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Sample records for resembled anaplastic oligodendroglioma

  1. Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Blakeley, Jaishri; Grossman, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Although uncommon, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AODs) are important to recognize, as they have unique molecular, histologic, and clinical features. Patients with new seizures or new focal neurologic deficits should be referred for brain MRI with contrast. If the MRI suggests a malignant glioma, maximal feasible tumor resection is advised for accurate diagnosis and for relief of tumor-related neurologic symptoms. Radiation therapy (XRT) is the most commonly prescribed postsurgical therapy fo...

  2. Paraplegia due to drop metastases from anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jakob; Tietze, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a rare case of spinal seeding from a cerebral anaplastic oligodendroglioma presenting with signs of medullar compression. We discuss the prevalence, mechanisms and imaging findings of spinal seeding in various gliomas. A suitable clinical treatment and follow up for these patients is suggested.

  3. Treatment recommendations for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas that are codeleted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark D; Gilbert, Mark R

    2013-04-01

    Abstract: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is a rare malignant tumor occurring in adults. Despite early indications of chemosensitivity, no clinical trial had demonstrated a benefit of chemotherapy beyond that of radiotherapy alone. Now, however, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9402 and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 26951 studies investigating PCV (procarbazine [Matulane], lomustine [CeeNU], and vincristine) and radiation therapy vs radiation alone both show improved outcomes in patients with the 1 p/19q codeletion who received PCV and radiation therapy. These differences were detected with additional follow-up after publication of the initial results in 2006, when no differences in survival were detected. The two studies have also validated the use of the 1p/19q codeletion as a predictive biomarker in AO. Many will debate the wisdom of adopting PCV therapy as standard of care because of the greater toxicity of PCV compared with temozolomide (Temodar). Nonetheless, although important questions still remain regarding chemotherapy choice, sequence, and dosing, the answers to which will require additional large phase III trials, radiotherapy alone is no longer appropriate therapy for 1p/19q codeleted AOs. PMID:23781695

  4. Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma: A New Treatment Paradigm and Current Controversies

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    Roth, P; Wick, W; Weller, M.

    2013-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors have gained increasing interest with the emerging role of molecular markers and systemic chemotherapy during the past years. The long-term results of two landmark trials, RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26961, have resulted in a reconsideration of the appropriate therapeutic approaches for patients with these tumors. Both trials indicate that patients whose tumors harbor a 1p/19q co-deletion benefit particularly from the addition of procarbazine/lomus...

  5. Emerging biomarkers in anaplastic oligodendroglioma: implications for clinical investigation and patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjam, Solmaz; McNamara, Mairéad G; Mason, Warren P

    2013-07-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are heterogeneous tumors with a variable response to treatment. This clinical variability underlines the urgent need for markers that can reliably aid diagnosis and guide clinical decision-making. Long-term follow-up data from the EORTC 26951 and RTOG 9402 clinical trials in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma have established chromosome 1p19q codeletion as a predictive marker of response to procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. In addition, MGMT promoter hypermethylation has been strongly associated with glioma CpG island hypermethylation phenotype (G-CIMP+) status, this has been suggested as an epiphenomenon of genome-wide methylation, conferring a more favorable prognosis. Molecular profiling of these tumors has identified several other markers with potential clinical significance: mutations of IDH, CIC, FUBP1 and CDKN2A require further validation before they can be implemented as clinical decision-making tools. Additionally, recent data on the clinical significance of intrinsic glioma subtyping appears promising. Indeed, existing evidence suggests that comprehensive analyses such as intrinsic glioma subtyping or G-CIMP status are superior to single molecular markers. Clearly, with evolving treatment strategies and in the era of individualized therapy, broader omics-based molecular evaluations are required to improve outcome prediction and to identify patients who will benefit from specific treatment strategies. PMID:25054579

  6. Clinical discussion of the management of anaplastic oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma (both codeleted and nondeleted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark D; Gilbert, Mark R

    2014-05-01

    Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are uncommon malignant tumors occurring in adults, but have garnered attention because of a high rate of response to chemotherapy in early studies. However, no clinical trial had demonstrated benefit with the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy alone until the long-term results of RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951. These studies revealed prolonged survival in patients with anaplastic gliomas harboring the 1p/19q codeletion when treated with PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) and radiation therapy compared with radiation alone. These studies validated the use of 1p/19q codeletion status as a predictive biomarker in these tumors. Additional molecular characterization of these tumors may provide additional insight into treatment decisions, although these characterizations have yet to be fully elucidated. Even with the strength of the data advocating the use of combination therapy (PCV and radiotherapy), the incorporation of newer, less-toxic drugs such as temozolomide into many practices in the past decade raises important questions regarding the optimal chemotherapy regimen. Unfortunately, additional definitive phase III trials will take several years to answer remaining questions. Regardless, it is clear that patients with 1p/19q codeleted AO or AOA who can tolerate chemotherapy should not receive radiotherapy alone. PMID:24812135

  7. Chemoradiation for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: clinical outcomes and prognostic value of molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Arcella, Antonella; Scaringi, Claudia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Di Stefano, Domenica; Scarpino, Stefania; Pace, Andrea; Giangaspero, Felice; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2014-01-01

    Combination of procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) with radiation therapy (RT) has been associated with longer survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), especially in those with chromosome 1p/19q codeletion. We report a multicenter retrospective study of 84 consecutive adult patients with AO and AOA treated with RT plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) between February 2004 and January 2011. Correlations between chromosome 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase1 (IDH1) mutation, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation with survival outcomes have been analyzed. For all 84 patients the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival rates were 55.6 and 45.2 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity occurred in 17 % of patients. Chromosome 1p/19q codeletion was detected in 57 %, IDH1 mutation in 63 %, and MGMT promoter methylation in 74 % of evaluable patients. In multivariate analysis the presence of chromosome 1p/19q codeletion was associated with significant survival benefit (median OS 34 months in noncodeleted tumors and not reached in codeleted tumors; HR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.03-0.45; P = 0.005). IDH1 mutation was also of prognostic significance for longer survival (P = 0.001; HR 0.20, 95 % 0.06-0.41), whereas MGMT promoter methylation was only of borderline significance. The study indicates that RT with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ is a relatively safe treatment associated with longer survival in patients with 1p/19q codeleted and IDH1 mutated tumors. Results from ongoing randomized studies will be essential to clarify if RT plus TMZ may provide survival as good as or better than RT combined with PCV for patients with AO and AOA. PMID:24162810

  8. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion have a proneural gene expression profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delattre Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In high grade gliomas, 1p19q codeletion and EGFR amplification are mutually exclusive and predictive of dramatically different outcomes. We performed a microarray gene expression study of four high grade gliomas with 1p19q codeletion and nine with EGFR amplification, identified by CGH-array. Results The two groups of gliomas exhibited very different gene expression profiles and were consistently distinguished by unsupervised clustering analysis. One of the most striking differences was the expression of normal brain genes by oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion. These gliomas harbored a gene expression profile that partially resembled the gene expression of normal brain samples, whereas gliomas with EGFR amplification expressed many genes in common with glioblastoma cancer stem cells. The differences between the two types of gliomas and the expression of neuronal genes in gliomas with 1p19q codeletion were both validated in an independent series of 16 gliomas using real-time RT-PCR with a set of 22 genes differentiating the two groups of gliomas (AKR1C3, ATOH8, BMP2, C20orf42, CCNB1, CDK2, CHI3L1, CTTNBP2, DCX, EGFR, GALNT13, GBP1, IGFBP2, IQGAP1, L1CAM, NCAM1, NOG, OLIG2, PDPN, PLAT, POSTN, RNF135. Immunohistochemical study of the most differentially expressed neuronal gene, alpha-internexin, clearly differentiated the two groups of gliomas, with 1p19q codeletion gliomas showing specific staining in tumor cells. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for neuronal differentiation in oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion and support the hypothesis that the cell of origin for gliomas with 1p19q codeletion could be a bi-potential progenitor cell, able to give rise to both neurons and oligodendrocytes.

  9. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue as initial therapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Long-term follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Abrey, Lauren E; Childs, Barrett H; Paleologos, Nina; Kaminer, Lynne; Rosenfeld, Steven; Salzman, Donna; Finlay, Jonathan L; Gardner, Sharon; Peterson, Kendra; Hu, Wendy; Swinnen, Lode; Bayer, Robert; Forsyth, Peter; Stewart, Douglas; Smith, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported a phase 2 trial of 69 patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic or aggressive oligodendroglioma who were treated with intensive procarbazine, CCNU (lomustine), and vincristine (PCV) followed by high-dose thiotepa with autologous stem cell rescue. This report summarizes the long-term follow-up of the cohort of 39 patients who received high-dose thiotepa with autologous stem cell support. Thirty-nine patients with a median age of 43 (range, 18–67) and a median KPS of 100...

  10. Health-related quality of life and cognitive functioning in long-term anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Esther J J; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Nederend, Sylvie; Klein, Martin; Delgadillo, Daniel; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Bottomley, Andrew; Allgeier, Anouk; Seute, Tatjana; Gijtenbeek, Anja M M; de Gans, Jan; Enting, Roelien H; Tijssen, Cees C; van den Bent, Martin J; Reijneveld, Jaap C

    2014-01-01

    Overall survival of patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors has been improved due to the addition of procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT), especially in 1p/19q-codeleted tumors. With improved survival, quality of survival becomes pivotal. We evaluated cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of long-term anaplastic oligodendroglioma survivors. Thirty-two out of 37 long-term survivors included in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 in the Netherlands and France participated. Cognition was assessed using neuropsychological tests for 6 domains, and HRQOL with the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Brain Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-BN20). Fatigue and mood were evaluated. Results were compared to healthy controls and to patients' own HRQOL 2.5 years following initial treatment. At the time of assessment, median survival for the patients was 147 months, 27 were still progression-free since initial treatment. Of progression-free patients, 26% were not, and 30% were severely cognitively impaired; 41% were employed and 81% could live independently. Patients' HRQOL was worse compared to controls, but similar to 2.5 years after initial treatment. Initial treatment (RT versus RT + PCV) was not correlated with cognition or HRQOL. In conclusion, cognitive functioning in long-term anaplastic oligodendroglioma survivors is variable. However, most patients function independently. In progression-free patients, HRQOL is relatively stable during the disease course. In this small sample, no effect of the addition of PCV on cognition or HRQOL was identified. PMID:24162809

  11. Bone marrow involvement in systemic alk+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma: morphological resemblance with hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 21 years old male presented with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma was made on lymph node biopsy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies including ALK-1. Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of large lymphoma cells and trephine biopsy showed interstitial involvement. In addition, there was presence of binucleate cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. All these features resulted in a strong resemblance of the morphology with Hodgkin's lymphoma. (author)

  12. Pattern of care of anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma in a Korean population: the Korean Radiation Oncology Group study 13-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tosol; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Il Han; Chung, Woong-Ki; Suh, Chang-Ok; Choi, Byung Ock; Cho, Kwan Ho; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Chul-Kee; Hong, Yong-Kil; Kim, In Ah

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the treatment of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors across nine Korean institutions. We reviewed the medical records from 381 patients with histologically confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) from 2000 to 2010. Clinical factors and treatment patterns were analyzed for each year. Post-operative therapy was performed in 354 patients (94.1 %), of which 133 received radiotherapy (RT) alone and 189 received both RT and chemotherapy. RT alone was the preferred treatment toward the end of the study period (29.4 % in 2000-2001 vs. 56.3 % in 2010, P = 0.005). The use of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) decreased (57.6 % in 2000-2001 vs. 28.6 % in 2010, P = 0.001) and the use of temozolomide (TMZ) increased (0 % in 2000-2001 vs. 61.9 % in 2010, P < 0.001) over the study period. A combination of chemotherapy and RT was used more often than RT alone in young patients (P = 0.036) and patients with a good performance status (P = 0.023). The 1p/19q co-deletion status and O-6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation were analyzed since 2004 but were not significant factors for determining whether to administer chemotherapy. Among the patients who received chemotherapy, TMZ was used more often in patients with AOA (P = 0.007) and PCV was used more often in patients with either multiple lesions (P = 0.027) or the 1p/19q co-deletion (P = 0.026). Our results demonstrate that the treatment pattern for oligodendroglial tumors changed significantly across the study period. In particular, TMZ has replaced PCV, and the use of molecular markers as well as RT alone has increased, but a unified protocol remains to be established. PMID:25391968

  13. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOthere were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  14. Chemotherapy of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Soffietti, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumours (oligodendrogliomas and oligoastro-cytomas) have a definite better prognosis than diffuse astrocytic gliomas (glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas). Surgery relieves neurological symptoms and provides tissue for classification, grading and molecular characterisation of the tumour. Historically, radiation therapy has been the sole postoperative treatment for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumours, but this policy has been challenged in the la...

  15. Challenging diagnosis: oligodendroglioma versus extraventricular neurocytoma.

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    Mut, M; Güler-Tezel, G; Lopes, M B S; Bilginer, B; Ziyal, I; Ozcan, O E

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosis of oligodendroglioma from other clear cell neoplasms of central nervous system (CNS) is still challenging despite advances in neuroradiology and molecular diagnostic tools. Herein, we present a 44-year-old male patient who had a diagnosis of right parietal oligodendroglioma grade II in 1994 which recurred in 2002. He presented with intratumoral hemorrhage and he underwent radical resection of tumor in 2003. Histopathological examination of the recurrent tumor showed anaplastic progression with confusing immunohistochemical (IHC) results; the tumor was positive for NeuN and synaptophysin staining. The question arisen was whether the recurrent tumor was an oligodendroglioma with neuronal differentiation or an extraventricular neurocytoma initially misdiagnosed as oligodendroglioma. Repeated IHC staining showed negative results for NeuN and synaptophysin. Chromosomal analysis revealed 1p/19q deletion, which led to the diagnosis ofanaplastic oligodendroglioma grade III. Accurate diagnosis of oligodendroglioma is crucial due to recent advances and promises in its treatment. Current diagnostic methods of oligodendroglial tumors are discussed in context of differentiating oligodendrogliomas from other clear cell neoplasms of CNS, especially from extraventricular neurocytomas. PMID:16167546

  16. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

  17. Age-related differences in 1p and 19q deletions in oligodendrogliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports indicate that anaplastic oligodendrogliomas frequently show allelic losses on chromosome arms 1p and 19q, and that these deletions are associated with better chemotherapeutic response and overall patient survival. Because of the diversified genetic makeup of the population and the centralized provincial referral system for brain tumor patients in Manitoba, the epidemiological features of such tumors sometimes differ from the published data acquired from non-community based settings. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of allelic deletions for chromosome arms 1p and 19q in anaplastic and in low-grade oligodendrogliomas in the Manitoba population. Methods Loss of heterozygosity (LOH analysis of brain tumors was carried out using 4 microsatellite markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D19S219 and D19S412 and a PCR based assay. The tumors were consecutively acquired during the period September 1999–March 2001 and a total of 63 tumors were assessed. Results We found that allelic loss of chromosome 1p and 19q was higher in oligodendrogliomas than in other diffuse gliomas and that for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, younger patients exhibited significantly more deletions than older patients (>60 years of age. Conclusions These studies suggest that age may be a factor in the genetic alterations of oligodendrogliomas. In addition, these studies demonstrate that this assay can easily be carried out in a cost-effective manner in a small tertiary center.

  18. Anaplastic glioma: current treatment and management.

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    Le Rhun, Emilie; Taillibert, Sophie; Chamberlain, Marc C

    2015-06-01

    Anaplastic glioma (AG) is divided into three morphology-based groups (anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma) as well as three molecular groups (glioma-CpG island methylation phenotype [G-CIMP] negative, G-CIMP positive non-1p19q codeleted tumors and G-CIMP positive codeleted tumors). The RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951 trials established radiotherapy plus (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy as the standard of care in 1p/19q codeleted AG. Uni- or non-codeleted AG are currently best treated with radiotherapy only or alkylator-based chemotherapy only as determined by the NOA-04 trial. Maturation of NOA-04 and results of the currently accruing studies, CODEL (for codeleted AG) and CATNON (for uni or non-codeleted AG), will likely refine current up-front treatment recommendations for AG. PMID:25936680

  19. Characteristic CT signs in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography offers valuable aid for improving the diagnostic capabilities for oligodendrogliomas. The authors have attempted to determine more precisely the CT characteristic signs for this type of tumor and to establish criteria for predicting malignancy grade. They can conclude that calcifications are the main signs which lead to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, as the most usual calcifying glioma. This finding was known before the CT era, but with the CT one can be more exact with regard to form, growth, number and density of the calcifications and especially the smallest of them, which are not to be seen on the conventional X-ray examination. The cyst formation is another feature of oligodendroglioma. The occurrence of contrast enhancement and cyst formation are the most characteristic signs of malignancy. (C.F.)

  20. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  1. Primary spinal cord oligodendroglioma: Case illustration / Oligodendroglioma primario de la médula espinal: Caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Gürkanlar; H., Koçak; A., Aciduman; E., Yucel; Ö., Ekinci.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los oligodendrogliomas de la médula espinal son raros y su localización en el cono medular o del filum terminale son aún menos frecuentes. Sólo hay siete oligodendrogliomas de la médula encontrados en la literatura. Nuestro caso es el octavo oligodendroglioma medular con esta localización [...] Abstract in english Spinal cord oligodendrogliomas are rare pathologies of the spinal cord, and their location at conus and/or filum terminale is even rarer. There are only 7 spinal cord oligodendrogliomas reported in the literature. Our case is the eighth spinal cord oligodendrogliomas at this location. [...

  2. New treatment paradigm for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Jiri; Polivka, Jiri; Rohan, Vladimir; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2014-04-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are uncommon tumors in neurooncology that represent about 5% of primary brain malignancies. Their high sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy was observed a long time ago. Nonetheless, the evidence-based proof of the significantly longer survival in patients with oligodendrogliomas treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison to radiotherapy-alone did not exist. The long-term follow-up of two landmark phase III clinical trials: RTOG 9402 and EORTC 26951, recently demonstrated favorable effects of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine) in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas carrying the chromosomal mutation of co-deletion of 1p/19q. There is also an increasing role of other molecular biomarkers, such as mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene promoter methylation, or glioma genome cytosine-phosphate-guanine islands methylator phenotype. The analysis of molecular genetics in oligodendrogliomas is now recommended as an important part of the management of these tumors and together with the novel chemotherapeutic regimens means a paradigm shift in current clinical practice in neurooncology. PMID:24692686

  3. Osteoclastoma-like anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid

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    Joseph Leena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that is partially or totally undifferentiated. The use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to diagnose anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells, has been rarely reported. We report here a case of osteoclastoma - anaplastic carcinoma - that was diagnosed on cytology in a 58 year-old female patient, who presented with a progressively increasing swelling over the anterior aspect of the neck. Multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts are rarely seen in the giant cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma.

  4. Recurrent Oligodendroglioma Treated with Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture.

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    Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2015-06-01

    Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture have been shown to be effective in tumor treatment. However, their effectiveness for treating oligodendroglioma has not been reported yet. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial report on the effectiveness of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture for the treatment of an oligodendroglioma by presenting a case that was treated successfully. A 54-year-old man, who had experienced intracranial hemorrhage, was diagnosed with recurrent oligodendroglioma. His expected survival period was 3-6 months. The patient received daily acupuncture and weekly pharmacopuncture of mountain ginseng and bee venom. After treatment for 18 months, the tumor size was decreased markedly on brain magnetic resonance imaging, and severe seizures had disappeared. In this case, a combination of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture was shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent oligodendroglioma. PMID:26100069

  5. Oligodendroglioma arising in a sacrococcygeal immature teratoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Chan Kwon; Lee, Youn Soo; Jung, Eun Sun; Kang, Chang Suk; Kim, Byung Kee

    2002-01-01

    Tumors of neuroepithelial origin are extremely rare in teratoma and tend to be derived from glial or primitive neuroectodermal cells. We describe a case of 2- month-old baby girl with an oligodendroglioma arising in an immature teratoma of the sacrococcygeal region. Histologically, the tumor was identical in appearance to low grade oligodendroglioma within the adult brain. Because immature teratoma was grade II, the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient died of progression of th...

  6. PCV chemotherapy for recurrent oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Soffietti, Riccardo

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of low-grade oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas is still unclear. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the benefits and toxicity of the procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) regimen in patients with low-grade oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas recurrent after surgery alone or surgery with radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients with both enhancing and nonenhancing tumors were treated with up to six cycles of standard PCV...

