WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual amplitude modulation

  1. Residual Amplitude Modulation in Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X

    2013-01-01

    The effects of residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in laser interferometers using heterodyne sensing can be substantial and difficult to mitigate. In this work, we analyze the effects of RAM on a complex laser interferometer used for gravitational wave detection. The RAM introduces unwanted offsets in the cavity length signals and thereby shifts the operating point of the optical cavities from the nominal point via feedback control. This shift causes variations in the sensing matrix, and leads to degradation in the performance of the precision noise subtraction scheme of the multiple-degree-of-freedom control system. In addition, such detuned optical cavities produce an opto-mechanical spring, which also varies the sensing matrix. We use our simulations to derive requirements on RAM for the Advanced LIGO detectors, and show that the RAM expected in Advanced LIGO will not limit its sensitivity.

  2. Active cancellation of residual amplitude modulation in a frequency-modulation based Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Yu, Yinan; Wang, Yicheng; Pratt, Jon R.

    2016-03-01

    Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) is one of the most common noise sources known to degrade the sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy. RAM can arise as a result of the temperature dependent birefringence of the modulator crystal, which causes the orientation of the crystal's optical axis to shift with respect to the polarization of the incident light with temperature. In the fiber-based optical interferometer used on the National Institute of Standards and Technology calculable capacitor, RAM degrades the measured laser frequency stability and correlates with the environmental temperature fluctuations. We have demonstrated a simple approach that cancels out excessive RAM due to polarization mismatch between the light and the optical axis of the crystal. The approach allows us to measure the frequency noise of a heterodyne beat between two lasers individually locked to different resonant modes of a cavity with an accuracy better than 0.5 ppm, which meets the requirement to further determine the longitudinal mode number of the cavity length. Also, this approach has substantially mitigated the temperature dependency of the measurements of the cavity length and consequently the capacitance.

  3. Systematic and quantitative analysis of residual amplitude modulation in Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization

    Shen, Hui; Li, Liufeng; Bi, Jin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Lisheng

    2015-12-01

    We theoretically analyze the effects of two primary mechanisms of residual amplitude modulation, estimate the resulting frequency instabilities, and discuss relevant experimental countermeasures, providing useful information that are beneficial for the development of ultrastable optical oscillators as well as many precision experiments relying on stable lasers. A Pound-Drever-Hall signal comprising contributions from the birefringence of the electro-optic crystal is derived and used to examine the birefringence-related amplitude modulation and the resultant frequency offset in terms of various experimental parameters. The combined effect of the crystal birefringence and pararsitic étalons is further investigated by dividing the étalons into three representative categories according to their locations in the optical path. The analysis shows that introducing a resonant optical cavity only scales the birefringence-generated amplitude modulation by a constant, thereby lending strong support to the active control scheme using a separate detection path. When a parasitic étalon is added, the active control scheme can still suppress the resultant instability except for the parasitic étalon that is located closely in front of the optical cavity. In this case the étalon produces rather large frequency instability and therefore should be avoided. In addition, numerical calculations are performed to assess the impact of a special situation where the front and end surfaces of an ultrastable optical cavity are potential sources of the parasitic étalon that can strongly couple with the cavity.

  4. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  5. Amplitude Modulation and Loudness in Cochlear Implantees

    McKay, Colette M.; Henshall, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of amplitude modulation of pulse trains on the loudness perceived by cochlear implantees was investigated for different overall levels of the signal, modulation depth and the carrier rate of the pulse train. Equally loud and threshold levels were determined for a variety of signal levels, modulation depths and carrier rates in six cochlear implantees. The pattern of results was consistent with the predictions of a previously published loudness model of McKay et al. (J Acoust Soc Am...

  6. Amplitude modulation and loudness in cochlear implantees

    McKay CM., Henshall KR.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of amplitude modulation of pulse trains on the loudness perceived by cochlear implantees was investigated for different overall levels of the signal, modulation depth and the carrier rate of the pulse train. Equally loud and threshold levels were determined for a variety of signal levels, modulation depths and carrier rates in six cochlear implantees. The pattern of results was consistent with the predictions of a previously published loudness model of McKay et al. (J Acoust Soc Am...

  7. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  8. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bischoff, Svend

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...... by comparison with the full numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss possible sources of instability that are due to resonances in the device....

  9. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  10. Multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with programmable phase modulator

    Honma, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of spatial quadrature amplitude modulation (SQAM) signals with amplitude and phase modulation is a simple method used to improve storage capacity in a holographic data storage system. We propose a multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with a programmable phase modulator (PPM). In this method, holographic page data is recorded by a two-step exposure process for different phase-modulated data. There is no need to adjust the positions of spatial light modulators (SLM) with high accuracy because we use only one spatial modulator. We estimate the quality of 16 SQAM signals produced by our technique.

  11. Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205

    Bowman Dominic. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.

  12. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  13. CARRIER-FREQUENCY HARMONIZATION STRUCTURE FOR ENHANCED AMPLITUDE MODULATION FUNCTION

    B.V.Subba Rao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude Modulation was the major method of influencing sound on a radio signal and is still extensively used in the present days. The characteristic amplitude modulation radio receivers’ automatic gain-control to circumvent bass distortion, generally reacts extreme moreover slowly to average out or overwhelm these intercarrier beat modulations as a result, these extremely aggravating modulation effects are mainly distributed on unbroken to the eavesdropper. A GPS-referenced frequency-synchronizer unit could be organized at transmitter sites capable of holding both current and big transmitters as a result basically eradicating carrier beat interference between co-channel amplitude modulation stations. The beat-related properties are a main aspect in the deprivation of dusk and night-time amplitude modulation fringe-area function excellence and the subsequent damage of hearers for effectively all stations. Commonly, an amplitude modulation radio listener for the duration of the sundown and nightfall hours and to a slighter amount in the first day break, obtains undesired sky wave indications from numerous distant locations as well as the desired local signal. The simple oscillator is naturally a predictable high-stability quartz-crystal kind, temperature compensated. To stand long-term drifts, advanced years effects, and loading-circuit variations, the simple oscillator is somewhat adjusted through electronic or mechanical resources to path a high-precision cause of standard frequency. The steady local reference frequency is then used as a timer for a typical numerically applied frequency synthesizer, which is planned to create the specific receiver carrier frequency expected.

  14. Contextual Modulation of N400 Amplitude to Lexically Ambiguous Words

    Titone, Debra A.; Salisbury, Dean F.

    2004-01-01

    Through much is known about the N400 component, an event-related EEG potential that is sensitive to semantic manipulations, it is unclear whether modulations of N400 amplitude reflect automatic processing, controlled processing, or both. We examined this issue using a semantic judgment task that manipulated local and global contextual cues. Word…

  15. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least...

  16. AMPLITUDE AND PHASE MODULATION FOR ULTRASONIC WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

    Nan Gao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Short range wireless communications have been used more and more frequently in our life. But the electromagnetic fields waves also have some disadvantages. One of these disadvantages is health problems. Many studies shows the electromagnetic field waves using for communication may damage our health. And in most hospitals, they also have bans on the use of mobile phones and wide area networks because of Electromagnetic Interference. So this paper studied the use of ultrasound for wireless communication in air, instead of using electromagnetic field wave. In order to find an advisable modulation method for ultrasound wireless communication, Amplitude modulation method and Phased modulation method has been test.

  17. About the Phasor Pathways in Analogical Amplitude Modulation

    de Oliveira, H M

    2015-01-01

    The Phasor diagrams have long been used in Physics and Engineering. In telecommunications, this is particularly useful to clarify how the modulations work. This paper addresses rotating phasor pathways derived from different standard Amplitude Modulation Systems (e.g. A3E, H3E, J3E, C3F). A cornucopia of algebraic curves is then derived assuming a single tone or a double tone modulation signal. The ratio of the frequency of the tone modulator (fm) and carrier frequency (fc) is considered in two distinct cases, namely: fm/fc=1. The geometric figures are some sort of Lissajours figures. Different shapes appear looking like epicycloids (including cardioids), rhodonea curves, Lemniscates, folium of Descartes or Lam\\'e curves. The role played by the modulation index is elucidated in each case.

  18. Amplitude modulated drift wave packets in a nonuniform magnetoplasma

    Shukla, P.K., E-mail: profshukla@yahoo.de [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, D-447 80 Bochum (Germany); Misra, A.P., E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235 (India)

    2012-08-06

    We consider the amplitude modulation of low-frequency, long wavelength electrostatic drift wave packets in a nonuniform magnetoplasma with the effects of equilibrium density, electron temperature and magnetic field inhomogeneities. The dynamics of the modulated drift wave packet is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small longitudinal perturbation. It is shown that the drift wave packet is stable (unstable) against the modulation when the drift wave number lies in 0modulated drift wave packet can propagate in the form of bright and dark envelope solitons or as a drift wave rogon.

  19. Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz

    Jessop, D. S.; Kindness, S. J.; Xiao, L.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Lin, H.; Ren, Y.; Ren, C. X.; Hofmann, S.; Zeitler, J. A.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Degl'Innocenti, R.

    2016-04-01

    The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds great potential in many fields of study, from spectroscopy to biomedical imaging, remote gas sensing, and high speed communication. To fully exploit this potential, fast optoelectronic devices such as amplitude and phase modulators must be developed. In this work, we present a room temperature external THz amplitude modulator based on plasmonic bow-tie antenna arrays with graphene. By applying a modulating bias to a back gate electrode, the conductivity of graphene is changed, which modifies the reflection characteristics of the incoming THz radiation. The broadband response of the device was characterized by using THz time-domain spectroscopy, and the modulation characteristics such as the modulation depth and cut-off frequency were investigated with a 2.0 THz single frequency emission quantum cascade laser. An optical modulation cut-off frequency of 105 ± 15 MHz is reported. The results agree well with a lumped element circuit model developed to describe the device.

  20. Amplitude modulation control of escape from a potential well

    Chacón, R. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Martínez García-Hoz, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13400 Almadén (Ciudad Real) (Spain); Miralles, J.J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez, P.J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, E.I.N.A., Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of periodic amplitude modulations in controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well through the universal model of a damped Helmholtz oscillator subjected to an external periodic excitation (the escape-inducing excitation) whose amplitude is periodically modulated (the escape-controlling excitation). Analytical and numerical results show that this multiplicative control works reliably for different subharmonic resonances between the two periodic excitations involved, and that its effectiveness is comparable to those of different methods of additive control. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of the multiplicative control against the presence of low-intensity Gaussian noise. -- Highlights: •Multiplicative control of escape from a potential well has been demonstrated. •Theoretical predictions are obtained from a Melnikov analysis. •It has been shown the robustness of the multiplicative control against noise.

  1. Light focusing through strongly scattering media by binary amplitude modulation

    Huang, Hui-ling; Sun, Cun-zhi; Chen, Zi-yang; Pu, Ji-xiong

    2015-07-01

    Based on the angular spectrum method and the circular Gaussian distribution (CGD) model of scattering media, we numerically simulate light focusing through strongly scattering media. A high contrast focus in the target area is produced by using feedback optimization algorithm with binary amplitude modulation. It is possible to form the focusing with one focus or multiple foci at arbitrary areas. The influence of the number of square segments of spatial light modulation on the enhancement factor of intensity is discussed. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical analysis for light refocusing.

  2. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones

    Wynne, DP; George, SE; Zeng, FG

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100Hz), and ...

  3. Modulated amplitude waves in Bose-Einstein condensates

    We analyze spatiotemporal structures in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the dynamics of quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with mean-field interactions. A coherent structure ansatz yields a parametrically forced nonlinear oscillator, to which we apply Lindstedt's method and multiple-scale perturbation theory to determine the dependence of the intensity of periodic orbits ('modulated amplitude waves') on their wave number. We explore BEC band structure in detail using Hamiltonian perturbation theory and supporting numerical simulations

  4. Oblique amplitude modulation of dust-acoustic plasma waves

    Kourakis, I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies are presented of the nonlinear amplitude modulation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves propagating in an unmagnetized three component, weakly-coupled, fully ionized plasma consisting of electrons, positive ions and charged dust particles, considering perturbations oblique to the carrier wave propagation direction. The stability analysis, based on a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation (NLSE), shows that the wave may become unstable; the stability criteria depend on ...

  5. Remotely powered and controlled EAPap actuator by amplitude modulated microwaves

    This paper reports on a remotely powered and controlled Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) actuator without onboard controller using amplitude modulated microwaves. A rectenna is a key element for microwave power transmission that converts microwaves into dc power through coupling and rectification. In this study, the concept of a remotely controlled and powered EAPap actuator is proposed by means of modulating microwaves with a control signal and demodulating it through the rectenna rectification. This concept is applied to a robust EAPap actuator, namely cellulose–polypyrrole–ionic liquid (CPIL) EAPap. Details of fabrication and characterization of the rectenna and the CPIL-EAPap actuator are explained. Also, the charge accumulation problem of the actuator is explained and resolved by connecting an additional resistor. Since this idea can eliminate the onboard controller by supplying the operating signal through modulation, a compact and lightweight actuator can be achieved, which is useful for biomimetic robots and remotely driven actuators. (technical note)

  6. Modulational instability of a large-amplitude lower hybrid wave

    Modulation instability of a longwave low-hybride high amplitude wave is considered. A new method for investigating the cold plasma parametric instabilities, based on regularization of finiteless determinants by the Hill method is developed, using which an obvious expression for instability increment is obtained without making use of low parameters. It is shown that without regard to plasma particle thermal spread, increment grows monotonously with the growth of Bessel function argument. Instability increment calculations for plasma with Maxwell distribution by rates are performed using a numeric solution of a standard system describing parametric instabilities. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  7. Dispersion interferometer using modulation amplitudes on LHD (invited)

    Since a dispersion interferometer is insensitive to mechanical vibrations, a vibration compensation system is not necessary. The CO2 laser dispersion interferometer with phase modulations on the Large Helical Device utilizes the new phase extraction method which uses modulation amplitudes and can improve a disadvantage of the original dispersion interferometer: measurement errors caused by variations of detected intensities. The phase variation within ±2 × 1017 m−3 is obtained without vibration compensation system. The measured line averaged electron density with the dispersion interferometer shows good agreement with that with the existing far infrared laser interferometer. Fringe jump errors in high density ranging up to 1.5 × 1020 m−3 can be overcome by a sufficient sampling rate of about 100 kHz

  8. Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)

  9. Study of an electro-optic modulator capable of generating simultaneous amplitude and phase modulations

    Cusack, B J; Shaddock, D A; Gray, M B; Lam, P K; Whitcomb, S E; Cusack, Benedict J; Gray, Malcolm B; Lam, Ping Koy; Shaddock, Daniel A; Sheard, Benjamin S; Whitcomb, Stan E

    2003-01-01

    We report on the analysis and prototype-characterization of a dual-electrode electro-optic modulator that can generate both amplitude and phase modulations with a selectable relative phase, termed a universally tunable modulator (UTM). All modulation states can be reached by tuning only the electrical inputs, facilitating real-time tuning, and the device is shown to have good suppression and stability properties. A mathematical analysis is presented, including the development of a geometric phase representation for modulation. The experimental characterization of the device shows that relative suppressions of 38 dB, 39 dB and 30 dB for phase, single-sideband and carrier-suppressed modulations, respectively, can be obtained, as well as showing the device is well-behaved when scanning continuously through the parameter space of modulations. Uses for the device are discussed, including the tuning of lock points in optical locking schemes, single sideband applications, modulation fast-switching applications, and ...

  10. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Objective Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). Methods We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Results Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Conclusion Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD. PMID:27097001

  11. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia

    Yolanda Peñaloza-López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD. Methods We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Results Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Conclusion Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  12. Amplitude Modulation Mode of Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy.

    Li, Peng; Liu, Lianqing; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Guangyong

    2015-08-01

    Live-cell imaging at the nanoscale resolution is a hot research topic in the field of life sciences for the direct observation of cellular biological activity. Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is one of the few effective imaging tools for live-cell imaging at the nanoscale resolution. However, there are various problems in existing scanning modes. The hopping and AC modes suffer from low speed, whereas the DC mode is prone to instability because of the DC drift and external electrical interference. In this article, we propose an amplitude modulation (AM) mode of SICM, which employs an AC voltage to enhance the stability and improve the scanning speed. In this AM mode, we introduce a capacitance compensation method to eliminate capacitance effect and use the amplitude of the AC current component to control the tip movement. Experimental results on polydimethylsiloxane samples verify the validity of the AM mode and demonstrate an improved performance of both speed and stability of this new mode. PMID:25759185

  13. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation. PMID:27410614

  14. Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state

    Choi, Jung; An, Soon-Il [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we classified two types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events within the decadal ENSO amplitude modulation cycle using a long-term coupled general circulation model simulation. We defined two climate states - strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods - and separated the characteristics of ENSO that occurred in both periods. There are two major features in the characteristics of ENSO: the first is the asymmetric spatial structure between El Nino and La Nina events; the second is that the El Nino-La Nina asymmetry is reversed during strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods. El Nino events during strong (weak) ENSO amplitude periods resemble the Eastern Pacific (Central Pacific) El Nino in terms of the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and physical characteristics based on heat budget analysis. The spatial pattern of the thermocline depth anomaly for strong (weak) El Nino is identical to that for weak (strong) La Nina, but for an opposite sign and slightly different amplitude. The accumulated residuals of these asymmetric anomalies dominated by an east-west contrast structure could feed into the tropical Pacific mean state. Moreover, the residual pattern associated with El Nino-La Nina asymmetry resembles the first principal component analysis (PCA) mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability, indicating that the accumulated residuals could generate the change in climate state. Thus, the intensified ENSO amplitude yields the warm residuals due to strong El Nino and weak La Nina over the eastern tropical Pacific. This linear relationship between ENSO and the mean state is strong during the mature phases of decadal oscillation, but it is weak during the transition phases. Furthermore, the second PCA mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability plays an important role in changing the phase of the first mode. Consequently, the feedback between ENSO and the mean state is positive feedback to amplify the first PCA mode

  15. Amplitude modulation in $\\delta$ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble study of Kepler targets

    Bowman, Dominic M; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J; Holdsworth, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation mode frequencies in 983 $\\delta$ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 $\\leq T_{\\rm eff} \\leq$ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr. We demonstrate the diversity in pulsational behaviour observed, in particular nonlinearity, which is predicted for $\\delta$ Sct stars. We analyse and discuss examples of $\\delta$ Sct stars with constant amplitudes and phases; those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by beating of close-frequency pulsation modes; those that exhibit pure amplitude modulation (with no associated phase variation); those that exhibit phase modulation caused by binarity; and those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by nonlinearity. Using models and examples of individual stars, we demonstrate that observations of the changes in amplitude and phase of pulsation modes can be used to distinguish among the different scenarios. We f...

  16. Conversion of phase-modulated signals to amplitude-modulated signals in SOAs due to mirror reflections

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors.......We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors....

  17. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  18. ERP responses to processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise.

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Intonation phrase boundaries (IPBs) were hypothesized to be especially difficult to process in the presence of an amplitude modulated noise masker because of a potential rhythmic competition. In an event-related potential study, IPBs were presented in silence, stationary, and amplitude modulated noise. We elicited centro-parietal Closure Positive Shifts (CPS) in 23 young adults with normal hearing at IPBs in all acoustic conditions, albeit with some differences. CPS peak amplitudes were highest in stationary noise, followed by modulated noise, and lowest in silence. Both noise types elicited CPS delays, slightly more so in stationary compared to amplitude modulated noise. These data suggest that amplitude modulation is not tantamount to a rhythmic competitor for prosodic phrasing but rather supports an assumed speech perception benefit due to local release from masking. The duration of CPS time windows was, however, not only longer in noise compared to silence, but also longer for amplitude modulated compared to stationary noise. This is interpreted as support for additional processing load associated with amplitude modulation for the CPS component. Taken together, processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise seems to involve the same issues that have been observed for the perception and processing of segmental information that are related to lexical items presented in noise: a benefit from local release from masking, even for prosodic cues, and a detrimental additional processing load that is associated with either stream segregation or signal reconstruction. PMID:26776233

  19. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM

    Mehrnoosh Damircheli; Amir F. Payam; Ricardo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the ...

  20. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM

    Mehrnoosh Damircheli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM. Here we study the conditions to enhance the compositional contrast in bimodal AM while imaging heterogeneous materials. The contrast has a maximum by decreasing the amplitude of the second mode. We demonstrate that the roles of the excited modes are asymmetric. The operational range of bimodal AM is maximized when the second mode is free to follow changes in the force. We also study the contrast in trimodal AFM by analyzing the kinetic energy ratios. The phase contrast improves by decreasing the energy of second mode relative to those of the first and third modes.

  1. A class of amplitude modulating and invisible inhomogeneous media

    Vial, Benjamin; Horsley, Simon A R; Philbin, Thomas G; Hao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general method to arbitrarily manipulate the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave propagating in a two-dimensional medium, without introducing any scattering. This leads to a whole class of isotropic spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles that are invisible while shaping the field magnitude. In addition, we propose a metamaterial structure working in the infrared that demonstrates deep sub-wavelength control of the electric field amplitude and strong reduction of the scattering. This work offers an alternative strategy to achieve invisibility with isotropic materials and paves the way for tailoring the propagation of light at the nanoscale.

  2. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  3. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) using binary-driven coupling-modulated rings

    Karimelahi, Samira; Sheikholeslami, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We propose and fully analyze a compact structure for DAC-free pure optical QAM modulation. The proposed structure is the first ring resonator-based DAC-free QAM modulator reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. The device consists of two segmented add-drop Mach Zehnder interferometer-assisted ring modulators (MZIARM) in an IQ configuration. The proposed architecture is investigated based on the parameters from SOI technology where various key design considerations are discussed. We have included the loss in the MZI arms in our analysis of phase and amplitude modulation using MZIARM for the first time and show that the imbalanced loss results in a phase error. The output level linearity is also studied for both QAM-16 and QAM-64 not only based on optimizing RF segment lengths but also by optimizing the number of segments. In QAM-16, linearity among levels is achievable with two segments while in QAM-64 an additional segment may be required.

  4. Envelope pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement system based upon amplitude modulation and phase modulation

    A novel microcomputer-based ultrasonic distance measurement system is presented. This study proposes an efficient algorithm which combines both the amplitude modulation (AM) and the phase modulation (PM) of the pulse-echo technique. The proposed system can reduce error caused by inertia delay and amplitude attenuation effect when using the AM and PM envelope square wave form (APESW). The APESW ultrasonic driving wave form causes a phase inversion phenomenon in the relative wave form of the receiver. The phase inversion phenomenon sufficiently identifies the ''measurement pulse'' in the received wave forms, which can be used for accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. In addition, combining a countertechnique to compute the phase shifts of the last cycle for TOF, the presented system can obtain distance resolution of 0.1% of the wavelength corresponding to the 40 kHz frequency of the ultrasonic wave. The standard uncertainty of the proposed distance measurement system is found to be 0.2 mm at a range of 50-500 mm. The APESW signal generator and phase detector of this measuring system are designed on a complex programmable logic device, which is used to govern the TOF measurement and send the data to a personal computer for distance calibration and examination. The main advantages of this APESW system are high resolution, low cost, narrow bandwidth requirement, and ease of implementation

  5. Modulational instability of finite-amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven waves

    Derby, N. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The simple theory of the decay instability of Alfven waves is strictly applicable only to a small-amplitude parent wave in a low-beta plasma, but, if the parent wave is circularly polarized, it is possible to analyze the situation without either of these restrictions. Results show that a large-amplitude circularly polarized wave is unstable with respect to decay into three waves, one longitudinal and one transverse wave propagating parallel to the parent wave and one transverse wave propagating antiparallel. The transverse decay products appear at frequencies which are the sum and difference of the frequencies of the parent wave and the longitudinal wave. The decay products are not familiar MHD modes except in the limit of small beta and small amplitude of the parent wave, in which case the decay products are a forward-propagating sound wave and a backward-propagating circularly polarized wave. In this limit the other transverse wave disappears. The effect of finite beta is to reduce the linear growth rate of the instability from the value suggested by the simple theory. Possible applications of these results to the theory of the solar wind are briefly touched upon.

  6. Amplitude modulation in δ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble study of Kepler targets

    Bowman, Dominic M.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J.; Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes in 983 δ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 ≤ Teff ≤ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr. We demonstrate the diversity in pulsational behaviour observed, in particular non-linearity, which is predicted for δ Sct stars. We analyse and discuss examples of δ Sct stars with constant amplitudes and phases; those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by beating of close-frequency pulsation modes; those that exhibit pure amplitude modulation (with no associated phase variation); those that exhibit phase modulation caused by binarity; and those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by non-linearity. Using models and examples of individual stars, we demonstrate that observations of the changes in amplitude and phase of pulsation modes can be used to distinguish among the different scenarios. We find that 603 δ Sct stars (61.3 per cent) exhibit at least one pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude over 4 yr. Conversely, many δ Sct stars have constant pulsation amplitudes so short-length observations can be used to determine precise frequencies, amplitudes and phases for the most coherent and periodic δ Sct stars. It is shown that amplitude modulation is not restricted to a small region on the HR diagram, therefore not necessarily dependent on stellar parameters such as Teff or log g. Our catalogue of 983 δ Sct stars will be useful for comparisons to similar stars observed by K2 and TESS, because the length of the 4-yr Kepler data set will not be surpassed for some time.

  7. Phase-amplitude crosstalk in intensity modulated near infrared spectroscopy

    Alford, K.; Wickramasinghe, Y.

    2000-05-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments that rely on phase sensitive detection suffer from what is called "phase-amplitude crosstalk," i.e., the phase measured is dependent on the average light intensity entering the detector. Changes in detector rise time with input light intensity is the accepted explanation of this phenomenon. It is concluded here that an additional simple mechanism can cause phase-amplitude errors, particularly if the ratio of the ac component of the detected signal to the dc component is low. It is shown that the form of the phase distortion encountered during the development of a new phase sensitive NIR instrument can be modeled by assuming the presence of a synchronous interfering signal, due to rf coupling, at the detector output. This modeling allows a required margin between the detected signal of interest, i.e., the signal from the tissue and the interfering signal to be set in order to achieve a measured phase accuracy necessary to derive sufficiently accurate clinical parameters.

  8. Amplitude Control of Solid-State Modulators for Precision Fast Kicker Applications

    Watson, J A; Anaya, R M; Caporaso, G C; Chen, Y J; Cook, E G; Lee, B S; Hawkins, A

    2002-11-15

    A solid-state modulator with very fast rise and fall times, pulse width agility, and multi-pulse burst and intra-pulse amplitude adjustment capability for use with high speed electron beam kickers has been designed and tested at LLNL. The modulator uses multiple solid-state modules stacked in an inductive-adder configuration. Amplitude adjustment is provided by controlling individual modules in the adder, and is used to compensate for transverse e-beam motion as well as the dynamic response and beam-induced steering effects associated with the kicker structure. A control algorithm calculates a voltage based on measured e-beam displacement and adjusts the modulator to regulate beam centroid position. This paper presents design details of amplitude control along with measured performance data from kicker operation on the ETA-II accelerator at LLNL.

  9. Influence of threshold values on residual fatigue lifetime of railway axles under variable amplitude loading

    Pokorný, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Hutař, Pavel

    Vol. C. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd, 2015 - (Papuga, J.; Ružička, M.), s. 380-385. (Procedia Engineering. 101). ISSN 1877-7058. [VAL 2015 - International Conference on Material and Component Performance under Variable Amplitude Loading /3./. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2015-26.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack * EA4T Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187770581500644X

  10. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

  11. Plasma based optical guiding of an amplitude-modulated electromagnetic beam

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.

    2015-06-01

    We propose the stronger optical guiding of an electromagnetic beam in a plasma by considering the amplitude modulation of the fundamental beam. With the advent of high power source of electromagnetic radiation, the electron velocity in a plasma may become quite large (comparable to the light velocity in free space). Thus, the effect of relativistic mass variation must be taken into account. The relativistic effect of the laser propagation in a plasma leads to self-focusing because of the dielectric constant of a plasma being an increasing function of the intensity. The ponderomotive force of the laser beam pushes the electrons out of the region of high intensity, which reduces the local electron density and increases the plasma dielectric function further, leading to even more selffocusing of the laser. In this work, we consider a short pulse laser of finite spot size as an amplitude modulation in time. Our findings show an efficient optical guiding mechanism based on amplitude modulation signal propagation in plasmas. Medium nonlinearity becomes stronger if an amplitude modulated beam is introduced, which contributes significantly in laser guiding in plasmas. Furthermore, the rate of laser self-focusing is increased with modulation index due the fact of stronger Kerr effect. The study related to amplitude modulated optical signal may be useful for communication technology.

  12. Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators.

    Green, William M J; Rooks, Michael J; Sekaric, Lidija; Vlasov, Yurii A

    2007-12-10

    An optical modulator design based upon anti-crossing between coupled silicon microrings with independent amplitude and phase functionality is presented. The device exhibits over 25x improvement in sensitivity to an input drive signal when compared with previously studied microring modulators based on control of waveguide-resonator coupling. The new design also demonstrates an ON-OFF contrast of 14 dB, and has an ultra-compact footprint of 0.003 mm(2). The observed sensitivity enhancement suggests that this modulator may be driven directly by digital CMOS electrical signals with less than 1 V amplitude. PMID:19551020

  13. Observations on auditory learning in amplitude- and frequency-modulation rate discrimination

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2010-01-01

    Because amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds can be the basis for the synthesis of many complex sounds, they can be good candidates in the design of training systems aiming at improving the acquisition of perceptual skills that can benefit from information provided via the auditory channel......-training, training, a post-training stages. During training, listeners were divided into two groups; one group trained on amplitude-modulation rate discrimination and the other group trained on frequency-modulation rate discrimination. Results will be discussed in terms of their implications for training...

  14. Frequency-coded quantum key distribution using amplitude-phase modulation

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Gabdulkhakov, Il'daris M.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Zagrieva, Aida R.; Sarvarova, Lutsia M.

    2016-03-01

    Design principals of universal microwave photonics system for quantum key distribution with frequency coding are concerned. Its concept is based on the possibility of creating the multi-functional units to implement the most commonly used technologies of frequency coding: amplitude, phase and combined amplitude-phase modulation and re-modulation of optical carrier. The characteristics of advanced systems based on classical approaches and prospects of their development using a combination of amplitude modulation and phase commutation are discussed. These are the valuations how to build advanced systems with frequency coding quantum key distribution, including at their symmetric and asymmetric constructions, using of the mechanisms of the photon polarization states passive detection, based on the filters for wavelength division multiplexing of modulated optical carrier side components.

  15. Basic causes of amplitude modulation in climatic/weather parameters

    The continuous interaction between the Earth's spinning motion and energy from the Sun gives rise to some (heat) energy oscillations in the Earth-atmosphere system (Njau, 1985a; 1985b; 1986a; 1986b). Recent results of large scale analysis of East African climatic records have proved that these oscillations significantly link the Sun to climatic/weather variations by systematically modulating key climatic/weather parameters like rainfall and air temperature (Njau, 1987a; 1987b; 1987c; 1987e; 1987f). In this paper, we re-develop the latter proof using a very different approach based upon theoretical analysis. The analysis has confirmed a general law suggested earlier (Njau, 1987d), that, with an exception of the diurnal cycle, any permanent cycle in the net solar energy incident upon a given part of the Earth-Atmosphere system gives rise to a quasi-permanent cycle whose period is approximately twice that of the former. Quasi-biennial as well as double sunspot cycles are shown to be a possible result of this general law. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Quantitative measurement of tip-sample interactions in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Hölscher, H.

    2006-09-01

    The author introduces an algorithm for the reconstruction of the tip-sample interactions in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy ("tapping mode"). The method is based on the recording of amplitude and phase versus distance curves and allows the reconstruction of tip-sample force and energy dissipation as a function of the actual tip-sample distance. The proposed algorithm is verified by a numerical simulation and applied to a silicon sample in ambient conditions.

  17. Evidence of amplitude modulation due to Resonant Mode Coupling in the delta Scuti star KIC5892969

    Forteza, S Barceló; Cortés, T Roca; García, R A

    2015-01-01

    A study of the star KIC5892969 observed by the Kepler satellite is presented. Its three highest amplitude modes present a strong amplitude modulation. The aim of this work is to investigate amplitude variations in this star and their possible cause. Using the 4 years-long observations available, we obtained the frequency content of the full light curve. Then, we studied the amplitude and phase variations with time using shorter time stamps. The results obtained are compared with the predicted ones for resonant mode coupling of an unstable mode with lower frequency stable modes. Our conclusion is that resonant mode coupling is consistent as an amplitude limitation mechanism in several modes of KIC5892969 and we discuss to which extent it might play an important role for other delta Scuti stars.

  18. Micromachining of amplitude and phase modulated reflective computer generated hologram patterns in silicon

    Ow, Y.S., E-mail: g0601170@nus.edu.s [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Breese, M.B.H.; Leng, Y.R.; Azimi, S.; Teo, E.J. [Physics Department, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-05-01

    Silicon has been machined on lateral resolutions of micrometers and on depth resolutions of nanometers using a recently-developed process based on ion irradiation and electrochemical anodisation. Here we investigate its use as a recording medium for computer generated hologram patterns. We describe the fabrication of both amplitude and phase binary modulated reflective computer generated hologram patterns on a silicon surface with pixel sizes of 5 mum. We further discuss the use of micromachined silicon to variably modulate both amplitude and phase in a continuous, rather than a binary fashion.

  19. Micro-antennas for the phase and amplitude modulation of terahertz wave

    He, Jingwen; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Based on the localized surface plasmons (LSPs), a series of C-shaped slits antennas are designed to modulate the phase and amplitude of the cross-polarized transmitted wave in THz waveband. By adjusting the structure parameters of the antenna unit, arbitrary phase and amplitude modulation of the cross-polarized THz wave can be obtained. The C-shaped slit antenna units are designed at two operating frequencies f=0.8 THz and f=1.0 THz using a commercial software package (Lumerical Solutions), which is based on the finite-difference time-domain method. According to the simulated results, principles for modulating the phase and amplitude of THz wave are summarized as follows. Firstly, the operating wavelength depends on the effective length of the antenna and the operating wavelength increases as the effective length increases; Secondly, the phase of the cross-polarized wave can be modulated from 0 to 2π by changing the opening angle of the split; Thirdly, the amplitude transmittance of the cross-polarized wave can be changed from the extinction state to the maximum value by rotating the symmetry axis of the C-shaped slit. These principles can be used to direct the design of the field modulator in any other working frequency.

