particular perturbations of the Grassmannian superpotentials. The topological LG residues in one perturbation, introduced by Gepner, are shown to be a twisted version of the SU(N)k Verlinde dimensions. The residues in the other perturbations are the twisted Verlinde dimensions of another RCFT; these topological LG correlation functions are conjectured to be the correlation functions of the corresponding Grassmannian topological sigma model with a coupling in the action to instanton number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author)
Higher Codimension Singularities Constructing Yang-Mills Tree Amplitudes
Rajabi, Sayeh
2011-01-01
Yang-Mills tree-level amplitudes contain singularities of codimension one like collinear and multi-particle factorizations, codimension two such as soft limits, as well as higher codimension singularities. Traditionally, BCFW-like deformations with one complex variable were used to explore collinear and multi-particle channels. Higher codimension singularities need more complex variables to be reached. In this paper, along with a discussion on higher singularities and the role of the global residue theorem in this analysis, we specifically consider soft singularities. This is done by extending Risager's deformation to a $\\mathbb C^2$-plane, i.e., two complex variables. The two-complex-dimensional deformation is then used to recursively construct Yang-Mills tree amplitudes.
Calculation of multi-loop superstring amplitudes
Danilov, G S
2015-01-01
Multi-loop interaction amplitudes in the theory of the closed, oriented superstrings are obtained by the integration of local amplitudes which are represented by a sum of the spinning string local amplitudes. The last local amplitudes are given explicitly through super-Schottky group parameters and interaction vertex coordinates on the $(1|1)$ complex supermanifold. The integration is ambiguous under those replacements of the integration variables which admix Grassmann variables to the boson ones. So the calculation is guided by a preservation of local symmetries of the superstring. The obtained amplitudes are free from divergences and consistent with the world-sheet symmetries. The vacuum amplitude and 1-, 2- and 3-point amplitudes of massless states vanish once the integration over certin modular variables and interaction vertex coordinates.
Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues
Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing
2012-01-01
Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has pr...
S-Duality and Helicity Amplitudes
Colwell, Kitran
2015-01-01
We examine interacting Abelian theories at low energies and show that holomorphically normalized photon helicity amplitudes transform into dual amplitudes under SL(2,Z) as modular forms with weights that depend on the number of positive and negative helicity photons and on the number of internal photon lines. Moreover, canonically normalized helicity amplitudes transform by a phase, so that even though the amplitudes are not duality invariant, their squares are duality invariant. We explicitly verify the duality transformation at one loop by comparing the amplitudes in the case of an electron and the dyon that is its SL(2,Z) image, and extend the invariance of squared amplitudes order by order in perturbation theory. We demonstrate that S-duality is property of all low-energy effective Abelian theories with electric and/or magnetic charges and see how the duality generically breaks down at high energies.
All-fibre source of amplitude-squeezed light pulses
Meissner, M; Heersink, J; Gaber, T; Wietfeld, A; Leuchs, G; Andersen, U L; Meissner, Markus; Marquardt, Christoph; Heersink, Joel; Gaber, Tobias; Wietfeld, Andr\\'e; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2004-01-01
An all-fibre source of amplitude squeezed solitons utilizing the self-phase modulation in an asymmetric Sagnac interferometer is experimentally demonstrated. The asymmetry of the interferometer is passively controlled by an integrated fibre coupler, allowing for the optimisation of the noise reduction. We have carefully studied the dependence of the amplitude noise on the asymmetry and the power launched into the Sagnac interferometer. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between the experimental results, a semi-classical theory and earlier numerical calculations [Schmitt etl.al., PRL Vol. 81, p.2446, (1998)]. The stability and flexibility of this all-fibre source makes it particularly well suited to applications in quantum information science.
Amplitude Dependency of Synchrony Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Grewe
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Synchronous activity among neurons in a population is usually associated with the occurrence of specific features in the common stimulus. We investigate the synchrony code in the context of the encoding of electrosensory information in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Middleton et al., 2009 showed that the extraction of synchronous spikes from a population of input neurons shifts the range of encoded signals to higher frequencies and thus can be understood as a way to separarte coding channels. In the electrosensory world this separation roughly matches the frequency ranges used for the two purposes of active electrosensation, i.e. navigation and prey detection, in the lower range, and communication in the high frequency range. Here, we compare experimental results from in vivo recordings of p-unit electroreceptors with predictions from linear response theory in the limit of weak stimuli. Analytical expressions are derived for the coherence of both the synchronous spikes, as a coincidence detector would read them out, and the integrated spike trains. The theoretical results show how the synchrony code depends on stimulus amplitude and the power-spectrum of baseline firing. Theory predicts that any cell that has a regular baseline firing rate and contains a certain amount of intrinsic noise can employ a synchrony code and thus separate coding channels. Furthermore the separation of the frequency bands of integrated and synchronous responses dependes on the stimulus intensity. Weak stimuli lead to a clear separation that becomes weaker with increasing stimulus intensity. Our experimental results from the electrosensory systems of the weakly electric fish support these predictions. In irregular spiking P-units of the active electrosensory system the observed separation of the coding channels indeed shows the predicted stimulus dependency. On the other hand, ampullary receptors of the passive electrosensory system exhibit a much more regular baseline firing rate than those of the active system. Here the coding ranges of the synchronous and integrated responses are not shifted relative to each other. Thus, the receptors of the passive system do not have a sufficient level of intrinsic noise, although a distinction of synchronous and non-synchronous spikes is still possible. Again, these results are in line with the predictions of the theory.
Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes
Fadin, V S
2014-01-01
In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for $n$-gluon amplitudes in the planar $N$=4 SYM at $n\\ge 6$. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented.
Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugen Diesch
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edge Results: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other. Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, ACTREC/TMH, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India); Wadasadawala, Tabassum; Master, Zubin; Phurailatpam, Reena; Pai-Shetty, Rajershi; Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, ACTREC/TMH, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai (India)
2012-02-01
Purpose: To report early clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy (HT)-based image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in brain tumors of varying shape, size, and location. Materials and Methods: Patients with residual, recurrent, and/or progressive low-grade intracranial and skull-base tumors were treated on a prospective protocol of HT-based IMRT and followed clinicoradiologically. Standardized metrics were used for plan evaluation and outcome analysis. Results: Twenty-seven patients with 30 lesions were treated to a median radiotherapy dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions. All HT plans resulted in excellent target volume coverage with steep dose-gradients. The mean (standard deviation) dose homogeneity index and conformity index was 0.07 (0.05) and 0.71 (0.08) respectively. At first response assessment, 20 of 30 lesions were stable, whereas 9 showed partial regression. One patient with a recurrent clival chordoma though neurologically stable showed imaging-defined progression, whereas another patient with stable disease on serial imaging had sustained neurologic worsening. With a median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-26 months), the 2-year clinicoradiological progression-free survival and overall survival was 93.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: Careful selection of radiotherapy technique is warranted for benign/low-grade brain tumors to achieve durable local control with minimum long-term morbidity. Large or complex-shaped tumors benefit most from IMRT. Our early clinical experience of HT-based IMRT for brain tumors has been encouraging.
Lifetime and residual strength of materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang
1997-01-01
of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated...
2006-01-01
10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces. Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer
Agafonov, A V
2001-01-01
It is proposed to use a dynatron effect to modulate the voltage across the vacuum inverted coaxial diode with magnetic insulation supplied by an external pulsed high-voltage source connected to the modulator via the RL-circuit. Oscillations of the voltage due to oscillating regime of diode charging and/or azimuthal instability of a rotating electron flow simulates back-bombardment electron flow to the cathode and leads to power spikes of secondary emission current exceeding the primary one. As a result,the amplitude of oscillations grows and the system can turn the modulator and its possible applications.
Local amplitude equation from non-local dynamics
Friedrichs, R; Friedrichs, Rene; Engel, Andreas
2003-01-01
We derive a closed equation for the shape of the free surface of a magnetic fluid subject to an external magnetic field. The equation is strongly non-local due to the long range character of the magnetic interaction. We develop a systematic multiple scale perturbation expansion in which the non-locality is reduced to the occurrence of the Hilbert transform of the surface profile. The resulting third order amplitude equation describing the slow modulation of the basic pattern is shown to be purely local.
Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 -2, 1, and 3 -2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron ? photon + graviton are obtained. (author)
Automation of loop amplitudes in numerical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An automatic calculating system GRACE-L1 of one-loop Feynman amplitude is reviewed. This system can be applied to 2 to 2-body one-loop processes. A sample calculation of 2 to 3-body one-loop amplitudes is also presented. (orig.)
High amplitude events in microchannel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siegmund, O.H.W.; Lammert, P.; Vallerga, J.V.; Priedhorsky, W.; Smith, B.W.
1989-02-01
Measurements have been made to determine the characteristics of high amplitude events in microchannel plates (MCP's). The background pulse amplitude spectrum is found to extend to >30x the MCP modal gain. The majority of the background events are initiated by /sup 40/K beta decay in the MCP glass. However, up to 4% of the events are due to cosmic ray events. Comparison of background pulse amplitude spectra for horizontal, and vertical MCP orientations suggests that the largest events are predominantly cosmic ray induced. Anticoincidence measurements confirm this result. A model describing the /sup 40/K beta decay and cosmic ray interactions in the MCP predicts spectra in accord with these observations. The authors have also determined the response of MCP's when subjected to simultaneous multiphon input. This shows that pulse amplitudes many times the modal gain are possible even though the response becomes nonlinear at high amplitudes.