  7. Molecular genetic study of a metastatic oligodendroglioma.

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    GIORDANA, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Extracranial spread of neuroectodermal tumors is an unusual event, most frequently expected from glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. Single cases of metastatic oligodendrogliomas have been described, but no genetic data are reported. Oligodendrogliomas are characterized by distinct genetic alterations, i.e. loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 1p and 19q; therefore, molecular genetic analysis of metastatic cases is of considerable interest. It may be instrumental in defining the distant tumor as m...

  8. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cairncross, G.; Swinnen, L; Bayer, R.; Rosenfeld, S.; Salzman, D.; Paleologos, N.; Kaminer, L.; Forsyth, P.; Stewart, D.; Peterson, K.; Hu, W; MACDONALD, D; Ramsay, D; SMITH, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the duration of tumor control and the toxicities of dose-intense myeloablative chemotherapy for patients with recurrent oligodendrogliomas. Patients with previously irradiated oligodendrogliomas, either pure or mixed, that were contrast enhancing, measurable, and behaving aggressively at recurrence were eligible for this study. Only complete responders or major partial responders (75 % reduction in tumor size) to induction chemotherapy--either inte...

  9. Oligodendroglioma: pathology, molecular mechanisms and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Pieter; van den Bent, Martin; Perry, Arie

    2015-06-01

    For nearly a century, the diagnosis and grading of oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas has been based on histopathology alone. Roughly 20 years ago, the first glioma-associated molecular signature was found with complete chromosome 1p and 19q codeletion being particularly common in histologically classic oligodendrogliomas. Subsequently, this codeletion appeared to not only carry diagnostic, but also prognostic and predictive information, the latter aspect only recently resolved after carefully constructed clinical trials with very long follow-up times. More recently described biomarkers, including the non-balanced translocation leading to 1p/19q codeletion, promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene, mutations of the IDH1 or IDH2 gene, and mutations of FUBP1 (on 1p) or CIC (on 19q), have greatly enhanced our understanding of oligodendroglioma biology, although their diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive roles are less clear. It has therefore been suggested that complete 1p/19q codeletion be required for the diagnosis of 'canonical oligodendroglioma'. This transition to an integrated morphological and molecular diagnosis may result in the disappearance of oligoastrocytoma as an entity, but brings new challenges as well. For instance it needs to be sorted out how (histopathological) criteria for grading of 'canonical oligodendrogliomas' should be adapted, how pediatric oligodendrogliomas (known to lack codeletions) should be defined, which platforms and cut-off levels should ideally be used for demonstration of particular molecular aberrations, and how the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma should be made in centers/countries where molecular diagnostics is not available. Meanwhile, smart integration of morphological and molecular information will lead to recognition of biologically much more uniform groups within the spectrum of diffuse gliomas and thereby facilitate tailored treatments for individual patients. PMID:25943885

  10. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Derakhshanfar; A A, Mozaffari.

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Followi [...] ng euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  11. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to study some characteristics and posibility of surgery of anaplastic thyroid cancer. During five years period in Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patienst (44 female and 21 male, median age 63 years (from 37 to 88 years. Surgical treatment was peerformed in one half (32 anaplastic thyroid cancer patients, at majority of them operative biopsy or tumor reduction only. Radical syrgery was performed in about 10% patients. Posibility of surgery in anaplastic thyroid cancer are very limited. In one third patients there were longstanding goter or thyroid nodul or histological verified dediferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. This patienst should be operated formerly, before anaplastic transformation.

  12. Oligodendrogliomas: Impact of molecular genetics on treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in oligodendrogliomas has increased since it became evident that a subset of these tumors respond to chemotherapy or radiation. This interest was augmented when the combined loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19 was identified as a powerful prediction factor for response. Lack of stringent morphological criteria allow high-interobserver variation with regard to classification and grading of oligodendroglial tumors. The prospect of beneficial chemotherapy prompted neuropathologists to diagnose more ?oligodendroglioma? than before. Therefore, there is great demand for unambiguous classification of oligodendroglial tumors. Supplementary analysis of the integrity of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q may greatly assist diagnostic characterization of tumors with oligodendroglial phenotype. The underlying mechanisms for these deletions are not known. Tumor suppressor genes on 1p and 19q relevant for oligodendroglioma have not yet been identified. Knowledge of these genes and the mechanisms of their inactivation might help to understand why oligodendroglial tumors do respond better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than astrocytomas. This review compiles clinical, pathological and molecular genetic findings on oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO Grades II and III to present a brief overview on recent developments.

  13. Oligodendroglioma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xdc Nal, Bet Xfc L.; Xfc Le Xe, Faruk G.; Edele, Murat X. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Development of neuroepithelial tumors from mature cystic teratoma is very rare. We present a case of oligodendroglioma developing inside mature cystic teratoma. Case. Eighteen-years-old female, right adnexal mass with solid and cystic areas was detected. Sections showed all three germ layers. Also, a tumoral lesion was observed in a glial fibrillary matrix. Tumor was composed of monotonous, uniform cells which have oval-round nucleus, perinuclear halo, and indistinct cytoplasm...

  14. Asymptotic Resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Sh.; Honari, B.

    2013-01-01

    Uniformity and proximity are two different ways for defining small scale structures on a set. Coarse structures are large scale counterparts of uniform structures. In this paper, motivated by the definition of proximity, we develop the concept of asymptotic resemblance as a relation between subsets of a set to define a large scale structure on it. We use our notion of asymptotic resemblance to generalize some basic concepts of coarse geometry. We introduce a large scale comp...

  15. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma and its Osteoclastic Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is an uncommon highly malignant tumor. Osteoclastic type giant cell tumor of the thyroid is an extremely rare morphological variant of the undifferentiated carcinoma thyroid gland characterized by the presence of a large numbers of non-neoplastic multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts, containing many small round to oval, uniform benign appearing nuclei. Frequent association with preexisting thyroid lesion is seen. We report here this unusual aggressive tumor in a 70 year old female who presented with dysphagia, dyspnea and a progressively increasing swelling over the anterior aspect of the neck. Histologically, many multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells were seen accompanying the pleomorphic tumor cells and a diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with osteoclast like giant cells was made. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 98-100

  16. Treatment of anaplastic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Wolfgang; Wiestler, Benedikt; Platten, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic gliomas have received increasing attention over the past years. As opposed to glioblastoma, where the focus has been on the evaluation of novel compounds (with mainly disappointing results), in anaplastic gliomas relevant progress was generated with genotoxic therapies and translational work on biomarkers. Anaplastic gliomas are classified using single biomarkers, namely isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) or the related CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), p53, 1p/19q, and O(6)-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT). With these molecular biomarkers, three main prognostically distinct groups have been defined: (i) CIMP-negative anaplastic gliomas, which have a similar prognosis as glioblastoma, (ii) CIMP-positive 1p/19q intact, and (iii) CIMP-positive 1p/19q codeleted gliomas. In the CIMP-negative, mainly IDH wild-type group, MGMT promoter methylation may be used to identify patients who benefit from alkylating chemotherapy. The mutually exclusive ATRX losses and 1p/19q codeletions are used to subcategorize anaplastic tumors with a mixed histology according to microscopic features. This eliminates the biological basis and clinical necessity for the diagnosis of mixed gliomas (anaplastic oligoastrocytomas). Retrospective long-term analysis of the EORTC 26951 and RTOG 9402 trials revealed that patients with tumors harboring 1p/19q codeletions benefit from addition of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy. RTOG 9402 suggests that this may be the case also for patients with 1p/19q intact tumors, but IDH mutation. Future developments in addition to the ongoing CATNON and CODEL trials, will focus on further refinement of the molecular predictors and development of treatments that not only increase survival but also maintain neurological function, cognition, and health-related quality of life. PMID:25468227

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Taccaliti, Augusto; Silvetti, Francesca; Palmonella, Gioia; Boscaro, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs), papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is estimated to comprise 1–2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14–39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about one to two cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter) than in USA. ATC has a more complex geno...

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Metastasizing Oligodendroglioma : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, MIN; Murphy, Kathleen M; Kulesza, Piotr; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Olivi, Alessandro; Tufaro, Anthony; Erozan, Yener; Westra, William H.; Burger, Peter C.; Berg, Karin D.

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a suspicious parotid mass in which molecular determination of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome arms 1p and 19q in combination with cytologic and immunohistochemical analysis defined the tumor to be metastatic oligodendroglioma. The patient was a 41-year-old woman who developed a World Health Organization grade II oligodendroglioma in her right frontal lobe at age 32, for which no adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy was administered. Five years following this diagno...

  19. Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by PCV chemotherapy for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a Phase II one-arm study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of accelerated fractionated radiotherapy combined with i.v. carboplatin for patients with previously untreated anaplastic gliomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 90 patients received 1.9-2.0-Gy radiation 3 times a day with 2-h infusions of 33 g/m2 carboplatin for two 5-day cycles separated by 2 weeks. After radiotherapy, patients received procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine (PCV) for 1 year or until the tumor progressed. Results: Ninety patients were evaluable for analysis. Histologically, 69 had anaplastic astrocytoma; 14, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma; and 7, anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Gross total resection was performed in 20 (22%), subtotal resection in 45 (50%), and biopsy in 25 (28%); reoperation (total or subtotal resection) was performed in 50 (56%) patients. A multivariate analysis showed that a younger age (p=0.026), Karnofsky performance score (KPS; p=0.009), and brain necrosis (p=0.0002) were predictive of a better survival. Results from analysis of extent of surgery (biopsy, subtotal resection, gross total resection) approached significance (p=0.058). Radiation dose, irradiated tumor volume, and techniques used (boost and fields) were not significant variables. The median survival (MS) of all anaplastic glioma patients was 28.1 months; for anaplastic astrocytoma patients, MS was 28.7 months and 40.8 months for the combined anapnths and 40.8 months for the combined anaplastic oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma patients. Long-term survival occurred in 25% of anaplastic glioma patients who were alive 8.6 years after treatment was initiated. Treatment-induced necrosis was documented by surgery or autopsy in 19 (21%) patients; 21 (23%) had a mixed pattern of necrosis and tumor; and an additional 13 (14%) patients who did not have surgical or autopsy demonstration of predominant radiation necrosis had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of radiation necrosis. Serious clinical neurologic deterioration and/or dementia requiring full-time caregiver attention were observed in 9 (10%) patients. Conclusion: When comparable selection criteria are applied, the rate of MS in this study is inferior to results attainable with current radiation and chemotherapy approaches, although the rates of long-term survival are comparable. Theoretically, patients failing therapy and dying earlier than anticipated may be because of excessive central nervous system (CNS) toxicity resulting from the combination of accelerated fractionated irradiation, intensive carboplatin chemotherapy before each radiation fraction, and postirradiation PCV chemotherapy. On the other hand, patients with treatment-induced necrosis survived significantly longer than patients who did not demonstrate MRI or histologic evidence of necrosis (MS, 106 months vs. 18-33 months)

  20. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mozaffari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  1. Anaplastic meningioma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falavigna Asdrubal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial meningiomas continue to challenge our best clinical efforts to eliminate them once discovered and deemed appropriate for treatment. Malignant meningiomas constitute 10% to 15% of all meningiomas and limited information exists regarding adjuvant treatment. The external whole brain irradiation is recommended. Traditional chemotherapy has proven ineffective; thus, new chemotherapeutic agents and new methods of delivery should be developed. Immunotherapy may be considered for patients with malignant meningiomas when all others previous treatment have failed. We report a case of anaplastic papillary meningioma. A 67-year-old man presented with partial complex seizures, headache and aggressiveness. A computerized tomography and magnetic resonance image demonstrated a large left temporo-occipital mass with difuse contrast enhancement and extensive surrounding edema. A left temporo-occipital flap was performed. The tumor and the infiltrated dura were radically removed. Postoperatively, the patient remained neurologically intact. The treatment was complemented by external whole brain radiation.

  2. Extraventricular neurocytoma in a child mimicking oligodendroglioma: a diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaiem, F; Bellil, S; Chelly, I; Mekni, A; Bellil, K; Jemel, H; Haouet, S; Zitouna, M; Kchir, N

    2009-04-01

    Extraventricular neurocytomas are rare neuronal tumours that have been included in the 2007 WHO classification as a variant of central neurocytoma. They arise outside the ventricles, usually within the cerebral hemisphere,s but also in other regions throughout the neuraxis. The morphological overlap of these tumours with oligodendroglioma often poses diagnostic difficulty. Herein, a case of extraventricular neurocytoma in a 4-year-old girl is reported that mimicked histologically oligodendroglioma. The authors describe the clinicopathological features of this rare entity with special emphasis on differential diagnosis. PMID:19886559

  3. Toward improved grading of malignancy in oligodendrogliomas using metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, G; Elbayed, K; Piotto, M; Raya, J; Neuville, A; Mohr, M; Maitrot, D; Kehrli, P; Namer, I J

    2008-05-01

    In spite of having been the object of considerable attention, the histopathological grading of oligodendrogliomas is still controversial. The determination of reliable biomarkers capable of improving the malignancy grading remains an essential step in working toward better therapeutic management of patients. Therefore the metabolome of 34 human brain biopsies, histopathologically classified as low-grade (LGO, N = 10) and high-grade (HGO, N = 24) oligodendrogliomas, was studied using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HRMAS NMR) and multivariate statistical analysis. The classification model obtained afforded a clear distinction between LGOs and HGOs and provided some useful insights into the different metabolic pathways that underlie malignancy grading. The analysis of the most discriminant metabolites in the model revealed the presence of tumoral hypoxia in HGOs. The statistical model was then used to study biopsy samples that were classified as intermediate oligodendrogliomas (N = 6) and glioblastomas (GBMs) (N = 30) by histopathology. The results revealed a gradient of tumoral hypoxia increasing in the following direction: LGOs, intermediate oligodendrogliomas, HGOs, and GBMs. Moreover upon analysis of the clinical evolution of the patients, the metabolic classification seems to provide a closer correlation with the actual patient evolution than the histopathological analysis. PMID:18429037

  4. Meningioma anaplásico / Anaplastic meningioma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlines Alina, Piña Tornés; Fernando, Mendoza Montero; Francisco José, Oliva Pontón.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente que comenzó a presentar cefalea, vértigos, trastornos visuales y pérdida del equilibrio. Mediante la resonancia magnética se visualizó una imagen tumoral parietal izquierda de 3 cm diámetro, de localización extraaxial y contornos lobulados bien definidos, c [...] on gran captación no homogénea de contraste, rodeada de extenso edema perilesional. Se realizó angiotomografía, previa a la cirugía, en busca de irrigación y daño vascular. Se logró la resección de 95% de la lesión (grado II de Simpson), que incluyó duramadre adyacente infiltrada y respetó el seno longitudinal superior. Los resultados anatomopatológicos confirmaron que se trataba de un meningioma anaplásico de grado III, con criterio de tratamiento coadyuvante. Abstract in english The case report of a patient who began presenting headache, vertigos, visual disorders and loss of balance is presented. By means of the magnetic resonance a left tumoral parietal image of 3 cm diameter was visualized, of extra-axial localization and well defined lobulated contours, with great non-h [...] omogeneous zones of contrast, surrounded by extensive perilesional edema. An angiotomography was carried out, previous to the surgery, looking for irrigation and vascular compromise. The resection of 95% of the lesion was achieved (grade II of Simpson) which included adjacent infiltrated dura madre and preserving the superior longitudinal sinus. Pathological results confirmed that it was an anaplastic meningioma grade III, with criterium for adyuvant treatment.

  5. Anaplastic Transformation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies that arise from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. We describe a case for huge goiter diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma, which underwent thyroidectomy. The final histology showed anaplastic transformation. The clinical and possible etiological aspects are discussed.

  6. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccaliti, Augusto; Silvetti, Francesca; Palmonella, Gioia; Boscaro, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs), papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is estimated to comprise 1-2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14-39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about one to two cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter) than in USA. ATC has a more complex genotype than DTCs, with chromosomal aberrations present in 85-100% of cases. A small number of gene mutations have been identified, and there appears to be a progression in mutations acquired during dedifferentiation. The mean survival time is around 6?months from diagnosis an outcome that is frequently not altered by treatment. ATC presents with a rapidly growing fixed and hard neck mass, often metastatic local lymph nodes appreciable on examination and/or vocal paralysis. Symptoms may reflect rapid growth of tumor with local invasion and/or compression. The majority of patients with ATC die from aggressive local regional disease, primarily from upper airway respiratory failure. For this reason, aggressive local therapy is indicated in all patients who can tolerate it. Although rarely possible, complete surgical resection gives the best chance of long-term control and improved survival. Therapy options include surgery, external beam radiation therapy, tracheostomy, chemotherapy, and investigational clinical trials. Multimodal or combination therapy should be useful. In fact, surgical debulking of local tumor, combined with external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy as neoadjuvant (before surgery) or adjuvant (after surgery) therapy, may prevent death from local airway obstruction and as best may slight prolong survival. Investigational clinical trials in phase I or in phase II are actually in running and they include anti-angiogenetic drugs, multi-kinase inhibitor drugs. PMID:22783225

  7. ANAPLASTIC THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AugustoTaccaliti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs, papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC is estimated to comprise 1-2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14% to 39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about 1-2 cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter than in USA. ATC has a more complex genotype than DTCs, with chromosomal aberrations present in 85–100% of cases. A small number of gene mutations have been identified, and there appears to be a progression in mutations acquired during dedifferentiation. The mean survival time is around 6 months from diagnosis an outcome that is frequently not altered by treatment. ATC presents with a rapidly growing fixed and hard neck mass, often metastatic local lymph nodes appreciable on examination and/or vocal paralysis. Symptoms may reflect rapid growth of tumor with local invasion and/or compression. The majority of patients with ATC die from aggressive local regional disease, primarily from upper airway respiratory failure. For this reason, aggressive local therapy is indicated in all patients who can tolerate it. Although rarely possible, complete surgical resection gives the best chance of long-term control and improved survival. Therapy options include surgery, external beam radiation therapy, tracheostomy, chemotherapy, and investigational clinical trials. Multimodal or combination therapy should be useful. In fact, surgical debulking of local tumor, combined with external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy as neoadjuvant (before surgery or adjuvant (after surgery therapy, may prevent death from local airway obstruction and as best may slight prolong survival. Investigational clinical trials in phase I or in phase II are actually in running and they include antiangiogenetic drugs, multi-kinase inhibitor drugs.

  8. Anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical phase I/II studies have been performed at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) since February 1982. Fifty-two out of 249 patients accepted for pion treatment by the end of 1986 were treated for malignant glioma with high dose pion irradiation. A substantial influence of their radioresistance was expected from increased radiation quality due to the contribution of high LET particles from pion capture, and by the possibility of target volume shaping and dose distribution related to the dynamic spot-scan conformation technique. The patients' treatment followed a dose escalation program with total doses from 2720-3420 cGy, fraction sizes from 170 to 205 cGy (90% isodose, minimum target dose), and treatment times from 4 to 5 weeks. 12/52 patients received an accelerated treatment with 3280 cGy in 14-22 days. 49/52 patients are eligible: 3 with astrocytoma of clinical aggressive behaviour, 14 with anaplastic astrocytoma (median age 42 years), and 32 patients with glioblastoma (median age 52 years). 8/49 patients had total/subtotal tumour resection, 19 patients a steriotactic biopsy. The patients were divided into three groups according to total dose, and a fourth group which received the accelerated treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the median survival rate between the four groups, which was 13 months for the non-glioblastoma patients and 9 months for the glioblastoma patients. No radiation necrosis and no demyelination was fiation necrosis and no demyelination was found in 17 patients (6 recraniotomies, 11 autopsies). In 10/17 patients, clearly identifiable tumour cells were not demonstrated. NMR findings showed the tumour-surrounding oedema mostly stimulated by tumour necrosis and tumour progression. From these findings, further dose escalation programs, together with a shaping of the target volume close to the tumour, are not contraindicated. (author). 49 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Resemblance theories of properties

    OpenAIRE

    Paseau, A

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to develop a resemblance theory of properties that technically improves on past versions. The theory is based on a comparative resemblance predicate. In combination with other resources, it solves the various technical problems besetting resemblance nominalism. The paper's second main aim is to indicate that previously proposed resemblance theories that solve the technical problems, including the comparative theory, are nominalistically unacceptable and have controversial philo...

  10. Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pavan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system. We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature. A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998. He had intracranial recurrence in 2004, confirmed by biopsy. He was given adjuvant chemotherapy in form of PCV. At 10 months after completion of chemotherapy, he developed extracranial scalp metastasis and so was treated with palliative local radiation therapy to the scalp metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with oral Etoposide. Scalp metastasis completely disappeared and ataxia improved. After five cycles of chemotherapy, the patient had progression of disease in form of scalp and cervical lymph node metastasis confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology, biopsy and immunohistochemistry. He was given salvage chemotherapy (carboplatin + ifosfamide + etoposide at 3-weekly. He had partial response and was still on chemotherapy till May 2007.