  20. Residual fatigue life estimation using a nonlinear ultrasound modulation method

    Predicting the residual fatigue life of a material is not a simple task and requires the development and association of many variables that as standalone tasks can be difficult to determine. This work develops a modulated nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy method for the evaluation of a metallic components residual fatigue life. An aluminium specimen (AA6082-T6) was tested at predetermined fatigue stages throughout its fatigue life using a dual-frequency ultrasound method. A modulated nonlinear parameter was derived, which described the relationship between the generation of modulated (sideband) responses of a dual frequency signal and the linear response. The sideband generation from the dual frequency (two signal output system) was shown to increase as the residual fatigue life decreased, and as a standalone measurement method it can be used to show an increase in a materials damage. A baseline-free method was developed by linking a theoretical model, obtained by combining the Paris law and the Nazarov–Sutin crack equation, to experimental nonlinear modulation measurements. The results showed good correlation between the derived theoretical model and the modulated nonlinear parameter, allowing for baseline-free material residual fatigue life estimation. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed, as well as presenting further methods that would lead to increased accuracy of residual fatigue life detection. (paper)

  1. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes

  2. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    Rahman, Ata-ur-, E-mail: ata797@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Kerr, Michael Mc, E-mail: mjamckerr@gmail.com; Kourakis, Ioannis, E-mail: IoannisKourakisSci@gmail.com [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); El-Taibany, Wael F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. Box 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, A., E-mail: anisaqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  3. Low-frequency model of the microwave frequency (phase) detector with amplitude modulator and shift oscillator

    Ri, Bak Son; Solodkov, O. V.; Chizhikova, E. V.

    2009-01-01

    A low-frequency model of the microwave frequency (phase) detector with amplitude modulator and shift generator has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The results of experiment indicate that such FM (PM) detector can be also used in the HF band of radio frequencies.

  4. Multiband carrierless amplitude/phase modulation for ultrawideband high data rate wireless communications

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose A.; Pyndt, Line; Idrissa, Raya; Sultanov, Albert Kh.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of carrierless amplitude/phase modulation in a flexible multiband approach for ultrawideband high-data-rate wireless communications. An effective bitrate of 2 GB/s is achieved while complying with the restrictions on the effective radiated power...

  5. Transmission of Waveforms Determined by 7 Eigenvalues with PSK-Modulated Spectral Amplitudes

    Buelow, Henning; Idler, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    2-ns waveforms with 7 eigenvalues and their QPSK-modulated spectral amplitudes were optimized by taking constraints of link, transmitter, and receiver into account. In experiment these signals were transmitted with a BER of 3.2E-3 over 1440-km of NZ-DSF fiber spans.

  6. Amplitude modulation depth discrimination in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners

    Ewert, Stephan D.; Volmer, Jutta; Dau, Torsten; Verhey, Jesko

    2008-01-01

    The processing of amplitude modulations (AM) of sounds is assumed to be crucial for decoding and understanding of speech in humans. Since hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often suffer from severely hampered speech intelligibility, particularly in reverberant or noisy environments, they might also...... appeared to be an increased internal noise in the AM-depth domain. Consequences for speech perception are discussed....

  7. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Tise, Bertice L.; Axline, Jr., Robert M.

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  8. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Using experimental data acquired during a wind turbine measurement campaign, it is shown that amplitude modulation of aerodynamic noise can be generated by the rotating blades in conjunction with the atmospheric wind shear. As an attempt to alleviate this phenomenon, a control strategy is designed...

  9. Multiband carrierless amplitude/phase modulation for ultra-wideband high data rate wireless communications

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose A.;

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of carrierless amplitude/phase modulation in a flexible multiband approach for ultrawideband high-data-rate wireless communications. An effective bitrate of 2 GB/s is achieved while complying with the restrictions on the effective radiated power...

  10. Determination of nanovibration amplitudes using frequency-modulated semiconductor laser autodyne

    Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V; Astakhov, E I [Saratov State University named after N.G.Chernyshevsky, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-28

    The method for measuring nanovibration amplitudes using the autodyne signal of a semiconductor laser at several laser radiation wavelengths is described. The theoretical description of the frequency-modulated autodyne signal under harmonic vibrations of the reflector is presented and the relations for its spectral components are derived using the expansions into the Fourier and Bessel series. The results of numerical modelling based on the proposed method for measuring the reflector nanovibration amplitudes are presented that make use of the low-frequency spectrum of the autodyne signal from the frequency-modulated laser autodyne and the solution of the appropriate inverse problem. The experimental setup is described; the results of the measurements are presented for the nanovibration amplitudes and the autodyne signal spectra under the reflector nanovibrations. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Instrument reflections and scene amplitude modulation in a polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer

    A polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer has been characterized using several laboratory plasmas. Reflections between the transmitter and the receiver have been observed, and the effects of including reflection terms in the data reduction equation have been examined. An error analysis which includes the reflections, modulation of the scene beam amplitude by the plasma, and simultaneous measurements at two frequencies has been applied to the empirical database, and the results are summarized. For reflection amplitudes around 10%, the reflection terms were found to reduce the calculated error bars for electron density measurements by about a factor of 2. The impact of amplitude modulation is also quantified. In the complete analysis, the mean error bar for high-density measurements is 7.5%, and the mean phase shift error for low-density measurements is 1.2 deg

  12. Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation.

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Juan; Han, Jian; Li, Xin

    2016-07-25

    The complex amplitude modulation (CAM) technique is applied to the design of the monocular three-dimensional see-through head-mounted display (3D-STHMD) for the first time. Two amplitude holograms are obtained by analytically dividing the wavefront of the 3D object to the real and the imaginary distributions, and then double amplitude-only spatial light modulators (A-SLMs) are employed to reconstruct the 3D images in real-time. Since the CAM technique can inherently present true 3D images to the human eye, the designed CAM-STHMD system avoids the accommodation-convergence conflict of the conventional stereoscopic see-through displays. The optical experiments further demonstrated that the proposed system has continuous and wide depth cues, which enables the observer free of eye fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments and the results showed the possibility of true 3D interactive display. PMID:27464184

  13. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2012-09-30

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  14. On the modulational instability of large amplitude waves in supersonic boundary layers

    Hall, Philip; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of large amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a supersonic boundary layer is investigated. Disturbances which have their wavenumber and frequency slowly varying in time and space are described using a phase equation type of approach. Unlike the incompressible case we find that the initial bifurcation to a finite amplitude Tollmien-Schlichting wave is subcritical for most Mach numbers. In fact the bifurcation is only supercritical for a small range of Mach numbers and even then for only a finite range of wave propagation angles. The modulational instability of large amplitude wavetrains is considered and is shown to be governed by an equation similar to Burgers equation but with the viscous term replaced by a fractional derivative. A numerical investigation of the solution of this equation is described. It is shown that uniform wavetrains are unstable.

  15. Amplitude Modulation and Synchronization of Fractional-Order Memristor-Based Chua's Circuit

    A. G. Radwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general synchronization technique and an amplitude modulation of chaotic generators. Conventional synchronization and antisynchronization are considered a very narrow subset from the proposed technique where the scale between the output response and the input response can be controlled via control functions and this scale may be either constant (positive, negative or time dependent. The concept of the proposed technique is based on the nonlinear control theory and Lyapunov stability theory. The nonlinear controller is designed to ensure the stability and convergence of the proposed synchronization scheme. This technique is applied on the synchronization of two identical fractional-order Chua's circuit systems with memristor. Different examples are studied numerically with different system parameters, different orders, and with five alternative cases where the scaling functions are chosen to be positive/negative and constant/dynamic which covers all possible cases from conventional synchronization to the amplitude modulation cases to validate the proposed concept.

  16. Quantitative security evaluation of optical encryption using hybrid phase- and amplitude-modulated keys.

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál

    2012-02-20

    In the increasing number of system approaches published in the field of optical encryption, the security level of the system is evaluated by qualitative and empirical methods. To quantify the security of the optical system, we propose to use the equivalent of the key length routinely used in algorithmic encryption. We provide a calculation method of the number of independent keys and deduce the binary key length for optical data encryption. We then investigate and optimize the key length of the combined phase- and amplitude-modulated key encryption in the holographic storage environment, which is one of the promising solutions for the security enhancement of single- and double-random phase-encoding encryption and storage systems. We show that a substantial growth of the key length can be achieved by optimized phase and amplitude modulation compared to phase-only encryption. We also provide experimental confirmation of the model results. PMID:22358164

  17. Stream segregation in the perception of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (f(modA)) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (Δf(mod)). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, f(modA), Δf(mod), carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and Δf(mod) that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger Δf(mod) at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  18. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  19. Hydrostatic Vibratory Drive of the Test Stand for Excitation of the Amplitude-Modulated Vibrations

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.; Gavrilin, A. N.; Moyzes, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the problems arising during the development of the test stand hydrostatic vibratory drive, which synthesize controlled amplitude-modulated vibrations required testing of vibration strength and vibrostability of technological devices. The newly developed modification can adequately simulate the transport vibration and vibration of the operating power-supply units of technological machinery vibration by means of implementing of a continuous frequency spectrum of the vibration exposure in the desired frequency range.

  20. Amplitude Modulation and Synchronization of Fractional-Order Memristor-Based Chua's Circuit

    Radwan, A G; Moaddy, K.; Hashim, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a general synchronization technique and an amplitude modulation of chaotic generators. Conventional synchronization and antisynchronization are considered a very narrow subset from the proposed technique where the scale between the output response and the input response can be controlled via control functions and this scale may be either constant (positive, negative) or time dependent. The concept of the proposed technique is based on the nonlinear control theory and Lyapu...

  1. Fuzzy control with amplitude/pulse-width modulation of nerve electrical stimulation for muscle force control

    Lin, C.-C. K.; Liu, W.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Ju, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal.

  2. Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC

    Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.

  3. Shading of holographic reconstructed image by two-dimensional amplitude modulation of zone plates

    Kurihara, Takayuki; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2012-03-01

    We propose a technique to shade reconstructed images of electronic holography. Our technique modifies the zone plate technique, which represents a three-dimensional object as an aggregate of object points and zone plates, which generate object points, are summed to calculate a hologram. Our technique is based on the Phong reflection model developed for computer graphics, which assumes that light reflected from an object consists of three components: diffuse, specular, and ambient reflection light. Among these components, only the specular component depends on the position of the camera (or the eye). A holographic reconstructed image changes depending on the viewing direction. Therefore, the specular component changes for different viewing directions. Because light modulated by a zone plate converges to an object point, we assumed that light is redirected differently at each point on the zone plate. Therefore, two-dimensional amplitude modulation of the zone plate would generate an object point that emits light with different intensities in different directions. The proposed two-dimensional amplitude modulation comprises variable and constant modulations: the former one controls the specular component and the latter one controls the diffuse and ambient components. We experimentally verified the proposed technique.

  4. Application and Analysis of Performance of DQPSK Advanced Modulation Format in Spectral Amplitude Coding OCDMA

    Abdul Latif Memon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SAC (Spectral Amplitude Coding is a technique of OCDMA (Optical Code Division Multiple Access to encode and decode data bits by utilizing spectral components of the broadband source. Usually OOK (ON-Off-Keying modulation format is used in this encoding scheme. To make SAC OCDMA network spectrally efficient, advanced modulation format of DQPSK (Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying is applied, simulated and analyzed. m-sequence code is encoded in the simulated setup. Performance regarding various lengths of m-sequence code is also analyzed and displayed in the pictorial form. The results of the simulation are evaluated with the help of electrical constellation diagram, eye diagram and bit error rate graph. All the graphs indicate better transmission quality in case of advanced modulation format of DQPSK used in SAC OCDMA network as compared with OOK

  5. Application and analysis of performance of dqpsk advanced modulation format in spectral amplitude coding ocdma

    SAC (Spectral Amplitude Coding) is a technique of OCDMA (Optical Code Division Multiple Access) to encode and decode data bits by utilizing spectral components of the broadband source. Usually OOK (ON-Off-Keying) modulation format is used in this encoding scheme. To make SAC OCDMA network spectrally efficient, advanced modulation format of DQPSK (Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying) is applied, simulated and analyzed, m-sequence code is encoded in the simulated setup. Performance regarding various lengths of m-sequence code is also analyzed and displayed in the pictorial form. The results of the simulation are evaluated with the help of electrical constellation diagram, eye diagram and bit error rate graph. All the graphs indicate better transmission quality in case of advanced modulation format of DQPSK used in SAC OCDMA network as compared with OOK. (author)

  6. A 32x32 pixel focal plane array ladar system using chirped amplitude modulation

    Stann, Barry L.; Aliberti, Keith; Carothers, Daniel; Dammann, John; Dang, Gerard; Giza, Mark M.; Lawler, William B.; Redman, Brian C.; Simon, Deborah R.

    2004-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory is researching system architectures and components required to build a 32x32 pixel scannerless ladar breadboard. The 32x32 pixel architecture achieves ranging based on a frequency modulation/continuous wave (FM/cw) technique implemented by directly amplitude modulating a near-IR diode laser transmitter with a radio frequency (RF) subcarrier that is linearly frequency modulated (i.e. chirped amplitude modulation). The backscattered light is focused onto an array of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detectors where it is detected and mixed with a delayed replica of the laser modulation signal that modulates the responsivity of each detector. The output of each detector is an intermediate frequency (IF) signal (a product of the mixing process) whose frequency is proportional to the target range. Pixel read-out is achieved using code division multiple access techniques as opposed to the usual time-multiplexed techniques to attain high effective frame rates. The raw data is captured with analog-to-digital converters and fed into a PC to demux the pixel data, compute the target ranges, and display the imagery. Last year we demonstrated system proof-of-principle for the first time and displayed an image of a scene collected in the lab that was somewhat corrupted by pixel-to-pixel cross-talk. This year we report on system modifications that reduced pixel-to-pixel cross-talk and new hardware and display codes that enable near real-time stereo display of imagery on the ladar's control computer. The results of imaging tests in the laboratory will also be presented.

  7. Amplitude modulation of hydromagnetic waves and associated rogue waves in magnetoplasmas.

    Sabry, R; Moslem, W M; Shukla, P K

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that the dynamics of amplitude-modulated compressional dispersive Alfvénic (CDA) waves in a collisional megnetoplasma is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation. The nonlinear dispersion relation for the modulational instability of the CDA waves is derived and investigated numerically. It is found that the growth rate of the modulational instability decreases (increases) with the increase of the normalized electron-ion collision frequency α (the plasma β). The modulational instability criterion for the CGL equation is defined precisely and investigated numerically. The region of the modulational instability becomes narrower with the increase of α and β, indicating that the system dissipates the wave energy by collisions, and a stable CDA wave envelope packet in the form of a hole will be a dominant localized pulse. For a collisionless plasma, i.e., α=0, the CGL equation reduces to the standard nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. The latter is used to investigate the modulational (in)stability region for the CDA waves in a collisionless magnetoplasma. It is shown that, within unstable regions, a random set of nonlinearly interacting CDA perturbations leads to the formation of CDA rogue waves. In order to demonstrate that the characteristics of the CDA rogue waves are influenced by the plasma β, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solution of the NLS equation is presented. The application of our investigation to space and laboratory magnetoplasmas is discussed. PMID:23031035

  8. Adaptive Redunant Residue Number System Coded Multicarrier Modulation

    Keller, T.; Liew, T.H.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    The novel class of nonbinary maximum minimum distance redundant residue number system (RRNS) codes is iinvoked in the context of adaptively RRNS coded, symbol-by-symbol adaptive multicarrier modulation, in order to combat the effects of frequency-selective fading inflicted by dispersive wide-band channels. The system’s performance can be adjusted in order to maintain a given target bit error rate (BER) and bit per symbol (BPS)performance. The proposed adaptive RRNS scheme outperforms the conv...

  9. Subharmonic excitation in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy in the presence of adsorbed water layers

    Santos, Sergio [Laboratory of Energy and Nanosciences, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barcons, Victor [Departament de Disseny i Programacio de Sistemes Electronics, UPC - Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Av. Bases, 61, 08242 Manresa (Spain); Verdaguer, Albert [Centre d' Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CIN2) (CSIC-ICN), Esfera UAB, Campus de la UAB, Edifici CM-7, 08193-Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Chiesa, Matteo [Laboratory of Energy and Nanosciences, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. BOX 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In ambient conditions, nanometric water layers form on hydrophilic surfaces covering them and significantly changing their properties and characteristics. Here we report the excitation of subharmonics in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy induced by intermittent water contacts. Our simulations show that there are several regimes of operation depending on whether there is perturbation of water layers. Single period orbitals, where subharmonics are never induced, follow only when the tip is either in permanent contact with the water layers or in pure noncontact where the water layers are never perturbed. When the water layers are perturbed subharmonic excitation increases with decreasing oscillation amplitude. We derive an analytical expression which establishes whether water perturbations compromise harmonic motion and show that the predictions are in agreement with numerical simulations. Empirical validation of our interpretation is provided by the observation of a range of values for apparent height of water layers when subharmonic excitation is predicted.

  10. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU; Riflettometro a modulazione di ampiezza per FTU

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed.

  11. Independent modulations of the transmission amplitudes and phases by using Huygens metasurfaces.

    Wan, Xiang; Jia, Sheng Li; Cui, Tie Jun; Zhao, Yong Jiu

    2016-01-01

    We propose ultrathin Huygens metasurfaces to control transmission amplitudes and phases of electromagnetic waves independently, in which each unit cell is comprised of an electric dipole and a magnetic dipole. By altering the electric and magnetic responses of unit cells, arbitrary complex transmission coefficients with modulus values smaller than 0.85 are obtained. Two Huygens metasurfaces capable of controlling the diffraction orders are designed and fabricated by modulating the distributions of the complex transmission coefficients. More complicated functions such as holographic imaging can also be accomplished by using the proposed Huygens metasurfaces. PMID:27197759

  12. Sensitive detection of vortex-core resonance using amplitude-modulated magnetic field

    Cui, Xiaomin; Hu, Shaojie; Hidegara, Makoto; Yakata, Satoshi; Kimura, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and manipulating the dynamic properties of the magnetic vortices stabilized in patterned ferromagnetic structures are of great interest owing to the superior resonant features with the high thermal stability and their flexible tunability. So far, numerous methods for investigating the dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex have been proposed and demonstrated. However, those techniques have some regulations such as spatial resolution, experimental facility and sensitivity. Here, we develop a simple and sensitive method for investigating the vortex-core dynamics by using the electrically separated excitation and detection circuits. We demonstrate that the resonant oscillation of the magnetic vortex induced by the amplitude- modulated alternating-sign magnetic field is efficiently picked up by the lock-in detection with the modulated frequency. By extending this method, we also investigate the size dependence and the influence of the magneto-static interaction in the resonant property of the magnetic vortex.

  13. Influence of stimulus intensity on the soleus H-reflex amplitude and modulation during locomotion

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Diverging results have been reported regarding the modulation and amplitude of the soleus H-reflex measured during human walking and running. A possible explanation to this could be the use of too high stimulus strength in some studies while not in others. During activities like walking and running......-reflex methodology itself. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to study the effect on the soleus H-reflex during walking and running using stimulus intensities normally considered too high (up to 45% Mmax). Using M-waves of 25-45% Mmax as opposed to 5-25% Mmax showed a significant suppression of the...... peak H-reflex during the stance phase of walking, while no changes were observed during running. No differences were observed regarding modulation pattern. So a possible use of too high stimulus intensity cannot explain the differences mentioned. The surprising result in running may be explained by the...

  14. Controlling Chaos in a Semiconductor Laser via Weak Optical Positive Feedback and Modulating Amplitude

    YAN Sen-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analysis of weak optical positive feedback (OPF) controlling chaos is studied in a semiconductor laser.The physical model of controlling chaos produced via modulating the current of semiconductor laser is presented under the condition of OPF.We find the physical mechanism that the nonlinear gain coefficient and linewidth enhancement factor of the laser are affected by OPF so that the dynamical behaviour of the system can be efficiently controlled.Chaos is controlled into a single-periodic state,a dual-periodic state,a fri-periodic state,a quadr-periodic state,a pentaperiodic state,and the laser emitting powers are increased by OPF in simulations.Lastly,another chaos-control method with modulating the amplitude of the feedback light is presented and numerically simulated to control chaotic laser into multi-periodic states.

  15. Habituation of Auditory Steady State Responses Evoked by Amplitude-Modulated Acoustic Signals in Rats

    Prado-Gutierrez, Pavel; Castro-Fariñas, Anisleidy; Morgado-Rodriguez, Lisbet; Velarde-Reyes, Ernesto; Martínez, Agustín D.; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Generation of the auditory steady state responses (ASSR) is commonly explained by the linear combination of random background noise activity and the stationary response. Based on this model, the decrease of amplitude that occurs over the sequential averaging of epochs of the raw data has been exclusively linked to the cancelation of noise. Nevertheless, this behavior might also reflect the non-stationary response of the ASSR generators. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the ASSR time course in rats with different auditory maturational stages. ASSR were evoked by 8-kHz tones of different supra-threshold intensities, modulated in amplitude at 115 Hz. Results show that the ASSR amplitude habituated to the sustained stimulation and that dishabituation occurred when deviant stimuli were presented. ASSR habituation increased as animals became adults, suggesting that the ability to filter acoustic stimuli with no-relevant temporal information increased with age. Results are discussed in terms of the current model of the ASSR generation and analysis procedures. They might have implications for audiometric tests designed to assess hearing in subjects who cannot provide reliable results in the psychophysical trials. PMID:26557360

  16. Improvement of the Spatial Amplitude Isotropy of a ^4He Magnetometer Using a Modulated Pumping Beam

    Chéron, B.; Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Moreau, O.; Noël, E.

    1997-08-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers are scalar magnetometers. Contrary to vectoriel magnetometers, they measure the total magnetic field whatever the direction of the sensor. However, for some orientations of the magnetometer with respect to the magnetic field direction, the resonant signal vanishes and the measurement is impossible. In this paper we present a simple solution to reduce the amplitude spatial anisotropy and apply it to a ^4He magnetometer developed in our Laboratory. Les magnétomètres à pompage optique sont des magnétomètres scalaires. Contrairement aux magnétomètres vectoriels, ils mesurent le module du champ magnétique quelle que soit l'orientation du capteur dans l'espace. Cependant, pour certaines orientations du magnétomètre par rapport à la direction du champ à mesurer, l'amplitude du signal de résonance s'annule et la mesure devient impossible. Dans cet article, nous présentons une solution simple pour réduire l'anisotropie spatiale d'amplitude et nous l'appliquons à un magnétomètre à hélium-4 développé dans notre Laboratoire.

  17. Research proposal on: amplitude modulated reflectometry system for the JET divertor

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la

    1992-07-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been present in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2{pi} The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad- band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for onospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasmas. The main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts ( {approx} 2{pi} ). (Author) 2 refs.

  18. Noise-immunity processing of digital multilevel pulse-amplitude modulation signals

    A. S. Makarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The main properties and features of spectral-effective multi-level pulse amplitude modulation digital signals at coherent reception are presented. It is shown that the phase locked loop circuit (PLL circuit used in the receiver is able to work at SNR > 5 dB.Object of the paper. We propose a new scheme of noise compensator at an intermediate frequency, allowing us to obtain increasing of SNR on 15–25 dB when error of PLL is equal zero. The noise compensator has the gain 8–18 dB at error of PLL = 33° that is able to work at SNR = 5 dB. As result, we can obtain a required SNR for determined BER in systems with multi-level PAM.Conclusions. This technical solution makes a spectrally-efficient system using multi-level amplitude modulation is also energy efficient, forward-looking and competitive. The power transmitters of cell phones and radio relay lines of mobile communication systems can be reduced by 10 times or at the same transmitter power improvement the quality of communication or range is presented.

  19. Amplitude-sensitive modulation thermography to measure moisture in building materials

    Wild, Walter; Buescher, Konstantin A.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    There have been reports about moisture detection in building walls by reflective IR-thermography. Typically, only limited results could be obtained because of the emission coefficient variations, leaking radiation or inhomogeneous illumination of the object. In addition, the quantitative relation between remission spectra and the moisture has often been unclear. Reflectometry uses constant excitation illumination which is recorded by the IR camera. With the use of the 'lock-in-technology' a low frequency modulated signal of an IR radiation source is coupled with the thermo camera and a frequency and phase sensitive signal from the thermal images can be derived. The advantage is, that emission coefficient dependencies are eliminated and that leaking radiation does not have any influence on the measured signal. The selective water measurement is possible, because there is an interference filter mounted in front of the radiator which has its transmission maximum at the wavelength of an absorption band of water. The area investigated is therefore illuminated under well defined circumstances and quantitative moisture measurement on the surface of building materials becomes a possibility. The illumination modulation is done with a sine wave to facilitate the calculation of the temporal intensity behavior of the amplitude signal. Subsequently, the amplitude image is used to determine the distribution and the level of moisture quantitatively. Point measurements in the laboratory were carried out on several building materials with changing moisture levels. It could be shown that this method successfully eliminates disturbing contributions to the measured signal like surface effects or leaking radiation.

  20. Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex

    Calcium (45Ca2+) efflux was studied from preloaded cortex in cats immobilized under local anesthesia, and exposed to a 3.0-mW/cm2 450-MHz field, sinusoidally amplitude modulated at 16 Hz modulation depth 85%). Tissue dosimetry showed a field of 33 V/m in the interhemispheric fissure (rate of energy deposition 0.29 W/kg). Field exposure lasted 60 min. By comparison with controls, efflux curves from field exposed brains were disrupted by waves of increased 45Ca2+ efflux. These waves were irregular in amplitude and duration, but many exhibited periods of 20-30 min. They continued into the postexposure period. Binomial probability analysis indicates that the field-exposed efflux curves constitute a different population from controls at a confidence level of 0.96. In about 70% of cases, initiation of field exposure was followed by increased end-tidal CO2 excretion for about 5 min. However, hypercapnea induced by hypoventilation did not elicit increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Thus this increase with exposure does not appear to arise as a secondary effect of raised cerebral CO2 levels. Radioactivity measurements in cortical samples after superfusion showed 45Ca2+ penetration at about 1.7 mm/hr, consistent with diffusion of the ion in free solution

  1. Perceptual interaction between carrier periodicity and amplitude modulation in broadband stimuli: A comparison of the autocorrelation and modulation-filterbank model

    Stein, A.; Ewert, Stephan; Wiegrebe, L.

    2005-01-01

    , autocorrelation is applied. Considering the large overlap in pitch and modulation perception, this is not parsimonious. Two experiments are presented to investigate the interaction between carrier periodicity, which produces strong pitch sensations, and envelope periodicity using broadband stimuli. Results show......Recent temporal models of pitch and amplitude modulation perception converge on a relatively realistic implementation of cochlear processing followed by a temporal analysis of periodicity. However, for modulation perception, a modulation filterbank is applied whereas for pitch perception...

  2. Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies

    Frederico P. Costa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past century, there have been many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic fields. We have developed noninvasive biofeedback examination devices and techniques and discovered that patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic fields (EMF, which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse effects. Intrabuccal administration allows for therapeutic delivery of very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the growth of tumor cells in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel pathways in cancer.

  3. Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies

    Jacquelyn W. Zimmerman; Hugo Jimenez; Michael J. Pennison; Ivan Brezovich; Desiree Morgan; Albert Mudry; Frederico P. Costa; Alexandre Barbault; Boris Pasche

    2013-01-01

    In the past century, there have been many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic fields. We have developed noninvasive biofeedback examination devices and techniques and discovered that patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse effects. Intrabuccal administration al ows for therapeutic delivery of very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the growth of tumor cells in a tissue-and tumor-specific fashion. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel pathways in cancer.

  4. Performance of a Coded Non-Square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Scheme over Fading Channels

    Li, L.; Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that a non-square (NS) 2^(2n+1)-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) can be decomposed into a single-parity-check (SPC) block encoder and a memoryless modulator with independent in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) symbol mapping. When NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM is concatenated with a forward-error-correcting (FEC) code, iterative demodulation and decoding of the FEC code and the inherent SPC code of NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM exploits the modulation's inherent memory and its independent I- and Q-channel mapping and demapping. The capacity and the bit-/symbol-error-rate (BER/SER) performance of coded and uncoded NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM systems are given for both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels and Rayleigh fading channels and are compared to those of other conventional 2^(2n+1)-ary systems. Simulation results show that, with iterative demodulation and decoding, coded NS-8QAM outperforms three conventional 8-ary systems by at least 0.65 dB on AWGN channels and by at least 0.57 dB on Rayleigh fading channels at BER = 10^(-5), when the FEC code is a concatenation of (15,11) Hamming codes with rate-1 accumulator codes, while coded NS-32QAM outperforms standard 32QAM by about 0.45 dB on AWGN channels and by about 0.27 dB on Rayleigh fading channels.

  5. Generation of nondiffracting quasi-circular polarization beams using an amplitude modulated phase hologram.

    Yuan, G H; Wei, S B; Yuan, X-C

    2011-08-01

    We propose an approach to the generation of nondiffracting quasi-circularly polarized beams by a highly focusing azimuthally polarized beam using an amplitude modulated spiral phase hologram. Numerical verifications are implemented in the calculation of the electromagnetic fields and Poynting vector field near the focus based on the vector diffraction theory, and the polarization of the wavefront near the focal plane is analyzed in detail by calculating the Stokes polarization parameters. It is found that the electric field, magnetic field, and Poynting vector field can simultaneously be uniform and nondiverging over a relatively long axial range of ~7.23λ. In the transverse plane, the ellipticity and azimuthal angle of the local polarization ellipse varies from point to point. No polarization singularity and phase singularity are found at the beam center, which makes the bright spot possible. PMID:21811334

  6. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated

  7. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail: claire.baraduc@cea.fr; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C. [Crocus-Technology, 5, Place Robert Schuman, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Vila, L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-07

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  8. Tight focus of a radially polarized and amplitude-modulated annular multi-Gaussian beam

    The focusing of a radially polarized beam without annular apodization ora phase filter at the entrance pupil of the objective results in a wide focus and low purity of the longitudinally polarized component. However, the presence of a physical annular apodization or phase filter makes some applications more difficult or even impossible. We propose a radially polarized and amplitude-modulated annular multi-Gaussian beam mode. Numerical simulation shows that it can be focused into a sharper focal spot of 0.125λ2 without additional apodizations or filters. The beam quality describing the purity of longitudinally polarized component is up to 86%. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Decoding Finger Flexion using amplitude modulation from band-specific ECoG

    Liang, Nanying

    2009-01-01

    EEG-BCIs have been well studied in the past decades and implemented into several famous applications, like P300 speller and wheelchair controller. However, these interfaces are indirect due to low spatial resolution of EEG. Recently, direct ECoG-BCIs attract intensive attention because ECoG provides a higher spatial resolution and signal quality. This makes possible localization of the source of neural signals with respect to certain brain functions. In this article, we present a realization of ECoG-BCIs for finger flexion prediction provided by BCI competition IV. Methods for finger flexion prediction including feature extraction and selection are provided in this article. Results show that the predicted finger movement is highly correlated with the true movement when we use band-specific amplitude modulation.

  10. Response of a coupled two-spin system to on-resonance amplitude modulated RF pulses

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Ye, Chaohui; Sanctuary, B. C.

    A weakly scalar-coupled two-spin system subjected to two amplitude modulated RF pulses on exact resonance is treated by means of the rotation operator approach. The theory presented here enables coherence evolution to be evaluated by the routine procedure and to be expressed in analytical form. The evolution behaviour from the equilibrium state is discussed in some detail. It is shown that the application of rotation matrix and quaternion elements clarifies evolution expressions. The numerical calculation is performed by way of quaternions. Examples of BURP (band-selective, uniform response, purephase) and sinc-shaped RF pulses are given and the case of time-symmetrical RF pulses is analysed further.

  11. Minimising the effect of nanoparticle deformation in intermittent contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy measurements

    Babic, Bakir; Lawn, Malcolm A.; Coleman, Victoria A.; Jämting, Åsa K.; Herrmann, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The results of systematic height measurements of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles using intermittent contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (IC-AM-AFM) are presented. The experimental findings demonstrate that PS nanoparticles deform during AFM imaging, as indicated by a reduction in the measured particle height. This deformation depends on the IC-AM-AFM imaging parameters, material composition, and dimensional properties of the nanoparticles. A model for nanoparticle deformation occurring during IC-AM-AFM imaging is developed as a function of the peak force which can be calculated for a particular set of experimental conditions. The undeformed nanoparticle height can be estimated from the model by extrapolation to zero peak force. A procedure is proposed to quantify and minimise nanoparticle deformation during IC-AM-AFM imaging, based on appropriate adjustments of the experimental control parameters.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Processing Simultaneous Amplitude Modulated Sounds Assessed Using Envelope Following Responses.

    Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Lai, Jesyin; Bartlett, Edward L

    2016-04-01

    Listening conditions in the real world involve segregating the stimuli of interest from competing auditory stimuli that differ in their sound level and spectral content. It is in these conditions of complex spectro-temporal processing that listeners with age-related hearing loss experience the most difficulties. Envelope following responses (EFRs) provide objective neurophysiological measures of auditory processing. EFRs were obtained to two simultaneous sinusoidally amplitude modulated (sAM) tones from young and aged Fischer-344 rats. One was held at a fixed suprathreshold sound level (sAM1FL) while the second varied in sound level (sAM2VL) and carrier frequency. EFR amplitudes to sAM1FL in the young decreased with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and this reduction was more pronounced when the sAM2VL carrier frequency was spectrally separated from sAM1FL. Aged animals showed similar trends, while having decreased overall response amplitudes compared to the young. These results were replicated using an established computational model of the auditory nerve. The trends observed in the EFRs were shown to be due to the contributions of the low-frequency tails of high-frequency neurons, rather than neurons tuned to the sAM1FL carrier frequency. Modeling changes in threshold and neural loss reproduced some of the changes seen with age, but accuracy improved when combined with an additional decrease representing synaptic loss of auditory nerve neurons. Sound segregation in this case derives primarily from peripheral processing, regardless of age. Contributions by more central neural mechanisms are likely to occur only at low SNRs. PMID:26905273

  13. Piezo-drive circuits for amplitude-modulated locomoton for miniature wireless robots

    Martel, Sylvain M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2001-10-01

    Piezo-actuators due to their relatively high resonant frequencies and small deflections are ideally suited as accurate displacement transducers. As such, they have been used to implement the legs of the miniature wireless NanoWalker robot where step sizes in the order of a few tenths of nanometers are required for final positioning within the range of an embedded instrument designed to operate at the atomic scale. The relatively high capacitance combined with the high-drive voltage requirement of the actuators, impose constraints on the miniaturization of the electronics. The amplitude modulation scheme requires one amplifier per quadrant electrode on the piezo-legs. Although power amplifiers are suited to drive large capacitive loads with large signal amplitudes without stability problems, the quiescent current of the amplifiers requires several DC/DC converters of significant size. During locomotion, the sudden current increase occurring when high slew rate signals are used during the charging/discharging cycle of the capacitive loads at each walking step, causes the power rail voltage to drop, yielding a reduction in the amplitude of the deflections of the piezo-legs. To minimize the number of DC/DC converters, the slew rate requirement of the drive signal is reduced by an increase of the angular acceleration of the leg created by an initial static friction force with the walking surface. It is then suggested that further miniaturization of the embedded electronics can be achieved by adjusting the kinematic behavior of the piezo-legs with an appropriate mechanical design and the right friction coefficient through careful materials selection.

  14. Differential Amplitude Pulse-Position Modulation for Indoor Wireless Optical Communications

    Sethakaset Ubolthip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel differential amplitude pulse-position modulation (DAPPM for indoor optical wireless communications. DAPPM yields advantages over PPM, DPPM, and DH-PIM in terms of bandwidth requirements, capacity, and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR. The performance of a DAPPM system with an unequalized receiver is examined over nondispersive and dispersive channels. DAPPM can provide better bandwidth and/or power efficiency than PAM, PPM, DPPM, and DH-PIM depending on the number of amplitude levels and the maximum length of a symbol. We also show that, given the same maximum length, DAPPM has better bandwidth efficiency but requires about and more power than PPM and DPPM, respectively, at high bit rates over a dispersive channel. Conversely, DAPPM requires less power than DH-PIM . When the number of bits per symbol is the same, PAM requires more power, and DH-PIM less power, than DAPPM. Finally, it is shown that the performance of DAPPM can be improved with MLSD, chip-rate DFE, and multichip-rate DFE.

  15. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences

  16. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  17. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De

    2015-01-01

    Needle-like electromagnetic fields has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman Spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device(DMD). Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional(1D) and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We...

  18. Auditory Discrimination Using Frequency-Modulated Amplification with Long-Term Amplitude Compression.

    Shea, Bernard David

    This dissertation considers the effects of long -term amplitude compression used in narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) assistive listening devices on the auditory discrimination of severely and profoundly hearing-impaired individuals. Compression has been used in narrow-band FM transmitters for hearing-impaired children in educational programs for over twenty years. It restricts the peak deviation of the FM signal to within allowable limits. Narrow -band FM equipment can vary in peak limitation approaches via compression, i.e., using a form of compression limiting or using long-term compression (automatic volume control). Numerous investigations have studied the benefits of FM system use, but none have tested the benefits or deleterious effects of these compression forms on the auditory discrimination of hearing-impaired individuals. Despite the marked limitations associated with severe or profound sensorineural hearing impairment in children, spoken language development is possible. Research and experience have suggested that the auditory system represents the best sensory input channel for these children. With appropriate amplification and educational intervention they can achieve dramatic improvements in speech perception, speech production, language development, and educational achievement (Boothroyd, 1985; Hudgins, 1953, 1954; Ling & Milne, 1981; Wedenberg, 1954). Most hearing-impaired children in educational programs across the United States receive the amplified teacher's speech signal via narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) transmission, yet a controlled investigation of the input compression used in these systems has never been conducted. This dissertation reviews and discusses narrow -band frequency modulated (FM) radio wave systems and the use of audio compression. The experiment tested 32 students with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss under two narrow -band FM transmitter conditions. The FM transmitter conditions were varied on the basis

  19. Underwater three-dimensional imaging with an amplitude-modulated laser radar at a 405 nm wavelength.

    Bartolini, Luciano; De Dominicis, Luigi; de Collibus, Mario Ferri; Fornetti, Giorgio; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Paglia, Emiliano; Poggi, Claudio; Ricci, Roberto

    2005-11-20

    We report the results of underwater imaging with an amplitude-modulated single-mode laser beam and miniaturized piezoactuator-based scanning system. The basic elements of the device are a diode laser source at 405 nm with digital amplitude modulation and a microscanning system realized with a small-aperture aspheric lens mounted on a pair of piezoelectric translators driven by sawtooth waveforms. The system has been designed to be a low-weight and rugged imaging device suitable to operate at medium range (approximately 10 m) in clear seawater as also demonstrated by computer simulation of layout performance. In the controlled laboratory conditions a submillimeter range accuracy has been obtained at a laser amplitude modulation frequency of 36.7 MHz. PMID:16318184

  20. Residual intensity modulation in resonator fiber optic gyros with sinusoidal wave phase modulation

    Di-qing YING; Qiang LI; Hui-lian MA; Zhong-he JIN

    2014-01-01

    We present how residual intensity modulation (RIM) affects the performance of a resonator fiber optic gyro (R-FOG) through a sinusoidal wave phase modulation technique. The expression for the R-FOG system’s demodulation curve under RIM is obtained. Through numerical simulation with different RIM coefficients and modulation frequencies, we find that a zero deviation is induced by the RIM effect on the demodulation curve, and this zero deviation varies with the RIM coefficient and modulation frequency. The expression for the system error due to this zero deviation is derived. Simulation results show that the RIM-induced error varies with the RIM coefficient and modulation frequency. There also exists optimum values for the RIM coefficient and modulation frequency to totally eliminate the RIM-induced error, and the error increases as the RIM coefficient or modulation frequency deviates from its optimum value;however, in practical situations, these two parameters would not be exactly fixed but fluctuate from their respective optimum values, and a large system error is induced even if there exists a very small deviation of these two critical parameters from their optimum values. Simulation results indicate that the RIM-induced error should be con-sidered when designing and evaluating an R-FOG system.

  1. Amplitude modulation of charge-density-wave domains in 1T-TaS2 at 300 K

    Measurements of the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude modulation in 1T-TaS2 at room temperature have been made using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in the constant current mode. The amplitude profiles are in good agreement with the profile predicated by the CDW domain model of Nakanishi and Shiba. Interference effects between the atomic and CDW lattices have been analyzed and do not modify these profiles significantly. They represent the true CDW amplitude variation connected with the CDW domain structure

  2. Comparison of discrete multi-tone and pulse amplitude modulation for beyond 100 Gbps short-reach application

    Nishihara, Masato; Kai, Yutaka; Tanaka, Toshiki; Takahara, Tomoo; Li, Lei; Yan, Weizhen; Liu, Bo; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced multi-level modulation is an attractive modulation technique for beyond 100 Gbps short reach optical transmission system. Above all, discrete multi-tone (DMT) technique and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technique are the strong candidates. We compared the 100 Gbps transmission characteristics of DMT and PAM by simulation and experiment. The comparison was done by using same devices and only the digital signal processing was changed. We studied the transmission distance dependence for 0.5 to 40 km and the impact of the frequency responses of the optical devices. Finally we discuss the features of the both modulation techniques.

  3. Stark shift in multiple quantum well structures containing a delta-doping superlattice for amplitude modulation

    Full text: Batty and Allsopp [1]ha ve theoretically predicted that the introduction of an nipi delta-doping superlattice in a MQW structure may double the Stark shift, which could be advantageous for optical communication. GaAs/AlGaAs MQW structures have been grown with Si delta layers centered in the QWs and with C delta layers centered in the barriers, to try to observe such effect. For applications in amplitude modulators, where the MQWs form the intrinsic active region of the device, it is crucial that the net doping corresponds to an undoped structure, otherwise, no Stark shift can be observed. However, it has already been shown that to achieve a balance between the n and the p doping levels is quite complicated [2], making it almost impossible to observe any Stark shift. In this communication, we report for the first time the experimental observation of a Stark shift for a GaAs/AlGaAs MQW structure containing an nipi delta-doping superlattice. From photocurrent measurements as a function of the applied voltage, the Stark shift was determined to be around 6 meV for an electric field of 58 KV/cm, equivalent to that of a reference undoped MQW sample. Even though this value is still a factor of two below that previously predicted [1], it shows that it is possible to fabricate amplitude modulators using an nipi delta-doping superlattice in a MQW structure. Moreover, from the experimental data, the chirp parameter was calculated. In optical communication systems it is important that the chirp parameter, which measures the change in refractive index per change in absorption coefficient, be between 0 and -1 to compensate for the positive fiber dispersion. A chirp parameter within this range was obtained, contrary to the value of + 1.8 for the reference sample, showing that such device, as a whole, may perform better. [1]W . Batty and D. W. E. Allsopp, Electronics Letters 29, 2066 (1993). [2]C. V.-B. Tribuzy, M. P. Pires, R. Butendeich, S. M. Landi, P. L. Souza, G. E

  4. Efficient amplitude-modulated pulses for triple- to single-quantum coherence conversion in MQMAS NMR.

    Colaux, Henri; Dawson, Daniel M; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2014-08-01

    The conversion between multiple- and single-quantum coherences is integral to many nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments of quadrupolar nuclei. This conversion is relatively inefficient when effected by a single pulse, and many composite pulse schemes have been developed to improve this efficiency. To provide the maximum improvement, such schemes typically require time-consuming experimental optimization. Here, we demonstrate an approach for generating amplitude-modulated pulses to enhance the efficiency of the triple- to single-quantum conversion. The optimization is performed using the SIMPSON and MATLAB packages and results in efficient pulses that can be used without experimental reoptimisation. Most significant signal enhancements are obtained when good estimates of the inherent radio-frequency nutation rate and the magnitude of the quadrupolar coupling are used as input to the optimization, but the pulses appear robust to reasonable variations in either parameter, producing significant enhancements compared to a single-pulse conversion, and also comparable or improved efficiency over other commonly used approaches. In all cases, the ease of implementation of our method is advantageous, particularly for cases with low sensitivity, where the improvement is most needed (e.g., low gyromagnetic ratio or high quadrupolar coupling). Our approach offers the potential to routinely improve the sensitivity of high-resolution NMR spectra of nuclei and systems that would, perhaps, otherwise be deemed "too challenging". PMID:25047226

  5. Digital services using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over CATV analog DWDM system

    Yeh, JengRong; Selker, Mark D.; Trail, J.; Piehler, David; Levi, Israel

    2000-04-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has recently gained great popularity as it provides a cost effective way to increase the transmission capacity of the existing fiber cable plant. For a long time, Dense WDM was exclusively used for baseband digital applications, predominantly in terrestrial long haul networks and in some cases in metropolitan and enterprise networks. Recently, the performance of DWDM components and frequency-stabilized lasers has substantially improved while the costs have down significantly. This makes a variety of new optical network architectures economically viable. The first commercial 8- wavelength DWDM system designed for Hybrid Fiber Coax networks was reported in 1998. This type of DWDM system utilizes Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM) of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) signals to transport IP data digital video broadcast and Video on Demand on ITU grid lightwave carriers. The ability of DWDM to provide scalable transmission capacity in the optical layer with SCM granularity is now considered by many to be the most promising technology for future transport and distribution of broadband multimedia services.

  6. A monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse-amplitude modulation transmitter

    Xiong, Chi; Proesel, Jonathan E; Orcutt, Jason S; Haensch, Wilfried; Green, William M J

    2016-01-01

    Silicon photonics promises to address the challenges for next-generation short-reach optical interconnects. Growing bandwidth demand in hyper-scale data centers and high-performance computing motivates the development of faster and more-efficient silicon photonics links. While it is challenging to raise the serial line rate, further scaling of the data rate can be realized by, for example, increasing the number of parallel fibers, increasing the number of wavelengths per fiber, and using multi-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Among these approaches, PAM has a unique advantage because it does not require extra lasers or a costly overhaul of optical fiber cablings within the existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate the first fully monolithically integrated silicon photonic four-level PAM (PAM-4) transmitter operating at 56 Gb/s and demonstrate error-free transmission (bit-error-rate < 10$^{-12}$) up to 50 Gb/s without forward error correction. The superior PAM-4 waveform is enabled by optimizatio...

  7. Reconfigurable optical quadrature amplitude modulation converter/encoder using a tunable complex coefficient optical tapped delay line.

    Khaleghi, Salman; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Yilmaz, Omer F; Tur, Moshe; Haney, Michael W; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2013-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable optical converter/encoder for quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals. The system utilizes nonlinear wavelength multicasting, conversion-dispersion delays, and simultaneous nonlinear multiplexing and sampling. We show baud rate tunability (31 and 20 Gbaud) and reconfigurable conversions from lower-order QAM signals to higher-order QAM signals (e.g., 64-QAM). PMID:23938882

  8. Envelope Interactions in Multi-Channel Amplitude Modulation Frequency Discrimination by Cochlear Implant Users.

    John J Galvin

    Full Text Available Previous cochlear implant (CI studies have shown that single-channel amplitude modulation frequency discrimination (AMFD can be improved when coherent modulation is delivered to additional channels. It is unclear whether the multi-channel advantage is due to increased loudness, multiple envelope representations, or to component channels with better temporal processing. Measuring envelope interference may shed light on how modulated channels can be combined.In this study, multi-channel AMFD was measured in CI subjects using a 3-alternative forced-choice, non-adaptive procedure ("which interval is different?". For the reference stimulus, the reference AM (100 Hz was delivered to all 3 channels. For the probe stimulus, the target AM (101, 102, 104, 108, 116, 132, 164, 228, or 256 Hz was delivered to 1 of 3 channels, and the reference AM (100 Hz delivered to the other 2 channels. The spacing between electrodes was varied to be wide or narrow to test different degrees of channel interaction.Results showed that CI subjects were highly sensitive to interactions between the reference and target envelopes. However, performance was non-monotonic as a function of target AM frequency. For the wide spacing, there was significantly less envelope interaction when the target AM was delivered to the basal channel. For the narrow spacing, there was no effect of target AM channel. The present data were also compared to a related previous study in which the target AM was delivered to a single channel or to all 3 channels. AMFD was much better with multiple than with single channels whether the target AM was delivered to 1 of 3 or to all 3 channels. For very small differences between the reference and target AM frequencies (2-4 Hz, there was often greater sensitivity when the target AM was delivered to 1 of 3 channels versus all 3 channels, especially for narrowly spaced electrodes.Besides the increased loudness, the present results also suggest that multiple

  9. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations, quantum decoherence and amplitude modulation in mesoscopic InGaAs/InAlAs rings.

    Ren, S L; Heremans, J J; Gaspe, C K; Vijeyaragunathan, S; Mishima, T D; Santos, M B

    2013-10-30

    Low-temperature Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance of mesoscopic interferometric rings patterned on an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure are investigated for their dependence on excitation current and temperature. The rings have an average radius of 650 nm, and a lithographic arm width of 300 nm, yielding pronounced interference oscillations over a wide range of magnetic fields. Apart from a current and temperature dependence, the oscillation amplitude also shows a quasi-periodic modulation with applied magnetic field. The phase coherence length is extracted by analysis of the fundamental and higher Fourier components of the oscillations, and by direct analysis of the amplitude and its dependence on parameters. It is concluded that the Thouless energy forms the measure of excitation energies for quantum decoherence. The amplitude modulation finds an explanation in the effect of the magnetic flux threading the finite width of the interferometer arms. PMID:24096892

  10. Aharonov–Bohm oscillations, quantum decoherence and amplitude modulation in mesoscopic InGaAs/InAlAs rings

    Low-temperature Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in the magnetoresistance of mesoscopic interferometric rings patterned on an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure are investigated for their dependence on excitation current and temperature. The rings have an average radius of 650 nm, and a lithographic arm width of 300 nm, yielding pronounced interference oscillations over a wide range of magnetic fields. Apart from a current and temperature dependence, the oscillation amplitude also shows a quasi-periodic modulation with applied magnetic field. The phase coherence length is extracted by analysis of the fundamental and higher Fourier components of the oscillations, and by direct analysis of the amplitude and its dependence on parameters. It is concluded that the Thouless energy forms the measure of excitation energies for quantum decoherence. The amplitude modulation finds an explanation in the effect of the magnetic flux threading the finite width of the interferometer arms. (paper)

  11. Method of Phase and Amplitude Modulation/Demodulation Using Datapages with Embedded Phase-Shift for Holographic Data Storage

    Bunsen, Masatoshi; Umetsu, Shuhei; Takabayashi, Masanori; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    A technique for the phase and amplitude detection of object beams with multivalued phase and amplitude modulation is proposed for holographic storage systems. Generally, the spatial distribution of the complex amplitude of the object beam can be precisely detected by phase-shifting interferometric measurements in which the phase of the reference wave for interferometry is temporally or spatially changed in the datapage retrieval process. On the other hand, our technique allows fast, accurate, and feasible phase and amplitude demodulations by preliminary embedding phase shift into the phase signal of the datapage during recording. This technique will significantly improve the data transfer rate and vibration tolerance of the holographic storage system because the complex amplitudes of the object beam carrying datapages can be detected by single-shot image capturing. The optical system for datapage replay will also be simplified because there is no need to use any phase-shifting device during data retrieval. The single-shot detection of the phase-modulated datapage is experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth and saturation of large amplitude self-modulated wakefield in 60 TW laser plasma and possible electron acceleration

    A 25 J -1.053 μm pulse in 0.45 ps (a0= 2.2) was injected into a gas jet. This excited a large amplitude self-modulated wakefield. By increasing the pulse length from 0.45 to to 1.2 ps, the wakefield grew close to the wave-breaking limit, which sustained a 350 ± 150 GV/m acceleration field over a 1 mm dephasing distance along the laser axis in a plasma with density 2 x 1019 cm-3. This resulted in electrons accelerated to 300 MeV. The amplitude saturation of the wakefield is explained by a pump depletion effect to the large amplitude forward Raman instability. The Petawatt Laser is completed, which will be used to accelerate electrons above one GeV

  14. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F′q/F′m, EC50 = 303 ± 64 μg U L−1 after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50 = 142 ± 98 μg U L−1 after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction

  15. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    Herlory, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.herlory@gmail.com [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gilbin, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.gilbin@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire de Biogéochimie, Biodisponibilité et Transferts des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F{sub 0}/F{sub v}. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F{sup ′}{sub q}/F{sup ′}{sub m}, EC{sub 50} = 303 ± 64 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC{sub 50} = 142 ± 98 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown

  16. Stochastic Resonance in Linear Region of a Single-Mode Laser: Effects of Amplitude Modulation of Signal

    WANG Xiao-Qin; ZHANG Liang-Ying; LUO Zhi-Quan; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin

    2008-01-01

    A single-mode laser noise model driven by quadratic colored pump noise and amplitude modulation signal is proposed. The real and imaginary parts of the pump noise axe assumed to be cross-correlation. The effect of cross-correlation of noise and amplitude modulation of signal on laser statistical properties is studied by using the lineaxized approximation. The analytic expression of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated. It is found that the phenomena of stochastic resonance (SR) respectively exist in the curves of the SNR versus the noise cross-correlation coefficient λ and the SNR versus the pump parameter a, as well as the SNR versus the signal frequency ω in our model. It is shown that there are three different typies of SR in the model: the conventional form of SR, the SR in the broad sense, and the bona fide SR.

  17. The membrane potential of characean cells exposed to amplitude-modulated, low-power 147-MHz radiation

    Brunkard, K.M.; Pickard, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The membrane potential of isolated cells of Chara braunii or Nitella flexilis was monitored while the cells were exposed, at nominal power densities from 2 to 1,000 W/m2, to 147-MHz radiation amplitude modulated at frequencies from 4 to 64 Hz. Phase-sensitive detection was used to seek radiation-correlated changes in the membrane potential, and none were apparent under any of the conditions used in this investigation.

  18. Cortical activities of single-trial P300 amplitudes modulated by memory load using simultaneous EEG-fMRI

    Zhang, Qiushi; Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhu, Chaozhe; Yang, Xueqian; Yao, Li

    2015-03-01

    The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches on working memory have found that activation of cortical areas appeared dependent on memory load, and event-related potentials (ERP) studies have demonstrated that amplitudes of P300 decreased significantly when working memory load increased. However, the cortical activities related with P300 amplitudes under different memory loads remains unclear. Joint fMRI and EEG analysis which fusions the time and spatial information in simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording can reveal the regional activation at each ERP time point. In this paper, we first used wavelet transform to obtain the single-trial amplitudes of P300 caused by a digital N-back task in the simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording as the ERP feature sequences. Then the feature sequences in 1-back condition and 3-back condition were introduced into general linear model (GLM) separately as parametric modulations to compare the cortical activation under different memory loads. The results showed that the average amplitudes of P300 in 3-back significantly decreased than that in 1-back, and the activities induced by ERP feature sequences in 3-back also significantly decreased than that in the 1-back, including the insular, anterior cingulate cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus, which were relevant to the storage, monitoring, and manipulation of information in working memory task. Moreover, the difference in the activation caused by ERP feature showed a positive correlation with the difference in behavioral performance. These findings demonstrated the locations of P300 amplitudes differences modulated by the memory load and its relationship with the behavioral performance.

  19. Amplitude Modulation Approach for Real-Time Algorithms of ECG-Derived Respiration

    J.L. Vargas-Luna; W. Mayr; J.A. Cortés-Ramírez

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una metodología para la extracción de la actividad respiratoria derivada de un ECG (EDR, por sus siglas en ingles), basado en el enfoque de amplitud modulada (AM). Esto permite redefinir las metodologías actuales para obtener una señal EDR más continua, con altos factores de correlación y un retraso menor entre la EDR y la actividad respiratoria. Se implementaron dos algoritmos: uno utilizando la modulación de la amplitud del pico R (EDRAM) y el otro aplicando un filtro ...

  20. High Performance of Space Vector Modulation Direct Torque Control SVM-DTC Based on Amplitude Voltage and Stator Flux Angle

    Hassan Farhan Rashag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.

  1. Psychometric functions for sentence recognition in sinusoidally amplitude-modulated noises.

    Shen, Yi; Manzano, Nicole K; Richards, Virginia M

    2015-12-01

    Listeners' speech reception is better when speech is masked by a modulated masker compared to an unmodulated masker with the same long-term root-mean-square level. It has been suggested that listeners take advantage of brief periods of quiescence in a modulated masker to extract speech information. Two experiments examined the contribution of such "dip-listening" models. The first experiment estimated psychometric functions for speech intelligibility using sentences masked by sinusoidally modulated and unmodulated speech-shaped noises and the second experiment estimated detection thresholds for a tone pip added at the central dip in the masker. Modulation rates ranging from 1 to 64 Hz were tested. In experiment 1 the slopes of the psychometric functions were shallower for lower modulation rates and the pattern of speech reception thresholds as a function of modulation rate was nonmonotonic with a minimum near 16 Hz. In contrast, the detection thresholds from experiment 2 increased monotonically with modulation rate. The results suggest that the benefits of listening to speech in temporally fluctuating maskers cannot be solely ascribed to the temporal acuity of the auditory system. PMID:26723318

  2. Modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase in quasi-1D inhomogeneous Bose–Einstein condensates

    We consider a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the mean field dynamics of an elongated Bose–Einstein condensate and prove the existence of modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase and minimal spatial period tending to infinite. The proof combines the theory of local continuation of non-degenerate periodic solutions with a property of the Ermakov–Pinney equation. - Highlights: • A rigorous proof of the existence of rotating MAWs in an inhomogeneous BEC. • No condition on the sign or the magnitude of the trap or the scattering length. • Non-trivial phase leads to a singular ODE for the amplitude. • The proof combines a local continuation theorem and properties of rotation numbers

  3. Modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase in quasi-1D inhomogeneous Bose–Einstein condensates

    Torres, Pedro J., E-mail: ptorres@ugr.es

    2014-10-03

    We consider a 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which describes the mean field dynamics of an elongated Bose–Einstein condensate and prove the existence of modulated amplitude waves with non-trivial phase and minimal spatial period tending to infinite. The proof combines the theory of local continuation of non-degenerate periodic solutions with a property of the Ermakov–Pinney equation. - Highlights: • A rigorous proof of the existence of rotating MAWs in an inhomogeneous BEC. • No condition on the sign or the magnitude of the trap or the scattering length. • Non-trivial phase leads to a singular ODE for the amplitude. • The proof combines a local continuation theorem and properties of rotation numbers.

  4. Characterization of pulse amplitude and pulse rate modulation for a human vestibular implant during acute electrical stimulation

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; DiGiovanna, J.; Cavuscens, S.; Ranieri, M.; Guinand, N.; van de Berg, R.; Carpaneto, J.; Kingma, H.; Guyot, J.-P.; Micera, S.; Perez Fornos, A.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. The vestibular system provides essential information about balance and spatial orientation via the brain to other sensory and motor systems. Bilateral vestibular loss significantly reduces quality of life, but vestibular implants (VIs) have demonstrated potential to restore lost function. However, optimal electrical stimulation strategies have not yet been identified in patients. In this study, we compared the two most common strategies, pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and pulse rate modulation (PRM), in patients. Approach. Four subjects with a modified cochlear implant including electrodes targeting the peripheral vestibular nerve branches were tested. Charge-equivalent PAM and PRM were applied after adaptation to baseline stimulation. Vestibulo-ocular reflex eye movement responses were recorded to evaluate stimulation efficacy during acute clinical testing sessions. Main results. PAM evoked larger amplitude eye movement responses than PRM. Eye movement response axes for lateral canal stimulation were marginally better aligned with PRM than with PAM. A neural network model was developed for the tested stimulation strategies to provide insights on possible neural mechanisms. This model suggested that PAM would consistently cause a larger ensemble firing rate of neurons and thus larger responses than PRM. Significance. Due to the larger magnitude of eye movement responses, our findings strongly suggest PAM as the preferred strategy for initial VI modulation.

  5. Frequency and amplitude modulation of ultra-compact terahertz quantum cascade lasers using an integrated avalanche diode oscillator

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S.

    2016-03-01

    Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.

  6. Prestimulus amplitudes modulate P1 latencies and evoked traveling alpha waves

    Nicole Alexandra Himmelstoss

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traveling waves have been well documented in the ongoing, and more recently also in the evoked EEG. In the present study we investigate what kind of physiological process might be responsible for inducing an evoked traveling wave. We used a semantic judgment task which already proved useful to study evoked traveling alpha waves that coincide with the appearance of the P1 component. We found that the P1 latency of the leading electrode is significantly correlated with prestimulus amplitude size and that this event is associated with a transient change in alpha frequency. We assume that cortical background excitability, as reflected by an increase in prestimulus amplitude, is responsible for the observed change in alpha frequency and the initiation of an evoked traveling trajectory.

  7. Concurrent Encoding of Frequency and Amplitude Modulation in Human Auditory Cortex: Encoding Transition

    Luo, H.; Wang, Y.; Poeppel, D.; Simon, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Complex natural sounds (e.g., animal vocalizations or speech) can be characterized by specific spectrotemporal patterns the components of which change in both frequency (FM) and amplitude (AM). The neural coding of AM and FM has been widely studied in humans and animals but typically with either pure AM or pure FM stimuli. The neural mechanisms employed to perceptually unify AM and FM acoustic features remain unclear. Using stimuli with simultaneous sinusoidal AM (at rate fAM = 37 Hz) and FM ...

  8. Spectral phase, amplitude, and spatial modulation from ultraviolet to infrared with a reflective MEMS pulse shaper

    Extermann, Jérôme; Weber, Stefan; Kiselev, Denis; Bonacina, Luigi; Lani, Sébastien; Jutzi, Fabio; Noell, Wilfried; Rooij, Nico F. de; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We describe the performance of a reflective pulse-shaper based on a Micro-ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) linear mirror array. It represents a substantial upgrade of a preceding release [Opt. Lett. 35, 3102 (2010)] as it allows simultaneous piston and tilt mirror motion, allowing both phase- and binary amplitude-shaping with no wavelength restriction. Moreover, we show how the combination of in-axis and tilt movement can be used for active correction of spatial chirp.

  9. Residual Gas Noise in the Test-mass Module for DECIGO Pathfinder

    Okutomi, K.; Akutsu, T.; Ando, M.; Nikaido, M.; Tanaka, N.; Torii, Y.; Sato, S.; Izumi, K.; Chen, D.

    2015-05-01

    DECIGO Pathfinder is the first milestone mission for DECIGO, a future gravitational wave antenna. In DPF, residual gas noise acting on the test mass is estimated to increase and exceed the requirement for force noise of 1 × 10-15 N/√Hz due to geometry of the test-mass module. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the residual gas noise and found that the engineering model of the test-mass module cannnot satisfy the requirement. To reduce the gas noise, we present revised geometry of the test-mass module using comb-like electrodes.

  10. A simple and reliable technique to characterize amplitude to phase modulation distortion for high-frequency amplifiers and nonlinear devices

    Jauregui, Rigoberto; Portilla, Joaquin; Reynoso-Hernández, J. A.; Hirata-Flores, F. I.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable measurement system for characterizing the amplitude to phase modulation (AM-PM) characteristics of high frequency amplifiers and nonlinear devices. The AM-PM measurement system is based on a null detector implemented with a double balanced mixer, and requires a voltmeter and a calibrated phase shifter. A 12 W class A radio frequency power amplifier has been designed using a GaN transistor, and the AM-PM has been measured using both the method proposed in this work and the classical method with a calibrated vector network analyzer. A good correlation between both methods is observed, which validates the proposed method.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by quadratic Pump noise and amplitude-modulated signal

    Zhang Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by quadratic pump noise and amplitude-modulated signal.A new linear approximation approach is advanced to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio.In the linear approximation only the drift term is linearized,the multiplicative noise term is unchangeable.It is found that there appears not only the standard form of stochastic resonance but also the broad sense of stochastic resonance,especially stochastic multiresonance appears in the curve of signal-to-noise ratio as a function of coupling strength λ between the real and imaginary parts of the pump noise.

  12. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    R. Ricci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager (λ = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  13. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Francucci M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager ( = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  14. Comparison of carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation

    Othman, M. B.; Pham, Tien-Thang; Deng, Lei;

    2014-01-01

    We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment.......We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment....

  15. Improvement of Amplitude-Shift-Keying Signal Quality by Employing an Effective Spectrum Equalization Method in a Combined FSK/ASK Modulation Scheme

    XIN Xiang-Jun; P. S. André; A. L. J. Teixeira; YU Chong-Xiu; Ana Ferreira; Tiago Silveira; P. M. Monteiro; F. da Rocha; J. L. Pinto

    2005-01-01

    @@ A simple, economical and applicable spectrum equalization method is implemented by employing a reshaping filter in the combined frequency-shift-keying/amplitude-shift-keying modulation scheme to improve the quality of amplitude-shift-keying optical signal. The 3-dB improvement for eye diagram height is experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Amplitude modulation for the Swift-Hohenberg and Kuramoto-Sivashinski equations

    Kirkinis, Eleftherios; O'Malley, Robert E.

    2014-12-01

    Employing a harmonic balance technique inspired from the methods of Renormalization Group and Multiple Scales [R. E. O'Malley, Jr. and E. Kirkinis. "A combined renormalization group-multiple scale method for singularly perturbed problems," Stud. Appl. Math. 124(4), 383-410, (2010)], we derive the amplitude equations for the Swift-Hohenberg and Kuramoto-Sivashinski equations to arbitrary order in the context of roll patterns. This new and straightforward derivation improves previous attempts and can be carried-out with symbolic computation that minimizes effort and avoids error.

  17. Modulating the amplitude of dark soliton by scattering-length management in Bose-Einstein condensates

    We present a family of soliton solutions of the quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent scattering length, by developing multiple-scale method combined with truncated Painleve expansion. Then, by numerical calculating the solutions, it is shown that there exhibit two types of dark solitons-black soliton (the zero minimum amplitude at its center) and gray soliton (the minimum density does not drop to zero) in a repulsive condensate. Furthermore, we propose experimental protocols to realize the exchange between black and gray solitons by varying the scattering length via the Feshbach resonance in currently experimental conditions

  18. M-ARRAY QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK MODULATOR RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY ANALYZE IN CIVIL SHM

    Mohammud Ershadul Haque; Mohammud Fauzi Mohammud Zain; Maslina Jamil; Mohammud Abdul Hannan; Abdulla Al Suman

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the new invention applying for assessment the damage of the historical or high rise civil building structural health. Technical challenges affecting deployment of wireless sensor network including the range of the transmission problem, low data transmission rate of the existing SHM strategies. The most vital factor of SHM wireless sensor systems is the modulator accuracy and reliability that qualify the wireless communication system to assess large building st...

  19. Identification of Functionally Relevant Lysine Residues That Modulate Human Farnesoid X Receptor Activation

    Sun, An-Qiang; Luo, Yuhuan; Backos, Donald S.; Xu, Shuhua; Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Reigan, Philip; Suchy, Frederick J.

    2013-01-01

    Base amino acid lysine residues play an important role in regulation of nuclear receptors [e.g., farnesyl X receptor (FXR)], leading to enhanced or suppressed biologic activity. To understand the molecular mechanisms and the subsequent effects in modulating FXR functions in diverse biologic processes, we individually replaced eight highly conserved lysine residues of human FXR (hFXR) with arginine. The effects of each mutated FXR on target gene activation, subcellular localization, protein-pr...