High amplitude events in microchannel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements have been made to determine the characteristics of high amplitude events in microchannel plates (MCP's). The background pulse amplitude spectrum is found to extend to >30x the MCP modal gain. The majority of the background events are initiated by /sup 40/K beta decay in the MCP glass. However, up to 4% of the events are due to cosmic ray events. Comparison of background pulse amplitude spectra for horizontal, and vertical MCP orientations suggests that the largest events are predominantly cosmic ray induced. Anticoincidence measurements confirm this result. A model describing the /sup 40/K beta decay and cosmic ray interactions in the MCP predicts spectra in accord with these observations. The authors have also determined the response of MCP's when subjected to simultaneous multiphon input. This shows that pulse amplitudes many times the modal gain are possible even though the response becomes nonlinear at high amplitudes
Probability density function of amplitude scintillations
Ortgies, G.
1985-02-01
The letter reports on amplitude scintillation measurements of the orbital test satellite (OTS) BO carrier beacon carried out from June to December 1983. The scintillations are here characterized by standard deviations of the amplitude fluctuations and by the distribution of amplitude deviations from their mean. It is known that during scintillations log-amplitudes are normally distributed for short time intervals (1 min). The long-term probability density of amplitude scintillations can be calculated using recorded 1 min standard deviations sigma. The probability density function of log (/sigma - sigma-N//dB) can be well approximated by a Gaussian distribution, where sigma-N is the 1 min standard deviation due to thermal noise alone.
Three particle superstring amplitudes with massive legs
Boels, Rutger H
2012-01-01
On-shell superspaces and associated spinor helicity techniques give an efficient formulation of the Ward identities of on-shell supersymmetry for scattering amplitudes and supply tools to construct their solutions. Based on these techniques in this paper the general solutions of the Ward identities are presented for three particle scattering amplitudes with one, two or three massive legs for simple supersymmetry in ten and eight dimensions. It is shown in examples how these solutions may be used to obtain concrete amplitudes for the closed (IIB) and open superstring in a flat background. Explicit results include all three point amplitudes with one massive leg whose functional form is shown to be dictated completely by super-Poincare symmetry. The resulting surprisingly simple series only involves massive superfields labelled by completely symmetric little group representations. The extension to more general explicit three and higher point amplitudes in string theory is initiated. In appendices the field conte...
Validity of certain soft photon amplitudes
Welsh, M; Welsh, Mark; Fearing, Harold W
1996-01-01
Certain soft photon amplitudes which have been recently suggested as alternatives to the usual Low form of the soft photon approximation are studied and it is demonstrated that problems exist in their relation to the corresponding non-radiative amplitude. The non-radiative amplitude, which is an input to soft photon calculations, is in certain cases required to be evaluated outside of its physical phase space region. Also, for the case of two-body identical particle bremsstrahlung processes, the symmetrized or antisymmetrized form of these soft photon amplitudes cannot be written in terms of the symmetrized or antisymmetrized amplitude for the non-radiative process. It is found that the usual Low form of the soft photon theorem is essentially unaffected by these problems.
Multipole modes in deformed nuclei within the finite amplitude method
Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W
2015-01-01
Background: To access selected excited states of nuclei, within the framework of nuclear density functional theory, the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) is commonly used. Purpose: We present a computationally efficient, fully self-consistent framework to compute the QRPA transition strength function of an arbitrary multipole operator in axially-deformed superfluid nuclei. Methods: The method is based on the finite amplitude method (FAM) QRPA, allowing fast iterative solution of QRPA equations. A numerical implementation of the FAM-QRPA solver module has been carried out for deformed nuclei. Results: The practical feasibility of the deformed FAM module has been demonstrated. In particular, we calculate the quadrupole and octupole strength in a heavy deformed nucleus $^{240}$Pu, without any truncations in the quasiparticle space. To demonstrate the capability to calculate individual QRPA modes, we also compute low-lying negative-parity collective states in $^{154}$Sm. Conclusions: The new FAM imp...
Zhou, Huai-Lai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ming-Chun; Shen, Ming-Cheng; Zhang, Xin-Kun; Liang, Ping
2014-12-01
We propose a method for the compensation and phase correction of the amplitude spectrum based on the generalized S transform. The compensation of the amplitude spectrum within a reliable frequency range of the seismic record is performed in the S domain to restore the amplitude spectrum of reflection. We use spectral simulation methods to fit the time-dependent amplitude spectrum and compensate for the amplitude attenuation owing to absorption. We use phase scanning to select the time-, space-, and frequencydependent phases correction based on the parsimony criterion and eliminate the residual phase effect of the wavelet in the S domain. The method does not directly calculate the Q value; thus, it can be applied to the case of variable Q. The comparison of the theory model and field data verify that the proposed method can recover the amplitude spectrum of the strata reflectivity, while eliminating the effect of the residual phase of the wavelet. Thus, the wavelet approaches the zero-phase wavelet and, the seismic resolution is improved.
High Energy Hadron Spin Flip Amplitude
Selyugin, O V
2015-01-01
The high energy part of the hadron spin flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameters representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev.
Form Factor and Boundary Contribution of Amplitude
Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo
2016-01-01
The boundary contribution of an amplitude in the BCFW recursion relation can be considered as a form factor involving boundary operator and unshifted particles. At the tree-level, we show that by suitable construction of Lagrangian, one can relate the leading order term of boundary operators to some composite operators of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, then the computation of form factors is translated to the computation of amplitudes. We compute the form factors of these composite operators through the computation of corresponding double trace amplitudes.
MHV-Vertices for Gravity Amplitudes
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Ita, H; Perkins, W B; Risager, K; Dunbar, David C.; Ita, Harald; Perkins, Warren B.; Risager, Kasper
2006-01-01
We obtain a CSW-style formalism for calculating graviton scattering amplitudes and prove its validity through the use of a special type of BCFW-like parameter shift. The procedure is also illustrated with explicit examples.
Relative phase between the J/? ? ?? and ? ? amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that the study of the ?-?0 interference pattern in the J/? ? (?0 + ?)? ? ?+?-? decay provides evidence for the large (nearly 90 deg) relative phase between the one-photon and the three-gluon decay amplitudes
An analysis of heavy ion scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A heurisht method is derived for the analysis of light heavy ion systems. It consists in splitting an oscillatory amplitude into subamplitudes each of them being smooth, at least in modulus. Applications are given
The singular behavior of massive QCD amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the structure of infrared singularities in on-shell QCD amplitudes with massive partons and present a general factorization formula in the limit of small parton masses. The factorization formula gives rise to an all-order exponentiation of both, the soft poles in dimensional regularization and the large collinear logarithms of the parton masses. Moreover, it provides a universal relation between any on-shell amplitude with massive external partons and its corresponding massless amplitude. For the form factor of a heavy quark we present explicit results including the fixed-order expansion up to three loops in the small mass limit. For general scattering processes we show how our constructive method applies to the computation of all singularities as well as the constant (mass-independent) terms of a generic massive n-parton QCD amplitude up to the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections. (orig.)
Regge amplitudes with crossing and unitarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new crossing symmetric. Sommerfeld-Watson transformation is reported that produces an amplitude which moreover has the expected Regge asymptotic behaviour and the correct support of the Mandelstam double spectral functions
Off-shell amplitudes in superstring theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad, 211019 (India)
2015-04-01
Computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in string theory, involving states whose masses are not protected from quantum corrections, requires defining off-shell amplitude with certain factorization properties. While in the bosonic string theory one can in principle construct such an amplitude from string field theory, there is no fully consistent field theory for type II and heterotic string theory. In this paper we give a practical construction of off-shell amplitudes satisfying the desired factorization property using the formalism of picture changing operators. We describe a systematic procedure for dealing with the spurious singularities of the integration measure that we encounter in superstring perturbation theory. This procedure is also useful for computing on-shell amplitudes, as we demonstrate by computing the effect of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms in four dimensional heterotic string theory compactifications using this formalism. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Small amplitude quasi-breathers and oscillons
Fodor, Gyula; Horváth, Zalán; Lukács, Árpád
2008-01-01
Quasi-breathers (QB) are time-periodic solutions with weak spatial localization introduced in G. Fodor et al. in Phys. Rev. D. 74, 124003 (2006). QB's provide a simple description of oscillons (very long-living spatially localized time dependent solutions). The small amplitude limit of QB's is worked out in a large class of scalar theories with a general self-interaction potential, in $D$ spatial dimensions. It is shown that the problem of small amplitude QB's is reduced to a universal elliptic partial differential equation. It is also found that there is the critical dimension, $D_{crit}=4$, above which no small amplitude QB's exist. The QB's obtained this way are shown to provide very good initial data for oscillons. Thus these QB's provide the solution of the complicated, nonlinear time dependent problem of small amplitude oscillons in scalar theories.