  11. Paradigms and russell's resemblance regress

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Pereyra, G

    2004-01-01

    Resemblance Nominalism is the view that denies universals and tropes and claims that what makes F-things F is their resemblances. A famous argument against Resemblance Nominalism is Russell's regress of resemblances, according to which the resemblance nominalist falls into a vicious infinite regress. Aristocratic Resemblance Nominalism, as opposed to Egalitarian Resemblance Nominalism, is the version of Resemblance Nominalism that claims that what makes F-things F is that they resemble the F-...

  12. Surgical treatment for anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljevi? Vladan R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is relatively rare but extremely aggressive neoplasm. The aim of the present paper was to study the possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer. Methods: During 5-year period (from 1998 to 2002 in the Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patients (44 female and 21 male patients of median age 63 years (range: 37-88 years. Diagnosis was determined on the basis of histological analysis in operated patients or on cytology findings in case of patients who were not operated. Histological analysis confirmed anaplastic transformation of papillary thyroid cancer in 18 cases. Results In 50% patients we performed only fine needle biopsy, and in 37% patients operative biopsy or tumor reduction. We performed radical surgery hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy, in 13% patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid goiter was present in 35% patients longer than a year before diagnosis of anaplastic cancer was made. Conclusion: Possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer is very limited. In about one third of patients there were longstanding goiter or histological verified dedifferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. These patients should have been operated before anaplastic transformation.

  13. Update on treatment strategies for anaplastic glioma: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, G; Gaviani, P; Innocenti, A; Botturi, A; Lamperti, E; Silvani, A

    2014-07-01

    Anaplastic gliomas (AG) include 6-10% of all newly diagnoses of primary brain tumors. They have an unfavourable prognosis and, to date, there is not an established treatment universally recognized. Four recent randomized clinical trials were identified for a total of 1,170 patients (anaplastic-astrocytomas, anaplasticoligoastrocytoma, anaplastic-oligodendroglioma), in order to define the better sequence and timing of chemo-radiotherapy, Three studies compared radiotherapy (RT) treatment vs. radio-chemotherapy with procarbazine-lomustine-vincristine (PCV) or temozolomide (TMZ) or dibromodulcitol and bichloroethylnitrosurea (DBD/BCNU) and only one compared RT vs chemotherapy (CT) with PCV or TMZ. Results show no significant differences in terms of PFS/OS between RT/CT alone or combined treatment although a trend toward an improvement of OS was observed after RT + CT treatment (m-OS in RT + adjuvant PCV was 42.3 vs. 30.6 months in RT alone p=0.0003). Grade 3-4 mielotoxicity has been observed in almost all cases of patients treated with PCV + RT. None of four studies reviewed conducted a head to head comparison between PCV vs. TMZ. Only a study randomized patients to PCV/TMZ without however providing data in terms of PSF and OS between the two treatments. It found no significant differences in PFS from initial RT and adjuvant CT (PCV-TMZ) at progression compared to initial CT followed by RT at progression. The optimal treatment of AG should reasonably consider not only the histology as well as the molecular markers of the tumor, but also clinical conditions, age of patients, life expectancy, Karnofsky-performance-status and tumor resection to achieve in future the personalization of care. PMID:24859855

  14. RESEMBLANCE IN DATABASE UTILIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchon-Meunier, B; Rifqi, M.

    1995-01-01

    There exist many quantities evaluating the resemblance between two objects sharing the same features. These various measures differ from one another in properties because of their different utilizations. In this paper, we focus on a class of such quantities and we give a formalization of measures of resemblance.

  15. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A; Bromberg, Jacolien E C; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Teepen, Johannes L; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J; Allgeier, Anouk; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFR(amp)), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, we used the clinical data and tumor samples of the patients included in multicenter prospective phase III European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 26951 on the effects of adjuvant procarbazine, chloroethyl cyclohexylnitrosourea (lomustine), and vincristine chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess copy number aberrations of chromosome 1p, 19q, 7, 10, and 10q and EGFR. Three different analyses were performed: on all included patients based on local pathology diagnosis, on the patients with confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors on central pathology review, and on this latter group but after excluding anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis. As a reference set for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), patients from the prospective randomized phase III study on GBM (EORTC 26981) were used as a benchmark. In 257 of 368 patients, central pathology review confirmed the presence of an anaplastic oligodendroglial tumor. Tumors with combined 1p and 19q loss (1p(loss)19q(loss)) were histopathologically diagnosed as anaplastic oligodendroglioma, were more frequently located in the frontal lobe, and had a better outcome. Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors with EGFR(amp) were more frequently AOA, were more often localized outside the frontal lobe, and had a survival similar to that for GBM. Survival of patients with AOA harboring necrosis was in a similar range as for GBM, while patients with AOA with only endothelial proliferation had better overall survival. In univariate analyses, all molecular factors except loss of 10q were of prognostic significance, but on multivariate analysis a histopathological diagnosis of AOA, necrosis, and 1p(loss)19q(loss) remained independent prognostic factors. AOA tumors with necrosis are to be considered WHO grade IV tumors (GBM). Of all molecular markers analyzed in this study, especially loss of 1p/19q carried prognostic significance, while the others contributed little prognostic value to classical histology. PMID:19224764

  16. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-01-01

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust. PMID:12079651

  17. Oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation. A report of 4 cases with diagnostic and histogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arie; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Macaulay, Robert J B; Raffel, Corey; Roth, Kevin A; Kros, Johan M

    2002-11-01

    Oligodendroglioma represents a distinct type of diffuse glioma with a relatively favorable prognosis. Although an O2A-like glial progenitor cell of origin has been suggested, a neuronal-oligodendroglial progenitor cell is also of interest, particularly because variable degrees of neuronal marker expression have been reported in typical oligodendrogliomas. We present 2 female and 2 male patients (ages 34-54) with frontal lobe oligodendrogliomas containing a) morphologically distinct collections of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, b) well-formed Homer Wright-like and perivascular rosettes, and c) demonstrable neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemistry and/or electron microscopy in the rosette-associated regions. Unlike extraventricular neurocytomas, these cases featured an infiltrative growth pattern and a classic oligodendroglioma immunophenotype in non-rosette bearing portions of each tumor. FISH analysis demonstrated chromosome 1p and 19q codeletions in 3 (75%) cases, both in regions with and without rosettes. Recurrences were common, although all patients are currently alive 4 months to 13 yr from initial diagnosis. Based on clinicopathologic and genetic features, we diagnosed these tumors as oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation. However, it is unclear whether they represent a) gliomas with divergent neuronal differentiation, b) a distinctive form of glioneuronal neoplasm, or c) a reflection of glioneuronal histogenesis in oligodendrogliomas in general. In any case, their occurrence suggests a histogenetic overlap between oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma not previously recognized. PMID:12430711

  18. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    OpenAIRE

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2002-01-01

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subje...

  19. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  20. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of fa...

  1. Two Problems for Resemblance Nominalism

    OpenAIRE

    BOTTANI, ANDREA CLEMENTE MARIA

    2011-01-01

    According to resemblance nominalism, properties depend on primitive resemblance relations among particulars, while there are neither universals nor tropes. Rodriguez-Pereyra 2002 contains a systematic formulation and defence of a version of resemblance nominalism according to which properties exist, conceived of as maximal classes of exactly resembling particulars. In this paper, I raise a couple of objections against Rodriguez-Pereyra’s version of resemblance nominalism. First, I argue that ...

  2. Olig2 is useful in the differential diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas and extraventricular neurocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makoto; Yano, Hirohito; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Ohe, Naoyuki; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2011-04-01

    A 42-year-old woman had suffered from headaches since April 2009. Computed tomography revealed a tumor with marked calcification in the left frontal lobe adjacent to the left anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-enhanced tumor at the lesion. Dynamic methionine positron emission tomography showed no delayed methionine attenuation. Initial preoperative diagnosis was extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN). However, oligodendroglioma was determined upon a second diagnosis. The patient underwent total tumor removal. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed the characteristic fried egg-like cells, round nuclei, and immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, neuronal nuclear antigen, microtubule-associated protein 2 and Olig2. The MIB-1 labeling index was 20%, which suggested malignancy. Although these findings demonstrated that the tumor had glioneuronal character, it was difficult to differentiate between EVN and oligodendroglioma. There have been reports that Olig2 immunohistochemistry is generally positive in cases of oligodendroglioma, but not in cases of neurocytoma. We completed the diagnosis as oligodendroglioma. Subsequent electron microscopy results presented oligodendroglial but not neuronal characteristics. We concluded that Olig2 is useful in the differential diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas and EVNs. PMID:21312066

  3. BILATERAL THALAMIC ANAPLASTIC GLIOMA : CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on patient with bilateral thalamic anaplastic glioma. A 54-year-old man was presented with headache and gradually increasing personality changes. Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance (MR of the brain demonstrated bilateral thalamic lesions. MR Spectroscopy of the thalamic lesions showed an increased Choline and creatinin peak and glial tumor was diagnosed radiologically. Stereotactic brain biopsy was performed. Pathological examination revealed anaplastic astrosytoma grade III (World Health Organisation Classification 1993. Patient was referred to radiation therapy. Gliomas of the thalamus are rare and Bilateral Thalamic Anaplastic Gliomas are less defined. Surgical treatment is limited since eloquency of the region and stereotactic biopsy is necessary. The choice of the treatment is radiotherapy.

  4. Artefacts and Family Resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    Garbacz, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new...

  5. Artefacts and Family Resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    I develop in this paper a conception of artefacts based on L. Wittgenstein's idea of family resemblance. My approach peruses the notion of frame, which was invented in cognitive psychology as an operationisable extension of this philosophical idea. Following the metaphor of life-cycle I show how this schematic notion of frame may be filled with the content relevant for artefacts if we consider them from the point of view of their histories. The resulting conception of artefacts provides a new insight into the current debate on artefact categorisation. PMID:23956810

  6. Case of pediatric optic pathway oligodendroglioma presenting widespread invasion and dissemination in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Kosuke; Asano, Kenichiro; Ohkuma, Hiroki; Terui, Kiminori; Sasaki, Shinya; Sato, Tomohiko; Ito, Etsuro; Komori, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Optic pathway oligodendrogliomas are a rare form of pediatric intracranial tumor. A 10-year-old girl presented with symptoms of hydrocephalus and seizure. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed hydrocephalus, chiasmal tumor, and enlarged and tortuous optic nerves. The tumor was partially removed by operation and diagnosed as oligodendroglioma. Operatively, there was evidence of cerebrospinal fluid dissemination in the sylvian fissure indicating widespread invasion. After the operation, Packer's regimen (vincristine and carboplatin therapy) was administered. However, magnetic resonance images obtained 2 months after the operation revealed enlargement of the original tumor and the appearance of new lesions, and treatment was changed to irradiation and temozolomide therapy according to the presence of a high-grade glioma. Two years after the operation, the patient is free of neurological symptoms, and the tumor is controlled with partial response. This is the first report of pediatric optic pathway oligodendroglioma presenting widespread invasion and cerebrospinal dissemination. PMID:23996461

  7. Incidental anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembegül GÜNE?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is one of the most aggressive of all human malignant diseases. It has an unfavorable prognosis and responsible for most of the mortality and morbidity rates due to thyroid carcinomas. We present a case of incidental anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and discuss the epidemiology, biology, risk factors, prognostic factors of the disease and the approach to treatment, in the light of the current medical literature. The prognosis is much better in cases with incidental carcinoma compared to the classical type and surgical excision of the tumor has a favorable effect on the results. Our case was followed-up for 1.5 years with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  8. Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    James Parmentier; Remick, Scot C.; Govardhanan Nagaiah; Akm Hossain; Mooney, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an uncommon malignancy of the thyroid. Only 1-2% of thyroid cancers are anaplastic, but the disease contributes to 14–50% of the mortality with a median survival of 3 to 5 months. Most patients diagnosed with this disease are 65 years of age or older. The incidence of anaplastic thyroid cancer is decreasing worldwide. Most patients present with a rapidly growing neck mass, dysphagia, or voice change. We performed a comprehensive literature search using Pub...

  9. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  10. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Michael L.; Podduturi, Varsha; Majid-Moosa, Abdulla; Krause, John R.; Mora, Adan

    2015-01-01

    AIDS-related malignancies may alter clinical courses and result in death in critically ill patients. We present a case of a newly diagnosed AIDS patient with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus infections who was found to have widely metastatic kinase-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. This case demonstrates the diversity in the malignant presentation of HIV-infected patients, outside of the more commonly observed non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  11. Youngest case of third ventricular anaplastic neurocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnikatti Shravan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolamide chemotherapy.

  12. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: ? (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of stars tightly neighbouring the Sun in mass, chemical composition and state of evolution. The surprising result is that the stars occupy in this HR Diagram a rather extended region around the Sun, many of them seem more evolved and older than the Sun, and only 4 of the evolved stars seem younger. The age of some stars in the sample is also discussed in terms of chromospheric activity and Li-content. Our conclusion is much the same as that contained in previous papers we have written on the subject: in spite of a much larger number of stars, we have not been able to nominate a single star of the sample for a ``perfect good solar twin''. Another aim in beginning, 25 years ago, this search for solar analogues, was to have ready a bunch of stars resembling the Sun and analysed spectroscopically in detail, in order that, when planets hunters of solar type stars, finally would have found such a specimen, we would have been able to immediately compare the physical parameters of this star to those of the Sun. We have been lucky enough: one of the good solar analogues we present herewith, is 51 Pegasi (HD 217014) which, according to the very recent observations by Mayor and Queloz (1995), has a planet orbiting around it. And what is more: two other stars possessing planets: 47 Ursae Majoris (HD 95128) and 70 Virginis (HD 117176), have just been discovered by Marcy and Butler (187th Meeting of the AAS, January 1996). One of them, 47 Ursae Majoris, is also included in the list of photometric solar analogues. The other star, 70 Virginis, has only been included after the ``Planets News'', because the colour index (B-V) of this star is slightly higher than the prescribted limit of the selection, (B-V = 0.71, instead, 0.69). It would have been a pity to leave the third '' planet star out of the competition.

  13. Oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation versus atypical extraventricular neurocytoma: a case report of unusual pathologic findings of a spinal cord tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuria, Addisalem T; Henderson, Fraser C; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Hartmann, Dan-Paul; Azumi, Norio; Ozdemirli, Metin

    2007-04-01

    Differentiating oligodendroglioma from extraventricular neurocytoma by conventional light microscopy alone can present a diagnostic challenge. We report pathologic findings of an unusual spinal cord tumor from a 33-year-old male patient which showed hybrid features of oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an enhancing intramedullary mass in the cervicothoracic region (C7 through T6). Histologic examination revealed a clear cell neoplasm containing ganglion-like cells and calcifications, prompting the differential diagnosis of oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma. The immunohistochemical analysis disclosed neural differentiation of the neoplastic cells with strong synaptophysin and neurofilament staining consistent with extraventricular neurocytoma, as well as strong S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Molecular studies with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed chromosome 1p/(partial) 19q deletions, a finding commonly observed in oligodendroglioma. The proliferation index (using antibody MIB1) of the tumor was approximately 30%. The morphologic findings and these results strengthen the hypothesis that these tumors may share a common progenitor cell, which has also been observed by others. Because there are differences in patient management and long-term prognosis, it is important to attempt to distinguish between oligodendroglioma and neurocytoma. This unusual case and similar rare reported cases support the need to reclassify tumors showing pathologic features common to both neurocytoma and oligodendroglioma as a unique entity, while the effort continues to identify the cell of origin. PMID:17039400

  14. Attenuated Expression of DFFB is a Hallmark of Oligodendrogliomas with 1p-Allelic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Gregory N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allelic loss of chromosome 1p is frequently observed in oligodendroglioma. We screened 177 oligodendroglial tumors for 1p deletions and found 6 tumors with localized 1p36 deletions. Several apoptosis regulation genes have been mapped to this region, including Tumor Protein 73 (p73, DNA Fragmentation Factor subunits alpha (DFFA and beta (DFFB, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Members 9 and 25 (TNFRSF9, TNFRSF25. We compared expression levels of these 5 genes in pairs of 1p-loss and 1p-intact tumors using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (QRTPCR to test if 1p deletions had an effect on expression. Only the DFFB gene demonstrated decreased expression in all tumor pairs tested. Mutational analysis did not reveal DFFB mutations in 12 tested samples. However, it is possible that DFFB haploinsufficiency from 1p allelic loss is a contributing factor in oligodendroglioma development.

  15. Sudden unexpected death from oligodendroglioma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Maria; Papadaki, Helen; Papavdi, Asteria; Kranioti, Elena F; Mylonakis, Panagiotis; Varakis, John; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis

    2011-12-01

    Sudden and unexpected deaths due to asymptomatic 5 primary brain tumors are extremely rare, with an incidence that ranges from 0.16 to 3.2%. Usually, such tumors are glioblastomas or, less commonly, astrocytomas. Asymptomatic oligodendrogliomas causing sudden death are hardly ever reported among medico-legal investigated cases.We report a rare case of sudden and unexpected death from a previously asymptomatic and undiagnosed, well-differentiated, grade II oligodendrogloioma (WHO classification). According to the autopsy and the microscopic findings brain edema as a result of obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid flow due to hemorrhagic leakage of the oligodendroglioma is incriminated as the most probable physiopathological mechanism for the sudden death. Diagnosis is mainly based on the special microscopic features of the tumor cells (typical "fried-egg" appearance), interrupted by a dense network of branching capillaries. We discuss further the pathophysiological mechanisms of death and present a short review of literature. PMID:20375839

  16. Evaluation of the Expression of C-kit (CD117) in Ependymomas and Oligodendrogliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lisiane Silveira Zavalhia; Mirian Romitti; Gabriel Corteze Netto; Giovana Tavares dos Santos; Rosalva Thereza Meurer; Arlete Hilbig; Mariana Bohns Michalowski; Marlise de Castro Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    C-kit is a proto-oncogene located on the long arm of chromosome 4. Its product, CD117, is a specific immunohistochemical (IHQ) marker that is associated with response to a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with STI-571 (Gleevec®) in chronic myelogenous leukemia and GISTs. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of CD117 in glial tumors as this finding may guide therapeutic approaches for these brain tumors. Ependymomas and oligodendrogliomas, in formalin fixed and paraffin e...

  17. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry of oligodendrogliomas with special reference to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HEEGAARD, S.; Sommer, Helle MØlgaard

    1995-01-01

    Background. The biologic behavior of oligodendrogliomas is somewhat unpredictable. A supplementary prognostic factor is, therefore, desirable. Methods. Thirty-two pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas were investigated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 immunohistochemical analyses. The correlation of PCNA and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) with prognosis were studied, and the correlation of LI with clinical data was evaluated. Results. The PCNA LI had a range of 0-17% (mean, 5.27%; standard deviation [SD] = 4.65), and the Ki-67 LI had a range of 0-29% (mean, 4.19%; SD = 5.66). In general, the PCNA LI seemed to be higher than the Ki-67 LI. The mean survival time was 4.4 years, and 5- and 10-year survival rates were 38% and 19%, respectively. Ki-67 and PCNA staining indicated that patients with a high LI (>3% and >4%, respectively) had a significantly higher mortality, with mean survival time of 23.5 months and 26.2 months, respectively. No significant correlation between LI (or survival) and tumor size, cerebral localization, radiation, resection/biopsy, sex, age, or cytologic atypia was found. Conclusions. The use of Ki-67 and PCNA LI higher than 3% and 4%, respectively, appears reliable as prognostic factors when investigating pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas.

  18. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Therapeutic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hang-seok; Nam, Kee-hyun; Chung, Woung Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most malignant human neoplasms and has a grave prognosis. This study gives an update on our experience with this unusual neoplasm, with specific focus on the response to various treatment modalities. Forty-seven patients with histologically proven ATCs were enrolled (19 men, 28 women; mean age, 62.8 years). This number represents 1.5% among a total of 3,088 thyroid cancers treated between 1977 and 2002. The mean tumor diameter was 8.8 cm, and 2...