  20. Rhythmic control of mRNA stability modulates circadian amplitude of mouse Period3 mRNA.

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ha; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kwak, Eunyee; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2015-03-01

    The daily oscillations observed in most living organisms are endogenously generated with a period of 24 h, and the underlying structure of periodic oscillation is an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop. The mechanisms of untranslated region (UTR)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation (e.g., mRNA degradation and internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation) have been suggested to fine-tune the expression of clock genes. Mouse Period3 (mPer3) is one of the paralogs of Period gene and its function is important in peripheral clocks and sleep physiology. mPer3 mRNA displays a circadian oscillation as well as a circadian phase-dependent stability, while the stability regulators still remain unknown. In this study, we identify three proteins - heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), and hnRNP D - that bind to mPer3 mRNA 3'-UTR. We show that hnRNP K is a stabilizer that increases the amplitude of circadian mPer3 mRNA oscillation and hnRNP D is a destabilizer that decreases it, while PTB exhibits no effect on mPer3 mRNA expression. Our experiments describe their cytoplasmic roles for the mRNA stability regulation and the circadian amplitude formation. Moreover, our mathematical model suggests a mechanism through which post-transcriptional mRNA stability modulation provides not only the flexibility of oscillation amplitude, but also the robustness of the period and the phase for circadian mPer3 expression. Mouse Period3 (mPer3) is one of well-known clock genes. We identified three 3'-UTR-binding proteins that modulate the mRNA stability, and they influenced to the amplitude of circadian mPer3 mRNA oscillation. Our mathematical model not only showed the relationship between mRNA stability and its oscillation profile but provided the molecular mechanism for the robustness of the period and the phase in circadian oscillation. hnK, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K; hnD, hn

  1. Imaging of biomaterials in liquids: a comparison between conventional and Q-controlled amplitude modulation ('tapping mode') atomic force microscopy

    Ebeling, D.; Hölscher, H.; Fuchs, H.; Anczykowski, B.; Schwarz, U. D.

    2006-04-01

    Lambda phage DNA and DPPC thin films are imaged in liquids by atomic force microscopy applying the amplitude modulation mode ('tapping mode') with active enhancement of the Q-factor by a 'Q-control' electronics. The topography of the resulting images is compared with images obtained without active Q-control. To enable a meaningful comparison, individual scan lines are alternately recorded with and without Q-factor enhancement using scan parameters optimized for each mode separately. As the major finding, significant height differences of topographical features are observed between the two modes. The heights measured with active Q-control are reproducibly higher compared to the ones observed without Q enhancement. This effect is attributed to the reduction of tip-sample forces by Q-control.

  2. The effect of microphone wind noise on the amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise and its mitigation.

    Kendrick, Paul; von Hünerbein, Sabine; Cox, Trevor J

    2016-07-01

    Microphone wind noise can corrupt outdoor recordings even when wind shields are used. When monitoring wind turbine noise, microphone wind noise is almost inevitable because measurements cannot be made in still conditions. The effect of microphone wind noise on two amplitude modulation (AM) metrics is quantified in a simulation, showing that even at low wind speeds of 2.5 m/s errors of over 4 dBA can result. As microphone wind noise is intermittent, a wind noise detection algorithm is used to automatically find uncorrupted sections of the recording, and so recover the true AM metrics to within ±2/±0.5 dBA. PMID:27475217

  3. Bi-stability of amplitude modulation AFM in air: deterministic and stochastic outcomes for imaging biomolecular systems

    The dynamics of the oscillating microcantilever for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM AFM) operating in air is well understood theoretically but the experimental outcomes are still emerging. We use double-stranded DNA on mica as a model biomolecular system for investigating the connection between theory and experiment. A demonstration that the switching between the two cantilever oscillation states is stochastic in nature is achieved, and it can be induced by means of topographical anomalies on the surface. Whether one or the other attractor basin is accessed depends on the tip-sample separation history used to achieve the imaging conditions, and we show that the behaviour is reproducible when the tip is stable and well characterized. Emergence of background noise occurs in certain regions of parameter space regardless of whether two cantilever oscillation states coexist. The low state has been explored in detail and we note that at low to intermediate values of the free amplitude, noise-free imaging is achieved. The outcomes shown here are general and demonstrate that a thorough and systematic experimental approach in conjunction with standard modelling gives insight into the mechanisms behind image contrast formation in AM AFM in air.

  4. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns.

    Kim, Diana J; Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Chiang, Joyce; Ty, Edna; Wang, Z Jane; McKeown, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson's disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson's and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4-7.5 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10.5-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (31-50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents - at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold - to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20-25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive

  5. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns.

    Diana J Kim

    Full Text Available Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson's disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson's and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4-7.5 Hz, low alpha (8-10 Hz, high alpha (10.5-12 Hz, beta (13-30 Hz and gamma (31-50 Hz bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents - at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold - to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20-25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously

  6. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    Aerts, C; Catala, C; Neiner, C; Briquet, M; Castro, N; Schmid, V S; Scardia, M; Rainer, M; Poretti, E; Papics, I; Degroote, P; Bloemen, S; Oestensen, R H; Auvergne, M; Baglin, A; Baudin, F; Michel, E; Samadi, R

    2013-01-01

    {We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD\\,46769 ($V=5.79$). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target.} {We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending, as well as spectroscopic follow-up data, by using standard Fourier analysis and Phase Dispersion Minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assumping a dipole field.} {In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84\\,d with an amplitude of 87\\,ppm, and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69\\,d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not revea...

  7. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  8. A modeling study of the responses of the lateral superior olive to ipsilateral sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    Wang, Le; Colburn, H Steven

    2012-04-01

    The lateral superior olive (LSO) is a brainstem nucleus that is classically understood to encode binaural information in high-frequency sounds. Previous studies have shown that LSO cells are sensitive to envelope interaural time difference in sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) tones (Joris and Yin, J Neurophysiol 73:1043-1062, 1995; Joris, J Neurophysiol 76:2137-2156, 1996) and that a subpopulation of LSO neurons exhibit low-threshold potassium currents mediated by Kv1 channels (Barnes-Davies et al., Eur J Neurosci 19:325-333, 2004). It has also been shown that in many LSO cells the average response rate to ipsilateral SAM tones decreases with modulation frequency above a few hundred Hertz (Joris and Yin, J Neurophysiol 79:253-269, 1998). This low-pass feature is not directly inherited from the inputs to the LSO since the response rate of these input neurons changes little with increasing modulation frequency. In the current study, an LSO cell model is developed to investigate mechanisms consistent with the responses described above, notably the emergent rate decrease with increasing frequency. The mechanisms explored included the effects of after-hyperpolarization (AHP) channels, the dynamics of low-threshold potassium channels (KLT), and the effects of background inhibition. In the model, AHP channels alone were not sufficient to induce the observed rate decrease at high modulation frequencies. The model also suggests that the background inhibition alone, possibly from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, can account for the small rate decrease seen in some LSO neurons, but could not explain the large rate decrease seen in other LSO neurons at high modulation frequencies. In contrast, both the small and large rate decreases were replicated when KLT channels were included in the LSO neuron model. These results support the conclusion that KLT channels may play a major role in the large rate decreases seen in some units and that background inhibition may be

  9. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  10. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration

    Watson, Meghan; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100–200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18–0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters. PMID:27442588

  11. Despeckle Filtering for Multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM) Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images of the Intima-Media Complex

    Loizou, C. P.; Murray, V.; Pattichis, M. S.; Pantziaris, M.; Nicolaides, A. N.; Pattichis, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) is widely used as an early indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Typically, the IMT grows with age and this is used as a sign of increased risk of CVD. Beyond thickness, there is also clinical interest in identifying how the composition and texture of the intima-media complex (IMC) changed and how these textural changes grow into atherosclerotic plaques that can cause stroke. Clearly though texture analysis of ultrasound images can be greatly affected by speckle noise, our goal here is to develop effective despeckle noise methods that can recover image texture associated with increased rates of atherosclerosis disease. In this study, we perform a comparative evaluation of several despeckle filtering methods, on 100 ultrasound images of the CCA, based on the extracted multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM) texture features and visual image quality assessment by two clinical experts. Texture features were extracted from the automatically segmented IMC for three different age groups. The despeckle filters hybrid median and the homogeneous mask area filter showed the best performance by improving the class separation between the three age groups and also yielded significantly improved image quality. PMID:24734038

  12. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules.

  13. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  14. A Lower Bound on the Capacity of the Noncentral Chi Channel with Applications to Soliton Amplitude Modulation

    Shevchenko, Nikita A; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Alvarado, Alex; Bayvel, Polina; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-01-01

    The channel law for amplitude-modulated solitons transmitted through a nonlinear optical fibre with ideal distributed amplification and a receiver based on the nonlinear Fourier transform is a noncentral chi distribution with $2n$ degrees of freedom, where $n=2$ and $n=3$ correspond to the single- and dual-polarisation cases, respectively. In this paper, we study the capacity of this channel in bits per channel use, and develop a semi-analytic capacity lower bound for arbitrary $n$ and a Rayleigh input distribution. An asymptotic analysis of the bound is also presented, which shows that this lower bound grows logarithmically with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), independently of the value of $n$. Numerical results for other input distributions are also provided. A half-Gaussian input distribution is shown to give larger rates than a Rayleigh input distribution for $n=1,2,3$. At an effective SNR of 30~dB, the obtained lower bounds are approximately 4 bit per channel use.

  15. Explanation and correction of false step heights in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy measurements on alkane films

    We use a prototypical alkane film (n-C32H66 or C32) adsorbed on a SiO2 surface to compare step heights measured by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) with those measured in the contact mode. The C32 film exhibits layers in which the molecules are oriented with their long axis parallel to the SiO2 surface followed by partial layers of perpendicular molecules. We show that step heights measured in the AM and contact modes agree in all cases except where the step is between a surface formed by a layer of parallel molecules and one of perpendicular molecules. In this case, the AM mode gives a false step height that is as much as 20% lower than that measured in the contact mode and inferred from synchrotron X-ray specular reflectivity measurements. We propose that the weaker van der Waals forces between the AFM tip and a perpendicular layer compared to a parallel layer causes this discrepancy. We show how to correct the false step height by using the approximately linear relationship observed between phase angle (cantilever oscillation relative to the drive signal) and cantilever height measured in an approach curve

  16. Negative response of photosynthesis to natural and projected high seawater temperatures estimated by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry in a temperate coral

    Caroselli, Erik; Falini, Giuseppe; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Balanophyllia europaea is a shallow water solitary zooxanthellate coral, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive field studies across a latitudinal temperature gradient highlight detrimental effects of rising temperatures on its growth, demography, and skeletal characteristics, suggesting that depression of photosynthesis at high temperatures might cause these negative effects. Here we test this hypothesis by analyzing, by means of pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry, the photosyntheti...

  17. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations In a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    Lew, Ben W P; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Cowan, N B; Bedin,; R., L; Metchev, Stanimir A; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-Ks=2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20$\\pm$0.14 hours) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 micron than at 1.7 micron. This is the third largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentativ...

  18. Amplitude and phase modulated 8-ary and 16-ary multilevel signaling technologies for high-speed optical fiber communication

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiko

    2005-11-01

    The optical multilevel modulation is one of the attractive candidates to significantly increase the channel bit rate and total capacity of future optical fiber communications. We review various multilevel modulation schemes proposed to date, including our experimental results of the 8-level and 16-level APSK modulation/demodulation schemes at 10 Gsymbol/s. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages, and future issues of the optical multilevel modulation schemes.

  19. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO

  20. Optical amplitude and phase modulation dynamics at the single-photon level in a quantum dot ridge waveguide

    Moody, Galan; Feldman, Ari; Harvey, Todd; Mirin, Richard P; Silverman, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of a material's nonlinear optical response provide insight into the underlying electronic dynamics that determine its optical properties. Phase-sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy techniques are widely implemented to explore these dynamics through demodulation of the complex optical signal field into its quadrature components; however, complete reconstruction of the optical response requires measuring both the amplitude and phase of each quadrature, which is often lost in standard detection methods. Here, we implement a heterodyne-detection scheme to fully reconstruct the amplitude and phase response of spectral hole-burning from InAs/GaAs charged quantum dots. We observe an ultra-narrow absorption profile and a corresponding dispersive lineshape of the phase, which reflect the nanosecond optical coherence time of the charged exciton transition. Simultaneously, the measurements are sensitive to electron spin relaxation dynamics on a millisecond timescale, as this manifests as a magnetic-f...

  1. Song Amplitude of Rival Males Modulates the Territorial Behaviour of Great Tits During the Fertile Period of Their Mates

    Ritschard, M.; Oers, van K.; Naguib, M.; Brumm, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bird song is a widely used model in the study of sexual selection. Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits is thought to reflect variation in male genetic and/or phenotypic quality. Vocal amplitude is a song parameter that has received little attention in the context of sexual select

  2. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  3. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. PMID:27129675

  4. Self-similarities in the frequency-amplitude space of a loss-modulated CO$_2$ laser

    Bonatto, Cristian; Garreau, Jean Claude; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2005-01-01

    We show the standard two-level continuous-time model of loss-modulated CO$_2$ lasers to display the same regular network of self-similar stability islands known so far to be typically present only in discrete-time models based on mappings. For class B laser models our results suggest that, more than just convenient surrogates, discrete mappings in fact could be isomorphic to continuous flows.

  5. The evaluation of eccentricity-related amplitude modulation and bundling in paleoclimate data: An inverse approach for astrochronologic testing and time scale optimization

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclostratigraphic analysis has produced fundamental advancements in our understanding of climate change, paleoceanography, celestial mechanics, geochronology, and chronostratigraphy. Of central importance to this success has been the development of astrochronologic testing methods for the evaluation of astronomical-climate influence on sedimentation. Most pre-Pleistocene astrochronologic testing methods fall into one of two categories: (1) those that test for expected amplitude or frequency modulation imposed by an astronomical signal or (2) those that test for bedding hierarchies (frequency ratios or bundling) that are predicted by the dominant astronomical periods. In this study, a statistical methodology for combining these complementary approaches is developed, which identifies the time scale that simultaneously optimizes eccentricity amplitude modulation of the precession band, and the concentration of power at precession (carrier) and eccentricity (modulator) frequencies. The technique is demonstrated to have high statistical power—it is capable of identifying astronomical cycles when present—under a wide range of conditions, and its application to synthetic models illuminates a range of potential pitfalls that are encountered when more conventional nonoptimization approaches are used. The method is also independent from the interpretation of power spectrum peak significance, resolving previous concerns regarding appropriate confidence level assessment and "multiple testing." As two case studies, the algorithm is applied to Miocene strata of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926B, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum-Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 interval at ODP Site 1262. The results verify published cyclostratigraphic interpretations and support the theoretical astronomical solutions. This new astrochronologic testing approach can be used to evaluate cyclostratigraphic records spanning the Phanerozoic and potentially beyond.

  6. Arsenic toxicity in the water weed Wolffia arrhiza measured using Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (PAM) measurements of photosynthesis.

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in plants is a serious South-east Asian environmental problem. Photosynthesis in the small aquatic angiosperm Wolffia arrhiza is very sensitive to arsenic toxicity, particularly in water below pH 7 where arsenite (As (OH)3) (AsIII) is the dominant form; at pH >7 AsO4(2-) (As(V) predominates). A blue-diode PAM (Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer) machine was used to monitor photosynthesis in Wolffia. Maximum gross photosynthesis (Pgmax) and not maximum yield (Ymax) is the most reliable indicator of arsenic toxicity. The toxicity of arsenite As(III) and arsenate (H2AsO4(2-)) As(V) vary with pH. As(V) was less toxic than As(III) at both pH 5 and pH 8 but both forms of arsenic were toxic (>90% inhibition) at below 0.1molm(-3) when incubated in arsenic for 24h. Arsenite toxicity was apparent after 1h based on Pgmax and gradually increased over 7h but there was no apparent effect on Ymax or photosynthetic efficiency (α0). PMID:27318559

  7. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    A. K. Sinha

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  8. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency.

    Branstetter, Brian K; DeLong, Caroline M; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin's ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin's acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  10. Soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitudes are specifically modulated by cutaneous inputs from the arms and opposite leg during walking but not standing.

    Suzuki, Shinya; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Yukari; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves innervating heteronymous limbs (the arms or contralateral leg) modifies the excitability of soleus Hoffmann (H-) reflexes. The differences in the sensitivities of the H-reflex pathway to cutaneous afferents from different limbs and their modulation during the performance of motor tasks (i.e., standing and walking) are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated changes in soleus H-reflex amplitudes induced by electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves. Selected targets for conditioning stimulation included the superficial peroneal nerve, which innervates the foot dorsum in the contralateral ankle (cSP), and the superficial radial nerve, which innervates the dorsum of the hand in the ipsilateral (iSR) or contralateral wrist (cSR). Stimulation and subsequent reflex assessment took place during the standing and early-stance phase of treadmill walking in ten healthy subjects. Cutaneous stimulation produced long-latency inhibition (conditioning-test interval of ~100 ms) of the H-reflex during the early-stance phase of walking, and the inhibition was stronger following cSP stimulation compared with iSR or cSR stimulation. In contrast, although similar conditioning stimulation significantly facilitated the H-reflex during standing, this effect remained constant irrespective of the different conditioning sites. These findings suggest that cutaneous inputs from the arms and contralateral leg had reversible effects on the H-reflex amplitudes, including inhibitions with different sensitivities during the early-stance phase of walking and facilitation during standing. Furthermore, the differential sensitivities of the H-reflex modulations were expressed only during walking when the locations of the afferent inputs were functionally relevant. PMID:27030502

  11. Protein thermal denaturation is modulated by central residues in the protein structure network.

    Souza, Valquiria P; Ikegami, Cecília M; Arantes, Guilherme M; Marana, Sandro R

    2016-03-01

    Network structural analysis, known as residue interaction networks or graphs (RIN or RIG, respectively) or protein structural networks or graphs (PSN or PSG, respectively), comprises a useful tool for detecting important residues for protein function, stability, folding and allostery. In RIN, the tertiary structure is represented by a network in which residues (nodes) are connected by interactions (edges). Such structural networks have consistently presented a few central residues that are important for shortening the pathways linking any two residues in a protein structure. To experimentally demonstrate that central residues effectively participate in protein properties, mutations were directed to seven central residues of the β-glucosidase Sfβgly (β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.21). These mutations reduced the thermal stability of the enzyme, as evaluated by changes in transition temperature (Tm ) and the denaturation rate at 45 °C. Moreover, mutations directed to the vicinity of a central residue also caused significant decreases in the Tm of Sfβgly and clearly increased the unfolding rate constant at 45 °C. However, mutations at noncentral residues or at surrounding residues did not affect the thermal stability of Sfβgly. Therefore, the data reported in the present study suggest that the perturbation of the central residues reduced the stability of the native structure of Sfβgly. These results are in agreement with previous findings showing that networks are robust, whereas attacks on central nodes cause network failure. Finally, the present study demonstrates that central residues underlie the functional properties of proteins. PMID:26785700

  12. LOGITCPRPLOT: Stata module to graph component-plus-residual plot for logistic regression

    Jann, Ben

    2008-01-01

    logitcprplot can be used after logistic regression for graphing a component-plus-residual plot (a.k.a. partial residual plot) for a given predictor, including a lowess, local polynomial, restricted cubic spline, fractional polynomial, penalized spline, regression spline, running line, or adaptive variable span running line smooth

  13. Computational identification of residues that modulate voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated potassium channels

    Li Bin; Gallin Warren J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of the structure-function relationship in proteins for which no 3D structure is available are often based on inspection of multiple sequence alignments. Many functionally important residues of proteins can be identified because they are conserved during evolution. However, residues that vary can also be critically important if their variation is responsible for diversity of protein function and improved phenotypes. If too few sequences are studied, the support for ...

  14. Seasonal and diel changes in photosynthetic activity of the snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis (Chlorophyceae) from Svalbard determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry.

    Stibal, Marek; Elster, Josef; Sabacká, Marie; Kastovská, Klára

    2007-02-01

    The seasonal and diel dynamics of the physiological state and photosynthetic activity of the snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis were investigated in a snowfield in Svalbard. The snow surface represents an environment with very high irradiation intensities along with stable low temperatures close to freezing point. Photosynthetic activity was measured using pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Three types of cell (green biflagellate vegetative cells, orange spores clustered by means of mucilaginous sheaths, and purple spores with thick cell walls) were found, all of them photosynthetically active. The pH of snow ranged between 5.0 and 7.5, and the conductivity ranged between 5 and 75 microS cm(-1). The temperature of snow was stable (-0.1 to +0.1 degrees C), and the incident radiation values ranged from 11 to 1500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). The photosynthetic activity had seasonal and diel dynamics. The Fv/Fm values ranged between 0.4 and 0.7, and generally declined over the course of the season. A dynamic response of Fv/Fm to the irradiance was recorded. According to the saturating photon fluence values Ek, the algae may have obtained saturating light as deep as 3 cm in the snow when there were higher-light conditions, whereas they were undersaturated at prevalent low light even if on the surface. PMID:17313577

  15. Examination of humidity effects on measured thickness and interfacial phenomena of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide via amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Jinkins, K.; Farina, L.; Wu, Y., E-mail: wuy@uwplatt.edu [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Platteville, 1 University Plaza, Platteville, Wisconsin 53818 (United States); Camacho, J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin-Platteville, 1 University Plaza, Platteville, Wisconsin 53818 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO{sub 2}. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO{sub 2} substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM.

  16. Examination of humidity effects on measured thickness and interfacial phenomena of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide via amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO2. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO2 substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM

  17. Optical-mechanical module for measuring the residual stress in metal of the surface of reactor of power unit WWER-1000

    Results of the development of optical-mechanical module for measuring the residual stress in metal of the surface of the reactor vessel WWER-1000 are described. The methodology for determining the residual stresses in metal is described. The developed equipment is adapted for use on the surface of the reactor vessel

  18. Conserved Residues in Lassa Fever Virus Z Protein Modulate Viral Infectivity at the Level of the Ribonucleoprotein▿

    Capul, Althea A.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  19. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  20. Down-Regulation of Cell Surface Receptors Is Modulated by Polar Residues within the Transmembrane Domain

    Zaliauskiene, Lolita; Kang, Sunghyun; Brouillette, Christie G.; Lebowitz, Jacob; Arani, Ramin B.; Collawn, James F.

    2000-01-01

    How recycling receptors are segregated from down-regulated receptors in the endosome is unknown. In previous studies, we demonstrated that substitutions in the transferrin receptor (TR) transmembrane domain (TM) convert the protein from an efficiently recycling receptor to one that is rapidly down regulated. In this study, we demonstrate that the “signal” within the TM necessary and sufficient for down-regulation is Thr11Gln17Thr19 (numbering in TM). Transplantation of these polar residues into the wild-type TR promotes receptor down-regulation that can be demonstrated by changes in protein half-life and in receptor recycling. Surprisingly, this modification dramatically increases the TR internalization rate as well (∼79% increase). Sucrose gradient centrifugation and cross-linking studies reveal that propensity of the receptors to self-associate correlates with down-regulation. Interestingly, a number of cell surface proteins that contain TM polar residues are known to be efficiently down-regulated, whereas recycling receptors for low-density lipoprotein and transferrin conspicuously lack these residues. Our data, therefore, suggest a simple model in which specific residues within the TM sequences dramatically influence the fate of membrane proteins after endocytosis, providing an alternative signal for down-regulation of receptor complexes to the well-characterized cytoplasmic tail targeting signals. PMID:10930460

  1. An atypical residue in the pore of Varroa destructor GABA-activated RDL receptors affects picrotoxin block and thymol modulation.

    Price, Kerry L; Lummis, Sarah C R

    2014-12-01

    GABA-activated RDL receptors are the insect equivalent of mammalian GABAA receptors, and play a vital role in neurotransmission and insecticide action. Here we clone the pore lining M2 region of the Varroa mite RDL receptor and show that it has 4 atypical residues when compared to M2 regions of most other insects, including bees, which are the major host of Varroa mites. We create mutant Drosophila RDL receptors containing these substitutions and characterise their effects on function. Using two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we show that one substitution (T6'M) ablates picrotoxin inhibition and increases the potency of GABA. This mutation also alters the effect of thymol, which enhances both insect and mammalian GABA responses, and is widely used as a miticide. Thymol decreases the GABA EC50 of WT receptors, enhancing responses, but in T6'M-containing receptors it is inhibitory. The other 3 atypical residues have no major effects on either the GABA EC50, the picrotoxin potency or the effect of thymol. In conclusion we show that the RDL 6' residue is important for channel block, activation and modulation, and understanding its function also has the potential to prove useful in the design of Varroa-specific insecticidal agents. PMID:25460510

  2. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    Hughes, D.J., E-mail: d.hughes@warwick.ac.uk [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Koukovini-Platia, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heeley, E.L. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Residual stresses were determined in a welded EUROFER blanket assembly with integrated cooling channels. • Good agreement was seen between experimentally determined and predicted stresses. • We show that microstructure changes that occur in EUROFER steels during welding must be considered for residual stress determination. • An experimental route is proposed for validation of predicted stresses in reactor components using non-destructive diffraction techniques. - Abstract: Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.

  3. Modulation of carbohydrate residues in regenerative nodules and neoplasms of canine and feline pancreas.

    Skutelsky, E.; Alroy, J.; Ucci, A. A.; Carpenter, J.L.; Moore, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    The glycoconjugates of regenerative acinar cells, acinic cell carcinomas, islet cell tumors, and normal canine and feline pancreas were studied. The authors used biotinylated lectins as probes and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex as visualant to identify and to compare the distribution of carbohydrate residues on paraffin sections from 74 cases. The findings demonstrate a difference in the staining pattern between normal acinar, islet, and ductal cells in each species and small differences in...

  4. Salt bridge residues between I-Ak dimer of dimers alpha-chains modulate antigen presentation.

    Yadati, S; Nydam, T; Demian, D; Wade, T K; Gabriel, J L; Barisas, B G; Wade, W F

    1999-03-15

    Class II dimers of dimers are predicted to have functional significance in antigen presentation. The putative contact amino acids of the I-Ak class II dimer of dimers have been identified by molecular modeling based on the DR1 crystal structure (Nydam et al., Int. Immunol. 10, 1237,1998). We have previously reported the role in antigen presentation of dimer of dimers contact amino acids located in the C-terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-chains of class II. Our calculations show that residues Ealpha89 and Ralpha145 in the alpha2-domain form an inter alpha-chain salt bridge between pairs of alphabeta-heterodimers. Other residues, Qalpha92 and Nalpha115, may be involved in close association in that part of the alpha-chain. We investigated the role of these amino acids on class II expression and antigen presentation. Class II composed of an Ealpha89K substituted alpha-chain paired with a wt beta-chain exhibited inhibited antigen presentation and expression of alpha-chain serologic epitopes. In contrast, mutation of Ralpha145E had less affect on antigen presentation and did not affect I-Ak serologic epitopes. Interchanging charges of the salt bridge residues by expressing both Ralpha145E and Ealpha89K on the same chain obviated the large negative effect of the Ealpha89K mutation on antigen presentation but not on the serologic epitopes. Our results are similar for those reported for mutation of DR3's inter-chain salt bridge with the exception that double mutants did not moderate the DR3 defect. Interestingly, the amino acids differences between I-A and DR change the location of the inter-chain salt bridges. In DR1 these residues are located at positions Ealpha88 and Kalpha111; in I-Ak these residues are located at position Ealpha89 and Ralpha145. Inter alpha-chain salt bridges are thus maintained in various class II molecules by amino acids located in different parts of the alpha2-domain. This conservation of structure suggests that considerable functional

  5. Computational identification of residues that modulate voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated potassium channels

    Li Bin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of the structure-function relationship in proteins for which no 3D structure is available are often based on inspection of multiple sequence alignments. Many functionally important residues of proteins can be identified because they are conserved during evolution. However, residues that vary can also be critically important if their variation is responsible for diversity of protein function and improved phenotypes. If too few sequences are studied, the support for hypotheses on the role of a given residue will be weak, but analysis of large multiple alignments is too complex for simple inspection. When a large body of sequence and functional data are available for a protein family, mature data mining tools, such as machine learning, can be applied to extract information more easily, sensitively and reliably. We have undertaken such an analysis of voltage-gated potassium channels, a transmembrane protein family whose members play indispensable roles in electrically excitable cells. Results We applied different learning algorithms, combined in various implementations, to obtain a model that predicts the half activation voltage of a voltage-gated potassium channel based on its amino acid sequence. The best result was obtained with a k-nearest neighbor classifier combined with a wrapper algorithm for feature selection, producing a mean absolute error of prediction of 7.0 mV. The predictor was validated by permutation test and evaluation of independent experimental data. Feature selection identified a number of residues that are predicted to be involved in the voltage sensitive conformation changes; these residues are good target candidates for mutagenesis analysis. Conclusion Machine learning analysis can identify new testable hypotheses about the structure/function relationship in the voltage-gated potassium channel family. This approach should be applicable to any protein family if the number of training examples and

  6. Identification of key amino acid residues modulating intracellular and in vitro microcin E492 amyloid formation

    Paulina eAguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcin E492 (MccE492 is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well characterized, however it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in E. coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophillic probes, 2-4´-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54-63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59, which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54-63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although

  7. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    Hughes, D J; Heeley, E L

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.

  8. Design and development of amplitude and phase measurement of RF parameter with digital I-Q De-modulator (DIQDM) technique using PXI system

    ITER-India, the Indian domestic agency for ITER project, is responsible to deliver one of the packages, called ICH and CD Radio Frequency Power Sources (RFPS). Total 20 MW of RF power is required for ITER plasma from RFPS system using 8 nos. of identical sources. Each power source is capable to deliver 2.5 MW @ 35 to 65 MHz frequency range with a load condition up to VSWR 2:1 and any reflection coefficient of phase angle. Each source should be operated independently as well as in slave mode with synchronization of central plant control system of ITER. To fulfill the desired specifications of constant power and fixed relative phase, the real time control loop is required. The real time control loops would be used for maintaining the Amplitude and Phase as requested from central plant control system. Since, there are methods available for the measurement of amplitude and phase but the accuracy and linearity of the measurement is one of the important parameters, thus after survey and analysis ITER-India has chosen a digital I-Q demodulator based technique for amplitude and phase detection. In this paper, Amplitude and Phase measurement of RF signal with DIQDM technique using PXI system is described in detail, with various test results with dummy signals and low power RF systems

  9. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan

    Whitson, Lisa R.; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulu...

  10. Quadrature amplitude modulation from basics to adaptive trellis-coded turbo-equalised and space-time coded OFDM CDMA and MC-CDMA systems

    Hanzo, Lajos

    2004-01-01

    "Now fully revised and updated, with more than 300 pages of new material, this new edition presents the wide range of recent developments in the field and places particular emphasis on the family of coded modulation aided OFDM and CDMA schemes. In addition, it also includes a fully revised chapter on adaptive modulation and a new chapter characterizing the design trade-offs of adaptive modulation and space-time coding." "In summary, this volume amalgamates a comprehensive textbook with a deep research monograph on the topic of QAM, ensuring it has a wide-ranging appeal for both senior undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practicing engineers and researchers."--Jacket.

  11. The role of a conserved acidic residue in calcium-dependent protein folding for a low density lipoprotein (LDL)-A module: implications in structure and function for the LDL receptor superfamily.

    Guo, Ying; Yu, Xuemei; Rihani, Kayla; Wang, Qing-Yin; Rong, Lijun

    2004-04-16

    One common feature of the more than 1,000 complement-type repeats (or low density lipoprotein (LDL)-A modules) found in LDL receptor and the other members of the LDL receptor superfamily is a cluster of five highly conserved acidic residues in the C-terminal region, DXXXDXXDXXDE. However, the role of the third conserved aspartate of these LDL-A modules in protein folding and ligand recognition has not been elucidated. In this report, using a model LDL-A module and several experimental approaches, we demonstrate that this acidic residue, like the other four conserved acidic residues, is involved in calcium-dependent protein folding. These results suggest an alternative calcium coordination conformation for the LDL-A modules. The proposed model provides a plausible explanation for the conservation of this acidic residue among the LDL-A modules. Furthermore, the model can explain why mutations of this residue in human LDL receptor cause familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:14749324

  12. Speech Coding Strategy Based on Amplitude and Frequency Modulation for Cochlear Implants%基于幅频调制的电子耳蜗语音编码策略

    刘洪运; 王卫东

    2011-01-01

    To enhance speech recognition in noise, as well as tone recognition, we presented a new kind of speech coding strategy, called one-octave wavelet transform zero-crossing stimulation (WTZS) , for cochlear implants based on amplitude and frequency modulation. We selected 15 volunteers with normal hearing ability to carry out hearing simulation experiments by picking up the amplitude ( amplitude modulation, AM) , zero-crossings ( frequency modulation,FM) and gradiertt parameters from processed speech signal in the domain of one-octave wavelet transform to synthesize the stimulating pulstile series. The experimental results demonstrated that the phonetic recognition in quiet surroundings with amplitude modulation only strategy (CIS) is similar to that of amplitude and frequency modulations strategies (FAME and WTZS) , while the tone perception of CIS is inferior to that of FAME and WTZS strategies. However, in noisy environment, the phonetic recogrnition, tone perception, as well as sentence recognition of WTZS strategy are better than those of CIS and FAME strategies. WTZS strategy, utilizing amplitude(AM). zerocrassings (FM) and gradient parameters to synthesize stimulus, can enhance the phonetic and tonal language recognition in noise environment effectively, and could be used in cochlear implant system for speech processor design after arithmetic optimization.%本文提出了一种基于幅度频率调制的电子耳蜗语音编码新策略即倍频程小波过零刺激(WTZS)方案,以提高噪声环境下的语音和语调语音的识别能力.通过提取语音倍频程小波变换域信号的幅度(AM)和过零点(FM)经梯度参数调整后合成刺激脉冲,选取15名听觉正常的志愿者进行听觉仿真试验.结果表明安静环境下连续间隔采样(CIS)、幅频调制(FAME)和WTZS方案的语音识别率差别不大,CIS方案的语调识别能力稍差.WTZS方案在加噪环境下的语音、语调及句子的识别能力要优于CIS和FAME语音

  13. Interpreting the large amplitude X-ray variation of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624 as modulations of an accretion disc

    Pahari, Mayukh; Mukherjee, Arunava; Yadav, J S; Pandey, S K

    2013-01-01

    Using the flux resolved spectroscopy for the first time, we analyse the RXTE/PCA data of the black hole X-ray binaries GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, when both sources show large amplitude, quasi-regular oscillations in 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray light curves. For different observations, we extract spectra during the peak (spectrally soft) and dip (spectrally hard) intervals of the oscillation, and find that their spectra are phenomenologically complex, requiring at least two distinct spectral components. Besides a thermal Comptonization component, we find that the disc emission is better modelled by an index-free multicolour disc blackbody component (p-free disc model) rather than that from a standard accretion disc. While the peak and dip spectra are complex, remarkably, their difference spectra constructed by treating dip spectra as the background spectra of the peak spectra, can be modelled as a single p-free disc component. Moreover, the variability at different time-scales and energy bands of the peak flux l...