Amplitudes for left-handed strings
Siegel, W
2015-01-01
We consider a class of string-like models introduced previously where all modes are left-handed, all states are massless, T-duality is manifest, and only a finite number of orders in the string tension can appear. These theories arise from standard string theories by a singular gauge limit and associated change in worldsheet boundary conditions. In this paper we show how to calculate amplitudes by using the gauge parameter as an infrared regulator. The amplitudes produce the Cachazo-He-Yuan delta-functions after some modular integration; the Mason-Skinner string-like action and amplitudes arise from the zero-tension (infinite-slope) limit. However, without the limit the amplitudes have the same problems as found in the Mason-Skinner formalism.
Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex
Takasaki, Kanehisa; Nakatsu, Toshio
2016-01-01
The closed topological vertex is the simplest ‘off-strip’ case of non-compact toric Calabi–Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an ‘on-strip’ subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive q-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These q-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve.
Modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity modulator
van Eisden, J.; Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Varanasi, M.; Mohammed, E. M.; Young, I. A.; Oktyabrsky, S.
2007-02-01
We have studied the modulation properties of VCSEL with intracavity multiple quantum well (MQW) electroabsorption modulator integrated into the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) [1]. Small signal analysis of rate equations for loss modulation shows an intrinsic high-frequency roll-off slope of 1/Ï‰ instead of 1/Ï‰2 in directly modulated laser diodes, and consequently bandwidths in excess of 40 GHz are obtainable with this configuration [2]. Possible limiting factors to high bandwidth were examined by fitting high frequency characteristics to a multi-pole transfer function, and include RC delay and carrier drift-limited time of flight (TOF) in the modulator intrinsic region. Intracavity loss modulation shows a strong (+20dB) relaxation oscillation resonant feature in both theory and experiment. As demonstrated, this feature can be significantly reduced in amplitude using parasitics. We have extracted relative contribution of TOF and parasitic capacitance by varying the modulator intrinsic region width (105 and 210 nm) and lateral size of the modulator (18 and 12Î¼m). It was estimated that the small size modulator exhibits parasitics f -3dB at 8GHz. To estimate the carrier TOF contribution to bandwidth limits, low temperature growth of a 210 nm absorber i-region and MQW was employed to reduce photogenerated carrier lifetime. Bandwidth limitations were found to be mostly due to diode and metallization capacitances, in addition to one pole set by the optoelectronic resonance frequency. We have used p-modulation doping of the gain region to increase the relaxation frequency. Pronounced active Q-switching was observed, yielding pulse widths of 40 ps at a 4 GHz rate.
Attitude Maneuvers of CTS-like Spacecraft Using PD based Constant-Amplitude Inputs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward Halawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Attitude maneuvers of a Communication Technology Satellite (CTS-like spacecraft using constant-amplitude thrusters is of great importance. The spacecraft consists of a rigid main body and two symmetrical solar panels. When the panels are large, they cannot be treated as rigid bodies anymore. They are supposed to behave structural flexibility. To discrete their motion, the finite element method is followed. Under constant-amplitude thrusts, steady-state attitude angle oscillations may occur in large amplitude after the maneuvers. Since, the spacecraft should point to the earth precisely, these oscillations must be reduced into small permissible values. To reduce residual attitude angle oscillations, Proportional Derivative (PD based constant-amplitude input shaping logic is proposed to determine time locations of thruster switching. Then, under such inputs, attitude maneuvers of the spacecraft are simulated numerically. Results of simulations show that the precise orientation of the satellite can be achieved.
Nucleon distribution amplitudes from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Kaltenbrunner, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others)
2008-04-15
We calculate low moments of the leading-twist and next-to-leading twist nucleon distribution amplitudes on the lattice using two flavors of clover fermions. The results are presented in the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV and can be immediately applied in phenomenological studies. We find that the deviation of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form is less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. (orig.)
Amplitude Dependent Damping in Vinyl Polymers
Povolo, F.; Goyanes, S.
1996-01-01
The damping behaviour of several vinyl polymers-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and impact polystyrene (PSi)–was studied both as a funtion of temperature and strain amplitude. The measurements were performed from room temperature up to the glass transition temperature and shows amplitude dependence at frequencies of the order of 50 kHz. The data are interpreted in terms of a hyperbolic sine stress dependence of the strain rate, including an effec...
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full Î±' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the Î±' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
Path integral evaluation of Dbrane amplitudes
Chaudhuri, Shyamoli
1999-01-01
We extend Polchinski's evaluation of the measure for the one-loop closed string path integral to open string tree amplitudes with boundaries and crosscaps embedded in Dbranes. We explain how the nonabelian limit of near-coincident Dbranes emerges in the path integral formalism. We give a careful path integral derivation of the cylinder amplitude including the modulus dependence of the volume of the conformal Killing group.
Amplitude-Based Approach to Evidence Accumulation
Hanson, A. J.
2013-01-01
We point out the need to use probability amplitudes rather than probabilities to model evidence accumulation in decision processes involving real physical sensors. Optical information processing systems are given as typical examples of systems that naturally gather evidence in this manner. We derive a new, amplitude-based generalization of the Hough transform technique used for object recognition in machine vision. We argue that one should use complex Hough accumulators and ...
Amplitude distribution of eigenfunctions in mixed systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom) and BRIMS, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Bristol (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.backer@bristol.ac.uk; Schubert, Roman [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: roman.schubert@physik.uni-ulm.de
2002-01-25
We study the amplitude distribution of irregular eigenfunctions in systems with mixed classical phase space. For an appropriately restricted random wave model, a theoretical prediction for the amplitude distribution is derived and a good agreement with numerical computations for the family of limacon billiards is found. The natural extension of our result to more general systems, e.g. with a potential, is also discussed. (author)
Modified Amplitude of Gravitational Waves Spectrum
Ghayour, Basem; Suresh, P. K.
2012-01-01
The spectrum of thermal gravitational waves is obtained by including the high frequency thermal gravitons created from extra-dimensional effect and is a new feature of the spectrum. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves in thermal vacuum state are found enhanced. The amplitude of the waves get modified in the frequency range (10$^{-16}$ -10 $^{8}$ Hz) but the corresponding spectral energy density is less than the upper bound of various estimated results. With the ad...
A new approach for analytic amplitude calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a method for the symbolic calculation of Feynman amplitudes for processes involving both massless and massive fermions. With this approach fermion strings in a specific amplitude can be easily evaluated and expressed as basic Lorentz scalars. The new approach renders the symbolic calculation of some complicated physical processes more feasible and easier, especially with the assistance of an algebra manipulating code for a computer
Amplitude distribution of eigenfunctions in mixed systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the amplitude distribution of irregular eigenfunctions in systems with mixed classical phase space. For an appropriately restricted random wave model, a theoretical prediction for the amplitude distribution is derived and a good agreement with numerical computations for the family of limacon billiards is found. The natural extension of our result to more general systems, e.g. with a potential, is also discussed. (author)
Multiparticle tree amplitudes in scalar field theory
Brandt, F T; Brandt, Fernando T; Frenkel, Josif
1996-01-01
Following an argument advanced by Feynman, we consider a method for obtaining the effective action which generates the sum of tree diagrams with external physical particles. This technique is applied, in the unbroken \\lambda \\phi^4 theory, to the derivation of the threshold amplitude for the production of n scalar particles by n initial particles. The leading contributions to the tree amplitude, which become singular in the threshold limit, exhibit a factorial growth with n.
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-15
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amplitude and temperature dependences of internal friction in molybdenum single crystals of the orientations , , , are studied. The residual resistance ratio of the samples is (1-2)x105. The measurements are carried out at the frequency of 88 kHz in the temperature range 5.9 - 300 K. It has been established that at high temperatures the amplitude-dependent internal friction is due to the process of thermally activated dislocation unpinning from the pinning centres. At low temperatures a maximum is found in the amplitude dependences the height of which decreases with decreasing temperature, but its position does not depend on the temperature. In the same amplitude range a saturation region appears in the modulus defect amplitude dependences. Such a behaviour of the high-amplitude internal friction at low temperatures can not be explained in the framework of the theories present
Gang Fang
2009-01-01
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them? Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module
Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee
2008-01-01
This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation or a...... combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...
Dependence of diffuse ultrasonic backscatter on residual stress in 1080 steel.
Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A
2016-04-01
In this article, the effects of residual stress on the ultrasonic scattering in a quenched steel sample are investigated by calculating the change of spatial variance amplitudes of ultrasonic signals after removing residual stress via annealing. The experimental results show that the average spatial variance amplitude decreases by about 11.89% for a scan area on the quenched surface after removing residual stress. This quantity was used to estimate the residual stress based on the developed stress-dependent backscatter model. In addition, the residual stress on the whole scan area was mapped by calculating the change of the spatial variance amplitude for each subarea after annealing, respectively. Diffuse ultrasonic backscatter signals show a high sensitivity to residual stress such that this technique has potential as a non-destructive method for measuring residual stress. PMID:26784273
Influence of beam loading on emittance growth induced by RF amplitude noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Both phase and amplitude noise can spread the bunch longitudinal emittance toward the rf bucket boundary. This paper shows that the modulation transfer functions of a cavity detuned to compensate beam loading serve to increase the emittance growth rate. The effect of fast feedback on the transfer function is also discussed. (Author) 8 refs., 3 figs
Understanding and Ameliorating Non-Linear Phase and Amplitude Responses in AMCW Lidar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John P. Godbaz
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW lidar systems commonly suffer from non-linear phase and amplitude responses due to a number of known factors such as aliasing and multipath inteference. In order to produce useful range and intensity information it is necessary to remove these perturbations from the measurements. We review the known causes of non-linearity, namely aliasing, temporal variation in correlation waveform shape and mixed pixels/multipath inteference. We also introduce other sources of non-linearity, including crosstalk, modulation waveform envelope decay and non-circularly symmetric noise statistics, that have been ignored in the literature. An experimental study is conducted to evaluate techniques for mitigation of non-linearity, and it is found that harmonic cancellation provides a significant improvement in phase and amplitude linearity.
Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlotterer, Oliver
2011-07-15
The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all with regards to the duality between group-theoretical and kinematic contributions to tree-level amplitudes observed in the field theory.
Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all with regards to the duality between group-theoretical and kinematic contributions to tree-level amplitudes observed in the field theory.
Three particle superstring amplitudes with massive legs
Boels, Rutger H.
2012-06-01
On-shell superspaces and associated spinor helicity techniques give an efficient formulation of the Ward identities of on-shell supersymmetry for scattering amplitudes and supply tools to construct their solutions. Based on these techniques in this paper the general solutions of the Ward identities are presented for three particle scattering amplitudes with one, two or three massive legs for simple supersymmetry in ten and eight dimensions. It is shown in examples how these solutions may be used to obtain concrete amplitudes for the closed (IIB) and open superstring in a flat background. Explicit results include all three point amplitudes with one massive leg whose functional form is shown to be dictated completely by super-Poincare symmetry. The resulting surprisingly simple series only involves massive superfields labelled by completely symmetric little group representations. The extension to more general explicit three and higher point amplitudes in string theory is initiated. In appendices the field content of the fundamental massive superfields of the open and closed superstring are listed in terms of the Dynkin labels of a variety of groups which may be of independent interest.
Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes
Johansson, Henrik
2015-01-01
We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...
Second-order temporal modulation transfer functions.
Lorenzi, C; Soares, C; Vonner, T
2001-08-01
Detection thresholds were measured for a sinusoidal modulation applied to the modulation depth of a sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) white noise carrier as a function of the frequency of the modulation applied to the modulation depth (referred to as f'm). The SAM noise acted therefore as a "carrier" stimulus of frequency fm, and sinusoidal modulation of the SAM-noise modulation depth generated two additional components in the modulation spectrum: fm-f'm and fm+f'm. The tracking variable was the modulation depth of the sinusoidal variation applied to the "carrier" modulation depth. The resulting "second-order" temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) measured on four listeners for "carrier" modulation frequencies fm of 16, 64, and 256 Hz display a low-pass segment followed by a plateau. This indicates that sensitivity to fluctuations in the strength of amplitude modulation is best for fluctuation rates f'm below about 2-4 Hz when using broadband noise carriers. Measurements of masked modulation detection thresholds for the lower and upper modulation sideband suggest that this capacity is possibly related to the detection of a beat in the sound's temporal envelope. The results appear qualitatively consistent with the predictions of an envelope detector model consisting of a low-pass filtering stage followed by a decision stage. Unlike listeners' performance, a modulation filterbank model using Q values > or = 2 should predict that second-order modulation detection thresholds should decrease at high values of f'm due to the spectral resolution of the modulation sidebands (in the modulation domain). This suggests that, if such modulation filters do exist, their selectivity is poor. In the latter case, the Q value of modulation filters would have to be less than 2. This estimate of modulation filter selectivity is consistent with the results of a previous study using a modulation-masking paradigm [S. D. Ewert and T. Dau, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1181-1196 (2000)]. PMID:11519571
Evaluation of Cavitation Characteristics of 5083-O Al Alloy with Amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With recent advances in engineering and technology, a damage on industrial machinery performing high-speed and high-power requirements has become a problem. There is an increasing possibility of cavitation damage, especially in pumps, propellers and high-speed vessels in a flowing liquid accordingly. There are several factors affecting cavitation damage on materials, including viscosity, pressure, temperature, amplitude applied. In this study, effects of cavity pressure in seawater on the damage for 5083-O aluminium alloy were evaluated by modulating amplitude. Trend of the damage with respect to time and amplitude was analyzed comparatively, and surface degradation of specimens was investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) and 3D microscope. The result reveals that the amount of the damage increased consistently with the increase in time and amplitude while the plastic deformation zone where no appreciable damage occurred was in less than 30 minutes
Simulation of Digital Modulation Techniques Using MATLAB
Neha Sharma, Yogendra Yadav
2012-01-01
In Digital modulation the message signal is in the digital form and the carrier wave is in sinusoidal form. In this technique the Amplitude, Frequency or Phase of carrier varies according to message (Baseband) signal. There are various type of digital modulation technique like Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Quadature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) and other digital demodulation technique. Simulation is t...
Magnetization of compositionally modulated CuNi films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report static magnetization measurements on the compositionally modulated ferromagnetic alloy Cu/Ni, which, contrary to earlier ferromagnetic resonance measurements, show the moment per Ni atom is reduced relative to pure Ni. The low-temperature magnetization is found to vary linearly with modulation amplitude, but, surprisingly, the Curie temperature is found to be almost amplitude independent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A special type of modulation of the injection current of a diode laser is proposed at which the frequency modulation of radiation is not accompanied by the residual amplitude modulation. This method considerably reduces the influence of the diode laser radiation instability on the recorded absorption spectra. This allows a prolonged monitoring of small amounts of impurities in gas analysis by retaining a high sensitivity. Prolonged measurements of absorption spectra are performed at a relative absorption of 8x10-7. By using a 50-cm multipass cell with the optical length of 90 m, the absorption coefficient of 1.2x10-10 cm-1 was detected. As an example, the day evolution of the background concentrations of NO2 molecules was measured in the atmosphere. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions
Basu, Anirban
2015-01-01
We consider the perturbative contributions to the R^4, D^4 R^4 and D^6 R^4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T--duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi--loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non--separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from the logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight dimensions.
Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions
Basu, Anirban
2016-02-01
We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.
Duality and effective amplitudes in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work is an attempt to relate the partonic and hadronic phases of strong interactions by means of a model of effective string amplitudes which take into account color coherence without the need to restrict the phase-space. The basic idea of this approach is to construct, from open superstrings, string amplitudes which give, at the zero slope limit, QCD amplitudes. The running parameters (coupling and slope) of the model are constrained by perturbative QCD and by the consistency of string quantization. When the running slope becomes equal to the hadronic one, the model can be used in the hadronic sector. This approach could provide some hints about the effective string theory of QCD, and a better understanding of the parton-hadron duality
Amplitude dependent damping from granular viscoelastics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ability of a granular medium to dissipate vibrational energy is studied at different frequencies and amplitudes. The filler comprises relatively large particles with significant viscoelasticity and is placed in a rectangular box-shaped container and vibrated perpendicular to the direction of gravity. The performance of a model based on wave behaviour that is suitable for very low amplitude vibrations is compared with discrete elements and experimental results. Frequency dependent behaviour for the viscoelastic material is taken into account. The effects of vibration amplitude on performance are considered carefully – especially at the point where particles begin to move relative to each other. One interesting finding is that internal and interface loss mechanisms are closely interrelated – reduction in internal loss increases the mobility of individual particles and therefore more energy dissipation via friction. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the granular medium is less sensitive to material and configurationally parameters than might be expected.
Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates
Online tracking of instantaneous frequency and amplitude of dynamical system response
Frank Pai, P.
2010-05-01
This paper presents a sliding-window tracking (SWT) method for accurate tracking of the instantaneous frequency and amplitude of arbitrary dynamic response by processing only three (or more) most recent data points. Teager-Kaiser algorithm (TKA) is a well-known four-point method for online tracking of frequency and amplitude. Because finite difference is used in TKA, its accuracy is easily destroyed by measurement and/or signal-processing noise. Moreover, because TKA assumes the processed signal to be a pure harmonic, any moving average in the signal can destroy the accuracy of TKA. On the other hand, because SWT uses a constant and a pair of windowed regular harmonics to fit the data and estimate the instantaneous frequency and amplitude, the influence of any moving average is eliminated. Moreover, noise filtering is an implicit capability of SWT when more than three data points are used, and this capability increases with the number of processed data points. To compare the accuracy of SWT and TKA, Hilbert-Huang transform is used to extract accurate time-varying frequencies and amplitudes by processing the whole data set without assuming the signal to be harmonic. Frequency and amplitude trackings of different amplitude- and frequency-modulated signals, vibrato in music, and nonlinear stationary and non-stationary dynamic signals are studied. Results show that SWT is more accurate, robust, and versatile than TKA for online tracking of frequency and amplitude.