  19. [Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, R; Mrhalová, M; Krsková, L; Stejskalová, E

    2003-07-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) represent a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. Most of the cases are of T-cell line with a loss of cell surface receptors but with a production of cytotoxic cytoplasmatic granules--immunohistochemically (IHC) positive perforin, granzyme B, and TIA-1. The diagnostics of ALCL is based on morphological findings and results of IHC, which further stratify ALCLs to basic immunophenotypes according to ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) protein expression--ALCL CD30+ ALK+ and ALCL CD30+ ALK+. The morphological investigations are supplemented by karyotyping and/or by a demonstration of breakpoint at 2p23 harboring ALK gene (FISH), and by molecular detection of chimeric genes characteristic of ALK+ lymphomas (NPM-ALK, ATIC-ALK, TPM3-ALK, TFG-ALK, and some even rarer rearrangements). Molecular diagnostics is important in monitoring minimal residual disease. As some of the characteristic molecular changes were demonstrated in healthy individuals and in Hodgkin's disease by quantitative PCR, the validation of these findings demands further studies. ALK protein positive ALCLs affect patients in age categories up to the third decade, whereas ALK protein negative cases occur in older patients with an average age of 60 years. Both subgroups of lymphomas are aggressive but ALK+ lymphomas react well to systemic treatment, and have a more favorable prognosis. Primary skin ALCLs belong to a group of T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases of the skin and have, in the majority of cases, a favorable course without generalization. PMID:14631806

  20. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  1. Valor pronóstico de los marcadores tumorales de proliferación celular y angiogénesis en los oligodendrogliomas / The prognostic importance of cell proliferation and angiogenesis tumor markers in oligodendroglioma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., López-Muñiz; J. C., Gutiérrez; C., García-Fernández; A., Herrero.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available PROPÓSITO: la evolución clínica de los oligodendrogliomas (ODG) es impredecible por los actuales criterios clínicos e histológicos. La presencia de marcadores tumorales del ciclo celular o de la angiogénesis podría predecir el curso clínico de los ODG. El propósito de este estudio ha sido la cuantif [...] icación de las expresiones ki67 y CD34 en ODG y su correlación con el grado histológico y la supervivencia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: hemos estudiado 25 ODG. Las inmunoexpresiones ki67 y CD34 fueron determinadas por técnicas inmunohistoquímicas. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis cuantitativo con un programa de análisis de imagen sistema Qwin. Finalmente, se realizaron las cuantificaciones del ki67 y del CD34, y el análisis estadístico de los resultados. RESULTADOS: el número de núcleos Ki67 positivos se correlacionó con la malignidad de la lesión. El número de núcleos ki67 también se correlacionó con la supervivencia de los pacientes. Por el contrario, el número de microvasos (estructuras CD34 positivas) no se correlacionaba ni con el grado histológico ni con la supervivencia en los ODG. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados sugieren que el ki67, fundamentalmente el número de núcleos marcados, es un importante indicador diagnóstico y puede ser usado como un parámetro de mal pronóstico en los ODG. Por el contrario, la angiogénesis no es un parámetro pronóstico en los ODG. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The clinical behavior of oligodendroglioma (ODG) is unpredictable using clinical and histological criteria. The present tumor markers related to cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis might improve the possibility of predicting the clinical course of ODG. The aim of this study is the quanti [...] fication of ki67 and CD34 expression in oligodendrogliomas and its correlation with histological grade and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 25 ODG. The ki67 and CD34 immunoexpression was determined by immunohistochemical techniques. Later, the quantitative study was carried out with a Qwin system image analysis program. Finally, ki67 and CD34 expression was quantified and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. RESULTS: The number of ki67 positive nuclei correlated with the malignancy of the lesion, and with the overall survival. Contrarily, the number of CD34-positive microvessels of OGD showed no significant correlation with neither histological grade nor survival. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results suggest that ki67, as shown here by the number of immunomarked nuclei, is an important diagnostic indicator, and can be used as a poor prognostic parameter of OGD. On the contrary, angiogenesis, considered here by the CD-34-positive microvessels, is not a prognostic indicator of ODG.

  2. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them. PMID:22385106

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraporn Ratanaanekchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. It cannot uptake iodine or synthesis thyroglobulin. The incidence is low; about 2% - 5% of thyroid cancer. The peak age incidence is 60 - 70 years and it is more common in females (55% - 77% of all patients. In recent years, the incidence has declined; however, it may be higher in areas of endemic goiter. ATC may occur with a coexisting carcinoma and may represent transformation of a well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing anterior neck mass and aggressive symptoms. The most reliable tool in detecting thyroid malignancies is fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Sensitivity of FNAC for thyroid malignancy ranged from 61% to 97.7%. Fine-needle aspiration can diagnose ATC by the demonstration of spindled or giant cells, bizarre neoplastic cells that may be multinucleated, or atypical cells with high mitotic activity. A syncytial pattern is the predominant cellular pattern of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other laboratory tests, including tumor markers (cytokeratin, vimentin, and carcinoembryogenic antigen are helpful in diagnosis and follow-up of the patients. Multimodality therapy (surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy is the recommended treatment and it seems to have slightly improved outcomes. The prognosis is not as bad in younger patients with smaller tumors. The most common cause of death is lung metastasis. The mean survival time is less than 6 months from the time of diagnosis. The prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential modality to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: multimodal treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Zaki Antonio Taissoun; Granados-García, Martín; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Guerrero-Huerta, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Pedraza, Antonio; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Ordoñez-Mosquera, Juliana María

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and lethal disease. It accounts for 1–2% of thyroid malignancies, but specific mortality is higher than 90%. It is an aggressive locoregional disease with a high metastatic capacity. There is no agreement with regards to the best treatment. We analysed the results of treatment in a mestizo population treated in the National Cancer Institute (Mexico). Methods We reviewed 1,581 files of thyroid carcinomas; of these, 29 (1.83%) had anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, tumour characteristics, and treatments were analysed. Results The median age was 64.5 ± 13.2 years. Females were more affected (female/male ratio: 2.6:1); 21 cases occurred in women (72.4%), and eight in males (27.6%). The most common manifestations were neck enlargement (93.10%) and hoarseness (71.31%). The median tumour size was 8 cm (range: 4–20 cm). The percentage of cases which presented in clinical stage IVA was 10.3%, with 62.1% presenting in clinical stage IVb and 27.6% presenting in clinical stage VIc. Complete resection (R0) (p = 0.05), radiation doses of higher than 33.1 Gy (p = 0.04), and multimodal therapy were associated with better survival. Surgery plus radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment (p = 0.006). The median overall survival was 119 days (IC 95%, 36.3–201.6). Six-month, one-year and two-year survival was 37.9%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is associated with better survival but is very difficult to achieve due to aggressive biological behaviour. Multimodal therapy is associated with better survival and a better quality of life. There is a need for more effective systemic treatments as extensive surgical resections have little overall benefit in highly invasive and metastatic disease. PMID:25114721

  5. Sacrococcygeal myxopapillary ependymoma with anaplastic ependymoma component in an infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Kini, Hema; Pai, K. Ganesh; Upadhyaya, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal location of myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is uncommon. Local recurrence and metastases are on record inspite of its benign characteristics. We report a rare case of sacrococcygeal MPE in an 11-month-old female child who showed typical myxopapillary ependymal histology along with anaplastic ependymal component. Ki-67 labeling index in the myxopapillary component was 4-5% and in the anaplastic component was 70%. Six weeks after gross total resection of the tumor, the child presented with local recurrence and metastasis in the right inguinal lymph nodes and was treated with chemotherapy. The present case of sacrococcygeal MPE with anaplastic ependymoma component is the second case on record in the medical literature, and the first case without any syndromic features. Metastasis in this case can be explained because of the anaplastic component, with mitotic count of 5-6/high power field and high Ki-67 labeling index. PMID:23560014

  6. Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in patients with oligodendroglioma: a survival study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether cerebral blood volume measurement based on pretreatment perfusion MRI is a prognostic bio-marker for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed oligo-astrocytoma. Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 54 patients (23 females and 31 males), aged 21-73 years, with oligodendroglioma (or mixed tumour) were examined prior to beginning treatment with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI during gadolinium first-pass. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was calculated by dividing the measurement within the tumour by the measurement of the normal-appearing contralateral region. Patients were classified in two groups, grade A and grade B, according to the Saint-Anne Hospital classification and followed-up clinically and by means of MRI until their death or for a minimum of 5 years. Patients were also classified in grade II and grade III-IV, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, and were analysed with the same methods. Age, sex, treatment, tumour grade, contrast agent uptake, and rCBV were tested using survival curves with Kaplan-Meier's method, and their differences were analysed using the log-rank test. Results: In this population, median survival was 3 years. A rCBV threshold value of 2.2 was validated as a prognostic factor, for survival in these patients with oligodendrogliomas. Age, sex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV wersex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV were found to be prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumour grade (grade A/grade B), rCBV, age, and sex were prognostic factors independent of the other factors. The tumour grade according to the WHO classification (II versus III-IV) was also detected as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: Pretreatment rCBV measured by DSC perfusion MRI was found to be a prognostic factor for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed tumour, by using the Saint-Anne Hospital classification, which separate the IIB from the IIA. (authors)

  7. Sacrococcygeal myxopapillary ependymoma with anaplastic ependymoma component in an infant

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Kini, Hema; Pai, K. Ganesh; Upadhyaya, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    Sacrococcygeal location of myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is uncommon. Local recurrence and metastases are on record inspite of its benign characteristics. We report a rare case of sacrococcygeal MPE in an 11-month-old female child who showed typical myxopapillary ependymal histology along with anaplastic ependymal component. Ki-67 labeling index in the myxopapillary component was 4-5% and in the anaplastic component was 70%. Six weeks after gross total resection of the tumor, the child prese...

  8. Power: A 'family resemblance' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Haugaard, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract While Lukes’ view of power as an ‘essentially contested concept’ is a move in the right direction, it does not go far enough because it falls short of arguing for a plural view of power. Power constitutes a ‘family resemblance concept’, with family members forming complex relationships within overlapping language games. Members include, among others: episodic power, dispositional power, systemic power, power to, power over, empowerment, legitimate power and domination. Th...

  9. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature / Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Corti; Claudio, Yampolsky; Humberto, Metta; Mario, Valerga; Gustavo, Sevlever; Andrés, Capizzano.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empíric [...] o para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL. Abstract in english In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuro [...] radiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.

  10. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuroradiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empírico para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL.

  11. Colour Resemblance and Colour Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    One prominent ambition of theories of colour is to pay full justice to how colours are subjectively given to us; and another to reconcile this ?rst-personal perspective on colours with the third-personal one of the natural sciences. The goal of this article is to question whether we can satisfy the second ambition on the assumption that the ?rst should and can be met. I aim to defend a negative answer to this question by arguing that the various kinds of experienced colour resemblances – nota...

  12. Prognostic factors of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a relatively rare but very aggressive malignancy, which usually results in death a few months after diagnosis. However, some patients survive for a long time, and the purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of ATC. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 19 patients diagnosed with ATC in our institution between 1984 and 2002. The median survival was 9.4 months, with a range of 0.6-76.3 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 21%, 11%, and 5%, respectively. The mean tumor size was 5.7 cm, with a range of 3.6-10.5 cm, and complete resection was achieved in 4 patients. The prognostic factors according to univariate analysis were complete resection and small tumor size of less than 5 cm (P=0.005 and 0.047). However, according to multivariate analysis, complete resection was the only prognostic factor for ATC (P=0.015). No association was found between survival and acute symptoms, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastasis, age, or leukocytosis. At present, while there is no successful treatment regimen for ATC, only patients who undergo complete resection at a very early stage have any chance of long-term survival. (author)

  13. Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisah A. de Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma diferenciado de tireóide, papilífero ou folicular, usualmente tem um curso relativo benigno após a tireoidectomia total e ablação de remanescentes tireoideanos com 131I. Em contraste, o carcinoma anaplásico de tireóide ou carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide, também derivado do epitélio folicular tireoideano, é uma das neoplasias humanas mais agressivas, que perdeu a maioria ou todas as características do tecido de origem. Crescimento tumoral rápido é um presságio de mortalidade precoce a menos que se institua tratamento combinado agressivo. Não dispomos ainda de um tratamento que leva à cura definitiva para a maioria dos pacientes. A melhor conduta se constitui de um tratamento cirúrgico agressivo associado com a combinação de novos agentes quimioterápicos e radioterapia externa.Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC, as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I. In contrast, anaplastic TC or undiferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refers to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated. Rapid tumor growth presages early mortality unless combined therapy is aggressively pursued. Definitive curative approach does not exist for most patients. The best approach is still aggressive surgery combined with the associated use of new chemotherapies associated with local external beam radiotherapy.

  14. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gong; Laskin, William B; Chou, Pauline M; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm, characterized by complete or partial composition by undifferentiated cells. We report a case of ATC with rhabdoid features in a 68-year-old male, who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid mass showed discohesive, pleomorphic round to polygonal rhabdoid cells with one to multiple eccentric, large, rounded nuclei with a prominent nucleolus, moderate to abundant, globoid cytoplasm which oftentimes harbor a pale para-nuclear inclusion. The cytoplasm of some cells contained variously sized, eosinophilic granules. Rare cells contained neutrophils in their cytoplasm. Mitoses including atypical mitotic figures and necrosis were readily seen. Histologic examination of needle core biopsy (NCB) revealed individual dispersed and sheets of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with similar cytomorphologic features as described above. The tumor extensively infiltrated a myxocollagenous stroma containing lymphocytes and neutrophils, and demonstrated foci of necrosis. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for keratins AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and CK19; PAX-8, and p63, but negative for S-100, HMB-45, calcitonin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, CD56, HBME-1, glypican-3, PAX-5, myogenin, CD31, and INI-1. The differential diagnosis of this malignant rhabdoid tumor is discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:416-420. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25614185

  15. Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can be pathologically and often historically associated with the presence of low-grade (differentiated) cancer in the thyroid. That radiation therapy to the differentiated tumor plays an etiologic role in the transformation of a differentiated to an undifferentiated tumor has been suggested. If such therapy can be implicated, is there a difference in risk between external radiotherapy or radioactive iodine. Review of the literature discloses that more anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid develop in patients without a history of prior radiation than in individuals who have received radiation. We report our recent experience with two patients who demonstrated the sequence of well-differentiated followed by anaplastic thyroid cancer subsequent to radiation and review the question

  16. Genomic aberrations associated with outcome in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors treated within the EORTC phase III trial 26951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Dalmasso, Cyril; Kouwenhoven, Mathilde; Jeuken, Judith; Carpentier, Catherine; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M; French, Pim; Teepen, Johannes; Broët, Philippe; Delattre, Olivier; Mokhtari, Karima; Sanson, Marc; Delattre, Jean-Yves; van den Bent, Martin; Hoang-Xuan, Khê

    2011-06-01

    Despite similar morphological aspects, anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors (AOTs) form a heterogeneous clinical subgroup of gliomas. The chromosome arms 1p/19q codeletion has been shown to be a relevant biomarker in AOTs and to be perfectly exclusive from EGFR amplification in gliomas. To identify new genomic regions associated with prognosis, 60 AOTs from the EORTC trial 26951 were analyzed retrospectively using BAC-array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The data were processed using a binary tree method. Thirty-three BACs with prognostic value were identified distinguishing four genomic subgroups of AOTs with different prognosis (p < 0.0001). Type I tumors (25%) were characterized by: (1) an EGFR amplification, (2) a poor prognosis, (3) a higher rate of necrosis, and (4) an older age of patients. Type II tumors (21.7%) had: (1) loss of prognostic BACs located on 1p tightly associated with 19q deletion, (2) a longer survival, (3) an oligodendroglioma phenotype, and (4) a frontal location in brain. Type III AOTs (11.7%) exhibited: (1) a deletion of prognostic BACs located on 21q, and (2) a short survival. Finally, type IV tumors (41.7%) had different genomic patterns and prognosis than type I, II and III AOTs. Multivariate analysis showed that genomic type provides additional prognostic data to clinical, imaging and pathological features. Similar results were obtained in the cohort of 45 centrally reviewed-validated cases of AOTs. Whole genome analysis appears useful to screen the numerous genomic abnormalities observed in AOTs and to propose new biomarkers particularly in the non-1p/19q codeleted AOTs. PMID:20820870

  17. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  18. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Ravanbod; Reza Nemati; Hamid Javadi; Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was sig...

  19. Primary cutaneous multifocal CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented with asymptomatic tumors all over the body. The tumors showed no signs of ulceration or regression. There were generalized, nontender, firm to hard enlarged lymph nodes without hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy and immunophenotyping revealed CD 30+ anaplastic primary cutaneous large cell lymphoma. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by single or grouped reddish-brown tumor nodules, which frequently tend to ulcerate. Secondary involvement of lymph nodes is seen in only 25%. The lesions responded dramatically to chemotherapy, but recurred.

  20. Oligodendroglioma do ângulo ponto cerebelar: evolução de 16 anos. Revisão da literatura e considerações sobre a patologia / Oligodendroglioma of the cerebello pontine angle: 16 years evolution. Literature revision and comments about the pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolpho, Carvalho Filho; José Massoud, Salame.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores, após minudente pesquisa bibliográfica, levantaram 43 casos de oligodendroglioma na fossa posterior. Destes, só dois eram de localização no ângulo ponto cerebelar. Os autores acrescentam mais um caso desta patologia, nesta rara localização, chamando a atenção para sua evolução comprovada [...] durante 16 anos. Abstract in english The authors after a meticulous bibliography reasearch have found 43 cases of oligodendrogliomas in the posterior fossa. Out of these 43 cases they came to know that two of them were located in the cerebello pontine angle. The authors describe one more case of this pathology in this rare localization [...] and call attention to the fact that the evolution of this case has been confirmed during the last sixteen years.

  1. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biersack Hans-Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition.

  2. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-17

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  3. WEE1 Inhibitor MK-1775 and Local Radiation Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma

  4. Gefitinib and Radiation Therapy in Treating Children With Newly Diagnosed Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma

  5. Lymphoid and epithelial markers in small cell anaplastic thyroid tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, A. D.; Kerr, D. J.; Brown, I. L.; Boyle, P.

    1985-01-01

    The expression of the lymphoid marker, common leucocyte antigen and of the epithelial marker, epithelial membrane antigen by small cell anaplastic thyroid tumours was studied in 53 tumours, using the peroxidase--antiperoxidase and avidin--biotin techniques. Common leucocyte antigen was found in 33 of the 53 tumours; six tumours were positive for epithelial membrane antigen; and the remaining 14 tumours were negative for both markers. These results support the suggestion that most small cell a...

  6. Survival following adjuvant PCV or temozolomide for anaplastic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Brandes, Alba A.; Nicolardi, Linda; Tosoni, Alicia; Gardiman, Marina; Iuzzolino, Paolo; Ghimenton, Claudio; Reni, Michele; Rotilio, Antonino; Sotti, Guido; Ermani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We compared survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) treated with adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) with survival in patients treated with temozolomide. A retrospective analysis was made of patients with newly diagnosed AA treated with adjuvant postradiotherapy chemotherapy. Outcome analysis included progression-free survival and overall survival. The following prognostic factors were taken into account: patient age, extent of resection, performance status, ...

  7. Initial treatment patterns over time for anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Panageas, Katherine S.; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth D; Rivera, Andreana L.; Eichler, April F.; Louis, David N; Paleologos, Nina A.; Fisher, Barbara J.; Ashby, Lynn S.; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Roldán Urgoiti, Gloria B.; Wen, Patrick Y; Ligon, Keith L.; David SCHIFF

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors are rare neoplasms with no standard approach to treatment. We sought to determine patterns of treatment delivered over time and identify clinical correlates of specific strategies using an international retrospective cohort of 1013 patients diagnosed from 1981–2007. Prior to 1990, most patients received radiotherapy (RT) alone as initial postoperative treatment. After 1990, approximately 50% of patients received both RT and chemotherapy (CT) sequentially and...

  8. Timely topic: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) spreads its influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K

    2001-02-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is normally not expressed in human tissues except selected sites in the nervous system. Its expression and constitutive activation as a result of a chromosomal translocation involving 2p23 plays a pivotal role in the genesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. ALK expression has been instrumental in defining a homogeneous subset from the category of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, characterised by occurrence in young patients, primary systemic presentation, favorable prognosis, a broad morphological spectrum, nuclear and/or cytoplasmic immunostaining for ALK protein, and a number of possible fusion partner genes such as NPM, ATIC, TFG, TPM3 and CLTCL. Recently ALK has been implicated in the genesis of another tumour type, the inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. The ALK-positive examples occur in children and young adults, involving a variety of sites, such as the abdomen, mesentery, liver, bladder, mediastinum, lung and bone. The partner genes identified in some cases are TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) and TPM4 (tropomyosin 4). These molecular findings also further support the neoplastic nature of at least a subset of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. PMID:11280613

  9. Resemblance Argument” and Controversies over Mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Delija

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the common interpretation of Platonic art that supports the view that it is ontologically and gnoseologically irrelevant because it is mainly defined by mimetic concept as a mere imitation of the material world, and is therefore banished from the Republic, we will offer some different interpretations. Namely, it is possible to show that mimetic principle is not the reason why Plato condemns art, and that the notion of artistic mimesis in fact stems from the metaphysical notion of mimesis as approximation or gradual resemblance to the paradigm. In this case artistic mimesis achieves higher ontological authenticity and imitates the ideal by means of the sensory. Parmenides’ “resemblance argument” may constitute a serious obstacle for the acceptance of, on the one hand, the idea of the relation of resemblance (homoiotes between Forms and particulars, that is between the paradigm and its image, and on the other hand it may question the idea of approximation in which mimetic principle has metaphysical foundation. However, when Form is seen as a synthetic unity of many things (hen epi pollon, it then represents the right standpoint for the explanation of the phenomena, and it becomes questionable when it is placed on the same level with its exemplars. If the relation of resemblance between the paradigm and its image is determined by the “dynamic”, and not by “symmetric resemblance” in which both parts are on the same level of ontological authenticity, then the view of philosophical mimesis as approximation on which relies artistic mimetic concept is legitimate.