  14. 11 × 5 × 9.3Gb/s WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation with direct detection.

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Fan; Chi, Nan; Dong, Ze; Li, Xinying

    2013-08-12

    We propose and demonstrate a novel WDM-CAP-PON based on optical single-side band (OSSB) multi-level multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (MM-CAP). To enable high-speed transmission with simplified optical network unit (ONU)-side digital signal processing, 4-level 5 sub-bands CAP-16 is used here, which is generated by the digital to analogue converter (DAC). Optical single-side band (OSSB) technology is applied to extend the transmission distance against the spectrum fading effect. As a proof of concept, the experiment successfully demonstrates 11 WDM channels, 55 sub-bands, for 55 users with 9.3-Gb/s per user (after removing 7% overhead for forward error correction (FEC)) in the downstream over 40-km SMF. PMID:23938798

  15. Interpreting the large amplitude X-ray variation of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624 as modulations of an accretion disc

    Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Mukherjee, Arunava; Yadav, J. S.; Pandey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Using the flux resolved spectroscopy for the first time, we analyse the RXTE/PCA data of the black hole X-ray binaries GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, when both sources show large-amplitude, quasi-regular oscillations in 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray light curves (similar to the κ and λ classes in GRS 1915+105). For different observations, we extract spectra during the peak (spectrally soft) and dip (spectrally hard) intervals of the oscillation, and find that their spectra are phenomenologically complex, requiring at least two distinct spectral components. Besides a thermal Comptonization component, we find that the disc emission is better modelled by an index-free multicolour disc blackbody component (p-free disc model) rather than that from a standard accretion disc. While the peak and dip spectra are complex, remarkably, their difference spectra, constructed by treating dip spectra as the background spectra of the peak spectra, can be modelled as a single p-free disc component. Moreover, the variability at different time-scales and energy bands of the peak flux level is always greater than or equal to the variability of the dip flux level, which strengthens the possibility that the peak flux level may be due to an independent spectral component added to the dip one. Using joint spectral analysis of peak and dip spectra with a variable emission component, we verify that the variable component is consistent with p-free disc blackbody and its spectral parameters are similar to that found from the difference spectral analysis. In contrast, we show that for oscillations in the θ class where soft dips are observed, the difference spectra cannot be similarly fitted. Our result substantiates the standard hypothesis that the oscillations are due to the limit cycle behaviour of an unstable radiation pressure dominated inner disc. However, in this interpretation, the flux variation of the unstable disc can be several order of magnitudes as expected from some theoretical

  16. Amplitude mediated chimera states

    Sethia, Gautam C.; Sen, Abhijit; Johnston, George L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obtaining chimera state solutions of the non-local Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation (NLCGLE) in the strong coupling limit when it is important to retain amplitude variations. Our numerical studies reveal the existence of a variety of amplitude mediated chimera states (including stationary and non-stationary two cluster chimera states), that display intermittent emergence and decay of amplitude dips in their phase incoherent regions. The existence regions of t...

  17. Periods and Feynman amplitudes

    Brown, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Feynman amplitudes in perturbation theory form the basis for most predictions in particle collider experiments. The mathematical quantities which occur as amplitudes include values of the Riemann zeta function and relate to fundamental objects in number theory and algebraic geometry. This talk reviews some of the recent developments in this field, and explains how new ideas from algebraic geometry have led to much progress in our understanding of amplitudes. In particular, the idea that certain transcendental numbers, such as $\\pi$, can be viewed as a representation of a group, provides a powerful framework to study amplitudes which reveals many hidden structures.

  18. Accurate Period Approximation for Any Simple Pendulum Amplitude

    XUE De-Sheng; ZHOU Zhao; GAO Mei-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate approximate analytical formulae of the pendulum period composed of a few elementary functions for any amplitude are constructed.Based on an approximation of the elliptic integral,two new logarithmic formulae for large amplitude close to 180° are obtained.Considering the trigonometric function modulation results from the dependence of relative error on the amplitude,we realize accurate approximation period expressions for any amplitude between 0 and 180°.A relative error less than 0.02% is achieved for any amplitude.This kind of modulation is also effective for other large-amplitude logarithmic approximation expressions.%Accurate approximate analytical formulae of the pendulum period composed of a few elementary functions for any amplitude are constructed. Based on an approximation of the elliptic integral, two new logarithmic formulae for large amplitude close to 180° are obtained. Considering the trigonometric function modulation results from the dependence of relative error on the amplitude, we realize accurate approximation period expressions for any amplitude between 0 and 180°. A relative error less than 0.02% is achieved for any amplitude. This kind of modulation is also effective for other large-amplitude logarithmic approximation expressions.

  19. Estrogenic microenvironment generated by organochlorine residues in adipose mammary tissue modulates biomarker expression in ERα-positive breast carcinomas

    Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Durando, Milena; Beldoménico, Pablo M; Beldoménico, Horacio R; Kass, Laura; García, Silvia R; Luque, Enrique H

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in women. Exposure to estrogens throughout a woman's life is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Organochlorine compounds (OCCs), such as pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, are persistent lipophilic chemicals identified as endocrine disruptors, mainly with estrogenic effects. To test the hypothesis that the amount and quality of organochlorine residues in adipose tissue adjacent to breast carcinoma affect...

  20. Logarithmic torus amplitudes

    Flohr, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Gaberdiel, Matthias R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, ETH Zuerich, ETH-Hoenggerberg, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-02-24

    For the example of the logarithmic triplet theory at c = -2, the chiral vacuum torus amplitudes are analysed. It is found that the space of these torus amplitudes is spanned by the characters of the irreducible representations, as well as a function that can be associated with the logarithmic extension of the vacuum representation. A few implications and generalizations of this result are discussed.

  1. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...

  3. Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    new 38.8m test blade for a 2MW NM80 turbine was manufactured and equipped with a massive instrumentation comprising flush mounted surface microphones, pressure taps and five hole pitot tubes. The correlation of the spectra from the surface microphones and the measured inflow angle (IA) confirmed the...

  4. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated the...

  5. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    The problem of the production of extended (∼1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2–0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (∼100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3–5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (∼0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (∼1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  7. An airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 μm differential laser absorption spectrometry: simultaneous measurement of partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 and target range

    O. Uchino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the partial column-averaged dry air mixing ratio of CO2 (q and target range were demonstrated using airborne amplitude-modulated 1.57 μm differential laser absorption spectrometry (LAS. The LAS system is useful for discriminating between ground and cloud return signals and has a demonstrated ability to suppress the impact of integrated aerosol signals on differential absorption optical depth (Δτ measurements. A high correlation coefficient (R of 0.99 between Δτ observed by LAS and Δτ calculated from in-situ measurements of CO2 was obtained. The averaged difference in q obtained from LAS (qLAS and validation data (qval was within 1.5 ppm for all spiral measurements. A significant profile was observed for both qLAS and qval, in which lower altitude CO2 decreases compared to higher altitude CO2 attributed to the photosynthesis over grassland in the summer. In the case of an urban area where CO2 and aerosol are highly distributed in the lower atmosphere in the winter, the difference of qLAS to qval is −1.5 ppm, and evaluated qLAS is in agreement with qval within the measurement precision of 2.4 ppm (1σ.

  8. AQP4 plasma membrane trafficking or channel gating is not significantly modulated by phosphorylation at C-terminal serine residues

    Assentoft, Mette; Larsen, Brian R; Olesen, Emma T B;

    2014-01-01

    . Phosphorylation of aquaporins can regulate plasma membrane localization and, possibly, the unit water permeability via gating of the AQP channel itself. In vivo phosphorylation of six serine residues in the COOH terminus of AQP4 has been detected by mass spectrometry: Ser(276), Ser(285), Ser(315), Ser(316), Ser......Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and is mainly expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet at the brain-blood interface. AQP4 serves as a water entry site during brain edema formation, and regulation of AQP4 may therefore be of therapeutic interest...... at the plasma membrane of transfected C6 cells being similar between the wild-type (WT) and mutant forms of AQP4. Activation of protein kinases A, C, and G in primary astrocytic cultures did not affect the plasma membrane abundance of AQP4. The unit water permeability was determined for the mutant AQP4s upon...

  9. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation or a...

  10. Protostring Scattering Amplitudes

    Thorn, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    We calculate some tree level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a lightcone worldsheet which supports $s$ integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann worldsheet system with $d=24-s$ transverse coordinate worldsheet fields. The protostring corresponds to $s=24$ and the bosonic string to $s=0$. The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that $s$ is even we calculate the multi-string scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of $s/2$ compactified and $d$ uncompactified bosonic worldsheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then ...

  11. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities. PMID:25084457

  12. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    Giuseppe Federico Amodeo

    Full Text Available Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities.

  13. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    Arthur, R; Brommel, D; Donnellan, M A; Flynn, J M; Juttner, A; de Lima, H Pedroso; Rae, T D; Sachrajda, C T; Samways, B

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  14. Periods and Superstring Amplitudes

    Stieberger, S

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes which describe the interaction of physical states play an important role in determining physical observables. In string theory the physical states are given by vibrations of open and closed strings and their interactions are described (at the leading order in perturbation theory) by a world-sheet given by the topology of a disk or sphere, respectively. Formally, for scattering of N strings this leads to N-3-dimensional iterated real integrals along the compactified real axis or N-3-dimensional complex sphere integrals, respectively. As a consequence the physical observables are described by periods on M_{0,N} - the moduli space of Riemann spheres of N ordered marked points. The mathematical structure of these string amplitudes share many recent advances in arithmetic algebraic geometry and number theory like multiple zeta values, single-valued multiple zeta values, Drinfeld, Deligne associators, Hopf algebra and Lie algebra structures related to Grothendiecks Galois theory. We review the...

  15. HIGH AMPLITUDE PROPAGATED CONTRACTIONS

    Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    While most colonic motor activity is segmental and non-propulsive, colonic high amplitude propagated contractions (HAPC) can transfer colonic contents over long distances and often precede defecation. HAPC occur spontaneously, in response to pharmacological agents or colonic distention. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Rodriguez and colleagues report that anal relaxation during spontaneous and bisacodyl-induced HAPC exceeds anal relaxation during rectal distention in const...

  16. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-01-01

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography. PMID:27615519

  17. Closed string amplitudes as single-valued open string amplitudes

    We show that the single trace heterotic N-point tree-level gauge amplitude ANHET can be obtained from the corresponding type I amplitude ANI by the single-valued (sv) projection: ANHET=sv(ANI). This projection maps multiple zeta values to single-valued multiple zeta values. The latter represent a subclass of multiple zeta values originating from single-valued multiple polylogarithms at unity. Similar relations between open and closed string amplitudes or amplitudes of different string vacua can be established. As a consequence the α′-expansion of a closed string amplitude is dictated by that of the corresponding open string amplitude. The combination of single-valued projections, Kawai–Lewellen–Tye relations and Mellin correspondence reveal a unity of all tree-level open and closed superstring amplitudes together with the maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills and supergravity theories

  18. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  19. Renormalization of massless Feynman amplitudes in configuration space

    Nikolov, Nikolay M.; Stora, Raymond; Todorov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    A systematic study of recursive renormalization of Feynman amplitudes is carried out both in Euclidean and in Minkowski configuration spaces. For a massless quantum field theory (QFT), we use the technique of extending associate homogeneous distributions to complete the renormalization recursion. A homogeneous (Poincaré covariant) amplitude is said to be convergent if it admits a (unique covariant) extension as a homogeneous distribution. For any amplitude without subdivergences — i.e. for a Feynman distribution that is homogeneous off the full (small) diagonal — we define a renormalization invariant residue. Its vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of such an amplitude. It extends to arbitrary — not necessarily primitively divergent — Feynman amplitudes. This notion of convergence is finer than the usual power counting criterion and includes cancellation of divergences.

  20. Renormalization of Massless Feynman Amplitudes in Configuration Space

    Nikolov, Nikolay M; Todorov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of recursive renormalization of Feynman amplitudes is carried out both in Euclidean and in Minkowski configuration space. For a massless quantum field theory (QFT) we use the technique of extending associate homogeneous distributions to complete the renormalization recursion. A homogeneous (Poincare covariant) amplitude is said to be convergent if it admits a (unique covariant) extension as a homogeneous distribution. For any amplitude without subdivergences - i.e. for a Feynman distribution that is homogeneous off the full (small) diagonal - we define a renormalization invariant residue. Its vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of such an amplitude. It extends to arbitrary - not necessarily primitively divergent - Feynman amplitudes. This notion of convergence is finer than the usual power counting criterion and includes cancellation of divergences.

  1. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

  2. A Cascaded Approach for Correcting Ionospheric Contamination with Large Amplitude in HF Skywave Radars

    Yajun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude causes broadening sea clutter’s Bragg peaks to overlap each other; the performance of traditional decontamination methods about filtering Bragg peak is poor, which greatly limits the detection performance of HF skywave radars. In view of the ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude, this paper proposes a cascaded approach based on improved S-method to correct the ionospheric phase contamination. This approach consists of two correction steps. At the first step, a time-frequency distribution method based on improved S-method is adopted and an optimal detection method is designed to obtain a coarse ionospheric modulation estimation from the time-frequency distribution. At the second correction step, based on the phase gradient algorithm (PGA is exploited to eliminate the residual contamination. Finally, use the measured data to verify the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results show the time-frequency resolution of this method is high and is not affected by the interference of the cross term; ionospheric phase perturbation with large amplitude can be corrected in low signal-to-noise (SNR; such a cascade correction method has a good effect.

  3. Hidden Beauty in Multiloop Amplitudes

    Cachazo, Freddy(Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada); Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying the iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and argue that t...

  4. Amplitude oscillation of DCLC mode

    A quasilinear model and a simulation code taking into account the electron bounce resonance damping have been developed to describe the amplitude oscillation of the drift cyclotron loss-cone mode, which has been observed in mirror experiments. It was found that this oscillatory behavior of the amplitude is caused by the temporal variation of the growth rate and the effect of electron bounce resonance damping on the amplitude of this mode. (author)

  5. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    J.K. Golden; Goncharov, A. B.; M. Spradlin; C. Vergu; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes--objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf_n(P^3) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MH...

  6. Graviton amplitudes from collinear limits of gauge amplitudes

    Stephan Stieberger; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2015-01-01

    We express all tree-level graviton amplitudes in Einstein's gravity as the collinear limits of a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills amplitudes in which each graviton is represented by two gauge bosons, each of them carrying exactly one half of graviton's momentum and helicity.

  7. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Aktham Asfour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  8. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...

  9. Fringe free holographic measurements of large amplitude vibrations

    Joud, Fadwa; Laloë, Franck; Michael, Atlan; Hare, Jean; Gross, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the measurement of the amplitude of vibration of objects, holographic imaging techniques usually involve fringe counting; due to the limited resolution of images, measurements of large amplitudes are not accessible. We demonstrate a technique that suppresses the necessity of fringe counting: frequency sideband imaging, where the order of the sideband is considered as a marker of the amplitude. The measurement is completely local: no comparison with another reference point on the object is necessary. It involves a sharp variation of a signal, which makes it robust against perturbations. The method is demonstrated in an experiment made with a vibrating clarinet reed; phase modulations as large as 1000 radians have been measured.

  10. Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams

    Chille, Vanessa; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices up to 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB$\\pm$0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters.

  11. Main results on the RF amplitude and phase regulation systems in operation at GANIL

    The general features of the amplitude and phase regulations and their control systems are briefly reviewed. These feedback control systems are fully under the control of the main computer aided by dedicated CAMAC microprocessors for actions such as starting, parameters tuning or phase stability surveying. Numerous results obtained with spectrum analysis method give the actual RF purity and the residual modulation and crossmodulation noise level for all RF signals picked up in the RF resonators. A typical value for the noise immunity is .80 dB below the carrier at 100 Hz deviation. Another set of results gives the actual long term phase drift between resonators (<0.2 RF degree within 6 hours). The stability of the RF phases is confirmed by on line beam phase measurements

  12. Finite Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves in a Cylindrical Waveguide

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear behaviour of the electron plasma wave propagating in a cylindrical plasma waveguide immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is investigated using the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method, by means of which is deduced the nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing the...... long-time slow modulation of the wave amplitude. From this equation the amplitude-dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts are calculated, and it is found that the electron waves with short wavelengths are modulationally unstable with respect to long-wavelength, low-frequency perturbations. It is...

  13. Connection between the period and the amplitude of the Blazhko effect

    Benkő József M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We found a possible relationship between the modulation period and the amplitude of the Blazhko RR Lyrae stars: long modulation period generally implies high modulation amplitude while the short modulation period results in small amplitude. Although this effect is much more a tendency than a strict rule, it can be detected easily in the space-born time series data produced by Kepler and CoRoT. Good quality ground-based data show this relation, too. This phenomenon could give us constraints for the physics of the Blazhko effect.

  14. Detection of Modulated Tones in Modulated Noise by Non-human Primates

    Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan

    2014-01-01

    In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experim...

  15. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  16. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  17. Teleporting Superpositions of Chiral Amplitudes

    Maierle, C S; Harris, R A; Maierle, Christopher S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Harris, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Chiral molecules may exist in superpositions of left- and right-handed states. We show how the amplitudes of such superpositions may be teleported to the polarization degrees of freedom of a photon. Two experimental schemes are proposed, one leading to perfect, the other to state-dependent teleportation. Both methods yield complete information about the amplitudes. This is the first explicit example of "inter-species" teleportation, where the amplitudes of the quantum superposition of one species are transferred at the end of the process to a different species. The latter is then easily accessible for measurement.

  18. Positive Amplitudes In The Amplituhedron

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting...

  19. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  20. Model selection for amplitude analysis

    Model complexity in amplitude analyses is often a priori under-constrained since the underlying theory permits a large number of possible amplitudes to contribute to most physical processes. The use of an overly complex model results in reduced predictive power and worse resolution on unknown parameters of interest. Therefore, it is common to reduce the complexity by removing from consideration some subset of the allowed amplitudes. This paper studies a method for limiting model complexity from the data sample itself through regularization during regression in the context of a multivariate (Dalitz-plot) analysis. The regularization technique applied greatly improves the performance. An outline of how to obtain the significance of a resonance in a multivariate amplitude analysis is also provided

  1. Analytization of elastic scattering amplitude

    Troshin, S M

    2016-01-01

    Dependence of the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude on the transferred momentum -t at the asymptotical energies has been restored from the corresponding imaginary part on the basis of derivative analyticity relations (analytization).

  2. One loop multiphoton helicity amplitudes

    Mahlon, G

    1994-01-01

    We use the solutions to the recursion relations for double-off-shell fermion currents to compute helicity amplitudes for $n$-photon scattering and electron-positron annihilation to photons in the massless limit of QED. The form of these solutions is simple enough to allow {\\it all}\\ of the integrations to be performed explicitly. For $n$-photon scattering, we find that unless $n=4$, the amplitudes for the helicity configurations (+++...+) and (-++...+) vanish to one-loop order.

  3. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Confn(ℙ3) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A7,2M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Confn(ℙ3). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A7,2M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  4. Residuation theory

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  5. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu

    2015-07-15

    Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  6. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  7. Factorization of Chiral String Amplitudes

    Huang, Yu-tin; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2016-01-01

    We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: As found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.

  8. OPE for all Helicity Amplitudes

    Basso, Benjamin; Cordova, Lucia; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We extend the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) for scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM to account for all possible helicities of the external states. This is done by constructing a simple map between helicity configurations and so-called charged pentagon transitions. These OPE building blocks are generalizations of the bosonic pentagons entering MHV amplitudes and they can be bootstrapped at finite coupling from the integrable dynamics of the color flux tube. A byproduct of our map is a simple realization of parity in the super Wilson loop picture.

  9. Residual Tensile Strength of Plain Concrete Under Tensile Fatigue Loading

    2007-01-01

    The functional relation between the residual tensile strength of plain concrete and number of cycles was determined. 99 tappered prism specimens of plain concrete were tested under uniaxial tensile fatigue loading. Based on the probability distribution of the residual tensile strength, the empirical expressions of the residual tensile strength corresponding to the number of cycles were obtained. The residual tensile strength attenuating curves can be used to predict the residual fatigue life of the specimen under variable-amplitude fatigue loading. There is a good correlation between residual tensile strength and residual secant elastic modulus.The relationship between the residual secant elastic modulus and number of cycles was also established.

  10. Peptide aromatic interactions modulated by fluorinated residues: Synthesis, structure and biological activity of Somatostatin analogs containing 3-(3',5'difluorophenyl)-alanine.

    Martín-Gago, Pablo; Rol, Álvaro; Todorovski, Toni; Aragón, Eric; Martin-Malpartida, Pau; Verdaguer, Xavier; Vallès Miret, Mariona; Fernández-Carneado, Jimena; Ponsati, Berta; Macias, Maria J; Riera, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin is a 14-residue peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system by binding to five G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). We have designed six new Somatostatin analogs with L-3-(3',5'-difluorophenyl)-alanine (Dfp) as a substitute of Phe and studied the effect of an electron-poor aromatic ring in the network of aromatic interactions present in Somatostatin. Replacement of each of the Phe residues (positions 6, 7 and 11) by Dfp and use of a D-Trp8 yielded peptides whose main conformations could be characterized in aqueous solution by NMR. Receptor binding studies revealed that the analog with Dfp at position 7 displayed a remarkable affinity to SSTR2 and SSTR3. Analogs with Dfp at positions 6 or 11 displayed a π-π interaction with the Phe present at 11 or 6, respectively. Interestingly, these analogs, particularly [D-Trp8,L-Dfp11]-SRIF, showed high selectivity towards SSTR2, with a higher value than that of Octreotide and a similar one to that of native Somatostatin. PMID:27271737

  11. Peptide aromatic interactions modulated by fluorinated residues: Synthesis, structure and biological activity of Somatostatin analogs containing 3-(3′,5′difluorophenyl)-alanine

    Martín-Gago, Pablo; Rol, Álvaro; Todorovski, Toni; Aragón, Eric; Martin-Malpartida, Pau; Verdaguer, Xavier; Vallès Miret, Mariona; Fernández-Carneado, Jimena; Ponsati, Berta; Macias, Maria J.; Riera, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin is a 14-residue peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system by binding to five G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1–5). We have designed six new Somatostatin analogs with L-3-(3′,5′-difluorophenyl)-alanine (Dfp) as a substitute of Phe and studied the effect of an electron-poor aromatic ring in the network of aromatic interactions present in Somatostatin. Replacement of each of the Phe residues (positions 6, 7 and 11) by Dfp and use of a D-Trp8 yielded peptides whose main conformations could be characterized in aqueous solution by NMR. Receptor binding studies revealed that the analog with Dfp at position 7 displayed a remarkable affinity to SSTR2 and SSTR3. Analogs with Dfp at positions 6 or 11 displayed a π-π interaction with the Phe present at 11 or 6, respectively. Interestingly, these analogs, particularly [D-Trp8,L-Dfp11]-SRIF, showed high selectivity towards SSTR2, with a higher value than that of Octreotide and a similar one to that of native Somatostatin. PMID:27271737

  12. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  13. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (eiS) rather than imaginary-time e-S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  14. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  15. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  16. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in $4$- and $d$-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard m...

  17. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  18. N-loop string amplitude

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture

  19. N-loop string amplitude

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture. (LEW)

  20. Veneziano Amplitude for Winding Strings

    Khuri, Ramzi R.

    1993-01-01

    String configurations with nonzero winding number describe soliton string states. We compute the Veneziano amplitude for the scattering of arbitrary winding states and show that in the large radius limit the strings always scatter trivially and with no change in the individual winding numbers of the strings. In this limit, then, these states scatter as true solitons.

  1. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION ON THE RESIDUAL STRESS OF JOINTING PROCESS OF SOLAR CELL MODULE%太阳电池组件焊接过程残余应力的数值模拟

    孙国辉; 晏石林; 陈刚

    2011-01-01

    采用有限元分析软件ANSYS分析太阳电池组件在焊接工艺中残余应力的分布情况,通过改变电池片的焊接区域、焊接温度和焊条型号,讨论焊接工艺对电池片强度产生的影响.结果表明:太阳电池组件焊接工艺中焊带的施焊端及附近区域的应力集中程度较高,应避免在电池片的边缘施焊,尽量减小焊接温差,选用较细的焊条.%In the jointing process of the solar cell module, since the mismatch of heat expansion coefficients of various materials and the biggish difference in temperature of jointing local region, the residual stresses is caused in silicon material layer of solar cell. Numerical simulation was carried out on the jointing process of the solar cell module by the finite element software ANSYS, to analyze the distribution of residual stress. The impact on jointing technigues to cell intensity was discussed by changing jointing area, temperature system and welding rod type. The results showed that stress concentration degree is high in the end of weld region. The edge of solar cell welded should be avoided, and reduce difference in temperature of jointing, and select the thin welding rod.

  3. Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations

    Carrasco, John Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.

  4. Scruncher phase and amplitude control

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q load of 1 x 109) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited, VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  5. Photonic up-convertion of Carrierless Amplitude Phase signals for wireless communications on the Ka-band

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Kim, Hoon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián;

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, the viability of wireless transmission of carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) CAP modulation signals using photonic up-conversion with two free-running lasers is experimentally demonstrated......In this letter, the viability of wireless transmission of carrierless amplitude/phase (CAP) CAP modulation signals using photonic up-conversion with two free-running lasers is experimentally demonstrated...

  6. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.)

  7. Dosimetric effect of intrafraction motion and residual setup error for hypofractionated prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy with online cone beam computed tomography image guidance.

    Adamson, Justus

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To quantify the dosimetric effect and margins required to account for prostate intrafractional translation and residual setup error in a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy protocol. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prostate position after online correction was measured during dose delivery using simultaneous kV fluoroscopy and posttreatment CBCT in 572 fractions to 30 patients. We reconstructed the dose distribution to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) using a convolution of the static dose with a probability density function (PDF) based on the kV fluoroscopy, and we calculated the minimum dose received by 99% of the CTV (D(99)). We compared reconstructed doses when the convolution was performed per beam, per patient, and when the PDF was created using posttreatment CBCT. We determined the minimum axis-specific margins to limit CTV D(99) reduction to 1%. RESULTS: For 3-mm margins, D(99) reduction was <\\/=5% for 29\\/30 patients. Using post-CBCT rather than localizations at treatment delivery exaggerated dosimetric effects by ~47%, while there was no such bias between the dose convolved with a beam-specific and patient-specific PDF. After eight fractions, final cumulative D(99) could be predicted with a root mean square error of <1%. For 90% of patients, the required margins were <\\/=2, 4, and 3 mm, with 70%, 40%, and 33% of patients requiring no right-left (RL), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior margins, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For protocols with CBCT guidance, RL, AP, and SI margins of 2, 4, and 3 mm are sufficient to account for translational errors; however, the large variation in patient-specific margins suggests that adaptive management may be beneficial.

  8. Fringe-free holographic measurements of large-amplitude vibrations.

    Joud, F; Verpillat, F; Laloë, F; Atlan, M; Hare, J; Gross, M

    2009-12-01

    In the measurement of the amplitude of vibration of objects, holographic imaging techniques usually involve fringe counting; because of the limited resolution of the images, measurements of large amplitudes are not accessible. We demonstrate a technique that suppresses the necessity of fringe counting--frequency sideband imaging--where the order of the sideband is considered a marker of the amplitude. The measurement is completely local: no comparison with another reference point on the object is necessary. It involves a sharp variation of a signal, which makes it robust against perturbations. The method is demonstrated in an experiment made with a vibrating clarinet reed; phase modulations as large as 1000 rad have been measured. PMID:19953166

  9. Multisensory interaction in vibrotactile detection and discrimination of amplitude modulation

    Teodorescu, Kinneret; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Hoffmann, Pablo F.;

    2011-01-01

    selectively sensitive to combination of modality and previous experience. In the domain of discrimination, our results suggest that bi-modal performance is always better than uni-modal performance regardless of order of experience. Second, experiments with expert surgeons revealed that expertise in complex...... skill of maxilla-facial surgery strongly relies on enhanced touch perception, as measured in reaction times and discrimination ability in bi-modal vibro-auditory conditions. These observations suggest that acquisition of mandibular surgery skill has brought to an enhanced representation of vibro...

  10. Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  11. Modulated Electron Bunch with Amplitude Front Tilt in an Undulator

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radi...

  12. Full phase and amplitude control in computer-generated holography.

    Fratz, Markus; Fischer, Peer; Giel, Dominik M

    2009-12-01

    We report what we believe to be the first realization of a computer-generated complex-valued hologram recorded in a single film of photoactive polymer. Complex-valued holograms give rise to a diffracted optical field with control over its amplitude and phase. The holograms are generated by a one-step direct laser writing process in which a spatial light modulator (SLM) is imaged onto a polymer film. Temporal modulation of the SLM during exposure controls both the strength of the induced birefringence and the orientation of the fast axis. We demonstrate that complex holograms can be used to impart arbitrary amplitude and phase profiles onto a beam and thereby open new possibilities in the control of optical beams. PMID:19953153

  13. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    Tribius, Silke; Raguse, Marieclaire; Voigt, Christian; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Muenscher, Adrian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Groebe, Alexander [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Bergelt, Corinna [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Psychology, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Susanne [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-08

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie von Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (LFKHT) geht mit einschneidenden Veraenderungen einher und beeinflusst die Lebensqualitaet (LQ) erheblich. Diese prospektive Studie untersucht die LQ waehrend des ersten Jahres nach intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT) und hat Praediktoren dieser Veraenderungen herausgearbeitet, um

  14. Excitation and evolution of finite-amplitude plasma wave

    Hou, Y. W.; Wu, Y. C., E-mail: yican.wu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, M. X. [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Yu, M. Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Wu, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The evolution of a small spatially periodic perturbation in the electron velocity distribution function in collisionless plasma is reconsidered by numerically solving the Vlasov and Poisson equations. The short as well as long time behaviors of the excited oscillations and damping/modulation are followed. In the small but finite-amplitude excited plasma wave, resonant electrons become trapped in the wave potential wells and their motion affects the low-velocity electrons participating in the plasma oscillations, leading to modulation of the latter at an effective trapping frequency. It is found that the phase space of the resonant and low-velocity electrons becomes chaotic, but then self-organization takes place but remains fine-scale chaotic. It is also found that as long as particles are trapped, there is only modulation and no monotonic damping of the excited plasma wave. The modulation period/amplitude increases/decreases as the magnitude of the initial disturbance is reduced. For the initial and boundary conditions used here, linear Landau damping corresponds to the asymptotic limit of the modulation period becoming infinite, or no trapping of the resonant electrons.

  15. Excitation and evolution of finite-amplitude plasma wave

    The evolution of a small spatially periodic perturbation in the electron velocity distribution function in collisionless plasma is reconsidered by numerically solving the Vlasov and Poisson equations. The short as well as long time behaviors of the excited oscillations and damping/modulation are followed. In the small but finite-amplitude excited plasma wave, resonant electrons become trapped in the wave potential wells and their motion affects the low-velocity electrons participating in the plasma oscillations, leading to modulation of the latter at an effective trapping frequency. It is found that the phase space of the resonant and low-velocity electrons becomes chaotic, but then self-organization takes place but remains fine-scale chaotic. It is also found that as long as particles are trapped, there is only modulation and no monotonic damping of the excited plasma wave. The modulation period/amplitude increases/decreases as the magnitude of the initial disturbance is reduced. For the initial and boundary conditions used here, linear Landau damping corresponds to the asymptotic limit of the modulation period becoming infinite, or no trapping of the resonant electrons

  16. Amplitude recruitment of cochlear potential

    LI Xingqi; SUN Wei; SUN Jianhe; YU Ning; JIANG Sichang

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from outer hair cells (OHC) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were recorded from scala media (SM) in three turn of guinea pig cochlea,the compound action potential (CAP) were recorded at the round window (RW) before and after the animal were exposed to white noise. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties with “saduration” of Input/output (I/O) function of OHC AC recepter potential and CM were founded; the nonlinear properties with “Low”, “Platean” and “high” of CAP also were investigated. After explosion, the threshold shift of CAP has about 10 dB. The I/O of OHC responses and CM were changed in a linearizing (i.e., nonlinearity loss), the “platean” of I/O CAP disappeared and the growth rate of CAP amplitude were larger than before explosion. The response amplitude recruitment of OHC appears to result from reduction in gain (i.e., hearing loss); It was due to the nonlinear growth function of OHC receptor potentials was changed in linearzing that the basilar membrance motion was changed in linearizing. Since intensity coding in the inner ear depends on an interactions of nonlinear basilar membrance and nerve fibers. So that it must lead to a linearizing of CAP as input responses.