A Method and an Apparatus for Generating a Phase-Modulated Wave Front of Electromagnetic Radiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
The present invention provides a method and a system for generating a phase-modulated wave front. According to the present invention, the spatial phase-modulation is not performed on the different parts of the wave front individually as in known POSLMs. Rather, the spatial phase-modulation of the...... present invention is performed by generating an amplitude modulation in the wave front, Fourier or Fresnel transforming the amplitude modulated wave front, filtering Fourier or Fresnel components of the Fourier or Fresnel distribution with a spatial filter such as a phase contrast filter, and regenerating...... the wave front whereby the initial amplitude modulation has transformed into a phase-modulation....
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy; Trnka, Jaroslav
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) s...
Dual amplitude pulse generator for radiation detectors
Hoggan, Jerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kynaston, Ronnie L. (Blackfoot, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Island Park, ID)
2001-01-01
A pulsing circuit for producing an output signal having a high amplitude pulse and a low amplitude pulse may comprise a current source for providing a high current signal and a low current signal. A gate circuit connected to the current source includes a trigger signal input that is responsive to a first trigger signal and a second trigger signal. The first trigger signal causes the gate circuit to connect the high current signal to a pulse output terminal whereas the second trigger signal causes the gate circuit to connect the low current signal to the pulse output terminal.
Amplitude Equations for Electrostatic Waves: multiple species
Crawford, John David; Jayaraman, Anandhan
1997-01-01
The amplitude equation for an unstable electrostatic wave is analyzed using an expansion in the mode amplitude $A(t)$. In the limit of weak instability, i.e. $\\gamma\\to 0^+$ where $\\gamma$ is the linear growth rate, the nonlinear coefficients are singular and their singularities predict the dependence of $A(t)$ on $\\gamma$. Generically the scaling $|A(t)|=\\gamma^{5/2}r(\\gamma t)$ as $\\gamma\\to 0^+$ is required to cancel the coefficient singularities to all orders. This result predicts the ele...
Massive QCD amplitudes at higher orders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the factorization properties of on-shell QCD amplitudes with massive partons in the limit when all kinematical invariants are large compared to the parton mass and discuss the structure of their infrared singularities. The dimensionally regulated soft poles and the large collinear logarithms of the parton masses exponentiate to all orders. Based on this factorization a simple relation between massless and massive scattering amplitudes in gauge theories can be established. We present recent applications of this relation for the calculation of the two-loop virtual QCD corrections to the hadro-production of heavy quarks. (orig.)
Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy
2010-01-01
This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using...... amplitude-only data are compared with images obtained using the same data sets in which the phase information has been retained. In addition to this, some modifications for the imaging algorithm is presented which to some extent counters the effects of excluding the phase information in the reconstruction....
Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
SÃ¸gaard, Mads
Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...... unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in...
Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten
2009-01-01
The input power tolerance of a single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifier (FOPA) is experimentally shown to be enhanced for return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation compared to RZ ON–OFF keying modulation at 40 Gb/s. The improved nonlinear tolerance is exploited to...... demonstrate amplitude regeneration of a distorted RZ-DPSK signal in a gain-saturated FOPA. An optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of 3.5 dB after amplitude distortion is shown to be reduced to 0.2 dB after the FOPA, thus clearly demonstrating the regenerative nature of saturated FOPAs for RZ-DPSK modulation....
Higher-order solitons in amplitude-disordered waveguide arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the existence and stability of different families of spatial solitons in optical waveguide arrays whose amplitudes obey a disordered distribution. The competition between focusing nonlinearity and linearly disordered refractive index modulation results in the formation of spatial localized nonlinear states. Solitons originating from Anderson modes with few nodes are robust during propagation. While multi-peaked solitons with in-phase neighboring components are completely unstable, multipole-mode solitons whose neighboring components are out-of-phase can propagate stably in wide parameter regions provided that their power exceeds a critical value. Our findings, thus, provide the first example of stable higher-order nonlinear states in disordered systems. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Hyperlogarithms and periods in Feynman amplitudes
Todorov, Ivan
2016-01-01
The role of hyperlogarithms and multiple zeta values (and their generalizations) in Feynman amplitudes is being gradually recognized since the mid 1990's. The present lecture provides a concise introduction to a fast developing subjects that attracts the attention to a wide range of specialists - from number theorists to particle physicists.
Amplitude Correction Factors of KVN Observations
Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan
2015-01-01
We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3 and NRAO~512, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We found that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combinat...
Higgs Amplitudes From Twistor Inspired Methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We illustrate the use of new on-shell methods, 4-dimensional unitarity cuts combined with on-shell recursions relations by computing the A(1)4 (1-, 2-, 3+, 4+) amplitude in the large top mass limit where the Higgs boson couples to gluons through an effective interaction. (author)
On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics
Karplyuk, Kostyantyn
2012-01-01
A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.
Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2009-08-28
Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.
Coherent states, transition amplitudes and embeddings
Berceanu, S
1997-01-01
The transition amplitudes between coherent states on a coherent state manifold are expressed in terms of the embedding of the coherent state manifold into a projective Hilbert space. Consequences for the dimension of projective Hilbert space and a simple geometric interpretation of Calabi's diastasis follows.
World Graph Formalism for Feynman Amplitudes
Hölzler, Helmut
2008-01-01
A unified treatment of Schwinger parametrised Feynman amplitudes is suggested which addresses vertices of arbitrary order on the same footing as propagators. Contributions from distinct diagrams are organised collectively. The scheme is based on the continuous graph Laplacian. The analogy to a classical statistical diffusion system of vector charges on the graph is explored.
Calculating real Delbrueck amplitudes on parallel processors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahane, S. (Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel))
1991-12-01
Calculation of the real Delbrueck scattering amplitudes is parallelized by concurrent evaluation of 20 four-dimensional integrals. Two approaches were used: (a) a farm of master and workers tasks, and (b) the Cubix concept of parallelization. We discuss load balancing, timing and the efficiency of the implementation. (orig.).
Calculating real Delbrück amplitudes on parallel processors
Kahane, Sylvian
1991-12-01
Calculation of the real Delbrück scattering amplitudes is parallelized by concurent evaluation of 20 four-dimensional integrals. Two approaches were used: (a) a farm of master and workers tasks, and (b) the Cubix concept of parallelization. We discuss load balancing, timing and the efficiency of the implementation.
Calculating real Delbrueck amplitudes on parallel processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calculation of the real Delbrueck scattering amplitudes is parallelized by concurrent evaluation of 20 four-dimensional integrals. Two approaches were used: (a) a farm of master and workers tasks, and (b) the Cubix concept of parallelization. We discuss load balancing, timing and the efficiency of the implementation. (orig.)
Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity
Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw; Zhu, Yiwei
2015-08-01
We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d'Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n-point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.
Semileptonic Bc decays and charmonium distribution amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study the semileptonic decays of the Bc meson in the light-cone sum rule (LCSR) approach. The result for each channel depends on the corresponding distribution amplitude (DA) of the final meson. For the case of Bc decaying into a pseudoscalar meson, to twist-3 accuracy only the leading twist distribution amplitude is involved if we start from a chiral current. If we choose a suitable chiral current in the vector meson case, the main twist-3 contributions are also eliminated and we can consider the leading twist contribution only. The leading twist distribution amplitudes of the charmonium and other heavy mesons are given by a model approach in a reasonable way. Employing this charmonium distribution amplitude we find a cross section ?(e+e-?J/?+?c)?22.8 fb that is consistent with Belle and BaBar data. Based on this model, we calculate the form factors for various Bc decay modes in the corresponding regions. Extrapolating the form factors to the whole kinetic regions, we get the decay widths and branching ratios for various Bc decay modes including their ? modes when they are kinematically accessible. (orig.)
Amplitude ratios for complete moment tensor retrieval.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Šílený, Jan
2005-01-01
Ro?. 32, ?. 22 (2005), L22303/1-4. ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB300120504; GA AV ?R IAA300120502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : seismic moment tensor * amplitude ratios * non-shear source component Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.491, year: 2005
Generalised Unitarity for Dimensionally Regulated Amplitudes
Bobadilla, W J Torres; Mastrolia, P; Mirabella, E
2015-01-01
We present a novel set of Feynman rules and generalised unitarity cut-conditions for computing one-loop amplitudes via d-dimensional integrand reduction algorithm. Our algorithm is suited for analytic as well as numerical result, because all ingredients turn out to have a four-dimensional representation. We will apply this formalism to NLO QCD corrections.
Attenuation of ground-motion spectral amplitudes in southeastern Australia
Allen, T.I.; Cummins, P.R.; Dhu, T.; Schneider, J.F.