  10. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1?, Akt, TGF-?1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1? and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-?1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-?1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1?. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-?1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1?.

  11. Dual anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Hye Kyung; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Suh, Jung Ho [Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chae Heuck [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. Most ALCLs present as nodal disease, with skin, bone, soft tissue, lung, and liver as common extranodal sites. ALCL rarely occurs in the central nervous system and is even more infrequent in the dura of the brain. We report a case of dural-based ALCL secondary to systemic disease in a 17-year-old male that mimicked meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

  12. Dual anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. Most ALCLs present as nodal disease, with skin, bone, soft tissue, lung, and liver as common extranodal sites. ALCL rarely occurs in the central nervous system and is even more infrequent in the dura of the brain. We report a case of dural-based ALCL secondary to systemic disease in a 17-year-old male that mimicked meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

  13. Galectin 1 Proangiogenic and Promigratory Effects in the Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Model Are Partly Mediated through the Control of BEX2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Le Mercier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that galectin 1 (Gal-1 plays important biological roles in astroglial as well as in oligodendroglial cancer cells. As an oligodendroglioma model, we make use of the Hs683 cell line that has been previously extensively characterized at cell biology, molecular biology, and genetic levels. Galectin 1 has been shown to be involved in Hs683 oligodendroglioma chemoresistance, neoangiogenesis, and migration. Down-regulating Gal-1 expression in Hs683 cells through targeted small interfering RNA provokes a marked decrease in the expression of the brain-expressed X-linked gene: BEX2. Accordingly, the potential role of BEX2 in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell biology has been investigated. The data presented here reveal that decreasing BEX2 expression in Hs683 cells increases the survival of Hs683 orthotopic xenograft-bearing mice. Furthermore, this decrease in BEX2 expression impairs vasculogenic mimicry channel formation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo, and modulates glioma cell adhesion and invasive features through the modification of several genes previously reported to play a role in cancer cell migration, including MAP2, plexin C1, SWAP70, and integrin ?6. We thus conclude that BEX2 is implicated in oligodendroglioma biology.

  14. A case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yosuke; Aoi, Jun; Johno, Takamitsu; Makino, Takamitsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-11-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is comprised of the malignant proliferation of large lymphoid cells, which express CD30. Primary ALCL of the skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. A 51-year-old Japanese female presented at our hospital with a 2-month history of severe pain and swelling of the right leg. A gallium-67 SPECT/CT scan showed a large mass involving the skeletal muscles from the gluteus to femoris. A biopsy of the mass demonstrated diffuse infiltration of medium and large neoplastic cells with round or lobulated hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei. A subset of Reed-Sternberg-like cells was also identified. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD4 and CD30, but negative for CD3, CD8, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), CD20, CD79?, CD21 and CD23. Based on the histological examination, this patient was diagnosed to have ALK-negative ALCL of the skeletal muscle. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological behavior of primary skeletal muscle ALCL. PMID:25292453

  15. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azúa-Romeo, J; Alvarez-Alegret, R; Serrano, P; Mayayo, E

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) was first described by Stein et al. in 1985, at that time neoplastic cells were labeled by the monoclonal antibody CD30. ALCL was included as a differentiate entity in the reviewed Kiel and REAL classification. ALCL carries the t (2; 5) (p23; q35) translocation; the absence of ALK kinase from normal lymphoid cells indicates that immunohistochemical expression of ALK is specific for the (2; 5) translocation. This disease is characterized by a diffuse proliferation of large anaplastic cells with kidney-shaped/horse-shoe nuclei. A distinguishing feature is a perinuclear eosinophilic region that represents a prominent Golgi apparatus. These cells are named hallmark-cells being almost pathognomonic. Immunohistochemically the most important features are that tumor cells consistently express CD30 and EMA on the cell membrane and in the Golgi region, while ALK immunostaining is usually both, cytoplasmic and nuclear. To our knowledge only two cases of primary ALCL of the testis have been reported. Hereby we present a case of a typical ALCL expressing ALK and CD30, which presented with subcutaneous nodules and bilateral testicular mass, without systemic involvement. PMID:15783113

  16. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: an evolving story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzheim, Irina; Steinhilber, Julia; Fend, Falko; Lamant, Laurence; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    The current classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the integrated utilisation of morphological, immunohistochemical, genetic and clinical criteria to define disease entities. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigm for the identification of a disease entity based on morphological observations and immunophenotype, which paved the way for the subsequent discovery of the characteristic cytogenetic abnormality the translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35). In 1994, the t(2;5) was cloned and the NPM-ALK fusion gene generated by this rearrangement was identified. The year 2014 marked the 20(th) anniversary of this seminal publication by Steve Morris et al. The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has allowed the definition of a distinct entity within the clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of CD30+ lymphomas. The diagnosis of ALK-positive ALCL has become straightforward due to the generation of the reliable monoclonal antibody ALK-1 that also has led to the recognition of the histologic spectrum of the disease. ALK-positive ALCL has evolved in the last 20 years to an exciting model for signal transduction studies and targeted therapy. PMID:25961700

  17. Anaplastic large cell lymphomas: a study of 75 pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amore, E S G; Menin, A; Bonoldi, E; Bevilacqua, P; Cazzavillan, S; Donofrio, V; Gambini, C; Forni, M; Gentile, A; Magro, G; Boldrini, R; Pillon, M; Rosolen, A; Alaggio, R

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe the morphologic and immunophenotypic features of 75 cases of pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). According to the World Health Organization classification, 49 cases were common subtype ALCL, and respectively, 3, 6, and 17 cases were small cell, lymphohistiocytic, or mixed histologic variants. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positivity was detected in 90.7% of the tumors and, using a panel of 9 T-cell surface markers, 88% could be assigned to the T-cell lineage. A molecular analysis for the T-cell receptor gamma (TCR- gamma) and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin H rearrangements was performed on 6/9 ALCLs with a null immunophenotype, and a TCR clonal pattern was detected in 5/6 cases. In addition, 94.1% were immunoreactive for 1 or more cytotoxic proteins (Tia1, granzyme B, or perforin), and 15% expressed CD56. Clusterin, CD83, and Pax5, respectively, expressed in 91.3%, 1.7%, and 0% of the ALCLs, were useful biomarkers for the differential diagnosis with Hodgkin's lymphomas. PMID:17535098

  18. Genetically Modified T-cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  19. ALK signaling and target therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiorgioInghirami

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery by Morris SW et al. in 1994 of the genes contributing to the t(2;5(p23;q35 translocation has put the foundation for a molecular based recognition of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL and pointed out the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of ALK genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  20. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  1. Primary cutaneous multifocal CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Asha L; Thomas Daisy; Binitha M.; Nandakumar G

    2006-01-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with asymptomatic tumors all over the body. The tumors showed no signs of ulceration or regression. There were generalized, nontender, firm to hard enlarged lymph nodes without hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy and immunophenotyping revealed CD 30+ anaplastic primary cutaneous large cell lymphoma. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by single or grouped reddish-brown tumor nodules, which frequently tend to ulcerate. Secondary involvem...

  2. Familial resemblance for serum metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draisma, Harmen H M; Beekman, Marian; Pool, René; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Adamski, Jerzy; Prehn, Cornelia; Vaarhorst, Anika A M; de Craen, Anton J M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-10-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of familial resemblance for the concentrations in human serum of more than 100 metabolites, measured using a targeted metabolomics platform. Age- and sex-corrected monozygotic twin correlations, midparent-offspring regression coefficients, and spouse correlations in subjects from two independent cohorts (Netherlands Twin Register and Leiden Longevity Study) were estimated for each metabolite. In the Netherlands Twin Register subjects, who were largely fasting, we found significant monozygotic twin correlations for 121 out of 123 metabolites. Heritability was confirmed by midparent-offspring regression. For most detected metabolites, the correlations between spouses were considerably lower than those between twins, indicating a contribution of genetic effects to familial resemblance. Remarkably high heritability was observed for free carnitine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.66), for the amino acids serine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77) and threonine (monozygotic twin correlation 0.64), and for phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C40:3 (monozygotic twin correlation 0.77). For octenoylcarnitine, a consistent point estimate of approximately 0.50 was found for the spouse correlations in the two cohorts as well as for the monozygotic twin correlation, suggesting that familiality for this metabolite is explained by shared environment. We conclude that for the majority of metabolites targeted by the used metabolomics platform, the familial resemblance of serum concentrations is largely genetic. Our results contribute to the knowledge of the heritability of fasting serum metabolite concentrations, which is relevant for biomarker research. PMID:23985338

  3. Magnetic resonance images resembling jugular venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juglar venous blood flow resembled venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in three cases. We present these cases together with MRI of juglar venous thrombosis and also discuss on flow signals and thrombus through the clinical cases and the experimental study. Left jugular angiography showed hemostasis in two of three cases and normal venous flow in one. In clinical cases and experimental study the blood clot appeared high intense on spin echo image (SE) and inversion recovery image (IR). Water flow appeared high intense at a certain range of velocity on SE and IR. Consequently the normal venous flow as well as hemostasis can look like thrombus on MRI. (author)

  4. Specificity of IRF4 Translocations for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: a Multicenter Study of 204 Skin Biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, David A.; Law, Mark E.; Eric D. Hsi; DiCaudo, David J.; Ma, Linglei; Lim, Megan S.; De Souza, Aieska; Comfere, Nneka I.; Weenig, Roger H.; Macon, William R.; Erickson, Lori A.; Nazan ÖZSAN; Ansell, Stephen M.; Dogan, Ahmet; Feldman, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    Current pathologic criteria cannot reliably distinguish cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma from other CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphomatoid papulosis, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma with skin involvement, and transformed mycosis fungoides). We previously reported IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor-4) translocations in cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of detecting IRF4 translocations in skin biopsies...

  5. A Spontaneous Oligodendroglioma in the Lumbar Portion of the Spinal Cord in a Young BrlHan:WIST@Jcl (GALAS) Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuji; Asano, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Ryo; Ogata, Keiko; Kushida, Masahiko

    2014-07-01

    Oligodendroglioma is a rare tumor originating from oligodendrocytes found mainly in the cerebrum in aged rats. Only a few reports have shown spontaneous occurrence of this tumor in the spinal cord, and no report has mentioned its occurrence in young rats. We encountered a case of spontaneous oligodendroglioma in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord in a young (9 weeks old) female BrlHan:WIST@Jcl (GALAS) rat. Here we report the detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this case. No clinical signs, no gross lesions at necropsy, and no specific changes in hematology or blood biochemistry were observed. The tumor was located in the dorsal funiculus in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord and widely spread to the dorsal root nerve. The neoplastic cells showed a sheet-like growth pattern and had small round nuclei, clear cytoplasm and distinct cell borders that resulted in a honeycomb pattern. No mitotic figures or other histological lesions were observed. The neoplastic cells were positively stained for Olig2 and PCNA. The present case was considered to be a low-grade oligodendroglioma based on the histological and immunohistochemical features. To our knowledge, our case is considered to be extremely rare and the first report in a young rat. PMID:25352716

  6. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase variant translocations using 5'RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Campo, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is abnormally expressed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and its expression associated with chromosomal translocations involving the ALK gene at 2p23. These translocations lead to the synthesis of novel chimeric proteins that retain the C-terminal portion of ALK, where the tyrosine kinase domain is located. In most of these tumors, the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation causes fusion of the ALK gene to the 5' region of the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene, but other different ALK partners have been identified, including nonmuscle tropomyosin (TPM3), TRK-fused gene (TFG), 5' aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltranferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC), clathrin heavy chain gene (CLTC), and moesin (MSN). The characterization of these ALK partners has been performed using different molecular methods, including the 5' Rapid Amplification of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) Ends (5'RACE) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. This approach allows the potential amplification and identification of either 5' or 3' mRNA ends from an internal known sequence. In ALK translocations, identification of the 5' gene involved has been performed using primers designed within the known 3' catalytic domain of the ALK. Initial reaction consists in a first-strand cDNA synthesis primed using a gene-specific antisense primer (ALK1), performing the cDNA conversion of specific messenger ribonucleic acids, and maximizing the potential for complete extension to the 5'-end of the message. After cDNA synthesis, the first-strand product is purified from unincorporated dNTPs and ALK1. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add homopolymeric tails to the 3' ends of the cDNA. Tailed cDNA is then amplified by PCR using a nested gene-specific primer (ALK2), which anneals 3' to ALK1, and a complementary homopolymer containing an anchor primer (i.e., AAP), which permits amplification from the homopolymeric tail. This allows amplification of unknown sequences between the ALK2 and the 5' end of the mRNA. Further, nested PCRs usually are required to confer an adequate level of specificity to the process to permit the characterization of RACE products. The reamplification is achieved by using a nested gene-specific primer (ALK3), which anneals 3' to ALK2, and a universal amplification primer, which anneals to the 5' sequence previously introduced by the AAP primer. PMID:15998975

  7. Pulmonary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma - a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Bingöl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare NHL, representing only 2-3% of all lymphomas. Pulmonary involvement is rare (5-15%. A thirty one year old female was admitted to a center with purulent fistulized lesions on the neck and axilla and enlargement of the breasts. There was no improvement with antibiotics and she had a fever. Pyogenic granulation was detected in the soft tissue biopsy of the axillary and breast. All the cultures were negative. Antituberculosis therapy was given for three months. This patient was admitted to our clinic due to clinical progression. Bilaterally painful, purulent flowing lesions on the neck and axilla, tension and sensitive breasts and high fever were found. Anemia, thrombocytosis, neutrophilic leukocytosis, low iron level and iron binding capacity and high CRP levels were detected in the laboratory tests. Anaerobic, actinomycosis, mycobacteria, nocardia and tularemia cultures were negative. Thorax CT showed a mediastinal conglomerate LN, left upper apicoposterior cavitary lesion and millimetric nodules. Abdominal CT was normal. Neck CT showed masses which erased the fat plain and submandibular LN. LN biopsy diagnosed an inflammatory variant of CD30(+ ALCL. It was considered to be stage IV due to pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, neck, axilla and breast involvement. After five chemotherapy sessions, there was a significant improvement in the lesions.

  8. Results of combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournaud Claire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is among the most aggressive human malignancies. It is associated with a high rate of local recurrence and with poor prognosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 44 consecutive patients treated between 1996 and 2010 at Leon Berard Cancer Centre, Lyon, France. The combined treatment strategy derived from the one developed at the Institut Gustave Roussy included total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph-node dissection, when feasible, combined with 2 cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2 and cisplatin (100 mg/m2 Q3W, hyperfractionated (1.2 Gy twice daily radiation to the neck and upper mediastinum (46-50 Gy, and then four cycles of doxorubicin-cisplatin. Results Thirty-five patients received the three-phase combined treatment. Complete response after treatment was achieved in 14/44 patients (31.8%. Eight patients had a partial response (18.2%. Twenty-two (50% had progressive disease. All patients with metastases at diagnosis died shortly afterwards. Thirteen patients are still alive. The median survival of the entire population was 8 months. Conclusion Despite the ultimately dismal prognosis of ATC, multimodality treatment significantly improves local control and appears to afford long-term survival in some patients. There is active ongoing research, and results obtained with new targeted systemic treatment appear encouraging.

  9. Carfilzomib is an effective anticancer agent in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit; Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Yaqin; Patel, Dhaval; Shen, Min; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. Currently, there is no standard or effective therapy for ATC. Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach for identifying compounds that may have antineoplastic effects. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput drug library screening to identify and subsequently validate novel therapeutic agents with anticancer effects in ATC. We performed quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) in ATC cell lines (SW-1736, 8505C, and C-643), using a compound library of 3282 drugs. qHTS identified 100 compounds that were active in all three ATC cell lines. Proteasome inhibitors were one of the most active drug categories according to enrichment analysis. Of the three proteasome inhibitors screened, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, was the most active. Treatment of ATC cells with carfilzomib significantly inhibited cellular proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mechanistically, carfilzomib increased expression of p27 (CDKN1B) and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein ATF4. Pretreatment with carfilzomib reduced in vivo metastases (lung, bone, liver, and kidney) and disease progression, and decreased N-cadherin expression. Carfilzomib treatment of mice with established, widely metastatic disease significantly increased their survival, without significant toxicity. Our findings support the use or clinical study of carfilzomib as a therapeutic option in patients with advanced and metastatic ATC. PMID:25972243

  10. Atypical extraventricular neurocytoma with oligodendroglioma-like spread and an unusual pattern of chromosome 1p and 19q loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Robert E; Yasargil, M Gazi; Mohapatra, Gayatry; Earel, James; Louis, David N

    2004-09-01

    An insular cortex tumor in a 54-year-old woman showed unequivocal neurocytic features, including open nuclei, distinct nucleoli, and strong synaptophysin immunoreactivity. Ultrastructurally, there were neuritic-type processes with microtubules and hillock-like attachments, and there were dense-core granules. Atypical features were mitotic activity, prominent vasculature, and small foci of necrosis. Peripherally, there was oligodendroglia-like histology with single-cell infiltration of white matter and perineuronal spread in cortex. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with chromosome 1 and 19 probes showed 3 copies of 1q and 2 copies of 1p and showed 2 copies of 19q and 4 copies of 19p. This yielded a 1p-19q loss of heterozygosity pattern similar to that seen in oligodendrogliomas, although the actual chromosomal abnormality is distinct. This tumor, best classified as an atypical neurocytoma with oligodendroglia-like spread, supports suggestions of a close histogenic relationship between oligodendroglial and neurocytic tumors. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying exclusively on loss of heterozygosity analysis for tumor classification. PMID:15343519

  11. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  12. ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the oral cavity showing spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah G Fitzpatrick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of T-cell lymphoma which is rarely seen in the oral cavity. This entity may be either primary cutaneous or systemic and the prognosis varies significantly by subtype. In addition, several similar entities have been reported which may mimic this lesion both clinically and histologically. We present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative, on the mucosal aspect of the upper lip of an 88 year-old female with a history of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which demonstrated spontaneous regression after biopsy. A brief review of the literature along with an overview of clinical behavior, histologic presentation, immunohistochemical analysis, genetics, and differential diagnosis of this subtype of anaplastic large cell lymphoma are presented.

  13. Combined chemotherapy and irradiation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pej?i? Ivica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a very rare and extremely aggressive cancer; patient's death usually occurs rapidly after diagnosis with a mean survival of six months in the majority of individual research series. Treatment of ATC ranges from surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these regimes. Yet, the optimal sequence of treatment modalities has not been established. Methods: From 1997 to 2002 six consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of ATC were treated with combined chemotherapy and irradiation at our Clinic for Oncology, Clinical Center Ni¹. Five of these patients were females and 1 male, aged between 28 and 71 years (mean age: 57 years. None of them had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Extrathyroidal extension was present in 3 patients with invasion into skin and hypoderm. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 60 mg/m 2 plus cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 every three weeks. Total doses ranged between 158-375 mg/m 2 for doxorubicin and 183-380 mg/m 2 for cisplatin. External beam radiation to the neck was administered, at a daily dose of 1.2 Gy, up to total doses ranging between 45-60 Gy. Results: One patient achieved a complete response (CR and one patient achieved a partial response (PR. Three patients had stable disease. One patient with CR progressed during follow-up and died 18 months from bone and brain metastases. The treatment was moderately well tolerated, although all patients experienced some mild form of toxicity; neutropenia occurred in all patients, but none of them required hospital admission. Median survival was 8 months (range: 4-18 months. Conclusion: We concluded that the present regimen produces meaningful responses for patients with localized ATC. A randomized study is needed to determine the effect on survival.