  17. A new polarization amplitude bias reduction method

    Vidal, Matias; Leahy, J. P.; Dickinson, C.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization amplitude estimation is affected by a positive noise bias, particularly important in regions with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We present a new approach to correct for this bias in the case there is additional information about the polarization angle. We develop the `known-angle estimator' that works in the special case when there is an independent and high SNR (≳ 2σ) measurement of the polarization angle. It is derived for the general case where the uncertainties in the Q, U Stokes parameters are not symmetric. This estimator completely corrects for the polarization bias if the polarization angle is perfectly known. In the realistic case, where the angle template has uncertainties, a small residual bias remains, but that is shown to be much smaller that the one left by other classical estimators. We also test our method with more realistic data, using the noise properties of the three lower frequency maps of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. In this case, the known-angle estimator also produces better results than methods that do not include the angle information. This estimator is therefore useful in the case where the polarization angle is expected to be constant over different data sets with different SNR.

  18. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  19. New identities among gauge theory amplitudes

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Feng, Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Color-ordered amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy non-linear identities involving amplitude products of different helicity configurations. We consider the origin of such identities and connect them to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes. Extensions are made to one-loop order of the full N = 4 super Yang-Mills multiplet.

  20. New identities among gauge theory amplitudes

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J., E-mail: bjbohr@nbi.d [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Feng Bo [Center of Mathematical Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Sondergaard, Thomas [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-08-09

    Color-ordered amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy non-linear identities involving amplitude products of different helicity configurations. We consider the origin of such identities and connect them to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes. Extensions are made to one-loop order of the full N=4 super Yang-Mills multiplet.

  1. New Identities among Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Feng, Bo; Sondergaard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Color-ordered amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy non-linear identities involving amplitude products of different helicity configurations. We consider the origin of such identities and connect them to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes. Extensions are made to one-loop order of the full N=4 super Yang-Mills multiplet.

  2. New identities among gauge theory amplitudes

    Color-ordered amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy non-linear identities involving amplitude products of different helicity configurations. We consider the origin of such identities and connect them to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes. Extensions are made to one-loop order of the full N=4 super Yang-Mills multiplet.

  3. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has pr...

  4. Quantum Amplitude Amplification and Estimation

    Brassard, G; Mosca, M; Tapp, A; Brassard, Gilles; Hoyer, Peter; Mosca, Michele; Tapp, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Consider a Boolean function $\\chi: X \\to \\{0,1\\}$ that partitions set $X$ between its good and bad elements, where $x$ is good if $\\chi(x)=1$ and bad otherwise. Consider also a quantum algorithm $\\mathcal A$ such that $A \\ket{0} = \\sum_{x\\in X} \\alpha_x \\ket{x}$ is a quantum superposition of the elements of $X$, and let $a$ denote the probability that a good element is produced if $A \\ket{0}$ is measured. If we repeat the process of running $A$, measuring the output, and using $\\chi$ to check the validity of the result, we shall expect to repeat $1/a$ times on the average before a solution is found. *Amplitude amplification* is a process that allows to find a good $x$ after an expected number of applications of $A$ and its inverse which is proportional to $1/\\sqrt{a}$, assuming algorithm $A$ makes no measurements. This is a generalization of Grover's searching algorithm in which $A$ was restricted to producing an equal superposition of all members of $X$ and we had a promise that a single $x$ existed such tha...

  5. Optimisation of amplitude limiters for phase preservation based on the exact solution to degenerate four-wave mixing.

    Bottrill, K R H; Hesketh, G; Parmigiani, F; Richardson, D J; Petropoulos, P

    2016-02-01

    Adopting an exact solution to four-wave mixing (FWM), wherein harmonic evolution is described by the sum of two Bessel functions, we identify two causes of amplitude to phase noise conversion which impair FWM saturation based amplitude regenerators: self-phase modulation (SPM) and Bessel-order mixing (BOM). By increasing the pump to signal power ratio, we may arbitrarily reduce their impact, realising a phase preserving amplitude regenerator. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to the regeneration of a 10 GBaud QPSK signal, achieving a high level of amplitude squeezing with minimal amplitude to phase noise conversion. PMID:26906847

  6. Lifetime and residual strength of materials

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated...

  7. Amplitude stabilization of the Green Bank Telescope fiber optics

    White, Steven D.

    1998-07-01

    Commercially available analog fiber optic links provide the wide bandwidth, interference protection, and isolation for transmission of receiver IF bands to the digital processing equipment for the Green Bank Telescopes. An amplitude stability of 10(superscript -4) over periods of several minutes is required for continuum observations and baseline stability for broad spectral line observations. Gain variations of 1 percent were observed in a commercially available direct-modulated Fabry-Perot laser fiber optic link, when stress induced birefringence changes occurred in the fiber. Further investigation revealed gain variations were produced by the polarization dependence of responsivity in the photodetectors. Scale models of the cable wraps revealed that rotation of the laser with respect to the photodiode, due to certain cable wrap designs, is the dominant source of gain instabilities, and a clock spring-type cable wrap reduces this effect. However, the potential for gain variations due to vibration of the structure is not solved by careful cable wrap design. Therefore, an optical level control system is developed to ensure amplitude stability requirements are satisfied. In this system, consisting of a distributed feedback laser diode, a Mach Zehnder intensity modulator, and a high-powered photodetector, the microwave power gain is a function of laser power. The gain is stabilized by detecting the change in average photodetector current and modulating the laser diode bias with a correction voltage. With a second-order control loop, the gain changes resulting from the polarization sensitivity of the photodiode are corrected to better than 10(superscript -4).

  8. New chopper modulators using differential voltage current conveyor

    Kumngern, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new chopper modulators which can enable to assign three modulators in one circuit. Full amplitude modulators as Cowan and Ring modulators are kinds of the amplitude modulators as well. The proposed circuit is implemented from the differential voltage current conveyor, four-MOS transistors switch and two-MOS transistors inverter. The advantage of this proposed circuit is high input and low output impedance and is able to be connected with any load without buffer and the num...

  9. Modulation of ultrasound to produce multifrequency radiation force1

    Urban, Matthew W.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Greenleaf, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic radiation force has been used in several types of applications, and is performed by modulating ultrasound with different methods. By modulating ultrasound, energy can be transmitted to tissue, in this case a dynamic force to elicit a low frequency cyclic displacement to inspect the material properties of the tissue. In this paper, different types of modulation are explored including amplitude modulation (AM), double sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulation AM, linear frequency...

  10. Gravity and Yang-Mills amplitude relations

    Using only general features of the S matrix and quantum field theory, we prove by induction the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations that link products of gauge theory amplitudes to gravity amplitudes at tree level. As a bonus of our analysis, we provide a novel and more symmetric form of these relations. We also establish an infinite tower of new identities between amplitudes in gauge theories.

  11. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  12. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  13. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: these can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes require an off-shell formalism.

  14. The Trace Formula of the Spinoriel Amplitude

    Mekhfi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We re express the fermion's probability amplitude as a trace over spinor indices, which formulation surprisingly does not exist in literature. This formulation puts the probabilty amplitude and the the probabilty(squared amplitude) of a given process on equal footing at the compuational level and this is our principal motivation to write the present paper. We test the power of the trace formula in three applications: Calculation of the charge-current of fermions by using symbolic programs, wh...

  15. Covariant method for calculating helicity amplitudes

    We present an alternative approach for calculating helicity amplitudes for processes involving both massless and massive fermions. With this method one can easily obtain covariant expressions for the helicity amplitudes. The final expressions involve only four-vector products and are independent of the basis for γ matrices or specific form of the spinors. We use the method to obtain the helicity amplitudes for several processes involving top quark production. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Amplitude gating for a coached breathing approach in respiratory gated 10 MV flattening filter-free VMAT delivery.

    Viel, Francis; Lee, Richard; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate amplitude gating combined with a coached breathing strategy for 10 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the Varian TrueBeam linac. Ten patient plans for VMAT SABR liver were created using the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The verification plans were then transferred to a CT-scanned Quasar phantom and delivered on a TrueBeam linac using a 10 MV FFF beam and Varian's real-time position management (RPM) system for respiratory gating based on breathing amplitude. Breathing traces were acquired from ten patients using two kinds of breathing patterns: free breathing and an interrupted (~ 5 s pause) end of exhale coached breathing pattern. Ion chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were acquired for a gated delivery while the phantom moved under the described breathing patterns, as well as for a nongated stationary phantom delivery. The gate window was set to obtain a range of residual target motion from 2-5 mm. All gated deliveries on a moving phantom have been shown to be dosimetrically equivalent to the nongated deliveries on a static phantom, with differences in point dose measurements under 1% and average gamma 2%/2 mm agreement above 98.7%. Comparison with the treatment planning system also resulted in good agreement, with differences in point-dose measurements under 2.5% and average gamma 3%/3 mm agreement of 97%. The use of a coached breathing pattern significantly increases the duty cycle, compared with free breathing, and allows for shorter treatment times. Patients' free-breathing patterns contain considerable variability and, although dosimetric results for gated delivery may be acceptable, it is difficult to achieve efficient treatment delivery. A coached breathing pattern combined with a 5 mm amplitude gate, resulted in both high-quality dose distributions and overall shortest gated beam delivery times. PMID:26219000

  17. Q factor and resonance amplitude of Josephson tunnel junctions

    The surface impedance of the superconducting films comprising the electrodes of Josephson tunnel junctions has been derived from the BCS theory in the extreme London limit. Expressions have been obtained for (i) the dependence of the penetration depth lambda on frequency and temperature, and (ii) the quality factor Q of the junction cavity, attributable to surface absorption in the electrodes. The effect of thin electrodes (t 9 or approx. = lambda) is also included in the calculations. Comparison of the calculated frequency dependence of lambda with resonance measurements on Pb-alloy and all-Nb tunnel junctions yields quite good agreement, indicating that the assumptions made in the theory are reasonable. Measurements of the (current) amplitude of the resonance peaks of the junctions have been compared with the values obtained from inclusion of the calculated Q in the theory by Kulik. In common with observations on microwave cavities by other workers, we find that a small residual conductivity must be added to the real part of the BCS value. With its inclusion, good agreement is found between calculation and experiment, within the range determined by the simplifying assumptions of Kulik's theory. From the results, we believe the calculation of Q to be reasonably accurate for the materials investigated. It is shown that the resonance amplitude of Josephson junctions can be calculated directly from the material constants and a knowledge of the residual conductivity

  18. Phase and Amplitude Responses of Narrow-Band Optical Filter Measured by Microwave Network Analyzer

    Wang, Hsi-Cheng; Ho, Keang-Po

    2006-01-01

    The phase and amplitude responses of a narrow-band optical filter are measured simultaneously using a microwave network analyzer. The measurement is based on an interferometric arrangement to split light into two paths and then combine them. In one of the two paths, a Mach-Zehnder modulator generates two tones without carrier and the narrow-band optical filter just passes through one of the tones. The temperature and environmental variations are removed by separated phase and amplitude averag...

  19. Modulational instabilities in discrete lattices

    We study analytically and numerically modulational instabilities in discrete nonlinear chains, taking the discrete Klein-Gordon model as an example. We show that discreteness can drastically change the conditions for modulational instability; e.g., at small wave numbers a nonlinear carrier wave is unstable to all possible modulations of its amplitude if the wave amplitude exceeds a certain threshold value. Numerical simulations show the validity of the analytical approach for the initial stage of the time evolution, provided that the harmonics generated by the nonlinear terms are considered. The long-term evolution exhibits chaoticlike states

  20. Recipes for cantilever parameter determination in dynamic force spectroscopy: spring constant and amplitude

    Measuring procedures for sensor parameters in frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy have been studied. As the tip-sample interaction forces cannot be recalculated from the experimental data without knowledge of the sensor's spring constant and oscillation amplitude, a treatment for normal spring constant calibration and newly developed schemes for the determination of the cantilever oscillation amplitude are presented. The amplitude evaluation techniques are based either on tunnelling current operation or frequency shift detection and are therefore applicable to many tip-sample systems. Although the amplitudes measured were larger than 1 nm, the scheme is applicable over a wide range of stable oscillation conditions, in particular for very small amplitudes. The ideas have been developed with the aid of simple calculations and simulations. Findings are supported by results from our low-temperature ultrahigh vacuum, dual-mode dynamic force and scanning tunnelling microscope. A quartz tuning fork has been used as a force sensor

  1. On the nullification of threshold amplitudes

    Gonera, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The nullification of threshold amplitudes is considered within the conventional framework of quantum field theory. The relevant Ward identities for the reduced theory are derived both on path-integral and diagrammatic levels. They are then used to prove the vanishing of tree-graph threshold amplitudes.

  2. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are n

  3. Production amplitude for a single scalar resonance

    We derive a simple expression for the production amplitude of two pseudoscalar mesons involving a single scalar resonance. This amplitude is determined by a combination of Watson's phase δ(s) and another phase ω(s), related to an unambiguous two-meson propagator. With a lagrangian model, we study the σππ system

  4. Finite amplitude dynamic motion of viscoelastic materials.

    Yen, H.-C.; Mcintire, L. V.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that an integral constitutive relation containing a memory function depending on strain tensor invariants can describe the rheological behavior of finite amplitude oscillatory motion of polymer solutions both qualitatively and quantitatively. Values of the material constants are obtained by a numerical technique of simultaneously curve fitting simple shearing viscosity, first normal stress difference, and small amplitude oscillatory motion data.

  5. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    Søgaard, Mads

    Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...

  6. Amplitude death in steadily forced chaotic systems

    Feng Guo-Lin; He Wen-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Steady forcing can induce the amplitude death in chaotic systems, which generally exists in coupled dynamic systems. Using the Lorenz system as a typical example, this paper investigates the dynamic behaviours of the chaotic system with steady forcing numerically, and finds that amplitude death can occur as the strength of the steady forcing goes beyond a critical constant.

  7. Consistent Off-Shell Tree String Amplitudes

    Liccardo, A; Marotta, R

    1999-01-01

    We give a construction of off-shell tree bosonic string amplitudes, based on the operatorial formalism of the N-string Vertex, with three external massless states both for open and closed strings by requiring their being projective invariant. In particular our prescription leads, in the low-energy limit, to the three-gluon amplitude in the usual covariant gauge.

  8. New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  9. The Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude: Asymptotics

    Engle, Jonathan; Zipfel, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, the Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude for a spin-foam model of quantum gravity was derived. In the present work, the asymptotics of this amplitude are studied in the semi-classical limit. The starting point of the analysis is an expression for the amplitude as an action integral with action differing from that in the EPRL case by an extra `projector' term which scales linearly with spins only in the asymptotic limit. New tools are introduced to generalize stationary phase methods to this case. For the case of boundary data which can be glued to a non-degenerate Lorentzian 4-simplex, the asymptotic limit of the amplitude is shown to equal the single Feynman term, showing that the extra term in the asymptotics of the EPRL amplitude has been eliminated.

  10. New Relations for Gauge-Theory Amplitudes

    Bern, Z; Johansson, H

    2008-01-01

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multi-loop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the KLT relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This can be used to obtain novel relations similar to the KLT ones. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  11. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  12. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

    Eugen eDiesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edgeResults: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other.Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.

  13. Relations Between Closed String Amplitudes at Higher-order Tree Level and Open String Amplitudes

    Chen, Yi-Xin; Ma, Qian

    2009-01-01

    KLT relations almost factorize closed string amplitudes on $S_2$ by two open string tree amplitudes which correspond to the left- and the right- moving sectors. In this paper, we investigate string amplitudes on $D_2$ and $RP_2$. We find that KLT factorization relations do not hold in these two cases. The relations between closed and open string amplitudes have new forms. On $D_2$ and $RP_2$, the left- and the right- moving sectors are connected into a single sector. Then an amplitude with closed strings on $D_2$ or $RP_2$ can be given by one open string tree amplitude except for a phase factor. The relations depends on the topologies of the world-sheets. In the low energy limits of these two cases, the factorization relations for graviton amplitudes do not hold. The amplitudes for gravitons must be given by the new relations instead.

  14. Parameters estimation of a noisy sinusoidal signal with time-varying amplitude

    Liu, Da-Yan; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give estimators of the frequency, amplitude and phase of a noisy sinusoidal signal with time-varying amplitude by using the algebraic parametric techniques introduced by Fliess and Sira-Ramirez. We apply a similar strategy to estimate these parameters by using modulating functions method. The convergence of the noise error part due to a large class of noises is studied to show the robustness and the stability of these methods. We also show that the estimators obtained by modulating functions method are robust to "large" sampling period and to non zero-mean noises.

  15. Full Complex Amplitude Digital Holograms:Design,Fabrication and Optical Characterization

    Neto L G; Cardona P S P; Cirino G A; Mansanoc R D; Verdonck P

    2004-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements have a large number of industrial applications, such as beam shaping and optical filtering. Traditionally, these elements modulate the phase of the incoming light or its amplitude, but not both. To overcome this limitation, full complex-amplitude modulation diffractive optical elements were developed. Well-established integrated circuit fabrication steps were employed to fabricate the devices with high precision. Using this approach, the new element's optical performances are improved also for near field operations. With this device it is possible to obtain 100% efficient spatial filtering and low noise reconstructed images.

  16. π- and K-meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes

    Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-quark scattering kernel K, we derive the explicit relation between the flavor-nonsinglet pseudoscalar-meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude ΓH and the dressed-quark propagator in the chiral limit. In addition to a term proportional to γ5, ΓH necessarily contains qualitatively and quantitatively important terms proportional to γ5γ·P and γ5γ·kk·P, where P is the total momentum of the bound state. The axial-vector vertex contains a bound state pole described by ΓH, whose residue is the leptonic decay constant for the bound state. The pseudoscalar vertex also contains such a bound state pole and, in the chiral limit, the residue of this pole is related to the vacuum quark condensate. The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity relates these pole residues, with the Gell-Mann endash Oakes endash Renner relation a corollary of this identity. The dominant ultraviolet asymptotic behavior of the scalar functions in the meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is fully determined by the behavior of the chiral limit quark mass function, and is characteristic of the QCD renormalization group. The rainbow-ladder Ansatz for K, with a simple model for the dressed-quark-quark interaction, is used to illustrate and elucidate these general results. The model preserves the one-loop renormalization group structure of QCD. The numerical studies also provide a means of exploring procedures for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without a three-dimensional reduction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Polynomial reduction and evaluation of tree- and loop-level CHY amplitudes

    Zlotnikov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We develop a polynomial reduction procedure that transforms any gauge fixed CHY amplitude integrand for $n$ scattering particles into a $\\sigma$-moduli multivariate polynomial of what we call the $\\textit{standard form}$. We show that a standard form polynomial must have a specific $\\textit{ladder type}$ monomial structure, which has finite size at any $n$, with highest multivariate degree given by $\\frac{(n-3)(n-4)}{2}$. This set of monomials spans a complete basis for polynomials with rational coefficients in kinematic data on the support of scattering equations. Subsequently, at tree and one-loop level, we employ the global residue theorem to derive a prescription that evaluates any CHY amplitude by means of collecting simple residues at infinity only. The prescription is then applied explicitly to some tree and one-loop amplitude examples.

  18. Statistical performance of IF estimation of LFM signals with time-varying amplitude using the peak of WVD

    Chen Guanghua; Ma Shiwei; Qin Tinghao; Wang Jian; Li Ming; Cao Jialin

    2005-01-01

    The instantaneous frequency (IF) estimation of the linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals with time-varying amplitude using the peak of the Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is studied. Theoretical analysis shows that the estimation on LFM signals with time-varying amplitude is unbiased, only if WVD of time-varying amplitude reaches its maximum at frequency zero no matter in which time. The statistical performance in the case of additive white Guassian noise is evaluated and an analytical expression for the variance is provided. The simulations using LFM signals with Gaussian envelope testify that IF can be estimated accurately using the peak of WVD for four models of amplitude variation. Furthermore the statistical result of estimation on the signals with amplitude descending before rising is better than that of the signals with constant amplitude when the amplitude variation rate is moderate.

  19. On the Integrand-Reduction Method for Two-Loop Scattering Amplitudes

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    We propose a first implementation of the integrand-reduction method for two-loop scattering amplitudes. We show that the residues of the amplitudes on multi-particle cuts are polynomials in the irreducible scalar products involving the loop momenta, and that the reduction of the amplitudes in terms of master integrals can be realized through polynomial fitting of the integrand, without any apriori knowledge of the integral basis. We discuss how the polynomial shapes of the residues determine the basis of master integrals appearing in the final result. We present a four-dimensional constructive algorithm that we apply to planar and non-planar contributions to the 4- and 5-point MHV amplitudes in N=4 SYM. The technique hereby discussed extends the well-established analogous method holding for one-loop amplitudes, and can be considered a preliminary study towards the systematic reduction at the integrand-level of two-loop amplitudes in any gauge theory, suitable for their automated semianalytic evaluation.

  20. Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)

  1. $\\pi$ and K-meson Bethe-Salpeter Amplitudes

    Maris, P

    1997-01-01

    Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-quark scattering kernel, K, we derive the explicit relation between the flavour-nonsinglet pseudoscalar meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, Gamma_H, and the dressed-quark propagator in the chiral limit. In addition to a term proportional to gamma_5, Gamma_H necessarily contains qualitatively and quantitatively important terms proportional to gamma_5 gamma.P and gamma_5 gamma.k k.P, where P is the total momentum of the bound state. The axial-vector vertex contains a bound state pole described by Gamma_H, whose residue is the leptonic decay constant for the bound state. The pseudoscalar vertex also contains such a bound state pole and, in the chiral limit, the residue of this pole is related to the vacuum quark condensate. The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity relates these pole residues; with the Gell-Mann--Oakes--Renner relation a corollary of this identity. The dominant ultraviolet asymptotic behaviour of the scalar functions in the meson Bethe-Salpeter a...

  2. Softness and Amplitudes' Positivity for Spinning Particles

    Bellazzini, Brando

    2016-01-01

    We derive positivity bounds for scattering amplitudes of particles with arbitrary spin using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The bounds imply the positivity of certain low-energy coefficients of the effective action that controls the dynamics of the light degrees of freedom. We show that low-energy amplitudes strictly softer than $O(p^4)$ do not admit unitary ultraviolet completions unless the theory is free. This enforces a bound on the energy growth of scattering amplitudes in the region of validity of the effective theory. We discuss explicit examples including the Goldstino from spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and the theory of a spin-1/2 fermion with a shift symmetry.

  3. Multigluon helicity amplitudes involving a quark loop

    Mahlon, G

    1994-01-01

    We apply the solution to the recursion relation for the double-off-shell quark current to the problem of computing one loop amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gluons. We are able to compute amplitudes for photon-gluon scattering, electron-positron annihilation to gluons, and gluon-gluon scattering via a quark loop in the case of like-helicity gluons. In addition, we present the result for the one-loop gluon-gluon scattering amplitude when one of the gluons has opposite helicity from the others.

  4. Form Factor and Boundary Contribution of Amplitude

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The boundary contribution of an amplitude in the BCFW recursion relation can be considered as a form factor involving boundary operator and unshifted particles. At the tree-level, we show that by suitable construction of Lagrangian, one can relate the leading order term of boundary operators to some composite operators of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, then the computation of form factors is translated to the computation of amplitudes. We compute the form factors of these composite operators through the computation of corresponding double trace amplitudes.

  5. Scattering equations and global duality of residues

    Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang

    2016-05-01

    We examine the polynomial form of the scattering equations by means of computational algebraic geometry. The scattering equations are the backbone of the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) representation of the S-matrix. We explain how the Bezoutian matrix facilitates the calculation of amplitudes in the CHY formalism, without explicitly solving the scattering equations or summing over the individual residues. Since for n -particle scattering the size of the Bezoutian matrix grows only as (n -3 )×(n -3 ), our algorithm is very efficient for analytic and numeric amplitude computations.

  6. Motivic multiple zeta values and superstring amplitudes

    The structure of tree-level open and closed superstring amplitudes is analyzed. For the open superstring amplitude we find a striking and elegant form, which allows one to disentangle its α′-expansion into several contributions accounting for different classes of multiple zeta values. This form is bolstered by the decomposition of motivic multiple zeta values, i.e. the latter encapsulate the α′-expansion of the superstring amplitude. Moreover, a morphism induced by the coproduct maps the α′-expansion onto a non-commutative Hopf algebra. This map represents a generalization of the symbol of a transcendental function. In terms of elements of this Hopf algebra the α′-expansion assumes a very simple and symmetric form, which carries all the relevant information. Equipped with these results we can also cast the closed superstring amplitude into a very elegant form. (paper)

  7. Off-shell amplitudes in superstring theory

    Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad, 211019 (India)

    2015-04-01

    Computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in string theory, involving states whose masses are not protected from quantum corrections, requires defining off-shell amplitude with certain factorization properties. While in the bosonic string theory one can in principle construct such an amplitude from string field theory, there is no fully consistent field theory for type II and heterotic string theory. In this paper we give a practical construction of off-shell amplitudes satisfying the desired factorization property using the formalism of picture changing operators. We describe a systematic procedure for dealing with the spurious singularities of the integration measure that we encounter in superstring perturbation theory. This procedure is also useful for computing on-shell amplitudes, as we demonstrate by computing the effect of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms in four dimensional heterotic string theory compactifications using this formalism. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. The singular behavior of massive QCD amplitudes

    We discuss the structure of infrared singularities in on-shell QCD amplitudes with massive partons and present a general factorization formula in the limit of small parton masses. The factorization formula gives rise to an all-order exponentiation of both, the soft poles in dimensional regularization and the large collinear logarithms of the parton masses. Moreover, it provides a universal relation between any on-shell amplitude with massive external partons and its corresponding massless amplitude. For the form factor of a heavy quark we present explicit results including the fixed-order expansion up to three loops in the small mass limit. For general scattering processes we show how our constructive method applies to the computation of all singularities as well as the constant (mass-independent) terms of a generic massive n-parton QCD amplitude up to the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections. (orig.)

  9. Amplitudes for left-handed strings

    Siegel, W

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of string-like models introduced previously where all modes are left-handed, all states are massless, T-duality is manifest, and only a finite number of orders in the string tension can appear. These theories arise from standard string theories by a singular gauge limit and associated change in worldsheet boundary conditions. In this paper we show how to calculate amplitudes by using the gauge parameter as an infrared regulator. The amplitudes produce the Cachazo-He-Yuan delta-functions after some modular integration; the Mason-Skinner string-like action and amplitudes arise from the zero-tension (infinite-slope) limit. However, without the limit the amplitudes have the same problems as found in the Mason-Skinner formalism.

  10. Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2016-01-01

    The closed topological vertex is the simplest "off-strip" case of non-compact toric Calabi-Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an "on-strip" subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive $q$-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These $q$-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve.

  11. Holomorphic Factorization of Superstring Scattering Amplitudes

    Simon Davis

    2011-01-01

    The holomorphic factorization of the superstring partition function is verified at arbitrary genus.The evaluation of scattering amplitudes and the implications of genus-dependent estimates on the string coupling are given.

  12. Lectures on Scattering Amplitudes in String Theory

    Staessens, Wieland

    2010-01-01

    In these lecture notes, we take a closer look at the calculation of scattering amplitudes for the bosonic string. It is believed that string theories form the UV completions of (super)gravity theories. Support for this claim can be found in the (on-shell) scattering amplitudes of strings. On the other hand, studying these string scattering amplitudes opens a window on the UV behavior of the string theories themselves. In these short set of lectures, we discuss the two-dimensional Polyakov path integral for the string, and its gauge symmetries, the connection to Riemann surfaces and how to obtain some of the simplest string scattering amplitudes. We end with some comments on more advanced topics. For simplicity we limit ourselves to bosonic open string theory in 26 dimensions.

  13. Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex

    The closed topological vertex is the simplest ‘off-strip’ case of non-compact toric Calabi–Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an ‘on-strip’ subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive q-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These q-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve. (paper)

  14. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Várilly, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  15. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  16. Path integral evaluation of Dbrane amplitudes

    Chaudhuri, Shyamoli

    1999-01-01

    We extend Polchinski's evaluation of the measure for the one-loop closed string path integral to open string tree amplitudes with boundaries and crosscaps embedded in Dbranes. We explain how the nonabelian limit of near-coincident Dbranes emerges in the path integral formalism. We give a careful path integral derivation of the cylinder amplitude including the modulus dependence of the volume of the conformal Killing group.

  17. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full α' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the α' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  18. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation in SCET

    Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2016-01-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  19. Quartic amplitudes for Minkowski higher spin

    Bengtsson, Anders K H

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding general quartic interaction terms between fields of higher helicities on the light-front is discussed from the point of view of calculating the corresponding amplitudes directly from the cubic vertices using BCFW recursion. Amplitude based no-go results that has appeared in the literature are reviewed and discussed and it is pointed out how they may perhaps be circumvented.

  20. Power Module

    Gang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them. Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module

  1. Faraday patterns in Bose-Einstein condensates. Amplitude equation for rolls in the parametrically driven, damped Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    de Valcarcel, German J.

    2002-01-01

    The parametrically driven, damped Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which models Bose-Einstein condensates in which the interatomic s-wave scattering length is modulated in time, is shown to support spatially modulated states in the form of rolls. A Landau equation with broken phase symmetry is derived, which governs the dynamics of the roll amplitude.

  2. Relations between closed string amplitudes at higher-order tree level and open string amplitudes

    KLT relations almost factorize closed string amplitudes on S2 by two open string tree amplitudes which correspond to the left- and the right-moving sectors. In this paper, we investigate string amplitudes on D2 and RP2. We find that KLT factorization relations do not hold in these two cases. The relations between closed and open string amplitudes have new forms. On D2 and RP2, the left- and the right-moving sectors are connected into a single sector. Then an amplitude with closed strings on D2 or RP2 can be given by one open string tree amplitude except for a phase factor. The relations depends on the topologies of the world-sheets. Under T-duality, the relations on D2 and RP2 give the amplitudes between closed strings scattering from D-brane and O-plane respectively by open string partial amplitudes. In the low energy limits of these two cases, the factorization relations for graviton amplitudes do not hold. The amplitudes for gravitons must be given by the new relations instead.

  3. Relations between closed string amplitudes at higher-order tree level and open string amplitudes

    Chen Yixin, E-mail: yxchen@zimp.zju.edu.c [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Du Yijian, E-mail: yjdu@zju.edu.c [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ma Qian, E-mail: mathons@gmail.co [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-01-01

    KLT relations almost factorize closed string amplitudes on S{sub 2} by two open string tree amplitudes which correspond to the left- and the right-moving sectors. In this paper, we investigate string amplitudes on D{sub 2} and RP{sub 2}. We find that KLT factorization relations do not hold in these two cases. The relations between closed and open string amplitudes have new forms. On D{sub 2} and RP{sub 2}, the left- and the right-moving sectors are connected into a single sector. Then an amplitude with closed strings on D{sub 2} or RP{sub 2} can be given by one open string tree amplitude except for a phase factor. The relations depends on the topologies of the world-sheets. Under T-duality, the relations on D{sub 2} and RP{sub 2} give the amplitudes between closed strings scattering from D-brane and O-plane respectively by open string partial amplitudes. In the low energy limits of these two cases, the factorization relations for graviton amplitudes do not hold. The amplitudes for gravitons must be given by the new relations instead.

  4. Relations between closed string amplitudes at higher-order tree level and open string amplitudes

    Chen, Yi-Xin; Du, Yi-Jian; Ma, Qian

    2010-01-01

    KLT relations almost factorize closed string amplitudes on S by two open string tree amplitudes which correspond to the left- and the right-moving sectors. In this paper, we investigate string amplitudes on D and RP. We find that KLT factorization relations do not hold in these two cases. The relations between closed and open string amplitudes have new forms. On D and RP, the left- and the right-moving sectors are connected into a single sector. Then an amplitude with closed strings on D or RP can be given by one open string tree amplitude except for a phase factor. The relations depends on the topologies of the world-sheets. Under T-duality, the relations on D and RP give the amplitudes between closed strings scattering from D-brane and O-plane respectively by open string partial amplitudes. In the low energy limits of these two cases, the factorization relations for graviton amplitudes do not hold. The amplitudes for gravitons must be given by the new relations instead.

  5. Understanding and Ameliorating Non-Linear Phase and Amplitude Responses in AMCW Lidar

    John P. Godbaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW lidar systems commonly suffer from non-linear phase and amplitude responses due to a number of known factors such as aliasing and multipath inteference. In order to produce useful range and intensity information it is necessary to remove these perturbations from the measurements. We review the known causes of non-linearity, namely aliasing, temporal variation in correlation waveform shape and mixed pixels/multipath inteference. We also introduce other sources of non-linearity, including crosstalk, modulation waveform envelope decay and non-circularly symmetric noise statistics, that have been ignored in the literature. An experimental study is conducted to evaluate techniques for mitigation of non-linearity, and it is found that harmonic cancellation provides a significant improvement in phase and amplitude linearity.

  6. Complex light modulation for lensless image projection

    M. Makowski; A. Kolodziejczyk; A. Siemion; I. Ducin; K. Kakarenko; M. Sypek; A. M. Siemion; J. Suszek; D. Wojnowski; Z. Jaroszewicz

    2011-01-01

    We present a lensless projection of color images based on computer-generated Fourier holograms. Amplitude and phase modulation of three primary-colored laser beams is performed by a matched pair of spatial light modulators. The main advantage of the complex light modulation is the lack of iterative phase retrieval techniques. The advantage is the lack of speckles in the projected images. Experimental results are given and compared with the outcome of classical phase-only modulation.%We present a lensless projection of color images based on computer-generated Fourier holograms.Amplitude and phase modulation of three primary-colored laser beams is performed by a matched pair of spatial light modulators.The main advantage of the complex light modulation is the lack of iterative phase retrieval techniques.The advantage is the lack of speckles in the projected images.Experimental results are given and compared with the outcome of classical phase-only modulation.