2007-01-01
A dataset comprising some 1200 weak- and strong-motion records from 84 earthquakes is compiled to develop a regional ground-motion model for southeastern Australia (SEA). Events were recorded from 1993 to 2004 and range in size from moment magnitude 2.0 ??? M ??? 4.7. The decay of vertical-component Fourier spectral amplitudes is modeled by trilinear geometrical spreading. The decay of low-frequency spectral amplitudes can be approximated by the coefficient of R-1.3 (where R is hypocentral distance) within 90 km of the seismic source. From approximately 90 to 160 km, we observe a transition zone in which the seismic coda are affected by postcritical reflections from midcrustal and Moho discontinuities. In this hypocentral distance range, geometrical spreading is approximately R+0.1. Beyond 160 km, low-frequency seismic energy attenuates rapidly with source-receiver distance, having a geometrical spreading coefficient of R-1.6. The associated regional seismic-quality factor can be expressed by the polynomial: log Q(f) = 3.66 - 1.44 log f + 0.768 (log f)2 + 0.058 (log f)3 for frequencies 0.78 ??? f ??? 19.9 Hz. Fourier spectral amplitudes, corrected for geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, are regressed with M to obtain quadratic source scaling coefficients. Modeled vertical-component displacement spectra fit the observed data well. Amplitude residuals are, on average, relatively small and do not vary with hypocentral distance. Predicted source spectra (i.e., at R = 1 km) are consistent with eastern North American (ENA) Models at low frequencies (f less than approximately 2 Hz) indicating that moment magnitudes calculated for SEA earthquakes are consistent with moment magnitude scales used in ENA over the observed magnitude range. The models presented represent the first spectral ground-motion prediction equations develooed for the southeastern Australian region. This work provides a useful framework for the development of regional ground-motion relations for earthquake hazard and risk assessment in SEA.
Simplifying the three point type I amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The superstring theory is the most promising model of the last decades for unifying all interactions of nature. Besides its importance, a covariant approach of quantization was an unsolved problem for a long time, until the development of the pure spinor formalism. In a previous work the type I effective action for supergravity was computed in this framework . In that work, the tree-level mixed amplitudes (for one closed string and two open strings) were computed. Roughly speaking, the basic steps followed in that analysis were: 1) write the amplitude involving the three vertex operators needed in the computation,2) use the cyclic symmetry to choose one closed and one open strings as fixed operators, 3) Simplify it by using OPE's inside the amplitude and 4), for the remaining terms, evaluate all combinations (term by term) with five theta's. For example, in step number 4, in order to make all necessary calculations, the GAMMA package (a program for MATHEMATICA) had to be used to evaluate products of gamma matrices inside the amplitude. The fact is that there is an important tool that have the power to simplify more these calculations: the cyclic symmetry prescription. It means that, no matter the three unintegrated vertex are, the result is the same for all possibilities you get. In this work we use this symmetry in the three point amplitude for choose the fermion operators as the unintegrated ones. This simplifies the computations in such a way that no program is needed to find the right result, what gives a cleaner result. (author)
Modulations in the light of the firefly
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anurup Gohain Barua
2013-03-01
Continuous light could be produced from the firefly by making it inhale vapours of ethyl acetate. Here we perform such a control experiment on the Indian species of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae), and analyse the light in the microsecond time scale. The amplitude of the continuous train of triangular pulses is apparently altered in accordance with the instantaneous values of a hypothetical signal, which exhibits pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). In addition to sampling in amplitude, this scheme apparently provides sampling in time, representing pulse width modulation (PWM). A Fourier transform spectrum of this waveform shows the `carrierâ€™ frequency and the accompanying `side bandsâ€™.
Absolute frequency references at 1529 nm and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy
de Escobar, Y Natali Martinez; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 nm and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using $^{87}$Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3$ two-level and 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3 \\rightarrow $ 4D$_{5/2} F"=4$ ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate an absolute accuracy of $\\sim$ 1 kHz is realistic.
Absolute frequency references at 1529 and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy.
Martinez de Escobar, Y Natali; Palacios Álvarez, Silvana; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W
2015-10-15
We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using 87Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S(1/2)F=2?5P(3/2)F'=3 two-level and 5S(1/2)F=2?5P(3/2)F'=3?4D(5/2)F''=4 ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate that an absolute accuracy of ?1 kHz is realistic. PMID:26469606
Crack propagation under variable amplitude loading
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Miloudi, Abdelkader; Zemri, Mokhtar; Benguediab, Mohamed; Mazari, Mohamed; Amrouche, Abdelwaheb.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Experience shows that a damage induced by a given cycle is dependent on the loading history. In this regard, the objective of this paper is to study and describe the phenomenology of the loading history on crack propagation. Different loading configuration has been considered for fatigue crack propa [...] gation of XC38 steel; overload cycles followed by underload and vice versa were considered during propagation. Measure of crack opening has been made using compliance method. It is shown that the main parameters which cause retardation are the residual compressive stresses and the crack closure. The finite element modeling is used to calculate the evolution of residual stress profiles before and after application of the overload-underload cycle. It corroborates the hypotheses on the mechanisms behind, including those proposed on the residual stresses at the crack tip.
General covariant transition amplitudes in quantum cosmology
Vidotto, Francesca
2011-01-01
The path-integral approach to cosmology consists in the computation of transition amplitudes between states of the quantum geometry of the universe. In the past, the concrete computation of these transitions amplitudes has been performed in a perturbative regime, breaking the full general covariance of the theory. Here I present how it is possible to define a general covariant path integral in quantum cosmology, by relying on the most recent results of the canonical and covariant formulations of Loop Quantum Gravity. I present two strategies that have been implemented. The first starts from the full Spinfoam theory, i.e. the path-integral framework for Loop Quantum Gravity, and defines a cosmological system. This is not obtained from symmetry reduced variables that are successively quantized, but directly considering the approximations that are characteristic of the full theory. The Spinfoam Cosmology obtained in this way includes quantum fluctuations beyond standard perturbation theory. The second strategy e...
Limit on the pion distribution amplitude
Luna, E G S
2014-01-01
The pion distribution amplitude (DA) can be related to the fundamental QCD Green's functions as a function of the quark self-energy and the quark-pion vertex, which in turn are associated with the pion wave function through the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Considering the extreme hard asymptotic behavior in momentum space allowed for a pseudoscalar wave function, which is limited by its normalization condition, we compute the pion DA and its second moment. From the resulting amplitude, representing the field theoretical upper limit on the DA behavior, we calculate the photon-pion transition form factor $F_{\\pi\\gamma\\gamma^{\\ast}}(Q^{2})$. The resulting upper limit on the pion transition form factor is compared with existing data published by CLEO, BaBar and Belle collaborations.
Nanosecond time-to-amplitude converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A description is given of a modified time-to-amplitude converter intended for operation under great counting rates (5x106 pls/s). The converter is a part of the time-of-flight system used on the JINR synchrocyclotron. Basic circuits of the instrument analog and logic part are given. The converter uses mainly integrated circuits of the 138 series. The gating stage of the instrument analog part is based on a SHF transistor. The voltage-to-current converter is based on an operational amplifier. The duration of amplifier output pulses can be controlled from 0.2 to 2 ?s. The output signal maximum amplitude in the linear range is +-5 V. The temperature instability is 0.1 %/deg C, the output resistance - 50 Ohm. The measurement range of the described converter is 25 and 50 ns
Modified amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum
Ghayour, Basem; Suresh, P. K.
2012-09-01
The spectrum of thermal gravitational waves is obtained by including the high-frequency thermal gravitons created from extra-dimensional effects and is a new feature of the spectrum. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves in a thermal vacuum state are found to be enhanced. The amplitude of the waves is modified in the frequency range (10-16-108 Hz) but the corresponding spectral energy density is less than the upper bound of various estimated results. With the addition of higher frequency thermal waves, the obtained spectral energy density of the wave in the thermal vacuum state does not exceed the upper bound put by the nucleosynthesis rate. The existence of cosmologically originated thermal gravitational waves due to extra dimension is not ruled out.
Modified Amplitude of Gravitational Waves Spectrum
Ghayour, Basem
2012-01-01
The spectrum of thermal gravitational waves is obtained by including the high frequency thermal gravitons created from extra-dimensional effect and is a new feature of the spectrum. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves in thermal vacuum state are found enhanced. The amplitude of the waves get modified in the frequency range (10$^{-16}$ -10 $^{8}$ Hz) but the corresponding spectral energy density is less than the upper bound of various estimated results. With the addition of higher frequency thermal waves, the obtained spectral energy density of the wave in thermal vacuum state does not exceed the upper bound put by nucleosynthesis rate. The existence of cosmologically originated thermal gravitational waves due to extra dimension is not ruled out.