  14. Anaplastic meningioma: case report / Meningioma anaplásico: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asdrubal, Falavigna; José Augusto Nasser dos, Santos; Leila, Chimelli; Fernando Antonio Patriani, Ferraz; Antonio de Padua Furquim, Bonatelli.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento adequado para os pacientes com meningiomas intracranianos continua sendo um desafio, principalmente o de sua variante maligna, a qual tem incidência de 10% a 15%, sem uma certeza do melhor tratamento adjuvante. É indicado o uso da radioterapia externa holocraniana. O uso da quimioterapi [...] a tradicional se mostra ineficaz, havendo necessidade de estudos para desenvolver outros agentes quimioterápicos e novos métodos de administração desses agentes no tumor cerebral. A imunoterapia pode ser considerada para os casos de refratariedade aos outros tratamentos adjuvantes. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 67 anos, com história progressiva de cefaléia, crises convulsivas parciais complexas e agressividade. A investigação radiológica com tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética evidenciaram um processo expansivo na região temporoccipital esquerda com contrastação difusa e edema peritumoral importante. Foi realizada craniotomia frontoparietotemporal esquerda com remoção radical da dura-máter infiltrada e do tumor. O paciente evoluiu sem déficit neurológico no pós-operatório. O exame anatomopatológico foi compatível com meningioma maligno do tipo papilar. Foi instituído tratamento complementar com radioterapia externa holocraniana. Abstract in english Intracranial meningiomas continue to challenge our best clinical efforts to eliminate them once discovered and deemed appropriate for treatment. Malignant meningiomas constitute 10% to 15% of all meningiomas and limited information exists regarding adjuvant treatment. The external whole brain irradi [...] ation is recommended. Traditional chemotherapy has proven ineffective; thus, new chemotherapeutic agents and new methods of delivery should be developed. Immunotherapy may be considered for patients with malignant meningiomas when all others previous treatment have failed. We report a case of anaplastic papillary meningioma. A 67-year-old man presented with partial complex seizures, headache and aggressiveness. A computerized tomography and magnetic resonance image demonstrated a large left temporo-occipital mass with difuse contrast enhancement and extensive surrounding edema. A left temporo-occipital flap was performed. The tumor and the infiltrated dura were radically removed. Postoperatively, the patient remained neurologically intact. The treatment was complemented by external whole brain radiation.

  15. Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  16. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  17. ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the oral cavity showing spontaneous regression

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah G.; Bowers, Leah M.; Al-quran, Samer Z.; Fox, Eric G.; Cohen, Donald M.; Indraneel Bhattacharyya

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of T-cell lymphoma which is rarely seen in the oral cavity. This entity may be either primary cutaneous or systemic and the prognosis varies significantly by subtype. In addition, several similar entities have been reported which may mimic this lesion both clinically and histologically. We present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative, on the mucosal aspect of the upper lip of an 88 year-old female with a history of cutaneous T-cell ...

  18. Primary testicular presentation of ALK-1-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Joanne; Termuhlen, Amanda; Fung, Bonita; Ranalli, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of malignant non-Hodgkin lymphomas that occurs in up to 15% of all pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It is characterized by B-symptoms and involvement of extranodal sites such as skin, bone, and soft tissue. This brief report describes first reported case of pediatric primary testicular anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a 14-year-old boy. The presentation included acute testicular pain, fever, and vomiting. After chemotherapy and unilateral radical orchiectomy, patient continues in complete remission. PMID:19415011

  19. Second-line chemotherapy with temozolomide in recurrent oligodendroglioma after PCV (procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine) chemotherapy: EORTC Brain Tumor Group phase II study 26972

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, M.J. van den; Chinot, O.; Boogerd, W; Bravo Marques, J.; Taphoorn, M.J.; Kros, J.M.; Rijt, C.C.D. van der; Vecht, C.J.; Beule, N. de; Baron, B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oligodendroglial tumors are chemosensitive, with two-thirds of patients responding to PCV combination chemotherapy with procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine. Temozolomide (TMZ), a new alkylating and methylating agent has shown high response rates in recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. We investigated this drug in recurrent oligodendroglial tumors (OD) and mixed oligoastrocytomas (OA) after prior PCV chemotherapy and rad...

  20. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heidegger S; Beer AJ; Geissinger E; Rosenwald A; Peschel C; Ringshausen I; Keller U

    2014-01-01

    Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with str...

  1. Types and degrees of interpretive resemblance in translation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales Sequeiros, Xosé

    2001-01-01

    This articles explores one of the types of interpretive resemblance found in translation, namely, resemblance between concepts. These are cases where the concept encoded involves a resemblance relation between its literal import and the meaning it communicates, i.e. cases in which words do not literally communicate the concepts they encode. It is argued that translations are often carried out not on the basis of the concept encoded in the original text but on the basis of the actual concept c...

  2. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of to...

  3. Cytopathological Dilemma of Anaplastic Sacral Chordoma with Radiological and Histological Corroboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya BANDYOPADHYAY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a relatively rare locally invasive and potentially malignant tumor of fetal notochord origin, affecting the axial skeleton. Cytopathological diagnosis of chordoma is favored by the presence of characteristic physaliphorous cells, bearing abundant foamy cytoplasm dispersed in a myxoid matrix. Anaplastic chordoma or dedifferentiated chordoma, an even rarer variant, can cause a diagnostic confusion with chondrosarcoma from the cytopathological point of view, with similar chondromyxoid matrix and atypical cells. Hence, chordoma bearing anaplastic features needs to be identified and should be distinguished from chondrosarcoma on aspiration cytopathology. We present a case of anaplastic sacral chordoma in a man 59 years of age, causing extensive destruction of sacrum and invading the paravertebral tissues as evidenced by radiology. Fine needle aspiration cytopathology revealed few large pleomorphic hyperchromatic cells, admixed with characteristic physaliphorous cells and myxoid matrix. The cytopathological diagnosis has been confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Since anaplastic chordoma bears an unfavorable prognosis, it should be suspected on preoperative aspiration cytopathology. Clinicoradiological correlation along with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation is necessary subsequently.

  4. A visual latent semantic approach for automatic analysis and interpretation of anaplastic medulloblastoma virtual slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; González, Fabio; Galaro, Joseph; Judkins, Alexander R; Ellison, David; Baccon, Jennifer; Madabhushi, Anant; Romero, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A method for automatic analysis and interpretation of histopathology images is presented. The method uses a representation of the image data set based on bag of features histograms built from visual dictionary of Haar-based patches and a novel visual latent semantic strategy for characterizing the visual content of a set of images. One important contribution of the method is the provision of an interpretability layer, which is able to explain a particular classification by visually mapping the most important visual patterns associated with such classification. The method was evaluated on a challenging problem involving automated discrimination of medulloblastoma tumors based on image derived attributes from whole slide images as anaplastic or non-anaplastic. The data set comprised 10 labeled histopathological patient studies, 5 for anaplastic and 5 for non-anaplastic, where 750 square images cropped randomly from cancerous region from whole slide per study. The experimental results show that the new method is competitive in terms of classification accuracy achieving 0.87 in average. PMID:23285547

  5. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizzi A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Gabriele Polonara,2 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Antonio Zizzi,3 Marina Scarpelli,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 3Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.Keywords: multiple primary intracranial tumors, vestibular schwannoma, oligodendroglioma, indolent low grade gliomas, incidentaloma, surgery

  6. Paternal care may influence perceptions of paternal resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Anthony A; Darrell-Cheng, Carolynn; Marini, Zopito A

    2010-01-01

    Father-child resemblance is increasingly attracting attention from researchers interested in studying paternal investment. The current study sought to determine whether a quasi-experimental infant massage intervention would increase father's perceptions of resemblance. The study included a dozen fathers in each of two groups: the first received an intensive series of lessons on infant-father massage along with their infants, while the second group served as a neutral control. We failed to find significant correlations between paternal investment and resemblance, but we found that fathers who participated in the infant massage intervention reported significantly larger post-study ratings of resemblance and lower ratings of paternal stress. This suggests that the relationship between father-child resemblance and paternal investment may be bidirectional. PMID:22947817

  7. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  8. The Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Oncogene Interacts, Activates, and Uses the Kinase PIKfyve to Increase Invasiveness*

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis-coronas, Sophie; Lagarrigue, Fre?de?ric; Ramel, Damien; Chicanne, Gae?tan; Saland, Estelle; Gaits-iacovoni, Fre?de?rique; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronche?re, He?le?ne

    2011-01-01

    NPM-ALK is a chimeric tyrosine kinase detected in most anaplastic large cell lymphomas that results from the reciprocal translocation t(2,5)(p23;q35) that fuses the N-terminal domain of nucleophosmin (NPM) to the catalytic domain of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor. The constitutive activity of the kinase is responsible for its oncogenicity through the stimulation of several downstream signaling pathways, leading to cell proliferation, migration, and survival. We demonstrated pre...

  9. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP, combined therapy

  10. miR-206 inhibits metastasis-relevant traits by degrading MRTF-A in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Long; Lv, Wei; Sun, Suo-Zhu; Wu, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid cancer develops from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells. A higher proportion of anaplastic thyroid cancer has an adverse prognosis. New drugs are being used in clinical treatment. However, for advanced thyroid malignant neoplasm such as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, the major impediment to successful control of the disease is the absence of effective therapies. Elucidating molecular mechanism of the disease will help us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease and offer new targets for effective therapies. In this study, we found that MRTF-A expression was upregulated in metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer tissues, compared with primary cancer tissues and it promoted metastasis-relevant traits in vitro. miR-206 was negatively associated with metastasis in anaplastic cancer and it degraded MRTF-A by targeting its 3'-UTR in ARO anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. In addition, miR-206 overexpression inhibited invasion and migration and silencing miR-206-promoted migration and invasion in the cells. Important, restoration of MRTF-A could abrogate miR-206-mediated migration and invasion regulation. Thus, we concluded that miR-206 inhibited invasion and metastasis by degrading MRTF-A in anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:25955685

  11. Facial-feature resemblance elicits the transference effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Chen, Serena

    2010-04-01

    In transference, a perceiver's representation of a significant other is activated and used to interpret and respond to a new target person who bears some resemblance to the particular significant other. Integrating research on face perception and transference, we hypothesized that transference can occur on the basis of the resemblance of a target's facial features to those of a perceiver's significant other. Experimental results supported this hypothesis. Manipulating an upcoming interaction partner's facial features to resemble those of participants' significant other led participants to make representation-consistent inferences about and evaluations of the partner. Moreover, participants undergoing transference experienced shifts in their self-concept, so that they described themselves more like the person they are when with the relevant significant other. The results represent the first evidence of transference processes occurring through facial-feature resemblance. Implications for research on impression formation, social cognition, and emotions are discussed. PMID:20424093

  12. Mycobacterium chelonae in a CF patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiedel, E; Grasemann, H; Ratjen, F

    2006-05-01

    A 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis was diagnosed with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. At the same time colonization with Mycobacterium chelonae was detected in sputum cultures. Despite massive immunosuppression, the patient did not show evidence of mycobacterial invasive disease. Colonisation persisted for 18 months after discontinuation of chemotherapy and was not detected in the 6 years thereafter. This case highlights the dilemma of differentiating between colonisation and infection if mycobacteria are found in CF sputum samples. PMID:16403492

  13. Subcutaneous Sacrococcygeal Anaplastic Ependymoma with Malignant Cystosarcoma Phylloides of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca BARIT; Mustafa BOZGÜL; Uluo?lu, Ömer; Gürsel ?AH?N; ARIBA?, BILGIN KADRI; Ebru TORUN

    2012-01-01

    Reports of malignant primary extradural ependymal tumours are exceptionally rare. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who had an excision of a tumour in the subcutaneous sacrococcygeal region, as well as a right ilioinguinal dissection, 67 months prior to presenting with a mass at the same location. The tumor was excised again, preserving the coccyx. The diagnosis of sacrococcygeal anaplastic ependymoma was made. Eighteen months previously, the patient had been diagnosed as having malig...

  14. FDG PET staging compared to C.T. in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of initial staging in Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic lymphoma is very important since treatment depends on the initial staging disease. An error of assessment can have serious consequences on evolution and survival. To judge PET scan performances initial staging was done on our patients by both conventional imaging and PET scan. Methods: 21 children (10 girls, 11 boys), median age 14,9 years (8 to 22) had a PET scan for the initial staging (17 Hodgkin's disease, 4 anaplastic lymphomas). Conventional staging for imaging included: Thorax x-ray, thorax and abdomen C.T., abdominal echography, and also two bone marrow biopsies. Others exams were done in accordance with special clinical data. PET scan was done on a C PET scan ADAC one hour after IV injection of 2 MBq/Kg of 18 FDG. C.T. and PET scan images were revised blindly and separately by radiologist and nuclearist with no knowledge of clinical data. Results: the staging by C.I. and PET scan were concordant in 84% of cases. In 16% of cases PET scan displayed localisation not seen by C.I., particularly bone lesions. The staging changed grading status from stage III to stage IV. The clinical cases will be presented. PET scan upgrading were confirmed by resonance imaging or bone scintigraphy. The change of stage led in each child an intensification of chemotherapy (6 courses instead of 4). Conclusion: FDG PET is a useful diagnostic tool in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma to achieve wisease or anaplastic lymphoma to achieve with a single exam an accurate staging allowing to choose the best treatment

  15. Meta-Analysis of Glioblastoma Multiforme versus Anaplastic Astrocytoma Identifies Robust Gene Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Mark Damone; Park, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between these tu...

  16. Parenchymal Anaplastic Astrocytoma presenting with Visual Symptoms due to Bilateral Optic Nerve Sheath Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Kelly M.; Farooq, Asim V; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Villano, J. Lee; Moss, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with transient visual obscurations and was found to have optic nerve edema and a thalamic lesion that did not enhance on magnetic resonance imaging. Lumbar puncture opening pressure was normal. Subsequent magnetic resonance images demonstrated optic nerve sheath enhancement. Pathological diagnosis of the thalamic mass was anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). Visual symptoms were attributed to spread of high grade parenchymal glioma to the optic nerve sheaths cau...

  17. Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moira Ragazzi; Alessia Ciarrocchi; Valentina Sancisi; Greta Gandolfi; Alessandra Bisagni; Simonetta Piana

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological a...

  18. Glycolytic inhibition alters anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tumor metabolism and improves response to conventional chemotherapy and radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandulache, Vlad C.; Skinner, Heath D.; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Yunyun; Dodge, Cristina T.; Ow, Thomas J.; Bankson, James A.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Lai, Stephen Y.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) accounts for over 50% of thyroid cancer mortality and is generally refractory to conventional treatment. Based on recent studies, we hypothesized that ATC metabolism can be targeted to improve response to chemo-radiotherapy. Eight established and authenticated ATC cell lines were sequenced at 140 sites contained within 26 commonly mutated genes to identify novel potential therapeutic targets. Cellular proliferation, energy and reducing potential stores were ...

  19. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder diagnosed by anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunostaining

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Ram Nawal; Ranjan, Priydarshi; Singla, Nidhi; Pandey, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMFT) of the urinary bladder is an unusual spindle cell lesion that exhibits cytologic atypia, infiltrative growth, and mitotic activity mimicking malignant tumors, such as leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and sarcomatoid carcinoma. Recently, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations or ALK protein expression in IMFT has been reported, especially in patients of children and young adults. This lesion has been described in numerous locations in ad...

  20. International retrospective study of over 1000 adults with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lassman, Andrew B.; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth D; Rivera, Andreana L.; Eichler, April F.; Louis, David N; Paleologos, Nina A.; Fisher, Barbara J.; Ashby, Lynn S.; Cairncross, J. Gregory; Roldán, Gloria B.; Wen, Patrick Y; Ligon, Keith L.; David SCHIFF

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is controversial. Radiotherapy (RT) alone and in combination with chemotherapy (CT) are the most well studied strategies. However, CT alone is often advocated, especially in cases with 1p19q codeletion. We retrospectively identified 1013 adults diagnosed from 1981–2007 treated initially with RT alone (n = 200), CT + RT (n = 528), CT alone (n = 201), or other strategies (n = 84). Median overall survival (OS) was 6.3 years and tim...

  1. Emergency Total Thyroidectomy for Bleeding Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Viable Option for Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sunil; Joshi Mohit

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidecto...

  2. A significant response to sunitinib in a patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Grande, Enrique; Capdevila, Jaume; Di?ez, Juan Jose?; Longo, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare disease with an incidence of less than three cases per million of habitants in western countries. ATC accounts for 1-10% of all tumors derived from the thyroid gland. Classic chemotherapy approach based on platinum and anthracyclines regimens have been considered standard for the last decades. Novel multitarget agents have shown promising responses; however, no positive randomized clinical trials are available up to now. To our knowledge, the case we ...

  3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A comprehensive review of current and future therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Perri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the rarest, but deadliest histologic type among thyroid malignancies, with a dismal median survival of 3-9 mo. Even though ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid tumors, it is responsible for 14%-39% of thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. ATC clinically presents as a rapidly growing mass in the neck, associated with dyspnoea, dysphagia and vocal cord paralysis. It is usually locally advanced and often metastatic at initial presentation. For operable d...

  4. Update on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: morphological, molecular, and genetic features of the most aggressive thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Sancisi, Valentina; Gandolfi, Greta; Bisagni, Alessandra; Piana, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features. PMID:25214840

  5. Value of Perfusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Supratentorial Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Jahng, Geon-ho; Park, Bong Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) findings of nonenhanced anaplastic astrocytoma in a 30-year-old woman. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhanced brain tumor with mild peritumoral edema on the right medial frontal lobe and right genu of corpus callosum, suggesting a low-grade glioma. However, PWI showed increased relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and permeability of nonenhanced brain tumor compared with contralateral normal brain parenchyma, s...

  6. Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Nandita; Murthy, Ganesh; Dadlani, Ravi; Hegde, Alangar Sathya; Singh, Devendra

    2010-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male. On initial presentation, the patient had a WHO Grade II tumor. However, at recurrence 1 year later, the tumor progressed to WHO Grade III tumor with more cellularity, necrosis and brisk mitotic activity. Chondroid metaplasia was present in both the initial and recurrent tumors. PMID:21045418

  7. Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosal Nandita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male. On initial presentation, the patient had a WHO Grade II tumor. However, at recurrence 1 year later, the tumor progressed to WHO Grade III tumor with more cellularity, necrosis and brisk mitotic activity. Chondroid metaplasia was present in both the initial and recurrent tumors.

  8. Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal Nandita; Murthy Ganesh; Dadlani Ravi; Hegde Alangar; Singh Devendra

    2010-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male. On initial presentation, the patient had a WHO Grade II tumor. However, at recurrence 1 year later, the tumor progressed to WHO Grade III tumor with more cellularity, necrosis and brisk mitotic activity. Chondroid metaplasia was present in both the initial and recurrent tumors.