  7. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  8. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  9. Amplitude scaling of asymmetry-induced transport

    Our initial experiments on asymmetry-induced transport in non-neutral plasmas found the radial particle flux at small radii to be proportional to φa2, where φa is the applied asymmetry amplitude. Other researchers, however, using the global expansion rate as a measure of the transport, have observed a φa1 scaling when the rigidity (the ratio of the axial bounce frequency to the azimuthal rotation frequency) is in the range one to ten. In an effort to resolve this discrepancy, we have extended our measurements to different radii and asymmetry frequencies. Although the results to date are generally in agreement with those previously reported (φa2 scaling at low asymmetry amplitudes falling off to a weaker scaling at higher amplitudes), we have observed some cases where the low amplitude scaling is closer to φa1. Both the φa2 and φa1 cases, however, have rigidities less than ten. Instead, we find that the φa1 cases are characterized by an induced flux that is comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to the background flux. This suggests that the mixing of applied and background asymmetries plays an important role in determining the amplitude scaling of this transport

  10. Linearized Bragg grating assisted electro-optic modulator.

    Khurgin, Jacob B; Morton, Paul A

    2014-12-15

    We propose a new linearized electro-optic modulator in which linearization is achieved by modulating the index of a Bragg grating reflector placed in the arm(s) of a Michelson Interferometer. This grating-assisted Michelson (GAMI) modulator can operate as either an intensity or amplitude modulator, and is shown to significantly improve the linearity of microwave photonics links. PMID:25503037

  11. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    Basu, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the R^4, D^4 R^4 and D^6 R^4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T--duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi--loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non--separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from the logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight dimensions.

  12. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  13. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  14. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  15. Duality and effective amplitudes in quantum chromodynamics

    This work is an attempt to relate the partonic and hadronic phases of strong interactions by means of a model of effective string amplitudes which take into account color coherence without the need to restrict the phase-space. The basic idea of this approach is to construct, from open superstrings, string amplitudes which give, at the zero slope limit, QCD amplitudes. The running parameters (coupling and slope) of the model are constrained by perturbative QCD and by the consistency of string quantization. When the running slope becomes equal to the hadronic one, the model can be used in the hadronic sector. This approach could provide some hints about the effective string theory of QCD, and a better understanding of the parton-hadron duality

  16. On Arbitrary Phases in Quantum Amplitude Amplification

    Hoyer, P

    2000-01-01

    We consider the use of arbitrary phases in quantum amplitude amplification which is a generalization of quantum searching. We prove that the phase condition in amplitude amplification is given by $\\tan(\\phi/2)=\\tan(\\phi/2)(1-2a)$, where $\\phi$ and $\\phi$ are the phases used and where $a$ is the success probability of the given algorithm. Thus the choice of phases depends nontrivially and nonlinearly on the success probability. Utilizing this condition, we give methods for constructing quantum algorithms that succeed with certainty and for implementing arbitrary rotations. We also conclude that phase errors of order up to $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{a}}$ can be tolerated in amplitude amplification.

  17. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 02) -i/2 129 (3) (1) (7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  18. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Alday, Luis F

    2007-01-01

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N=4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  19. Softness, Polynomial Boundedness and Amplitudes' Positivity

    Bai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the connection between infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors of scattering amplitudes of massless channels by exploiting dispersion relations and positivity bounds. Given forward scattering amplitudes which scale as $\\mathcal{A}(s)\\sim s^M$ in the IR ($s\\to0$) and could be embedded into UV completions satisfying unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry and polynomial boundedness $|\\mathcal{A}(s)|< c\\, |s|^N$ ($|s|\\to\\infty$), with $M$ and $N$ integers, we show that the inequality $2\\ceil*{\\frac{N}{2}}\\ge M \\ge 0$ must hold, where $\\ceil*{x}$ is the smallest integer greater than or equal to $x$.

  20. Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge;

    2009-01-01

    The input power tolerance of a single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifier (FOPA) is experimentally shown to be enhanced for return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation compared to RZ ON–OFF keying modulation at 40 Gb/s. The improved nonlinear tolerance is exploited to...... demonstrate amplitude regeneration of a distorted RZ-DPSK signal in a gain-saturated FOPA. An optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of 3.5 dB after amplitude distortion is shown to be reduced to 0.2 dB after the FOPA, thus clearly demonstrating the regenerative nature of saturated FOPAs for RZ-DPSK modulation....

  1. Phase-to-amplitude data page conversion for holographic storage and optical encryption.

    Koppa, Pál

    2007-06-10

    A new phase-to-amplitude data page conversion method is proposed for efficient recovery of the data encoded in phase-modulated data pages used in holographic storage and optical encryption. The method is based on the interference between the data page and its copy shifted by an integral number of pixels. Key properties such as Fourier plane homogeneity, bit error rate, and positioning tolerances are investigated by computer modeling, and a comparison is provided with amplitude-modulated data page holographic storage with and without static phase masks. The feasibility and the basic properties of the proposed method are experimentally demonstrated. The results show that phase-modulated data pages can be used efficiently with reduced system complexity. PMID:17514316

  2. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  3. The effect of airway pressure and oscillation amplitude on ventilation in pre-term infants.

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariette B; van Kaam, Anton H

    2012-08-01

    We determined the effect of lung recruitment and oscillation amplitude on regional oscillation volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) used in pre-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Changes in lung volume, oscillation volume and carbon dioxide levels were recorded in 10 infants during a stepwise recruitment procedure, and an increase in pressure amplitude of 5 cmH(2)O was measured using electrical impedance tomography and transcutaneous monitoring. The pressures at maximal respiratory system compliance, maximal oscillation volume and minimal carbon dioxide levels were determined. Impedance data were analysed for the chest cross-section and predefined regions of interest. Despite the fixed pressure amplitude, the oscillation volume changed during the incremental pressure steps following a parabolic pattern, with an inverse relationship to the carbon dioxide pressures. The pressures corresponding with maximal compliance, maximal oscillation volume and minimal carbon dioxide were similar and highly correlated. Regional analysis showed similar findings. The increase in pressure amplitude resulted in increased oscillation volumes and decreased carbon dioxide levels, while FRC remained unchanged. In HFV pre-term infants with RDS, oscillation volumes are closely related to the position of ventilation in the pressure-volume envelope and the applied pressure amplitude. Changes in pressure amplitude do not seem to affect FRC. PMID:22362852

  4. Amplitudes of 3D and 6D Maximal Superconformal Theories in Supertwistor Space

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2010-01-01

    We use supertwistor space to construct scattering amplitudes of maximal superconformal theories in three and six dimensions. In both cases, the constraint of superconformal invariance and rationality implies that the three-point amplitude vanishes on-shell, which constrains the four-point amplitude to have vanishing residues in all channels. In three dimensions, we find a unique solution for the four-point amplitude and demonstrate that it agrees with the component result in the BLG theory. This suggests that BLG is the unique three-dimensional theory with classical $OSp(8|4)$ symmetry that admits a Lagrangian description. We also show that one can derive the four-point amplitude of the ABJM theory from our $\\mathcal{N}=8$ result by reducing the supersymmetry, which implies that the tree-level Yangian symmetry recently found in ABJM is also present in BLG. In six dimensions, we find that the consistency conditions imply that all tree-level amplitudes vanish. This leads us to conjecture that the interacting $\\...

  5. On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics

    Karplyuk, Kostyantyn; Zhmudsky, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.

  6. Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using...

  7. Amplitude Correction Factors of KVN Observations

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3 and NRAO~512, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We found that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combinat...

  8. Generalised Unitarity for Dimensionally Regulated Amplitudes

    Bobadilla, W J Torres; Mastrolia, P; Mirabella, E

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel set of Feynman rules and generalised unitarity cut-conditions for computing one-loop amplitudes via d-dimensional integrand reduction algorithm. Our algorithm is suited for analytic as well as numerical result, because all ingredients turn out to have a four-dimensional representation. We will apply this formalism to NLO QCD corrections.

  9. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    He, Song

    2016-01-01

    Witten's twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  10. Holographic Corrections to the Veneziano Amplitude

    Armoni, Adi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic computation of the $2\\rightarrow 2$ meson scattering in a curved string background, dual to a QCD-like theory. We recover the Veneziano amplitude and compute a perturbative correction due to the background curvature. The result implies a small deviation from a linear trajectory, which is a requirement of the UV regime of QCD.

  11. Attenuation of ground-motion spectral amplitudes in southeastern Australia

    Allen, T.I.; Cummins, P.R.; Dhu, T.; Schneider, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    A dataset comprising some 1200 weak- and strong-motion records from 84 earthquakes is compiled to develop a regional ground-motion model for southeastern Australia (SEA). Events were recorded from 1993 to 2004 and range in size from moment magnitude 2.0 ??? M ??? 4.7. The decay of vertical-component Fourier spectral amplitudes is modeled by trilinear geometrical spreading. The decay of low-frequency spectral amplitudes can be approximated by the coefficient of R-1.3 (where R is hypocentral distance) within 90 km of the seismic source. From approximately 90 to 160 km, we observe a transition zone in which the seismic coda are affected by postcritical reflections from midcrustal and Moho discontinuities. In this hypocentral distance range, geometrical spreading is approximately R+0.1. Beyond 160 km, low-frequency seismic energy attenuates rapidly with source-receiver distance, having a geometrical spreading coefficient of R-1.6. The associated regional seismic-quality factor can be expressed by the polynomial: log Q(f) = 3.66 - 1.44 log f + 0.768 (log f)2 + 0.058 (log f)3 for frequencies 0.78 ??? f ??? 19.9 Hz. Fourier spectral amplitudes, corrected for geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, are regressed with M to obtain quadratic source scaling coefficients. Modeled vertical-component displacement spectra fit the observed data well. Amplitude residuals are, on average, relatively small and do not vary with hypocentral distance. Predicted source spectra (i.e., at R = 1 km) are consistent with eastern North American (ENA) Models at low frequencies (f less than approximately 2 Hz) indicating that moment magnitudes calculated for SEA earthquakes are consistent with moment magnitude scales used in ENA over the observed magnitude range. The models presented represent the first spectral ground-motion prediction equations develooed for the southeastern Australian region. This work provides a useful framework for the development of regional ground-motion relations

  12. The modulational instability of colinear waves

    A brief review is given of the modulational instability of a single wave. Some aspects of the modulational instability of two colinear waves are then studied. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate which is larger than the modulational growth rate of either wave alone. Moreover, waves which are modulationally stable by themselves are often unstable in the other's presence. This is true for both copropagating and counterpropagating waves. An important property of an instability is whether it is absolute of convective in nature. The modulational instability of two equal-amplitude copropagating waves is usually, but not always, convective. The modulational instability of two equal-amplitude counter-propagating waves is always absolute. Some applications of current interest are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Absolute frequency references at 1529 nm and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    de Escobar, Y Natali Martinez; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 nm and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using $^{87}$Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3$ two-level and 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3 \\rightarrow $ 4D$_{5/2} F"=4$ ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate an absolute accuracy of $\\sim$ 1 kHz is realistic.

  14. Correction of amplitude distortions for truncated Bessel beam and SER estimation for 4ASK

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T.

    2016-08-01

    We apply amplitude corrections to a truncated Bessel beam that has propagated through turbulent atmosphere modelled by random phase screens. These corrections are realized via transmitting an unmodulated beam in parallel to the one carrying the 4 amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulated message signal. On the receiver side, the amplitude corrections are obtained by dividing the intensity of the unmodulated beam by its free space equivalence. The corrections are then used to restore the amplitude distortions of the beam carrying the 4ASK modulated message signal and in the determination of decision boundaries for the received 4ASK symbols. The success of the system is visually inspected by comparing the received intensity profiles before and after the application of corrections. Furthermore, simulation analysis of symbol error rate (SER) is made, where the proposed set-up is found to be quite insensitive to wavelength difference between the unmodulated and modulated beams. On the other hand, the difference in the structure constant values of these two beams seems to have profound effect on system performance.

  15. Modulations in the light of the firefly

    Anurup Gohain Barua

    2013-03-01

    Continuous light could be produced from the firefly by making it inhale vapours of ethyl acetate. Here we perform such a control experiment on the Indian species of the firefly Luciola praeusta Kiesenwetter 1874 (Coleoptera : Lampyridae : Luciolinae), and analyse the light in the microsecond time scale. The amplitude of the continuous train of triangular pulses is apparently altered in accordance with the instantaneous values of a hypothetical signal, which exhibits pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). In addition to sampling in amplitude, this scheme apparently provides sampling in time, representing pulse width modulation (PWM). A Fourier transform spectrum of this waveform shows the `carrier’ frequency and the accompanying `side bands’.

  16. Double diffusion convection under sinusoidal modulations of low-frequency vibrations

    Yan, Yu; Viviani, Antonio; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2008-09-01

    Double diffusion convection features the coupling of diffusion fluxes driven by the temperature and concentration gradients and the simultaneous existence of the natural convection driven by the buoyancy force. This paper studies the double diffusion convection under different modulations of low-frequency g-jitters in order to evaluate the g-jitter effect on diffusion-dominated experiments in space laboratories. The numerical simulation for a binary mixture of water-isopropanol (90:10 wt%) has shown a dependence of the Soret separation on g-jitter frequency and amplitude. Under the same amplitude, the fluctuation of local properties, i.e., velocity, temperature and concentration, is found to intensify as the g-jitter frequency decreases. When both static residual gravity and oscillatory g-jitter exist, the diffusion process is affected by the nonlinear interaction between individual g-jitters. As the amplitude decreases to 1μg, this nonlinearity becomes less significant than it appears in the high-amplitude scenario.

  17. iResum: a new paradigm for resumming gravitational wave amplitudes

    Nagar, Alessandro; Shah, Abhay G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method to improve the resummation of the post-Newtonian (PN), circularized, multipolar waveform that enters the effective-one-body (EOB) theory of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning black hole binaries (BBHs). We focus on the residual (post-factorized) waveform amplitude corrections $f_{\\ell m}$ introduced by Damour and Nagar~[Phys. Rev. D~76, 064028 (2007)]. In the (nonspinning) test-particle limit, using 20PN-accurate analytical gravitational wave fluxes, we compute the ...

  18. Amplitude-phase calculations of Regge poles obtained from coupled radial Dirac equations

    Thylwe, K-E [KTH-Mechanics, Royal lnstitute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); McCabe, P, E-mail: ket@mech.kth.se [CCDC, 12 Union Road, CB2 1EZ, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    A recently developed amplitude-phase method for spinor-wave solutions is applied to the calculations of Regge pole positions and residues of Dirac particles. At a given energy the Dirac spin causes two sets of Regge poles that tend to coalesce in the non-relativistic limit. For the particular case of equal Lorentz-type vector and scalar potentials there is only one pole string, located very close to the non-relativistic pole string.

  19. Euclidean Configuration Space Renormalization, Residues and Dilation Anomaly

    Nikolov, Nikolay M; Todorov, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Configuration (x-)space renormalization of Euclidean Feynman amplitudes in a massless quantum field theory is reduced to the study of local extensions of associate homogeneous distributions. Primitively divergent graphs are renormalized, in particular, by subtracting the residue of an analytically regularized expression. Examples are given of computing residues that involve zeta values. The renormalized Green functions are again associate homogeneous distributions of the same degree that transform under indecomposable representations of the dilation group.

  20. On the Classification of Residues of the Grassmannian

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Dell 'aquila, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    We study leading singularities of scattering amplitudes which are obtained as residues of an integral over a Grassmannian manifold. We recursively do the transformation from twistors to momentum twistors and obtain an iterative formula for Yangian invariants that involves a succession of dualized twistor variables. This turns out to be useful in addressing the problem of classifying the residues of the Grassmannian. The iterative formula leads naturally to new coordinates on the Grassmannian ...

  1. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir

    2016-02-01

    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  2. Kinematic numerators and a double-copy formula for N=4 super-Yang-Mills residues

    Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James

    2014-07-01

    Recent work by Cachazo et al.arXiv:1309.0885 shows that connected prescription residues obey the global identities of N=4 super-Yang-Mills amplitudes. In particular, they obey the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude identities. Here we offer a new way of interpreting this result via objects that we call residue numerators. These objects behave like the kinematic numerators introduced by BCJ except that they are associated with individual residues. In particular, these new objects satisfy a double-copy formula relating them to the residues appearing in recently discovered analogs of the connected prescription integrals for N=8 supergravity. Along the way, we show that the BCJ amplitude identities are equivalent to the consistency condition that allows kinematic numerators to be expressed as amplitudes using a generalized inverse.

  3. Vesícula residual Residual gallbladder

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  4. Space vector PWM signal generation for multilevel inverters using only the sampled amplitudes of reference phase voltages

    Kanchan, RS; Baiju, MR; Mohapatra, KK; Ouseph, PP; Gopakumar, K.

    2005-01-01

    A pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme for multilevel inverters is proposed. The proposed PWM scheme generates the inverter leg switching times, from the sampled reference phase voltage amplitudes and centres the switching times for the middle vectors, in a sampling interval, as in the case of conventional space vector PWM (SVPWM). The SVPWM scheme, presented for multilevel inverters, can also work in the overmodulation range, using only the sampled amplitudes of reference phase voltages. The ...

  5. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps for...

  6. Quadrupole and monopole large amplitude vibrations

    A set of nonlinear dynamical equations for quadrupole and monopole moments of nuclei is derived from the TDHF equation with the help of the so-called Wigner function moments. It allows the description of coupled large amplitude monopole and quadrupole vibrations. These equations are solved numerically for 208Pb and 40Ca in a model with separable forces. The giant quadrupole and monopole resonances are reproduced very well. However the essential feature of the large amplitude motion is the existence of multiphonon states. They are analyzed in detail. The classical and quantum aspects of the analytically solvable one-dimensional pure monopole model are studied to clarify the problem of the anharmonicity of the collective spectrum. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Puhlfürst, Georg; Stieberger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ɛ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ɛ-orders of a power series solution in ɛ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ɛ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ɛ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α‧-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α‧.

  8. Planar scattering amplitudes from Wilson loops

    We derive an expression for parton scattering amplitudes of planar gauge theory in terms of sums of Wilson loops. We study in detail the example of Yang-Mills theory with an adjoint Higgs field. The expression exhibits the T-duality performed by Alday and Maldacena in the AdS dual as a Fourier transform in loop space. When combined with the AdS/CFT correspondence for Wilson loops and a strong coupling argument for the dominance of 1PI diagrams, this leads to a derivation of the Alday-Maldacena holographic prescription for scattering amplitudes in terms of momentum Wilson loops. The formula leads to a conjecture for a relationship between position-space and momentum-space Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM at finite coupling.

  9. Differential Equations, Associators, and Recurrences for Amplitudes

    Puhlfuerst, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for epsilon-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different epsilon-orders of a power series solution in epsilon of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the epsilon-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also setup up our tools for computing epsilon-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we apply our methods to systematically get compact and explicit alpha'-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in alpha'.

  10. Critical Initial Amplitude of Langmuir Wave Damping

    徐慧; 盛政明

    2012-01-01

    By one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson simulation, the critical initial state marking the transition between the Landau scenario, in which the electric fields definitively damped to zero and the O'NEIL scenario, in which the Landau damping is stopped after a certain damping stage, is studied. It is found that the critical initial amplitude e* can only exist when the product of the wave number (k~) and the electron thermal velocity (vth) is moderate, that is, 0.2 〈 k~vth 〈 0.7. Otherwise, no critical initial amplitude is found. The value c* increases with the increase in km for a fixed Vth, and also increases with the increase in Vth for a fixed kin. When kmVth is fixed, the value s* also changes with the wave number and the electron thermal velocity, even though the damping rate and the oscillation frequency are the same in this case.

  11. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Georg Puhlfürst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.

  12. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  13. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  14. Subleading soft factor for string disk amplitudes

    Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no α'-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor S (1). At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  15. Subleading Soft Factor for String Disk Amplitudes

    Schwab, Burkhard U W

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no $\\alpha'$-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor $S^{(1)}$. At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  16. Automation of 2-loop Amplitude Calculations

    Jones, S P

    2016-01-01

    Some of the tools and techniques that have recently been used to compute Higgs boson pair production at NLO in QCD are discussed. The calculation relies on the use of integral reduction, to reduce the number of integrals which must be computed, and expressing the amplitude in terms of a quasi-finite basis, which simplifies their numeric evaluation. Emphasis is placed on sector decomposition and Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) integration which are used to numerically compute the master integrals.

  17. Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros

    Gómez Nicola, Ángel; Peláez Sagredo, José Ramón; Rios, G.

    2008-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spur...

  18. On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes

    We present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string world-sheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions. (author). 13 refs

  19. Analytic amplitude models for forward scattering

    Kang, K.; Cudell, Jean-René; Ezhela, V. V.; Gauron, P.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Lugovsky, S. V.; Nicolescu, B.; Tkachenko, N. P.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fits of a large class of analytic amplitude models for forward scattering against the comprehensive data for all available reactions. To differentiate the goodness of the fits of many possible parametrizations to a large sample of data, we developed and used a set of quantitative indicators measuring statistical quality of the fits over and beyond the typical criterion of the $\\Chi^2 /dof$. These indicators favor models with a universal $ log^2 s$ Pomeron term, which enables one ...

  20. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes

    ' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from Kp and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs

  1. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    Bolton, Daniel R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States); Briceño, Raúl A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, David J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, $P$-wave $\\pi\\pi$ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using $m_\\pi =236$ MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of L\\"uscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at $m_\\pi= 140$ MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to be in good agreement with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a $\\rho$-resonance pole at $E_\\rho= \\left[755(2)(1)(^{20}_{02})-\\frac{i}{2}\\,129(3)(1)(^{7}_{1})\\right]~{\\rm MeV}$. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  2. Logarithmic Singularities and Maximally Supersymmetric Amplitudes

    Bern, Zvi; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The dual formulation of planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes makes manifest that the integrand has only logarithmic singularities and no poles at infinity. Recently, Arkani-Hamed, Bourjaily, Cachazo and Trnka conjectured the same singularity properties hold to all loop orders in the nonplanar sector as well. Here we conjecture that to all loop orders these constraints give us the key analytic information contained in dual conformal symmetry. We also conjecture that to all loop orders, while N = 8 supergravity has poles at infinity, at least at four points it has only logarithmic singularities at finite locations. We provide nontrivial evidence for these conjectures. For the three-loop four-point N = 4 super-Yang-Mills amplitude, we explicitly construct a complete basis of diagram integrands that has only logarithmic singularities and no poles at infinity. We then express the complete amplitude in terms of the basis diagrams, with the coefficients determined by unitarity. We also give examples a...

  3. Pulse-train modulation in a picosecond self-mode-locked laser

    Pulse-train modulation was observed in a picosecond self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with pump-power dependence when it was operated around the degenerate cavity configuration. By increasing the optical pumping power, the envelope of the periodic amplitude modulation splits into two or three clusters with enhanced modulation depth, and the amplitude modulation eventually becomes disordered at higher pump power. The amplitude modulation may be supported by exciting two sets of non-degenerate longitudinally mode-locked supermodes due to spatially inhomogeneous gain modulation in the Ti:sapphire crystal.

  4. Modulational instability in two cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equations coupled with a cross phase modulation term

    Alcaraz-Pelegrina, J.M., E-mail: fa1alpej@uco.e [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ctra de Madrid N-IV-a, km 396, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Rodriguez-Garcia, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Ctra de Madrid N-IV-a, km 396, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-03-29

    Modulation instability is investigated in two cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equations coupled with a cross phase modulation type term. After carrying out a stability analysis an expression for gain is obtained. Some direct simulations to see the evolution of different continuous wave states are reported. These show the formation of modulation instability pulses as well as transitions from lower amplitude continuous wave states to higher amplitude continuous wave states.

  5. Hybrid multinary modulation using a phase modulating spatial light modulator and a low-pass spatial filter.

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Erdei, Gábor; Sarkadi, Tamás; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Reményi, Judit; Koppa, Pál; Lorincz, Emoke

    2007-08-15

    We propose a method for performing binary intensity and continuous phase modulation of beams with a spatial light modulator (SLM) and a low-pass spatial filtering 4-f system. With our method it is possible to avoid the use of phase masks in holographic data storage systems or to enhance the phase encoding of the SLM by making it capable of binary amplitude modulation. The data storage capabilities and the limitations of the method are studied. PMID:17700777

  6. Enhanced modulation rates via field modulation in spin torque nano-oscillators

    Purbawati, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.

    2016-03-01

    Spin Transfer Nano-Oscillators (STNOs) are promising candidates for telecommunications applications due to their frequency tuning capabilities via either a dc current or an applied field. This frequency tuning is of interest for Frequency Shift Keying concepts to be used in wireless communication schemes or in read head applications. For these technological applications, one important parameter is the characterization of the maximum achievable rate at which an STNO can respond to a modulating signal, such as current or field. Previous studies of in-plane magnetized STNOs on frequency modulation via an rf current revealed that the maximum achievable rate is limited by the amplitude relaxation rate Γp, which gives the time scale over which amplitude fluctuations are damped out. This might be a limitation for applications. Here, we demonstrate via numerical simulation that application of an additional rf field is an alternative way for modulation of the in-plane magnetized STNO configuration, which has the advantage that frequency modulation is not limited by the amplitude relaxation rate, so that higher modulation rates above GHz are achievable. This occurs when the modulating rf field is oriented along the easy axis (longitudinal rf field). Tilting the direction of the modulating rf field in-plane and perpendicularly with respect to the easy axis (transverse rf field), the modulation is again limited by the amplitude relaxation rate similar to the response observed in current modulation.

  7. Extended Kalman filtering for joint mitigation of phase and amplitude noise in coherent QAM systems.

    Pakala, Lalitha; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2016-03-21

    We numerically investigate our proposed carrier phase and amplitude noise estimation (CPANE) algorithm using extend Kalman filter (EKF) for joint mitigation of linear and non-linear phase noise as well as amplitude noise on 4, 16 and 64 polarization multiplexed (PM) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 224 Gb/s systems. The results are compared to decision directed (DD) carrier phase estimation (CPE), DD phase locked loop (PLL) and universal CPE (U-CPE) algorithms. Besides eliminating the necessity of phase unwrapping function, EKF-CPANE shows improved performance for both back-to-back (BTB) and transmission scenarios compared to the aforementioned algorithms. We further propose a weighted innovation approach (WIA) of the EKF-CPANE which gives an improvement of 0.3 dB in the Q-factor, compared to the original algorithm. PMID:27136830

  8. Amplitude-phase cross-talk cancellation in frequency domain instrumentation

    Morgan, Stephen P.; Yong, Kai Y.

    2001-06-01

    Changes in phase that occurs with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described employs a reference RF modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude- phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference and medium channels follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  9. Elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk in frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    Morgan, S. P.; Yong, K. Y.

    2001-04-01

    Changes in phase that occur with changes in amplitude impose severe limitations on the accuracy of frequency domain near-infrared spectrometers. Phase is related to the photon pathlength in tissue and phase errors introduced by the instrument can be interpreted as changes in tissue oxygenation. The instrument described in this article employs a reference radio frequency modulated laser diode to eliminate the effects of amplitude-phase crosstalk and requires no feedback. Light from the reference laser diode does not pass through the medium under investigation but passes directly onto the detector. The reference and medium signals follow a common path through the detector and so the same phase error is imposed on both. Summing the reference and medium phase eliminates the crosstalk and enables the resultant to be attributed only to the photon pathlength within the medium. It is also demonstrated that elimination of amplitude-phase crosstalk is a natural consequence of a phased array configuration.

  10. ECG variability contour—a reference for evaluating the significance of amplitude ECG changes in two states

    The sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia is low perhaps because in the printed ECG only three to five complexes are examined, only absolute amplitude (voltage) criteria are used, and amplitude changes are sought only in the ST segment and T wave regions. A computerized method is proposed for evaluating the significance of ECG amplitude changes detected in one state compared with another (e.g. rest and stress). Amplitude changes were considered significant if they were consistently greater than the 'ECG variability contour' (EVC), which is a graphic measure introduced in this study, calculated from the reference ECG signal. Rest and stress simulation ECG (SECG) were constructed. Mean rest SECG complex was subtracted from rest and stress SECG complexes to result in rest and stress residue matrices, respectively. The percentage of the normalized cumulative sum (NCS) of the residues during stress (and rest) lying outside the EVC served as a measure for evaluating ECG changes associated with stress (and rest). With this method, amplitude changes of magnitude similar to that of the noise, which were difficult to detect visually, were easily detected and accurately allocated to the component of the ECG complex where they occurred. The proposed method may be useful in cases where amplitude changes are too subtle and thus overlooked or not detected by the standard examination of three to five complexes or underestimated due to unmet clinical (voltage) criteria, or occur in ECG components that are not regularly examined

  11. Variability in mode amplitudes in the rapidly oscillating Ap star HR 1217

    White, T R; Stello, D; Kurtz, D W; Cunha, M S; Gough, D O

    2011-01-01

    HR 1217 is one of the best-studied rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars, with eight known oscillation modes that are distorted by a strong, global magnetic field. We have reanalysed the multisite observations of HR 1217 taken in 1986 and 2000. We determined a weighting scheme for the 1986 and 2000 data to minimize the noise level. A wavelet analysis of the data has found that the modulation of the amplitude due to rotation for all frequencies is, in general, consistent with the expected modulation for modified l=1, 2 or 3 modes. Unexpected variations in the rotational modulation are also seen, with variations in the modulation profile, time of maximal pulsation, and pulsational energy in each mode. Interestingly, these changes take place on a short timescale, of the order of days. We consider potential explanations for these behaviours.

  12. Variational approach to the modulational instability.

    Rapti, Z; Kevrekidis, P G; Smerzi, A; Bishop, A R

    2004-01-01

    We study the modulational stability of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation using a time-dependent variational approach. Within this framework, we derive ordinary differential equations (ODE's) for the time evolution of the amplitude and phase of modulational perturbations. Analyzing the ensuing ODE's, we rederive the classical modulational instability criterion. The case (relevant to applications in optics and Bose-Einstein condensation) where the coefficients of the equation are time dependent, is also examined. PMID:14995759

  13. High CW power, phase and amplitude modulatorrealized with fast ferrite phase-shifters

    Valuch, D

    2004-01-01

    Superconducting cavity resonators are suffering from detuning effects caused by high internal electromagnetic fields (Lorentz force detuning). For classical resonators working with continuous wave signals, this detuning is static and compensated by the slow mechanical tuning system. However, pulsing of superconducting cavities, an operational mode only recently considered, results in dynamic detuning effects. New ways to handle this effect have to be found and worked out. A way to supply several superconducting cavities in the particle accelerator by one large transmitter while keeping the possibility of controlling the field in each individual cavity is shown. By introducing a fast phase and amplitude modulator into each cavity feeder line, the individual deviations of each cavity with respect to the average can be compensated in order to equalize their behaviour for the main control loop, which will compensate the global detuning of all cavities. Several types of phase and amplitude modulators suitable for ...

  14. An Angle QIM Watermarking in STDM Framework Robust against Amplitude Scaling Distortions

    Mankar, Vijay Harishchandra; Das, Tirtha Sankar; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    Quantization index modulation (QIM) watermarking proposed by Chen and Wornell provides computational efficient blind watermarking based on Costa’s dirty paper codes. The limitation of this is its vulnerability against amplitude scaling distortion. The present work is proposed to solve this problem based on angle QIM within spread transform dither modulation (STDM) framework. AQIM embeds the information by quantizing the angle formed by the host-signal vector with respect to the origin of a hyperspherical coordinate system as opposed to quantizing the amplitude of pixel values. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed work not only provides the resistance against this valumetric scaling distortion but also against non-linear, gamma correction and constant luminance change.

  15. Characterization and reduction of the amplitude-to-phase conversion effects in telemetry

    Guillory, J.; García-Márquez, J.; Alexandre, C.; Truong, D.; Wallerand, J.-P.

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a telemeter based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by an RF sine wave during its propagation in air. This wave is carried by a laser beam by an intensity modulation. The main limitation of this technique lies in amplitude-to-phase conversion occurring in the detection of this modulation. Therefore, we characterize this phenomenon for a given telemetric system and discuss how to reduce its effects on the resolution and the accuracy of the distance measurement. Finally, a solution is implemented and tested outdoors in real conditions of use.

  16. A scattering matrix approach to quantum pumping: beyond the small-AC-driving-amplitude limit

    In the adiabatic and weak-modulation quantum pump, net electron flow is driven from one reservoir to another by absorbing or emitting an energy quantum ħω from or to the reservoirs. This paper considers high-order dependence of the scattering matrix on the time. Non-sinusoidal behaviour of strong pumping is revealed. The relation between the pumped current and the ac driving amplitude varies from power of 2, 1 to 1/2 when stronger modulation is exerted. Open experimental observation can be interpreted by multi-energy-quantum-related processes. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Second moment of the pion's distribution amplitude

    We present preliminary results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaborations for the second moment of the pion's distribution amplitude with two flavours of dynamical fermions. We use nonperturbatively determined renormalisation coefficients to convert our results to the MS scheme at 5 GeV2. Employing a linear chiral extrapolation from our large pion masses > 550 MeV, we find left angle ξ2 right angle = 0.281(28), leading to a value of α2 = 0.236(82) for the second Gegenbauer moment. (orig.)

  18. Second moment of the pion's distribution amplitude

    We present preliminary results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaborations for the second moment of the pion's distribution amplitude with two flavours of dynamical fermions. We use nonperturbatively determined renormalisation coefficients to convert our results to the MS-bar scheme at 5GeV2. Employing a linear chiral extrapolation from our large pion masses >550MeV, we find 2>=0.281(28), leading to a value of a2=0.236(82) for the second Gegenbauer moment

  19. Planar scattering amplitudes from Wilson loops

    McGreevy, John; Sever, Amit

    2008-01-01

    We derive an expression for parton scattering amplitudes of planar gauge theory in terms of sums of Wilson loops. We study in detail the example of Yang-Mills theory with an adjoint Higgs field. The expression exhibits the T-duality performed by Alday and Maldacena in the AdS dual as a Fourier transform in loop space. When combined with the AdS/CFT correspondence for Wilson loops and a strong coupling argument for the dominance of 1PI diagrams, this leads to a derivation of the Alday-Maldacen...

  20. Transition Distribution Amplitudes for gamma* gamma collisions

    Lansberg, J P; Szymanowski, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the exclusive production of pi-pi and rho-pi in hard gamma* gamma scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. The sizable cross sections for rho-pi and pi-pi production may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories (Belle and BaBar).