Towards an amplitude analysis of exclusive ?? processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The potential of two photon processes to shed light on the parton content of resonances, we maintain, can only be realized in practice by moving towards an Amplitude Analysis of experimental data. By using the process ?? ? ?? as an example, the way to do this is discussed. Presently claimed uncertainties in the ?? width of even the well-known f2 (1270) are shown to be over-optimistic and the fitted couplings of the overlapping scalar states in the 1 GeV region meaningless. Only the use of Amplitude Analysis techniques on the new higher statistics data from SLAC and DESY can resolve these uncertainties and lead to definite and significant results. 37 refs., 18 figs
Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review, we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large Nc and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts result from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(Nc). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA), their contribution to the six-point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wavefunctions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter–Sklyanin approach. (review)
Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)
Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen parameterization of the cut loop momentum approach infinity. Measurements of new physics at the forthcoming experimental program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a precise understanding of processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). This places increased demands for the computation of new one-loop amplitudes. This in turn has spurred recent developments towards improved calculational techniques. Direct calculations using Feynman diagrams are in general inefficient. Developments of more efficient techniques have usually centered around unitarity techniques [1], where tree amplitudes are effectively 'glued' together to form loops. The most straightforward application of this method, in which the cut loop momentum is in D = 4, allows for the computation of 'cut-constructible' terms only, i.e. (poly)logarithmic containing terms and any related constants. QCD amplitudes contain, in addition to such terms, rational pieces which cannot be derived using such cuts. These 'missing' rational parts can be extracted using cut loop momenta in D = 4-2 (varepsilon). The greater difficulty of such calculations has restricted the application of this approach, although recent developments [3, 4] have provided new promise for this technique. Recently the application of on-shell recursion relations [5] to obtaining the 'missing' rational parts of one-loop processes [6] has provided an alternative very promising solution to this problem. In combination with unitarity methods an 'on-shell bootstrap' approach provides an efficient technique for computing complete one-loop QCD amplitudes [7]. Additionally other new methods have also proved fruitful for calculating rational terms [8]. Such developments have again refocused attention on the optimization of the derivation of the cut-constructable pieces of the amplitude. Deriving cut-constructible terms for any one-loop amplitude reduces to the computation of coefficients of a set of scalar bubble, scalar triangle and scalar box integral functions. Box coefficients may be found with very little work, directly from the quadruple cut of the relevant box function [9]. A unique box coefficient contributes to each distinct quadruple cut. Unfortunately triangle and bubble coefficients cannot be derived in quite so direct a manner. Multiple scalar integral coefficients appear inside a two-particle cut or triple cut. It is therefore necessary to disentangle the relevant bubble or triangle coefficients from any other coefficients sharing the same cut [1, 4, 10, 11]. The large number of NLO processes of interest for the LHC suggests that a completely automated computational procedure is highly desired. To this end we discuss, in this proceeding, a recently proposed method [12, 13] for the direct, efficient and systematic extraction of bubble and triangle coefficients which is well suited to automation
Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2011-04-15
In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)
Limit on the pion distribution amplitude
Luna, E. G. S.; Natale, A. A.
2015-01-01
The pion distribution amplitude (DA) can be related to the fundamental QCD Green's functions as a function of the quark self-energy and the quark-pion vertex, which in turn are associated with the pion wave function through the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Considering the extreme hard asymptotic behavior in momentum space allowed for a pseudoscalar wave function, which is limited by its normalization condition, we compute the pion DA and its second moment. From the resulting amplitude, representing the field theoretical upper limit on the DA behavior, we calculate the photon-pion transition form factor {{F}? ? {{? *}}}({{Q}2}). The resulting upper limit on the pion transition form factor is compared with existing data published by CLEO, BaBar and Belle Collaborations.
Optical twists in phase and amplitude
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin
2011-01-01
Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles.
Differential Equations, Associators, and Recurrences for Amplitudes
Puhlfuerst, Georg
2015-01-01
We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for epsilon-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different epsilon-orders of a power series solution in epsilon of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the epsilon-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also setup up our tools for computing epsilon-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we apply our methods to systematically get compact and explicit alpha'-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in alpha'.
Evaluation of the CHY Gauge Amplitude
Lam, C S
2016-01-01
The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for $n$-gluon scattering is known to give the same amplitude as the one obtained from Feynman diagrams, though the former contains neither vertices nor propagators explicitly. The equivalence was shown by indirect means, not by a direct evaluation of the $(n\\! - \\!3)$-dimensional integral in the CHY formula. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how such a direct evaluation can be carried out. There are two basic difficulties in the calculation: how to handle the large number of terms in the reduced Pfaffian, and how to carry out the integrations in the presence of a $\\sigma$-dependence much more complicated than the Parke-Taylor form found in a CHY double-color scalar amplitude. We have solved both of these problems, and have formulated a method that can be applied to any $n$. Many examples are provided to illustrate these calculations.
Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes
Puhlfürst, Georg; Stieberger, Stephan
2016-01-01
We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ?-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ?-orders of a power series solution in ? of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ?-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ?-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit ??-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in ??.
Effects of rTMS on EEG phase-amplitude coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chie Nakatani
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The EEG signal has multiple frequency bands, which emerge as a result of interactions among different neural populations. Couplings between these bands, in particular Phase-Amplitude Coupling, are observed within and across brain regions. Phase-Amplitude Coupling is believed to have a crucial role in processing and transfer of information across brain regions. As a result, Phase-Amplitude Coupling has received considerable attention recently. We hypothesized that Phase-Amplitude Coupling would be decreased when neuronal populations are fatigued by repetitive Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS. We applied rTMS to intraparietal sulcus, temporal-parietal junction, and lateral occipital complex of healthy volunteers. Stimulating the intraparietal sulcus decreased Phase-Amplitude Coupling between theta and gamma bands. In the temporal-parietal junction condition, no change was observed. However, in the lateral occipital complex condition, Phase-Amplitude Coupling increased between the alpha and beta bands of the EEG. The increase could be explained by relative increase in alpha band activity; this activity is known to modulate fast activity[1]. Alternatively, the coupling might increase because of increased connectivity between neural populations, e.g., pyramidal and fast inhibitory interneurons, due to activity forcing [2].
Multipole modes in deformed nuclei within the finite amplitude method
Kortelainen, M.; Hinohara, N.; Nazarewicz, W.
2015-11-01
Background: To access selected excited states of nuclei, within the framework of nuclear density functional theory, the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) is commonly used. Purpose: We present a computationally efficient, fully self-consistent framework to compute the QRPA transition strength function of an arbitrary multipole operator in axially deformed superfluid nuclei. Methods: The method is based on the finite amplitude method (FAM) QRPA, allowing fast iterative solution of QRPA equations. A numerical implementation of the FAM-QRPA solver module has been carried out for deformed nuclei. Results: The practical feasibility of the deformed FAM module has been demonstrated. In particular, we calculate the quadrupole and octupole strengths in a heavy deformed nucleus 240Pu, without any truncations in the quasiparticle space. To demonstrate the capability to calculate individual QRPA modes, we also compute low-lying negative-parity collective states in 154Sm. Conclusions: The new FAM implementation enables calculations of the QRPA strength function throughout the nuclear landscape. This will facilitate global surveys of multipole modes and ? decays and will open new avenues for constraining the nuclear energy density functional.
Injection coupling with high amplitude transverse modes: Experimentation and simulation
Mery, Yoann; Ducruix, SÃ©bastien; Scouflaire, Philippe; Candel, SÃ©bastien
2009-06-01
High frequency combustion instabilities have technical importance in the design of liquid rocket engines. These phenomena involve a strong coupling between transverse acoustic modes and combustion. They are currently being investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulations. On the experimental level, the coupling is examined in a model scale system featuring a multiple injector combustor (MIC) comprising five coaxial injectors fed with liquid oxygen and gaseous methane. This system is equipped with a novel VHAM actuator (Very High Amplitude Modulator) which comprises two nozzles and a rotating toothed wheel blocking the nozzles in an alternate fashion. This device was designed to obtain the highest possible levels of transverse oscillation in the MIC. After a brief review of the VHAM, this article reports cold flow experiments using this modulator. Velocity maps obtained under resonant conditions using the VHAM are examined at different instants during a cycle of oscillation. Experimental data are compared with numerical pressure and velocity fields obtained from an acoustic solver. The good agreement observed in the nozzle vicinity indicates that numerical simulations can be used to analyze the complex flow field generated by the VHAM. To cite this article: Y. Mery et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string world-sheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions. (author). 13 refs
Annulus amplitude of FZZT branes revisited
Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Rim, Chaiho
2011-01-01
We revisit the annulus amplitude of FZZT branes with general matter sectors (r,s) using the recent development of matrix model and minimal Liouville gravity. Following the boundary description of the 1-matrix model and bulk resonance transformation between primary operators we find the consistency of the brane decomposition into (1,1)-branes. We also investigate the corresponding results obtained directly from the minimal Liouville gravity and demonstrate the perfect agreement with the matrix results.
A note on Coulomb scattering amplitude
Ahmed, Zafar
2003-01-01
The summation of the partial wave series for Coulomb scattering amplitude, $f^C(\\theta)$ is avoided because the series is oscillatorily and divergent. Instead, $f^C(\\theta)$ is obtained by solving the Schr{\\"o}dinger equation in parabolic cylindrical co-ordinates which is not a general method. Here, we show that a reconstructed series, $(1-\\cos\\theta) ^2f^C(\\theta)$, is both convergent and analytically summable.
Yangian symmetric correlators, R operators and amplitudes
Kirschner, R.
2014-11-01
Yangian symmetric correlators can be constructed by the action of Yang-Baxter R operators on trivial basic correlators. The example of a four-point correlator is given in two representations and the construction of the completely connected N point correlator is described. The helicity representation is dicussed and the relation of the four-point correlator to tree-level scattering amplitudes is shown.
Infrared Observations of Large Amplitude Pulsating Stars
Whitelock, Patricia A
1997-01-01
Our understanding of large amplitude pulsating stars and their status in stellar evolution is briefly reviewed. The paper then describes the near-infrared light curves of various asymptotic giant branch stars, concentrating on possible evidence for changing mass-loss rates. The stars discussed include oxygen- and carbon-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, thick-shelled carbon stars and symbiotic Miras. Finally a newly discovered Mira variable in the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy is described.
Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements
Tsai, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.