  9. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  10. The role of chemotherapy and latest emerging target therapies in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denaro N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nerina Denaro,1,2 Cristiana Lo Nigro,3 Elvio G Russi,4 Marco C Merlano1 1Oncology Department, AO S Croce e Carle, 2Human Pathology Department, Messina University, 3Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology Department, 4Radiation Oncology Department, AO S Croce e Carle, Messina, Italy Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid cancer represents 1%–2% of thyroid cancers. For its aggressiveness, it is considered a systemic disease at the time of diagnosis. Surgery remains the cornerstone of therapy in resectable tumor. Traditional chemotherapy has little effect on metastatic disease. A multimodality approach, incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection, chemoradiation, either concurrently or sequentially, and new promising target therapies is advisable. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Recently, other chemotherapy agents have been used, such as paclitaxel and gemcitabine, with superimposable activity and response rates of 10%–20%. However, survival of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer has changed little in the past 50 years, despite more aggressive systemic and radiotherapies. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Some of them, such as sorafenib, imatinib, and axitinib have been tested in small clinical trials, showing promising disease control rates ranging from 35%–75%. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed. Keywords: thyroid cancer, emerging therapies, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  11. Association between molecular alterations and tumor location and MRI characteristics in anaplastic gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yukihiko; Shibahara, Ichiyoo; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Saito, Ryuta; Kanamori, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mika; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if molecular alterations are associated with tumor location and radiological characteristics in anaplastic gliomas. We performed a retrospective analysis of 122 anaplastic gliomas for molecular alterations (IDH1/2 mutations, TP53 mutations, and 1p19q co-deletion) to compare MRI features (location and image characteristics). We observed that IDH mutation is strongly associated with frontal location (P = 0.001). However, 13 tumors not located in the cerebral cortex were IDH intact tumors (P < 0.0001). While IDH mutation and TP53 mutation are significantly associated with AA (p < 0.0001), IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion were significantly associated with AO/AOA (p < 0.0001). No tumors with IDH mutation and 1p19q co-deletion infiltrated the temporal lobe (P = 0.003). The tumors with 1p19q co-deletion and histologically diagnosed as AO/AOA were associated with contrast enhancement on MR images (p = 0.007, p = 0.002, respectively) and those with TP53 mutation had a weak association with sharp tumor borders (p = 0.043). MRI features might be useful to predict molecular profiles in anaplastic gliomas. PMID:25537428

  12. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Beer, Ambros J; Geissinger, Eva; Rosenwald, Andreas; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis. PMID:25018638

  13. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  14. Intentions vs. resemblance: understanding pictures in typical development and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    Research has debated whether children reflect on artists' intentions when comprehending pictures, or instead derive meaning entirely from resemblance. We explore these hypotheses by comparing how typically developing toddlers and low-functioning children with autism (a population impaired in intentional reasoning) interpret abstract pictures. In Experiment 1, both groups mapped familiar object names onto abstract pictures, however, they related the same representations to different 3-D referents. Toddlers linked abstract pictures with intended referents they did not resemble, while children with autism mapped picture-referent relations based on resemblance. Experiment 2 showed that toddlers do not rely upon linguistic cues to determine intended referential relations. Experiment 3 confirmed that the responding of children with autism was not due to perseveration or associative word learning, and also provided independent evidence of their intention-reading difficulties. We argue that typically developing children derive meaning from the social-communicative intentions underlying pictures when resemblance is an inadequate cue to meaning. By contrast, children with autism do not reflect on artists' intentions and simply relate pictures to whatever they happen to resemble. PMID:24440433

  15. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with involvement of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoqin Liang,1,2 Yingmei Wang,1 Jinsong Zhang,3 Hong Cheng,1 Jinsui Wang,2 Yamei Dang,2 Haomin Li,1,4 Ru Zhou,1 Jing Zhang,1 Qing Qiao5 1State Key Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pathology, Gansu Provincial People’s Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Neurosurgery, First affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of General Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: We report a unique case of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL involving the urinary bladder in a 22-year-old man. The patient presented with left lower back pain for 4 weeks. The computed tomography (CT scan demonstrated an exophytic nodule on the left bladder wall and abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy. Histologically, a population of large pleomorphic cells extensively infiltrated the lamina propria of the bladder. These cells were diffusely and strongly immunoreactive for CD30, ALK, EMA, and vimentin, but were negative for AE1/AE3, CK20, CK7, CK5/6, P63, SMA, HMB-45, pan-Melan, S-100, Myo D1, synaptophysin, CD56, desmin, CD15, CD20, Pax-5, and CD3. Few cells exhibited positive immunohistochemical staining of CD45. The patient underwent cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP regime of chemotherapy and achieved a complete remission after four cycles. This case is the tenth documented case of systemic ALCL involving urinary bladder. Due to its rarity, it is important to be aware of the features of ALCL in bladder, and make prompt and accurate diagnosis. Keywords: anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, urinary bladder

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

  17. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic possibilities.

  18. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous reactions have been reported in association with lymphomas, more often with Hodgkins disease than with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. Not many reports are available on the association of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with sarcoid-type granuloma. Herein, we report a case of an elderly female with generalized lymphadenopathy who had a florid granulomatous reaction almost masking the lymphoma cells in the lymph node biopsy. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis.

  19. Emergency total thyroidectomy for bleeding anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A viable option for palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare and highly aggressive thyroid neoplasm. Bleeding from tumor is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening complication requiring sophisticated intervention facilities which are not usually available at odd hours in emergency. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with exsanguinating hemorrhage from ATC and was treated by emergency total thyroidectomy. The patient is well three months postoperatively. Emergency total thyroidectomy is a viable option for palliation in ATC presenting with bleeding.

  20. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder diagnosed by anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunostaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ram Nawal; Ranjan, Priydarshi; Singla, Nidhi; Pandey, Rakesh

    2012-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMFT) of the urinary bladder is an unusual spindle cell lesion that exhibits cytologic atypia, infiltrative growth, and mitotic activity mimicking malignant tumors, such as leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and sarcomatoid carcinoma. Recently, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations or ALK protein expression in IMFT has been reported, especially in patients of children and young adults. This lesion has been described in numerous locations in addition to the urinary bladder. The detection of ALK protein and ALK gene rearrangements are useful in distinguishing IMFT from spindle cell malignancies in the urinary bladder. PMID:22629012

  1. Clinical evaluation of 67Ga scanning in the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While 67Ga uptake has been reported to be highly variable and nonspecific in the diagnosis of malignant tumors of the thyroid, it has also been observed to depend on the histological nature of the lesion. For this reason, the behavior of 67Ga in various types of thyroid cancer was investigated in a prospective study of 86 patients with thyroid masses compatible with anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. The study demonstrated a distinct difference in uptake between well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and the more undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma

  2. Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Javier; Otero, Alvaro; Bengoechea, Oscar; Gonçalves, Jesús; Sousa, Pablo; Figols, Javier; Bullón, Agustín

    2008-09-01

    We report a divergent ependymal tumor of the posterior fossa (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) observed in an 8-year-old boy. The tumor showed the histological pattern typical of an ependymoblastoma (tubular-papillary fetaloid architecture with stratification of the tumor cells) next to areas in which findings typical of an anaplastic ependymoma were detected. The immunohistochemical study confirmed our diagnostic suspicion, allowing us to establish a differential diagnosis with other entities such as medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor, or metastases. PMID:18827270

  3. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  4. Resemblances and differences in mechanisms of noise-induced resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centurelli, Raffaella; Musacchio, Stefano; Pasmanter, Ruben A.; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2006-02-01

    Systems showing stochastic resonance (SR) or coherent resonance (CR) share some features, in particular, the nearly periodic character of the signal. We show that in spite of this resemblance the different underlying dynamics can be detected in experimental data by studying the histogram of the inter-spikes times and some statistical properties like two-time correlation functions. We discuss its possible relevance for climate modeling.

  5. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J.J. van

    2009-01-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of blad...

  6. On Large Scale Inductive Dimension of Asymptotic Resemblance Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Sh.; Honari, B.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of large scale inductive dimension for asymptotic resemblance spaces. We prove that the large scale inductive dimension and the asymptotic dimensiongrad are equal in the class of r-convex metric spaces. This class contains the class of all geodesic metric spaces and all finitely generated groups. This leads to an answer for a question asked by E. Shchepin concerning the relation between the asymptotic inductive dimension and the asymptotic dimensiongr...

  7. Resemblances and differences in mechanisms of noise-induced resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Centurelli, R; Pasmanter, R A; Vulpiani, A

    2005-01-01

    Systems showing stochastic resonance (SR) or coherent resonance (CR) share some features, in particular the nearby periodic character of the signal. We show that in spite of this resemblance the different underlying dynamics can be detected in experimental data by studying the histogram of inter-spikes times and some statistical properties like two-times correlation functions. We discuss the possible relevance for climate modeling.

  8. Native valve endocarditis caused by an organism resembling Corynebacterium striatum.

    OpenAIRE

    Markowitz, S M; Coudron, P E

    1990-01-01

    An organism resembling Corynebacterium striatum was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute aortic valvular insufficiency and no history of valvular heart disease. At autopsy, histopathologic examination of the aortic valve revealed pleomorphic gram-positive bacilli and destruction of valvular tissue. Our isolate differed from other nondiphtherial corynebacteria, including the type strain of C. striatum (ATCC 6940), in its ability to reduce nitrite. Nitrite reduction may be useful for...

  9. Paraspinal Gossypiboma Resembling an Abscess: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Coþkun

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with complaints of low back pain, sciatalgia on the  left persisting for five months and fluid leakage from the wound. He had been operated for L4-5 disc herniation before seven months. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a contrasted mass lesion resembling abscess formation localized in the left posterior paravertebral region. Paravertebral abscess was diagnosed and aspiration was planned under local anesthesia with ultrason...

  10. Severe supraaortal atherosclerotic disease resembling Takayasu’s Arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kis, Bernhard; Liebig, Thomas; Berlit, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a 64 year-old man whose clinical presentation and neuroimaging findings strikingly resembled those found in Takayasu’s Arteritis which is characterized by the triad of absent radial pulses, ischemic retinopathy, and carotid sinus hyperreflexia causing syncopes. Angiographically, the patient exhibited severe atherosclerotic changes of the supraaortic large vessels. Stent-assisted angioplasty resulted in both clinical improvement and increased cerebral blood flow as measur...

  11. High intratumoral macrophage content is an adverse prognostic feature in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin B; Danielsen, Allan V

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Macrophage infiltration has been associated with prognosis in several cancers, including lymphoma, but has not been assessed systematically in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of the study was to correlate expression of the macrophage-associated antigens CD68 and CD163 with pre-therapeutic parameters and outcome in a cohort of treatment-naive ALCL patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-therapeutic tumour specimens from 52 patients with ALCL were included in a tissue microarray. The intratumoral macrophage content was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163, and quantified using digital image analysis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive patients were significantly younger and had a favourable outcome compared with ALK-negative ALCL patients (median age: 42 versus 59 years; P = 0.008). However, ALK expression was not a significant predictor when adjusting for age. Although classical risk factors were distributed evenly between the compared groups, high intratumoral content of CD68 and/or CD163 correlated with poor outcome, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. High intratumoral CD163 content showed the strongest adverse association with both overall and progression-free survival in ALK-negative patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A high content of intratumoral CD68- and/or CD163-positive macrophages correlates with an adverse outcome in ALK-negative ALCL.

  12. Anaplastic thyroid cancer – an overview of genetic variations and treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddi HV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey V Reddi,1 Anirudh Kumar,2 Roger Kulstad3 1Transgenomic, Inc., New Haven, CT, USA; 2University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Division of Endocrinology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy that accounts for about 1%–2% of all thyroid cancer diagnoses but is responsible for up to 30%–40% of thyroid cancer deaths. ATCs are poorly differentiated tumors that develop on the background of preexisting, often undiagnosed, papillary thyroid carcinoma or follicular thyroid carcinoma, through progressive accumulation of changes in several oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways, including p53, RAS, RAF, Wnt-?-catenin and the PTEN-AKT pathways. Consequently, the 1-year survival rate after diagnosis ranges from 5% to 15%. Current therapeutic approaches are aimed at common late oncogenic changes and involve inhibition of MAPK and PI3K cell proliferation pathways or restoration of p53 and PTEN tumor suppressor pathways. Since single-modality therapy has limited effect on anaplastic thyroid cancer, aggressive multimodal treatments are now the treatment of choice, in spite of which, the mean survival time from diagnosis to death continues to remain at about 6 months. The current review attempts to summarize the genetics involved in the development and progression of ATC and provides some insight into the therapeutic options being evaluated for this aggressive cancer. Keywords: genetic alterations, treatment strategies, diagnostic testing

  13. Carcinoma anaplásico. Presentación de un caso Anaplastic carcinoma. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Iglesias Díaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A la consulta especializada de cirugía del tiroides acude un paciente joven por presentar en el breve tiempo de una semana aumento de volumen del lateral izquierdo del cuello acompañado de tos, disfonía y disfagia, sintomatología común en el carcinoma anaplásico. Con el propósito de exponer las características del carcinoma anaplásico en una edad poco usual, su evolución y pronóstico, así como el tratamiento aplicado en este caso se efectuó una tiroidectomía total y tratamiento oncológico con radioquimio-terapia .Se realiza un análisis de las características clínicas, anatomopatológicas y tratamiento en relación con este caso, y se compara con lo reportado en la literatura consultada.A patient who attended to the specialized medical office for the surgery of thyroid gland presented, in a short period of time (a week, an enlargement in the left part of the neck associated with other common symptoms in the presence of anaplastic carcinoma: cough, dysphonia and dysphagia. This paper was aimed at explaining the characteristics of the anaplastic carcinoma in an uncommon age, its natural history, prognosis and the treatment in this case: a total Thyroidectomy and Radiotherapy. An analysis of the clinical and pathological features, as well as the treatment applied was carried out. This case was compared with other cases reported in the medical literature.

  14. Anaplastic thyroid cancer: outcome and the mutation/expression profiles of potential targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Yue; Ye, Huihui; Yang, Shi; Lee, Stephanie L; de Las Morenas, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy of the thyroid. No effective treatment modalities are currently available. Targeted therapy against protein kinases showed promising results in preclinical studies. Our goal was to assess the mutational status of potential therapeutic targets, as well as the biomarker for immunotherapy in the clinical context. Using allele specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, fragment analysis and immunohistochemistry, we assessed BRAF, KRAS, EGFR mutations and protein overexpression of C-KIT and PDL1 in anaplastic thyroid cancer specimens. Results were compared to clinical information and patient outcome to assess the utility of these biomarkers. There were 13 patients in our study with a median overall survival of 19 weeks. Of the 13 ATC patients, 3 (23 %) had BRAF V600E mutation. C-KIT overexpression was found in 1 (8 %) patient who responded well to a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PDL1 expression was seen in 3 (23 %) patients, none of them were surgical candidates due to unresectability and poor performance status. KRAS codon 12/13 and EGFR exon 18, 19, 20 and 21 were all wild type in our patients. Protein kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy may be useful adjuvant therapies for ATC. PMID:25588542

  15. Proteomic Profile Modification of Anaplastic Medulloblastoma after in-Vivo Radiotherapy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MDB is an aggressive tumor of Central Nervous System (CNS. Radiotherapy after radical surgery has an important role in treatment of standard and high risk patients and is followed by intensive chemotherapy. To explore modifications of protein expression induced by in vivo radiotherapy proteomic analysis was performed on a case of Anaplastic MDB. 2D-gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected qualitative differences of protein expression in Anaplastic MDB at diagnosis and in relapse after radiotherapy. Relevant proteomic data were confirmed by western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis, validating the presence of Sthatmin 1 (STMN1, Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HSP27 and Disulfide Isomerase (ER60 among the six proteins present in both samples. The most relevant modification induced by radiotherapy was a drastic reduction of the total number of proteins (60.6% and the appearance of few new proteins. The modifications and the striking simplification of proteins expressed by the tumor after radiotherapy may allow to tailor subsequent chemotherapy on a rational basis. A proteomic guided chemotherapy may be of great benefit to patients.

  16. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  17. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  18. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory. PMID:20551366

  19. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene expression in small round cell tumors of childhood-a comparative ?mmunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaku?, Esra; Emir, Suna; Kaçar, Ayper; Karaku?, Resul; Demir, Hac? Ahmet; Özyörük, Derya

    2015-08-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression by immunohistochemistry using a highly specific antibody. Distribution and frequency of ALK expression may provide a clue for ALK inhibitor use in small round cell tumors of childhood. The study group involved 76 small round cell tumors of childhood, which composed of 11 rhabdomyosarcomas, 13 Wilms tumors, 7 Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 34 peripheral neuroblastic tumors, and 11 acute lymphoblastic lymphoma. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein expression in small round cell tumors of childhood is poorly described in the literature. The findings of our study highlight a potential and possible role of targeting ALK in pediatric solid tumors by using ALK immunohistochemistry. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase may also have an oncogenic role in rhabdomyosarcomas and peripheral neuroblastic tumors, and they may possibly be treated with ALK inhibitors. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression in Wilms tumors is not reported in the literature, previously. Our study evaluated ALK expression in Wilms tumor samples. PMID:26005112

  20. Anaplastic Transformation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Young Man: A Case Study with Immunohistochemical and BRAF Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Park, Cheong Soo; Hong, SoonWon

    2014-06-01

    This study reports a case of anaplastic transformation from a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a young patient. The first recurrent tissue contained poorly differentiated foci that revealed lower thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and galectin-3 expression than the well-differentiated area. However there was no increased p53 or Ki-67 expression in the poorly differentiated foci, nor in the well-differentiated area. The tissue subsequently relapsed and revealed only anaplastic features, complete loss of thyroglobulin, TTF-1, and galectin-3 expression and revealed an increase in p53 and Ki-67 expression. The BRAF V600E and BRAF V600V mutation were found in the initially diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma and the poorly differentiated foci of the recurring papillary thyroid carcinoma; however, only the BRAF V600V mutation was found in the anaplastic carcinoma. These results suggest that overexpression of p53 and Ki-67 contributed to the anaplastic transformation. We also found that the BRAF type changed during the tumor relapse. PMID:25013423

  1. 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Diagnosis of Tumor Thrombus from Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Young Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M D’Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon, highly aggressive malignancy usually presenting in the elderly. An eighteen year old boy was recently diagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid.  PET/CECT scan performed for staging, revealed a large FDG avid heterogeneously enhancing thyroid mass with bilateral jugular venous thrombosis, which also showed increased FDG uptake, thus pointing towards tumor thrombus. To our knowledge, this is the first case wherein the PET/CT diagnosis of tumor thrombosis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was made in a young patient.

  2. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation is correlated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression and mutually exclusive with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in Taiwanese non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Chi; Hung, Tsai-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Wei; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2015-05-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene is an important biomarker for target therapy. The aim of this study is to better understand the clinical and molecular features of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in lung cancer patients in Taiwan and therefore to generate an efficient algorithm for the detection of ALK translocation. In the first cohort, ALK translocation was identified in 1 adenocarcinoma from 100 lung cancer patients by using break apart fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Next, we detected 6 ALK translocations in another 40 EGFR wild type adenocarcinomas but not in 40 cases with EGFR mutation. Histological analysis revealed that solid growth with signet-ring cells or cribriform glands with extracellular mucin were noted in all the 7 ALK translocated cases. One ALK positive cancer with mucinous cribriform pattern had no ALK expression. ALK expression was correlated with ALK translocation (p CNG) (P = 0.838). ALK translocation was also mutually exclusive with EGFR mutation in Taiwanese non-small cell lung cancer (P = 0.033). These results indicate that screening tests for EGFR mutation status and/or ALK expression could help efficiently select ALK translocated patients for target therapy. PMID:25708242

  3. A new variant anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-fusion protein (ATIC-ALK) in a case of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinei, M; Lanfrancone, L; Campo, E; Pulford, K; Mason, D Y; Pelicci, P G; Falini, B

    2000-02-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lymphomas ("ALKomas") constitute a distinct molecular and clinicopathological entity within the heterogeneous group of CD30-positive large cell lymphomas. In 80-85% of cases tumor cells express a Mr 80,000 hybrid protein comprising the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) and the ALK. We report here the cloning and expression of a novel ALK-fusion protein from an ALK-positive lymphoma. This case was selected for molecular investigation because of (a) the absence of NPM-ALK transcripts; (b) the atypical staining patterns for ALK (cytoplasm-restricted) and for NPM (nucleus-restricted); and (c) the presence of a Mr 96,000 ALK-protein differing in size from NPM-ALK. Nucleotide sequence analysis of ALK transcripts isolated by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a chimeric mRNA corresponding to an ATIC-ALK in-frame fusion. ATIC is a bifunctional enzyme (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and IMP cyclohydrolase enzymatic activities) that catalyzes the penultimate and final enzymatic activities of the purine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Expression of full-length ATIC-ALK cDNA in mouse fibroblasts revealed that the fusion protein (a) possesses constitutive tyrosine kinase activity; (b) forms stable complexes with the signaling proteins Grb2 and Shc; (c) induces tyrosine-phosphorylation of Shc; and (d) provokes oncogenic transformation. These findings point to fusion with ATIC as an alternative mechanism of ALK activation. PMID:10706082

  4. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides de manejo quirúrgico Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, review of six patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA LOBOS M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides corresponde al 2 a 5% del total de cánceres tiroideos. Afecta a mujeres en la sexta o séptima década de la vida, presentándose como masa cervical pétrea de crecimiento rápido, adherida a planos profundos. El tratamiento incluye cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia, siendo de elección el tratamiento multimodal. Objetivo: Conocer los resultados de una serie de casos manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de serie de casos de Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides tratados exclusivamente con cirugía entre los años 2002 y 2008. Se registraron características generales, técnica operatoria, complicaciones, uso de otras terapias y sobrevida. Resultados: Se manejaron 6 pacientes, cuatro hombres y dos mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 59 años. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días. Se realizó tiroidectomía total bilateral en 4 pacientes. Dos pacientes requirieron traqueostomía durante el postoperatorio. En ninguno de ellos se realizó radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante o adyuvante. La sobrevida promedio fue de 108 días. Discusión: Destaca en esta serie el diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, lo cual determina la imposibilidad de realizar terapia multimodal y la sobrevida observada. Por lo anterior, es de importancia la sospecha y la derivación inmediata para el manejo especializado, aumentando así la posibilidad del uso de terapia multimodal con mejores resultados en términos de sobrevida. Se observó una sobrevida menor a la reportada en la literatura.Background: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma corresponds 2 to 5% of all thyroid cancers. It affects mainly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life, appearing as a hard, fast growing cervical mass that is adhered to surrounding structures. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aim: to report a series of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer operated between 2002 and 2008. Results: The records of six patients aged 46 to 82 years (four males, were retrieved. A bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in four patients. Two patients required tracheostomy during the postoperative period. Mean hospital stay was six days. None received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Three patients died within one month of the operation. The rest died at 115, 184 and 283 days after surgery. Conclusions: All these patients were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, a fact that can explain the dismal evolution observed.