  1. Pion distribution amplitude within the instanton model

    The leading-twist pion distribution amplitude is obtained at a low normalization scale of an order of the inverse average size of an instanton ρc. The pion dynamics, consistent with gauge invariance and low energy theorems, is considered within the instanton vacuum model. The results are QCD evolved to higher momentum-transfer values, and are in agreement with recent data from CLEO on pion transition form factor. We also show that previous calculations violate the axial Ward-Takahashi identity

  2. Relations and representations of QCD amplitudes

    de la Cruz, Leonardo; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we review relations and representations of primitive QCD tree amplitudes. Topics covered include the BCJ relations, the CHY representation, and the KLT relations. We will put a special emphasis on how these relations and representations generalise from pure Yang-Mills theory to QCD. The generalisation of the KLT relations from pure Yang-Mills to QCD includes the case of massive quarks. On the gravity side we then obtain hypothetical particles interacting with gravitational strength, which can be massive and non-relativistic.

  3. Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros

    The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.

  4. Approximate formulas for moderately small eikonal amplitudes

    Kisselev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal approximation for moderately small scattering amplitudes is considered. With the purpose of using for their numerical estimations, the formulas are derived which contain no Bessel functions, and, hence, no rapidly oscillating integrands. To obtain these formulas, the improper integrals of the first kind which contain products of the Bessel functions J_0(z) are studied. The expression with four functions J_0(z) is generalized. The expressions for the integrals with the product of five and six Bessel functions J_0(z) are also found. The known formula for the improper integral with two functions J_nu(z) is generalized for non-integer nu.

  5. A unified approach to string scattering amplitudes

    1) Physics. In the calculation of g-loop string tachion amplitudes with n scattering points the distinguished Polyakov measure dπg,n on the moduli space Mg,n of Riemann surfaces of genus g with n punctures arises. We give an interpretation of this measure as the modulus squared of a holomorphic section μg,n (the Mumford form) of a certain holomorphic line bundle, i.e., we prove an analog of the Belavin-Knizhnik theorem dπg,n=vertical strokeμγ,nvertical stroke2 in the amplitudic case. We give an expression for this measure through the determinants of the Laplace operators over ghosts and over multivalued fields with monodromy prescribed by impulses at the scattering points. We show also that the form μg,n (n≥0) for the partition function and n-point amplitudes can be obtained from a unified over all n, universal Mumford form. 2) Mathematics. The following new concepts from the theory of complex algebraic curves are investigated: Divisors with complex coefficients, complex powers of holomorphic line bundles, determinants of Laplace operators over multivalued functions, etc. The corresponding generalizations of the determinant line bundles, the Weil-Deligne pairings, the Quillen and the Arakelov-Deligne metrics are constructed. A suggested by string amplitude considerations analog of the Mumford theorem on holomorphic triviality of the bundle λ2xλ1-13 over the moduli space is given. This analog asserts the existence of a canonical flat metric on a certain line bundle λ2xλ1-13x(xν=113ν), O(Dν)>-1). There exist two differences: The latter bundle is not holomorphically trivial but has a canonical flat metric, and, being defined on the Teichmueller space Tg,n, this bundle can be pulled down only on an infinite-sheeted covering of the moduli space Mg,n. The universal isometries and the relative curvatures from the second part of the paper may be interesting, too. (orig.)

  6. Children discover the spectral skeletons in their native language before the amplitude envelopes

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Packer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Much of speech perception research has focused on brief spectro-temporal properties in the signal, but some studies have shown that adults can recover linguistic form when those properties are absent. In this experiment, seven-year-old English-speaking children demonstrated adult-like abilities to understand speech when only sine waves replicating the three lowest resonances of the vocal tract were presented, but failed to demonstrate comparable abilities when noise bands amplitude-modulated ...

  7. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Awadhesh Prasad

    2013-09-01

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in diffusively coupled identical oscillators. The nonlinear variation of the locus of bifurcation point is shown. Results are illustrated with Landau–Stuart (LS) and Rössler oscillators.

  8. Abelian modules

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  9. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    Eugenio Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  10. Phase transitions and large amplitude oscillations

    We studied the way how do large amplitude oscillations propagate in a one-dimensional viscous compressible flow governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The model used a barotropic state law. This allows phase transitions, like in Van der Waals fluid. The oscillations obey to an integro-differential Cauchy problem of a new type. Due to the translational invariance, one consider here the solutions which do not depend on the (slow) space variable. They actually depend on a fast variable, and obey to a differential equation dw/dt = -grad I(W) on an infinite-dimensional manifold, where I denotes the internal energy per unit mass. Stable steady states correspond to local minima of I. It follows that states belonging to the spinodal phase are unstable with respect to large amplitude oscillations. It also gives an evidence for instability of stationary phase transitions when the pressures, although taking equal values in both phases, differ from the Maxwell value. This result was well known in a different context, when the capillarity is taken in account in the model but cannot be obtained in our case by using only a straightforward linearization technique for the Navier-Stokes equations, because of the strongly nonlinear nature of a phase transition. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  11. Effective string amplitudes for hadronic physics

    We propose using the general structure and properties of conformal field theory amplitudes, in particular those defined on surfaces with boundaries, to explore effective string theory amplitudes for some hadronic processes. Two examples are considered to illustrate the approach. In one a natural mechanism for chiral symmetry breaking within the string picture is proposed. One consequence is that the vertex operator for pion emission (at zero momentum) behaves like a world-sheet current evaluated on the string boundary. This fact is used to rederive, in a more general setting, hadronic mass relations found in the early days of string theory by Lovelace, and Ademollo, Veneziano and Weinberg. In the second example, we derive the general structure of the form factor for the emission of a pomeron (interpreted as a closed string) from a meson or baryon. The result reconciles the interpretation of the pomeron as a closed string, emitted from the interior of the meson or baryon world-sheet, with the additive quark rules for total hadronic cross sections at high energies. (orig.)

  12. Double unresolved approximations to multiparton scattering amplitudes

    We present approximations to tree-level multiparton scattering amplitudes which are appropriate when two partons are unresolved. These approximations are required for the analytic isolation of infrared singularities of n+2 parton scattering processes contributing to the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections to n jet cross sections. In each case the colour ordered matrix elements factorise and yield a function containing the singular factors multiplying the n-parton amplitudes. When the unresolved particles are colour unconnected, the approximations are simple products of the familiar eikonal and Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions used to describe single unresolved emission. However, when the unresolved particles are colour connected the factorisation is more complicated and we introduce new and general functions to describe the triple collinear and soft/collinear limits in addition to the known double soft gluon limits of Berends and Giele. As expected the triple collinear splitting functions obey an N=1 SUSY identity. To illustrate the use of these double unresolved approximations, we have examined the singular limits of the tree-level matrix elements for e+e- →5 partons when only three partons are resolved. When integrated over the unresolved regions of phase space, these expressions will be of use in evaluating the O(αs3) corrections to the three-jet rate in electron-positron annihilation. (orig.)

  13. Getting superstring amplitudes by degenerating Riemann surfaces

    Matone, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Galilei' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Volpato, Roberto, E-mail: volpato@itp.phys.ethz.c [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-11-01

    We explicitly show how the chiral superstring amplitudes can be obtained through factorisation of the higher genus chiral measure induced by suitable degenerations of Riemann surfaces. This powerful tool also allows to derive, at any genera, consistency relations involving the amplitudes and the measure. A key point concerns the choice of the local coordinate at the node on degenerate Riemann surfaces that greatly simplifies the computations. As a first application, starting from recent ansaetze for the chiral measure up to genus five, we compute the chiral two-point function for massless Neveu-Schwarz states at genus two, three and four. For genus higher than three, these computations include some new corrections to the conjectural formulae appeared so far in the literature. After GSO projection, the two-point function vanishes at genus two and three, as expected from space-time supersymmetry arguments, but not at genus four. This suggests that the ansatz for the superstring measure should be corrected for genus higher than four.

  14. On the Classification of Residues of the Grassmannian

    Ashok, Sujay K

    2010-01-01

    We study leading singularities of scattering amplitudes which are obtained as residues of an integral over a Grassmannian manifold. We recursively do the transformation from twistors to momentum twistors and obtain an iterative formula for Yangian invariants that involves a succession of dualized twistor variables. This turns out to be useful in addressing the problem of classifying the residues of the Grassmannian. The iterative formula leads naturally to new coordinates on the Grassmannian in terms of which both composite and non-composite residues appear on an equal footing. We write down residue theorems in these new variables and classify the independent residues for some simple examples. These variables also explicitly exhibit the distinct solutions one expects to find for a given set of vanishing minors from Schubert calculus.

  15. π π →π γ* amplitude and the resonant ρ →π γ* transition from lattice QCD

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.; Shultz, Christian J.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Wilson, David J.; Hadron Spectrum Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the P -wave π π →π γ⋆ transition amplitude from lattice quantum chromodynamics. Matrix elements of the vector current in a finite volume are extracted from three-point correlation functions, and from these we determine the infinite-volume amplitude using a generalization of the Lellouch-Lüscher formalism. We determine the amplitude for a range of discrete values of the π π energy and virtuality of the photon and observe the expected dynamical enhancement due to the ρ resonance. Describing the energy dependence of the amplitude, we are able to analytically continue into the complex energy plane and from the residue at the ρ pole extract the ρ →π γ⋆ transition form factor. This calculation, at mπ≈400 MeV , is the first to determine the form factor of an unstable hadron within a first principles approach to QCD.

  16. Color-Kinematic Duality in ABJM Theory Without Amplitude Relations

    Sivaramakrishnan, Allic

    2014-01-01

    We explicitly show that the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson color-kinematic duality holds at tree level through at least eight points in Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory with gauge group SU(N) x SU(N). At six points we give the explicit form of numerators in terms of amplitudes, displaying the generalized gauge freedom that leads to amplitude relations. However, at eight points no amplitude relations follow from the duality, so the diagram numerators are fixed unique functions of partial amplitudes. We provide the explicit amplitude-numerator decomposition and the numerator relations for eight-point amplitudes.

  17. The Prediction of Maximum Amplitudes of Solar Cycles and the Maximum Amplitude of Solar Cycle 24

    2002-01-01

    We present a brief review of predictions of solar cycle maximum ampli-tude with a lead time of 2 years or more. It is pointed out that a precise predictionof the maximum amplitude with such a lead-time is still an open question despiteprogress made since the 1960s. A method of prediction using statistical character-istics of solar cycles is developed: the solar cycles are divided into two groups, ahigh rising velocity (HRV) group and a low rising velocity (LRV) group, dependingon the rising velocity in the ascending phase for a given duration of the ascendingphase. The amplitude of Solar Cycle 24 can be predicted after the start of thecycle using the formula derived in this paper. Now, about 5 years before the startof the cycle, we can make a preliminary prediction of 83.2-119.4 for its maximumamplitude.

  18. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  19. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

    Gabriele Grandi; Jelena Loncarski

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM) schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the c...

  20. Evaluation of influences of frequency and amplitude on image degradation caused by satellite vibrations

    Nan, Yi-Bing; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Li-Jun; Zheng, Cheng; Wang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Satellite vibrations during exposure will lead to pixel aliasing of remote sensors, resulting in the deterioration of image quality. In this paper, we expose the problem and discuss the characteristics of satellite vibrations, and then present a pixel mixing model. The idea of mean mixing ratio (MMR) is proposed. MMR computations for different frequencies are implemented. In the mixing model, a coefficient matrix is introduced to estimate each mixed pixel. Thus, the simulation of degraded image can be performed when the vibration attitudes are known. The computation of MMR takes into consideration the influences of various frequencies and amplitudes. Therefore, the roles of these parameters played in the degradation progress are identified. Computations show that under the same vibration amplitude, the influence of vibrations fluctuates with the variation of frequency. The fluctuation becomes smaller as the frequency rises. Two kinds of vibration imaging experiments are performed: different amplitudes with the same frequency and different frequencies with the same amplitude. Results are found to be in very good agreement with the theoretical results. MMR has a better description of image quality than modulation transfer function (MTF). The influence of vibrations is determined mainly by the amplitude rather than the frequency. The influence of vibrations on image quality becomes gradually stable with the increase of frequency. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329202) and the Basic Industrial Technology Project of China (Grant No. J312012B002).

  1. Modulation of whistlers

    Sivokon', V. P.; Bogdanov, V. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Cherneva, N. V.; Kubyshkin, A. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Agranat, I. V.

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of the experimental data obtained at Paratunka observatory (53.02° N, 158.65° E; L = 2.3) has revealed a nonstandard form of whistlers involving spectral lines that are symmetric with respect to the whistler. We have shown that this form is most likely due to the amplitude modulation of whistlers by electromagnetic pulses with a length of around 1 s and carrier frequency of around 1.1 kHz. We have suggested that these pulses could be emitted by the auroral electrojet modified by heating radiation from the HAARP facility (62.30° N, 145.30° W; L > 4.2).

  2. On the soft limit of tree-level string amplitudes

    Bianchi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We study the soft behavior of string scattering amplitudes at three level with massless and massive external insertions, relying on different techniques to compute 4-points amplitudes respectively with open or closed strings.

  3. Automating QCD amplitudes with on-shell methods

    Badger, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We review some of the modern approaches to scattering amplitude computations in QCD and their application to precision LHC phenomenology. We emphasise the usefulness of momentum twistor variables in parameterising general amplitudes.

  4. Topological amplitudes in heterotic superstring theory

    We show that certain heterotic string amplitudes are given in terms of correlators of the twisted topological (2,0) SCFT, corresponding to the internal sector of the N = 1 spacetime supersymmetric background. The genus g topological partition function Fg corresponds to a term in the effective action of the form W2g, where W is the gauge or gravitational superfield. We study also recursion relations related to holomorphic anomalies, showing that, contrary to the type II case, they involve correlators of anti-chiral superfields. The corresponding terms in the effective action are of the form W2gIIn, where II is a chiral superfield obtained by chiral projection of a general superfield. We observe that the structure of the recursion relations is that of N = 1 spacetime supersymmetry Ward identity. We give also a solution of the tree level recursion relations and discuss orbifold examples. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs

  5. Topological amplitudes in heterotic superstring theory

    We show that certain heterotic string amplitudes are given in terms of correlators of the twisted topological (2,0) SCFT, corresponding to the internal sector of the N=1 space-time supersymmetric background. The genus g topological partition function Fg corresponds to a term in the effective action of the form W2g, where W is the gauge or gravitational superfield. We study also recursion relations related to holomorphic anomalies, showing that, contrary to the type II case, they involve correlators of anti-chiral superfields. The corresponding terms in the effective action are of the form W2gΠn, where Π is a chiral superfield obtained by chiral projection of a general superfield. We observe that the structure of the recursion relations is that of N=1 space-time supersymmetry Ward identity. We give also a solution of the tree-level recursion relations and discuss orbifold examples. (orig.)

  6. Amplitude determinant coupled cluster with pairwise doubles

    Zhao, Luning

    2016-01-01

    Recently developed pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) theory successfully reproduces doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI) with mean field cost. However, the projective nature of pCCD makes the method non-variational and thus hard to improve systematically. As a variational alternative, we explore the idea of coupled-cluster-like expansions based on amplitude determinants and develop a specific theory similar to pCCD based on determinants of pairwise doubles. The new ansatz admits a variational treatment through Monte Carlo methods while remaining size-consistent and, crucially, polynomial cost. In the dissociations of LiH, HF, H2O and N2, the method performs very similarly to pCCD and DOCI, suggesting that coupled-cluster-like ansatzes and variational evaluation may not be mutually exclusive.

  7. Evaluation of new spin foam vertex amplitudes

    The Christensen-Egan algorithm is extended and generalized to efficiently evaluate new spin foam vertex amplitudes proposed by Engle, Pereira and Rovelli and Freidel and Krasnov, with or without (factored) boundary states. A concrete pragmatic proposal is made for comparing the different models using uniform methodologies, applicable to the behavior of large spin asymptotics and of expectation values of specific semiclassical observables. The asymptotics of the new models exhibit non-oscillatory, power-law decay similar to that of the Barrett-Crane model, though with different exponents. Also, an analysis of the semiclassical wave packet propagation problem indicates that the Magliaro, Rovelli and Perini's conjecture of good semiclassical behavior of the new models does not hold for generic factored states, which neglect spin-spin correlations.

  8. Y-system for scattering amplitudes

    We compute N=4 super Yang-Mills planar amplitudes at strong coupling by considering minimal surfaces in AdS5 space. The surfaces end on a null polygonal contour at the boundary of AdS. We show how to compute the area of the surfaces as a function of the conformal cross ratios characterizing the polygon at the boundary. We reduce the problem to a simple set of functional equations for the cross ratios as functions of the spectral parameter. These equations have the form of thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations. The area is the free energy of the TBA system. We consider any number of gluons and in any kinematic configuration.

  9. Critical Initial Amplitude of Langmuir Wave Damping

    By one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson simulation, the critical initial state marking the transition between the Landau scenario, in which the electric fields definitively damped to zero and the O'NEIL scenario, in which the Landau damping is stopped after a certain damping stage, is studied. It is found that the critical initial amplitude in* can only exist when the product of the wave number (km) and the electron thermal velocity (vth) is moderate, that is, 0.2 mvth m for a fixed vth, and also increases with the increase in vth for a fixed km. When kmvth is fixed, the value in* also changes with the wave number and the electron thermal velocity, even though the damping rate and the oscillation frequency are the same in this case.

  10. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating

    Oriola, David; Casademunt, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive crosslinkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatiotemporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagell...

  11. Multi-amplitude Differential Space-time Block Coding Scheme for Square/Non-Square Code Matrix in MIMO Systems

    Xiangbin Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Differential space-time coding (DSTC technique has become a good choice when channel estimations are difficult to obtain in multiple antennas system. On the basis of analyzing the existing DSTC schemes, by introducing multi-level quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM and matrix transform method, we develop a multi-amplitude differential space-time block coding (STBC scheme for square or non-square code matrix in MIMO systems, and give the derivation of calculation formulae of the coding advantage in detail. The developed scheme can effectively avoid the performance loss of conventional DSTC schemes based on PSK modulation (i.e. single amplitude DSTC in high spectrum efficiency. It can be applied to non-square code matrix case, and thus overcomes the shortcoming that existing DSTC schemes are only suitable for square code matrix. Compared with single amplitude DSTC schemes, our scheme has higher spectrum efficiency by carrying information not only on phases but also on amplitudes. Moreover, our scheme has linear decoding complexity, higher coding advantage, and higher code rate for more than two antennas. The simulations results show that the proposed scheme can provide lower BER than the existing single amplitude differential STBC schemes for both square and non-square code matrices.

  12. Rho-0 Meson Helicity Amplitude Ratios at HERMES

    Murray, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The study of {\\rho}0 meson helicity amplitude ratios at HERMES shows that the amplitude hierarchy expected from pQCD is confirmed. The contribution of Unnatural Parity Exchange in the production of {\\rho}0 mesons is significant at HERMES kinematics and there is a large phase-difference in the leading F11 and F01 amplitudes. The kinematic dependences of the amplitude ratios only sometimes follow theory-based expectations.

  13. Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V

    Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2+ resonances in 49V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution

  14. Computations of superstring amplitudes in pure spinor formalism via Cadabra

    Suna, Ke-Sheng; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Hai-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of pure spinor formalism makes the computation of superstring s- cattering amplitudes possible. In this paper, we will illustrate how computer algebra system Cadabra is used in computing the supersymmetric amplitude in pure spinor formalism and provide the source code that computes the tree-level massless 5-gluon amplitude.

  15. Closed String Amplitudes in Open String Field Theory

    Takahashi, Tomohiko; Zeze, Syoji

    2003-01-01

    We investigate gauge invariant operators corresponding to on-shell closed string states in open string field theory. Using both oscillator representation and conformal mapping techniques, we calculate a two closed string tachyon amplitude that connects two gauge invariant operators by an open string propagator.We find that this amplitude is in a complete agreement with the usual disc amplitude.

  16. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space.

  17. Handling of Solid Residues

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  18. Subscriber terminals using Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB)

    Lyons, Bob; Forrest, Andrew

    With the introduction of amplitude companded single sideband (ACSSB) modulation, and other innovations, small subscriber satellite terminals providing voice and up to 2400 bit per second (bps) data capability have been produced. These terminals address a class of applications that requires: access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN); reliable voice and data communication; modest capital and operating costs; ease of installation and operation; and in some cases, portability. This paper discusses applications, design goals and characteristics of subscriber terminals, concluding with two representative network scenarios. Applications of these terminals differ from those best served by very small aperture terminals (VSATs) by offering low startup costs and by servicing primarily voice traffic. Fold-up antennas and compact reliable radio frequency (RF) electronics have made highly portable terminals a reality also. Private networks are possible using simple circuit sharing techniques while larger networks can utilize circuit switching to achieve significant economies in operating costs. Recent regulatory changes have paved the way for increased activity and development in these markets.

  19. Thiometon residues in cucumber

    In the Islamic Republic of Iran, vegetables are treated repeatedly with pesticides to control pests and diseases. Crops harvested shortly after pesticide application are probably contaminated by pesticides that are toxic to humans. Pesticide residues in vegetables are especially important, since these crops are ingested directly by humans. In recent years, farmers have been using more persistent pesticides to protect their crops because of increasing pesticide prices. Field trials were carried out to determine the residues of thiometon, a systemic insecticide used on cucumber. In 1993 and 1994, Ekatin (a 25% thiometon emulsifiable concentrate) was applied with a knapsack sprayer to cucumber (var. Daminus) at late flowering at dilutions of 1:1000 and 2:1000. Plots were 25 m2 in three replicates and were sampled 3, 6, 10, 15, 19 and 24 days after application. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleanup was carried out using thin layer chromatography. Thiometon and two metabolites (thiometon sulphide and thiometon sulphone) were analyzed by gas chromatography. In 1994, the amount of thiometon sulphide determined 24 days treatment was 2 ppm in the peeled cucumber, which exceeded the maximum residue limit of 0.5 ppm. The total thiometon residues were higher in the peeled cucumber than those in the cucumber peel. Thus, peeling is ineffective for reducing the systemic residues of thiometon. Likewise, in this experiment lower dilution caused higher rather than lower thiometon residues in cucumber. The rapid disappearance of thiometon residues 2 weeks after treatment suggests that storing cucumbers at room temperature may be a better strategy for reducing excessive thiometon residues. Alternatively, a contact insecticide could be used. Thus, the bulk of the surface residues could be removed by washing or peeling. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  20. Cortical localization of phase and amplitude dynamics predicting access to somatosensory awareness.

    Hirvonen, Jonni; Palva, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Neural dynamics leading to conscious sensory perception have remained enigmatic in despite of large interest. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed that a co-activation of sensory and frontoparietal areas is crucial for conscious sensory perception in the several second time-scale of BOLD signal fluctuations. Electrophysiological recordings with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG and EEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) have shown that event related responses (ERs), phase-locking of neuronal activity, and oscillation amplitude modulations in sub-second timescales are greater for consciously perceived than for unperceived stimuli. The cortical sources of ER and oscillation dynamics predicting the conscious perception have, however, remained unclear because these prior studies have utilized MEG/EEG sensor-level analyses or iEEG with limited neuroanatomical coverage. We used a somatosensory detection task, magnetoencephalography (MEG), and cortically constrained source reconstruction to identify the cortical areas where ERs, local poststimulus amplitudes and phase-locking of neuronal activity are predictive of the conscious access of somatosensory information. We show here that strengthened ERs, phase-locking to stimulus onset (SL), and induced oscillations amplitude modulations all predicted conscious somatosensory perception, but the most robust and widespread of these was SL that was sustained in low-alpha (6-10 Hz) band. The strength of SL and to a lesser extent that of ER predicted conscious perception in the somatosensory, lateral and medial frontal, posterior parietal, and in the cingulate cortex. These data suggest that a rapid phase-reorganization and concurrent oscillation amplitude modulations in these areas play an instrumental role in the emergence of a conscious percept. PMID:26485310

  1. Phase ramping and modulation of reflectometer signals

    The phase and amplitude signals of JET heterodyne reflectometers show varying levels of high frequency turbulence superimposed on a slow changing mean. The phase signal also shows multi-radian (> 1 fringe) variations with two quite different time scales (2-10 ms and sub-ms). In both cases the mean reflected power, together with turbulent phase and amplitude fluctuation levels, are modulated synchronously with the are modulated synchronously with the phase fringes. The slow fringes appear to result radial movement of the cutoff layer with the amplitude modulation possibly due to multiple reflection between plasma and wall. The fast fringes occur in intermittent bursts and appear to be phase runaway resulting from antenna misalignment. Using a 2-D physical optics simulation code it is possible to replicate the fast bursts of phase runaway from steady-state turbulence and misaligned antennas. This offers a possible alternative explanation for some of the observations of bursting turbulence seen in reflectometer signals. (authors)

  2. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Chen Junwu

    2003-01-01

    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  3. Amplitude Mode in the Quantum Phase Model

    We derive the collective low-energy excitations of the quantum phase model of interacting lattice bosons within the superfluid state using a dynamical variational approach. We recover the well-known sound (or Goldstone) mode and derive a gapped (Higgs-type) mode that was overlooked in previous studies of the quantum phase model. This mode is relevant to ultracold atoms in a strong optical lattice potential. We predict the signature of the gapped mode in lattice modulation experiments and show how it evolves with increasing interaction strength

  4. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  5. Resonant π^{+}γ→π^{+}π^{0} Amplitude from Quantum Chromodynamics.

    Briceño, Raúl A; Dudek, Jozef J; Edwards, Robert G; Shultz, Christian J; Thomas, Christopher E; Wilson, David J

    2015-12-11

    We present the first ab initio calculation of a radiative transition of a hadronic resonance within quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We compute the amplitude for ππ→πγ^{⋆}, as a function of the energy of the ππ pair and the virtuality of the photon, in the kinematic regime where ππ couples strongly to the unstable ρ resonance. This exploratory calculation is performed using a lattice discretization of QCD with quark masses corresponding to m_{π}≈400  MeV. We obtain a description of the energy dependence of the transition amplitude, constrained at 48 kinematic points, that we can analytically continue to the ρ pole and identify from its residue the ρ→πγ^{⋆} form factor. PMID:26705626

  6. Gauge and Gravity Amplitudes from Trees to Loops

    Huang, Rijun

    This thesis describes two subjects that I mainly work on during my PhD study. They are both about scattering amplitudes, covering gravity and gauge theories, tree and loop level, with or without supersymmetry. The rst subject is Kawai-Lewellen-Tye(KLT) relation in field theory, which mysteriously...... relates Yang-Mills amplitudes to gravity amplitudes. Based on many known works about KLT and super-KLT relations, we provide a complete map between super-gravity amplitudes and super-Yang-Mills amplitudes for any number of supersymmetry that allowed in 4-dimensional theory. We also provide an explanation...... for vanishing identities of Yang-Mills amplitudes as violation of linear symmetry groups based on KLT relation argument. The second subject is integrand reduction of multi-loop amplitude. The recent methods based on computational algebraic geometry make it possible to systematically study multi...

  7. Monodromies and the structure of gauge and gravity amplitudes

    Vanhove, Pierre [IPhT - Institut de Physique Theorique, Orme des Merisiers bat. 774, PC 136, CEA/DSM/IPhT, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques - IHES, Le Bois-Marie 35, route de Chartres 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    We show that different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy monodromy relations. These relations imply the existence of minimal basis of amplitude and provide the numerator factors of the amplitude for a parametrisation of the tree-level amplitude using only cubic vertices. Applications to supergravity amplitudes follow straightforwardly through the KLT-relations. Through the cuts, these tree-level relations give rise to non-trivial identities at loop level. At higher loop this constrains the critical ultraviolet behaviour of the four-graviton amplitude in N=8 supergravity to all order in perturbation. We argue this implies that the four-graviton N=8 amplitudes has a seven-loop logarithmic divergence in four dimensions. (author)

  8. Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation

    Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.

  9. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author)

  10. Dissecting CFT Correlators and String Amplitudes. Conformal Blocks and On-Shell Recursion for General Tensor Fields

    Hansen, Tobias

    2015-07-15

    This thesis covers two main topics: the tensorial structure of quantum field theory correlators in general spacetime dimensions and a method for computing string theory scattering amplitudes directly in target space. In the first part tensor structures in generic bosonic CFT correlators and scattering amplitudes are studied. To this end arbitrary irreducible tensor representations of SO(d) (traceless mixed-symmetry tensors) are encoded in group invariant polynomials, by contracting with sets of commuting and anticommuting polarization vectors which implement the index symmetries of the tensors. The tensor structures appearing in CFT{sub d} correlators can then be inferred by studying these polynomials in a d + 2 dimensional embedding space. It is shown with an example how these correlators can be used to compute general conformal blocks describing the exchange of mixed-symmetry tensors in four-point functions, which are crucial for advancing the conformal bootstrap program to correlators of operators with spin. Bosonic string theory lends itself as an ideal example for applying the same methods to scattering amplitudes, due to its particle spectrum of arbitrary mixed-symmetry tensors. This allows in principle the definition of on-shell recursion relations for string theory amplitudes. A further chapter introduces a different target space definition of string scattering amplitudes. As in the case of on-shell recursion relations, the amplitudes are expressed in terms of their residues via BCFW shifts. The new idea here is that the residues are determined by use of the monodromy relations for open string theory, avoiding the infinite sums over the spectrum arising in on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the method are presented, including a derivation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. It is argued that this method provides a target space definition of the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree-level in a at background in terms of a

  11. Dissecting CFT Correlators and String Amplitudes. Conformal Blocks and On-Shell Recursion for General Tensor Fields

    This thesis covers two main topics: the tensorial structure of quantum field theory correlators in general spacetime dimensions and a method for computing string theory scattering amplitudes directly in target space. In the first part tensor structures in generic bosonic CFT correlators and scattering amplitudes are studied. To this end arbitrary irreducible tensor representations of SO(d) (traceless mixed-symmetry tensors) are encoded in group invariant polynomials, by contracting with sets of commuting and anticommuting polarization vectors which implement the index symmetries of the tensors. The tensor structures appearing in CFTd correlators can then be inferred by studying these polynomials in a d + 2 dimensional embedding space. It is shown with an example how these correlators can be used to compute general conformal blocks describing the exchange of mixed-symmetry tensors in four-point functions, which are crucial for advancing the conformal bootstrap program to correlators of operators with spin. Bosonic string theory lends itself as an ideal example for applying the same methods to scattering amplitudes, due to its particle spectrum of arbitrary mixed-symmetry tensors. This allows in principle the definition of on-shell recursion relations for string theory amplitudes. A further chapter introduces a different target space definition of string scattering amplitudes. As in the case of on-shell recursion relations, the amplitudes are expressed in terms of their residues via BCFW shifts. The new idea here is that the residues are determined by use of the monodromy relations for open string theory, avoiding the infinite sums over the spectrum arising in on-shell recursion relations. Several checks of the method are presented, including a derivation of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude in the bosonic string. It is argued that this method provides a target space definition of the complete S-matrix of string theory at tree-level in a at background in terms of a small

  12. Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching

    Wang, Hui

    2014-08-05

    Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.

  13. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result. PMID:27140969

  14. Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses

    We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW2)h-1, where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F(0,h), on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Πn(TrW2)h-2, where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW2)2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m1/2 ∼ m04 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m0 ∼ O (1013) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)

  15. Nonlinear Langmuir Wave Modulation in Weakly Magnetized Plasmas

    Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1978-01-01

    influence on the modulation stability of plane Langmuir waves. As in the unmagnetized case, kinetic results were found to deviate considerably from those obtained by using a fluid description for the ion dynamics. With particular attention to ionospheric phenomena, the effect is included of the spatially...... varying electron heating in the amplitude modulated Langmuir wave. For modulations travelling almost perpendicular to the magnetic field, this effect has a profound influence on a modulational instability...

  16. New modulator for the optical signal in a fiber

    ZHANG Tian-hao; JIA Feng; WANG Shun-li; MAN Jiang wei; NIU Kai; WANG Xu-cheng; YANG Jia

    2006-01-01

    A new modulator for the optical signal in a fiber based on multi-beam interference is designed. In the experiment,the distance of a couple of abutted fibers was modulated through a piezoelectric ceramic pipe driven by 50 Hz AC voltage, so that the amplitude of the transmitted optical signal was modulated. The modulation ratio is about 10% ,S/N ratio is about 60 dB and the bandwidth is about 200 KHz.

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MIMO-SPACE TIME BLOCK CODING WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES

    Shubhangi Chaudhary

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available MIMO Diversity is the technique which takes the advantage of multipath and mitigates the effect of fading and increases signal strength. Space Time Block code (STBC is used in Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO system to improve the performance by maximizing diversity gain. In this paper Math Works-SIMULINK platform is used for simulation. The performance of MIMO, Space Time Block Code (STBC with different modulations, such as M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-PSK, Binary phase shift modulation (BPSK, Quadrature phase shift modulation (QPSK, 8-PSK, and M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM, 16-Quadrature Amplitude modulation (16-QAM and 64-Quadrature Amplitude modulation (64QAM, 256-Quadrature Amplitude modulation (256-QAM are studied on the basis of bit error rate (BER, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and error probability.

  18. Regge spectra, symmetry breaking effects and decays of old and new mesons in dual resonance amplitudes

    Single-term Veneziano dual amplitude with non-degenerate Regge slopes are examined in detail. Factorization of parent resonance residues and the equal spacing rule extracted from the universal slope case are used to determine all the leading meson trajectory parameters in terms of that of the rho. Relations between non-degenerate slopes and SU(4) symmetry breaking effects are discussed. The predicted meson mass spectra and the partial decay widthsnto two pseudoscalars are shown to agree well with data for the cases in which data exist. (orig.)

  19. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  20. Microwave frequency modulation of x-ray beam for radio therapy treatment system

    This patent describes a radio therapy treatment system for radiating a subject. It comprises means for generating an x-ray beam; and amplitude modulation means operative with the generating means for providing amplitude modulation of the x-ray beam at a predetermined microwave frequency