Amplitude death in coupled chaotic oscillators
Prasad, Awadhesh
2005-01-01
Amplitude death can occur in chaotic dynamical systems with time-delay coupling, similar to the case of coupled limit cycles. The coupling leads to stabilization of fixed points of the subsystems. This phenomenon is quite general, and occurs for identical as well as nonidentical coupled chaotic systems. Using the Lorenz and R\\"ossler chaotic oscillators to construct representative systems, various possible transitions from chaotic dynamics to fixed points are discussed.
Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartles, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Vacca, G.P. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)
2012-05-15
Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.
Coding stimulus amplitude by correlated neural activity
Metzen, Michael G.; Ávila-Åkerberg, Oscar; Chacron, Maurice J.
2015-04-01
While correlated activity is observed ubiquitously in the brain, its role in neural coding has remained controversial. Recent experimental results have demonstrated that correlated but not single-neuron activity can encode the detailed time course of the instantaneous amplitude (i.e., envelope) of a stimulus. These have furthermore demonstrated that such coding required and was optimal for a nonzero level of neural variability. However, a theoretical understanding of these results is still lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive theoretical framework explaining these experimental findings. Specifically, we use linear response theory to derive an expression relating the correlation coefficient to the instantaneous stimulus amplitude, which takes into account key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability as quantified by the coefficient of variation. The theoretical prediction was in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of various integrate-and-fire type neuron models for various parameter values. Further, we demonstrate a form of stochastic resonance as optimal coding of stimulus variance by correlated activity occurs for a nonzero value of noise intensity. Thus, our results provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by which correlated but not single-neuron activity can code for stimulus amplitude and how key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability influence such coding. Correlation coding by correlated but not single-neuron activity is thus predicted to be a ubiquitous feature of sensory processing for neurons responding to weak input.
Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, Daniel R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States); BriceÃ±o, RaÃºl A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, David J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2016-03-01
We present a determination of the isovector, $P$-wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using $m_\\pi =236$ MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of L\\"uscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at $m_\\pi= 140$ MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to be in good agreement with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a $\\rho$-resonance pole at $E_\\rho= \\left[755(2)(1)(^{20}_{02})-\\frac{i}{2}\\,129(3)(1)(^{7}_{1})\\right]~{\\rm MeV}$. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.
Continuous phase and amplitude holographic elements
Maker, Paul D. (inventor); Muller, Richard E. (inventor)
1995-01-01
A method for producing a phase hologram using e-beam lithography provides n-ary levels of phase and amplitude by first producing an amplitude hologram on a transparent substrate by e-beam exposure of a resist over a film of metal by exposing n is less than or equal to m x m spots of an array of spots for each pixel, where the spots are randomly selected in proportion to the amplitude assigned to each pixel, and then after developing and etching the metal film producing a phase hologram by e-beam lithography using a low contrast resist, such as PMMA, and n-ary levels of low doses less than approximately 200 micro-C/sq cm and preferably in the range of 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and aggressive development using pure acetone for an empirically determined time (about 6 s) controlled to within 1/10 s to produce partial development of each pixel in proportion to the n-ary level of dose assigned to it.
Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity
Donà, Pietro; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwal, Leslaw; Zhu, Yiwei
2015-01-01
We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d'Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell $n-$point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering...
Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from Kp and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs
Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hewett, JoAnne L.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2012-02-15
Radiation amplitude zeros have long been used to test the Standard Model. Here, we consider the supersymmetric radiation amplitude zero in chargino-neutralino associated production, which can be observed at the luminosity upgraded LHC. Such an amplitude zero only occurs if the neutralino has a large wino fraction and hence this observable can be used to determine the neutralino eigenstate content. We find that this observable can be measured by comparing the p{sub T} spectrum of the softest lepton in the trilepton {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {+-}} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} decay channel to that of a control process such as {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup +} {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup -} or {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0}. We test this technique on a previously generated model sample of the 19 dimensional parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, and find that it is effective in determining the wino content of the neutralino.
Complete N-point superstring disk amplitude II. Amplitude and hypergeometric function structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mafra, Carlos R., E-mail: crmafra@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schlotterer, Oliver, E-mail: olivers@mppmu.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany)
2013-08-21
Using the pure spinor formalism in part I (Mafra et al., preprint [1]) we compute the complete tree-level amplitude of N massless open strings and find a striking simple and compact form in terms of minimal building blocks: the full N-point amplitude is expressed by a sum over (N?3)! Yang–Mills partial subamplitudes each multiplying a multiple Gaussian hypergeometric function. While the former capture the space–time kinematics of the amplitude the latter encode the string effects. This result disguises a lot of structure linking aspects of gauge amplitudes as color and kinematics with properties of generalized Euler integrals. In this part II the structure of the multiple hypergeometric functions is analyzed in detail: their relations to monodromy equations, their minimal basis structure, and methods to determine their poles and transcendentality properties are proposed. Finally, a Gröbner basis analysis provides independent sets of rational functions in the Euler integrals.
Complete N-Point Superstring Disk Amplitude II. Amplitude and Hypergeometric Function Structure
Mafra, Carlos R; Stieberger, Stephan
2011-01-01
Using the pure spinor formalism in part I [1] we compute the complete tree-level amplitude of N massless open strings and find a striking simple and compact form in terms of minimal building blocks: the full N-point amplitude is expressed by a sum over (N-3)! Yang-Mills partial subamplitudes each multiplying a multiple Gaussian hypergeometric function. While the former capture the space-time kinematics of the amplitude the latter encode the string effects. This result disguises a lot of structure linking aspects of gauge amplitudes as color and kinematics with properties of generalized Euler integrals. In this part II the structure of the multiple hypergeometric functions is analyzed in detail: their relations to monodromy equations, their minimal basis structure, and methods to determine their poles and transcendentality properties are proposed. Finally, a Groebner basis analysis provides independent sets of rational functions in the Euler integrals.
Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities
Murfet, Daniel
2009-01-01
We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.
Coding of amplitude information by the time-locked electrosensory system of Brachyhypopomus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masashi Kawasaki
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A pulse-type gymnotiform electric fish, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, emits short electrical pulses from its electric organ in the tail and senses the feedback signals with the tuberous electroreceptors in the skin for electrolocation and electrocommunication. The feedback signals are captured and processed by two distinct pathways, the amplitude and time-locked electrosensory systems. While the amplitude system is driven by the electroreceptors, the burst duration coders, which generate action potentials at variable rates according to the amplitude of the electrosensory signals, the time-locked system is driven by the pulse markers, which generate a single action potential in response to a feedback pulse regardless of its amplitude. The response latency of the action potentials of pulse markers and their ascending higher order time-locked neurons in the midbrain, however, may depend on the amplitude of stimulus pulses. In this study, (1 we measured the amplitude of the self stimulation by fish's own electric organ discharges in an in vivo preparation, (2 recorded the latencies and accuracy (jitter of time-locked neurons in the midbrain in response to artificial electric organ discharges with various waveforms and amplitudes, and (3 compared the slope of the amplitude-latency function with the sensitivity of a behavioral response to time differences between feedback pulses. The time-locked neurons in the midbrain fired their action potentials with short latency (~0.9 msec and with accurate timing (a few microseconds. The natural waveform, polarity (outward monophasic waveform, and higher repetition rates of the stimulus pulses produced smaller jitter. The slope of the amplitude-latency function indicated that amplitude modulation of sensory signals at 20% shifted the latency of the midbrain time locked neurons by ~40 microseconds on average, which was large enough to cause novelty responses. Novelty responses were recorded when stimulus pulses with equal amplitudes were delivered with microsecond time differences. We propose that the timing system of Brachyhypoopomus encodes and utilizes time information in the microsecond range which are resulted not only from capacitance of electrolocation objects but also from the changes in amplitude of feedback signals caused by resistive components of electrolocation objects, surrounding environment, and relative geometrical positions of the electric organ of itself or neighboring fish.
Multigluon amplitudes in the high-energy limit
Del Duca, V
1995-01-01
We give a unified description of tree-level multigluon amplitudes in the high-energy limit. We represent the Parke-Taylor amplitudes and the Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov amplitudes in terms of color configurations that are ordered in rapidity on a two-sided plot. We show that for the helicity configurations they have in common the Parke-Taylor amplitudes and the Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov amplitudes coincide.
Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which is...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Residues of neoasozine in rice grain were determined by neutron activation and colorimetric techniques. Twice application of the chemical before flowering did not lead to increased residue levels while 4-times application resulted in significant increase in the residue level (up to 0.4-0.5 mg/kg). The neutron activation technique was advantageous because of its high sensitivity and the smaller sample amounts required for analysis. The partition ratio of arsenic residues into grain and bran was 73:27 in 100% polished rice. Most of the residue in the bran was transferred to the oilcake fraction. (author)
An electronically addressed spatial light modulator
McKnight, Douglas J
1989-01-01
Coherent optical data processing is recognised to be a natural solution to certain information processing problems. Attempts to exploit the benefits of optical processing are limited by the quality of available Spatial Light Modulators. Spatial Light Modulators are devices which controllably impress information onto the amplitude or phase of an optical wavefront. They are used both to input data into an opticaI system and as modulating elements within the system (often in the Fourier plane...