  5. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides de manejo quirúrgico / Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, review of six patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA, LOBOS M; DIEGO, VILLAGRÁN R; CAROLINA, OPAZO T; FELIPE, CARDEMIL M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides corresponde al 2 a 5% del total de cánceres tiroideos. Afecta a mujeres en la sexta o séptima década de la vida, presentándose como masa cervical pétrea de crecimiento rápido, adherida a planos profundos. El tratamiento incluye cirugía, quimioterapia y [...] radioterapia, siendo de elección el tratamiento multimodal. Objetivo: Conocer los resultados de una serie de casos manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de serie de casos de Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides tratados exclusivamente con cirugía entre los años 2002 y 2008. Se registraron características generales, técnica operatoria, complicaciones, uso de otras terapias y sobrevida. Resultados: Se manejaron 6 pacientes, cuatro hombres y dos mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 59 años. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días. Se realizó tiroidectomía total bilateral en 4 pacientes. Dos pacientes requirieron traqueostomía durante el postoperatorio. En ninguno de ellos se realizó radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante o adyuvante. La sobrevida promedio fue de 108 días. Discusión: Destaca en esta serie el diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, lo cual determina la imposibilidad de realizar terapia multimodal y la sobrevida observada. Por lo anterior, es de importancia la sospecha y la derivación inmediata para el manejo especializado, aumentando así la posibilidad del uso de terapia multimodal con mejores resultados en términos de sobrevida. Se observó una sobrevida menor a la reportada en la literatura. Abstract in english Background: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma corresponds 2 to 5% of all thyroid cancers. It affects mainly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life, appearing as a hard, fast growing cervical mass that is adhered to surrounding structures. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A [...] im: to report a series of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer operated between 2002 and 2008. Results: The records of six patients aged 46 to 82 years (four males), were retrieved. A bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in four patients. Two patients required tracheostomy during the postoperative period. Mean hospital stay was six days. None received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Three patients died within one month of the operation. The rest died at 115, 184 and 283 days after surgery. Conclusions: All these patients were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, a fact that can explain the dismal evolution observed.

  6. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified ? phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  7. Bladder endometriosis, a remarkable resemblance in a monozygotic twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, J J

    2010-11-01

    It is known for many years that heritability plays a role in the development of endometriosis in many patients. Deep endometriosis of the bladder is a rare presentation of the disease and bladder endometriosis was not reported in monozygotic twin studies so far. Since monozygotic twins share the same genes, concordance and differences in presentation of endometriosis may help to discriminate between genetic and environmental determinants. The remarkable resemblance in the presentation of bladder endometriosis in this monozygotic twin seems to indicate that genetic factors are of importance in the arising of deep endometriosis in the bladder too. PMID:21125001

  8. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexy in animal metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-01-01

    For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999) draws attention to this pro...

  9. Understanding Resemblance in Depiction: What Can we Learn from Wittgenstein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s remarks on “seeing-as” have influenced several scholars working on depiction. They have especially inspired those who think that in order to understand depiction we should understand the specific kind of visual experience depictions arouse in the viewer (e.g. Gombrich [1960], Wollheim [1968; 1987]. In this paper I would like to go a different way. My hypothesis is that certain of Wittgenstein’s claims both in the Tractatus and in his later writings resonate well within the context of an objective resemblance account of depiction (Hyman, 2006.

  10. Resemblance between rhodopsin kinase and S-antigen induced uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussenblatt, R B; Shichi, H; KUWABARA, T; Cevario, S; GERY, I.

    1981-01-01

    The retinal S-antigen (S-Ag) has been shown to induce uveitis effectively in subhuman primates, and lymphocytes from patients with certain uveitic conditions show cell-mediated responses to this antigen. Rhodopsin kinase (RK), an enzyme probably unique to the mammalian eye, is reported here to resemble the retinal S-Ag in its capacity to induce uveitis in experimental animals. A histological comparison of rat eyes taken 2 and 3 weeks after immunisation with either RK or S-Ag reveals essential...

  11. Do men grow to resemble their wives, or vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, G C

    1993-01-01

    Sixty-eight engaged couples, 113 newly weds, and 222 couples married for over 5 years, were studied for a number of physical, psychological and socioeconomic traits. The measurements were repeated a year later. Correlations were highest for age (r = -0.454, 0.903 and 0.888 respectively). They were also high for height (but not weight), neuroticism (but not extroversion), occupation, education, religion and smoking. Similarities were already present about the time of marriage, with little convergence or divergence. Thus, men do not grow to resemble their wives, nor vice versa. PMID:8425882

  12. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexity in animal metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  13. Development of children's ability to detect kinship through facial resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Gwenaël; Gentaz, Edouard; Mazens, Karine

    2012-05-01

    Facial features appear to be a prominent kinship cue for ascribing relatedness among human individuals. Although there is evidence that adults can detect kinship in unrelated and unfamiliar individual's faces, it remains to be seen whether people already possess the ability when they are young. To further understand the development of this skill, we explored children's ability to detect parent-offspring resemblance in unrelated and unfamiliar faces. To this end, we tested approximately 140 children, aged 5-11, in two photo-matching tasks. We used a procedure that asked them to match one neonate's face to one of three adults' faces (Task 1), or to match one adult's face to one of three neonate's faces (Task 2). Our findings reveal asymmetrical performance, depending on the tasks assigned (performance of Task 2 is stronger than for Task 1), and on the sex of individuals who made up the parent-offspring pair (male parents are better matched with neonates than female parents, and boys are better matched than girls). The picture that emerges from our study is, on one hand, that the ability to detect kinship is already present at the age of five but continues to improve as one gets older, and on the other, that perception of parent-offspring facial resemblance varies according to the appraisers' characteristics. PMID:21927845

  14. RESEMBLANCE OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTUAL COMPLEXY IN ANIMAL METAPHORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  15. Extending disorder: essentialism, family resemblance and secondary sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Neil

    2013-05-01

    It is commonly thought that mental disorder is a valid concept only in so far as it is an extension of or continuous with the concept of physical disorder. A valid extension has to meet two criteria: determination and coherence. Essentialists meet these criteria through necessary and sufficient conditions for being a disorder. Two Wittgensteinian alternatives to essentialism are considered and assessed against the two criteria. These are the family resemblance approach and the secondary sense approach. Where the focus is solely on the characteristics or attributes of things, both these approaches seem to fail to meet the criteria for valid extension. However, this focus on attributes is mistaken. The criteria for valid extension are met in the case of family resemblance by the pattern of characteristics associated with a concept, and by the limits of intelligibility of applying a concept. Secondary sense, though it may have some claims to be a good account of the relation between physical and mental disorder, cannot claim to meet the two criteria of valid extension. PMID:22167299

  16. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm. PMID:25531848

  17. Subcutaneous Sacrococcygeal Anaplastic Ependymoma with Malignant Cystosarcoma Phylloides of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca BARIT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of malignant primary extradural ependymal tumours are exceptionally rare. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who had an excision of a tumour in the subcutaneous sacrococcygeal region, as well as a right ilioinguinal dissection, 67 months prior to presenting with a mass at the same location. The tumor was excised again, preserving the coccyx. The diagnosis of sacrococcygeal anaplastic ependymoma was made. Eighteen months previously, the patient had been diagnosed as having malignant cystosarcoma phylloides in her right breast mass, which was treated with simple mastectomy. The diagnosis of phylloides was confirmed on re-evaluation of the pathological specimens, as well. An ependymoma with a phylloides tumor has not been previously reported in any patient. In this report, the computed tomography, clinical, and pathological features are discussed.

  18. Primary Cutaneous CD 30+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30 + lymphoproliferative disorders, together with lymphomatoid papulosis. Its frequency is less than 0.5 x 100 000 inhabitants per year. It accounts for a very small proportion of non-Hodgkins lymphomas. The case of an 80-year-old female patient whose diagnosis was established in 2006 because of lesions on the face and neck is presented. The lesions continued to grow in an exaggerated fashion lately leading to deformity of her face. She was admitted due to neurological manifestations unrelated to the lesions. The presentation of this case is necessary because it requires performing differential diagnosis in clinical practice. Given its rarity, it is of interest to the medical community, especially trainees.

  19. A Report of a Rare Case of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity

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    Prasad G Kango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case history: Malignant lymphoma is a neoplastic proliferative process of the lymphopoietic portion of the reticuloendothelial system that involves cells of either the lymphocytic or histiocytic series in varying degrees of differentiation and occurs in an essentially homogenous population of a single cell type. The character of histologic involvement is either diffuse (uniform or nodular and the distribution of involvement may be regional or systemic (generalized, the process basically being multicentric. A case of oral cavity lymphoma was detected and after various panel of imunnohistochemical (IHC markers it was diagnosed as Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL of oral cavity. Conclusion: Lymphoma of oral regions are very rare and ALCL is rarest. It is of utmost importance to do the IHC, so that the prognosis of the lesion is known at the earliest. In this case since it was detected at a later stage the outcome was fatal.

  20. Clinical Response with Sunitinib Therapy in the Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

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    Jan Geliebter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, while rare, carries a uniformly poor prognosis. Current treatment includes surgery when possible, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Multiple chemotherapeutic agents are in the process of clinical testing, and promising agents include those in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor family. Our patient represents a novel case of ATC treated with sunitinib, one such tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Methods/Results: We utilized the experimental sunitinib in conjunction with radiation therapy to treat a patient with aggressive ATC in whom curative resection was unable to be achieved due to carotid sheath and tracheal involvement. The patient had marked clinical response and sustained stable disease for 8 months, which coincides with reported data regarding sunitinib to treat other thyroid malignancies. Conclusion: Our case illustrates the efficacy of sunitinib therapy as a possible adjunct in the treatment of ATC.

  1. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop Revannasiddaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT, and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  2. Small cell anaplastic carcinoma of primary lung tumor in a miniature schnauzer dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-year-old male, an intact miniature Schnauzer dog with history of vomiting, abdominal distention, anorexia, and dyspnea was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Thoracic radiographs showed the well marginated solitary mass with soft density in the right caudal lung field, and abdominal radiographs showed signs of ascites, such as abdominal distention and moderate serosal detail loss. On ultrasonograph and computed tomograph, it was observed that the mass compressed the caudal vena cava (CVC) and adhered to the heart. Exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and then it was showed that mass adhered heart, CVC, and diaphragm. The mass was fully rejected although adhered part of CVC could not be completely rejected. On histopathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as small-cell anaplastic carcinoma

  3. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALK-negative clinically mimicking alcoholic hepatitis – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, described less than 30 years ago by Karl Lennert and Herald Stein in Kiel, West Germany, is a T-cell or null non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with distinctive morphology (hallmark cells, prominent sinus and/or perivascular growth pattern, characteristic immunophenotype (CD30+, cytotoxic granules protein+, CD3–/+ and specific genetic features as translocations involving the receptor tyrosine kinase called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK on 2p23 and variable partners genes, which results in the expression of ALK fusion protein. The absence of ALK expression is also observed and is associated with poorer prognosis that seen with ALK expression. ALK-negative ALCL is more frequent in adults, with both nodal and extra nodal clinical presentation and includes several differential diagnoses with other CD30+ lymphomas. Liver involvement by ALCL is rare and is generally seen as mass formation; the diffuse pattern of infiltration is even more unusual. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented clinical symptoms of acute hepatic failure. The patient had a long history of alcohol abuse and the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis was highly considered, although the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH value was highly elevated. The clinical course was fulminant leading to death on the fourth day of hospitalization. Autopsy demonstrated diffuse neoplastic hepatic infiltration as well as splenic, pulmonary, bone marrow, and minor abdominal lymph nodes involvement by the tumor. Based on morphological, immunophenotypical, and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of ALK- negative ALCL was concluded. When there is marked elevation of LDH the possibility of lymphoma, ALCL and other types, should be the principal diagnosis to be considered.

  4. Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze a prospective protocol combining surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methods and materials: Thirty anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients (mean age, 59 years) were treated during 1990-2000. Tumor extended beyond the capsule gland in 26 patients, with tracheal extension in 8. Lymph node metastases were present in 18 patients and lung metastases in 6. Surgery was performed before RT-CT in 20 patients and afterwards in 4. Two cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and cisplatin (120 mg/m2) were delivered before RT and four cycles after RT. RT consisted of two daily fractions of 1.25 Gy, 5 days per week to a total dose of 40 Gy to the cervical lymph node areas and the superior mediastinum. Results: Acute toxicity (World Health Organization criteria) was Grade 3 or 4 pharyngoesophagitis in 10 patients; Grade 4 neutropenia in 21, with infection in 13; and Grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombopenia in 8 and 4, respectively. At the end of the treatment, a complete local response was observed in 19 patients. With a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 12-78 months), 7 patients were alive in complete remission, of whom 6 had initially received a complete tumor resection. Overall survival rate at 3 years was 27% (95% confidence interval 10-44%) and median survival 10 months. In multivariate analysis, tracheal extension and macroscopic complete tumor resection were significaic complete tumor resection were significant factors in overall survival. Death was related to local progression in 5% of patients, to distant metastases in 68%, and to both in 27%. Conclusions: Main toxicity was hematologic. High long-term survival was obtained when RT-CT was given after complete surgery. This protocol avoided local tumor progression, and death was mainly caused by distant metastases

  5. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Diagnostic Signatures for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS), and normal T cells, and demonstrated that ALCLs express many of the miRNAs that are highly expressed in normal T cells with the prominent exception of miR-146a. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering demonstrated distinct clustering of ALCL, PTCL-NOS, and the AITL subtype of PTCL. Cases of ALK(+) ALCL and ALK(-) ALCL were interspersed in unsupervised analysis, suggesting a close relationship at the molecular level. We identified an miRNA signature of 7 miRNAs (5 upregulated: miR-512-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-708, miR-135b; 2 downregulated: miR-146a, miR-155) significantly associated with ALK(+) ALCL cases. In addition, we derived an 11-miRNA signature (4 upregulated: miR-210, miR-197, miR-191, miR-512-3p; 7 downregulated: miR-451, miR-146a, miR-22, miR-455-3p, miR-455-5p, miR-143, miR-494) that differentiates ALK(-) ALCL from other PTCLs. Our in vitro studies identified a set of 32 miRNAs associated with ALK expression. Of these, the miR-17?92 cluster and its paralogues were also highly expressed in ALK(+) ALCL and may represent important downstream effectors of the ALK oncogenic pathway.

  6. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides: Reporte de caso / Anaplastic thyroid cancer: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Pinto-Valdivia; Milagros, Ortiz-Torres; Jaime, Villena-Chávez; César, Chian-García.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mujer de 40 años, sin antecedente de patología tiroidea, con historia de enfermedad de cuatro semanas caracterizado por baja de peso, aumento rápido del tamaño de la glándula tiroides y dolor óseo generalizado. El examen físico mostró bocio multinodular no doloroso con múltiples ganglios cervicales. [...] Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia y niveles elevados de transaminasas, fosfatasa alcalina y deshidrogenasa láctica. El perfil tiroideo fue normal y los anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea fueron negativos. La biopsia por aspiración mostró carcinoma de tiroides. Se realizó una tiroidectomía total con disección amplia de los ganglios del cuello y en el estudio de anatomía patológica resultó un carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides. La evolución de la paciente fue desfavorable, falleciendo por insuficiencia respiratoria, secundaria a embolismo pulmonar. El carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides es poco frecuente, pero tiene una alta mortalidad. Las metástasis a distancia están asociadas a mal pronóstico. Abstract in english A 40-year-old woman presented with a four weeks history of weight loss, rapid thyroid enlargement, and generalized bone pain. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination showed a painless multinodular goiter with multiple cervical lymph nodes. Laboratory tests showed anemia, [...] elevated levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase. Thyroid profile was normal and thyroid autoantibodies were negative. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed a malignant carcinoma of thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and extensive neck dissection for lymph nodes were performed. Pathology examination showed an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The clinical evolution was torpid, and patient died because of respiratory insufficiency, secondary to pulmonary embolism. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon and lethal malignancy. Distant metastases are associated with a low survival rate.

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

  8. Presence of an oligodendroglioma-like component in newly diagnosed glioblastoma identifies a pathogenetically heterogeneous subgroup and lacks prognostic value: central pathology review of the EORTC_26981/NCIC_CE.3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegi, Monika E; Janzer, Robert-Charles; Lambiv, Wanyu L; Gorlia, Thierry; Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Hartmann, Christian; von Deimling, Andreas; Martinet, Danielle; Besuchet Schmutz, Nathalie; Diserens, Annie-Claire; Hamou, Marie-France; Bady, Pierre; Weller, Michael; van den Bent, Martin J; Mason, Warren P; Mirimanoff, René-Olivier; Stupp, Roger; Mokhtari, Karima; Wesseling, Pieter

    2012-06-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a morphologically heterogeneous tumor type with a median survival of only 15 months in clinical trial populations. However, survival varies greatly among patients. As part of a central pathology review, we addressed the question if patients with GBM displaying distinct morphologic features respond differently to combined chemo-radiotherapy with temozolomide. Morphologic features were systematically recorded for 360 cases with particular focus on the presence of an oligodendroglioma-like component and respective correlations with outcome and relevant molecular markers. GBM with an oligodendroglioma-like component (GBM-O) represented 15% of all confirmed GBM (52/339) and was not associated with a more favorable outcome. GBM-O encompassed a pathogenetically heterogeneous group, significantly enriched for IDH1 mutations (19 vs. 3%, p = 0.003) and EGFR amplifications (71 vs. 48%, p = 0.04) compared with other GBM, while co-deletion of 1p/19q was found in only one case and the MGMT methylation frequency was alike (47 vs. 46%). Expression profiles classified most of the GBM-O into two subtypes, 36% (5/14 evaluable) as proneural and 43% as classical GBM. The detection of pseudo-palisading necrosis (PPN) was associated with benefit from chemotherapy (p = 0.0002), while no such effect was present in the absence of PPN (p = 0.86). In the adjusted interaction model including clinical prognostic factors and MGMT status, PPN was borderline nonsignificant (p = 0.063). Taken together, recognition of an oligodendroglioma-like component in an otherwise classic GBM identifies a pathogenetically mixed group without prognostic significance. However, the presence of PPN may indicate biological features of clinical relevance for further improvement of therapy. PMID:22249618

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Diagnosis of Tumor Thrombus from Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma in a Young Boy

    OpenAIRE

    D’souza, Maria M.; Abhinav Jaimini; Rajnish Sharma; Madhavi Tripathi; Dinesh Singh; Santosh Pandey; Anupam Mondal

    2010-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon, highly aggressive malignancy usually presenting in the elderly. An eighteen year old boy was recently diagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid.  PET/CECT scan performed for staging, revealed a large FDG avid heterogeneously enhancing thyroid mass with bilateral jugular venous thrombosis, which also showed increased FDG uptake, thus pointing towards tumor thrombus. To our knowledge, this is the first case wherein the PET/CT diagnosi...

  10. Anaplastic carcinoma associated with a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas during pregnancy: Report of a case and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Hakamada, Takuya Miura

    2008-01-01

    Oncogenesis of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is a subject of controversy, because it shows sarcomatous nature with extremely poor prognosis. We herein report an unusual case of anaplastic carcinoma occurring with a recurrent mucinous cystic neoplasm in a 38-year-old female. A 10-cm retroperitoneal cystic mass was pointed out in the first pregnancy and a probable diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasm was made in October 2000. She refused surgery first and delivered her baby uneventfully...

  11. Identification of novel fusion partners of ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase, in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Jan; Wlodarska, Iwona; Somers, Riet; Mentens, Nicole; Pedeutour, Florence; Maes, Brigitte; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Pauwels, Patrick; Hagemeijer, Anne; Marynen, Peter

    2002-08-01

    ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been recognized as a distinct type of lymphoma in the heterogeneous group of T/Null-ALCL. While most of the ALK-positive ALCL (ALKomas) are characterized by the presence of the NPM-ALK fusion protein, the product of the t(2;5)(p23;q35), 10-20% of ALKomas contain variant ALK fusions, including ATIC-ALK, TFG-ALK, CLTC-ALK (previously designated CLTCL-ALK), TMP3-ALK, and MSN-ALK. TMP3-ALK and TMP4-ALK fusions also have been detected in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), making clear that aberrations of the ALK gene are not associated exclusively with the pathogenesis of ALK-positive ALCL. Here we report results of molecular studies on two lymphoma cases and one IMT case with variant rearrangements of ALK. Our study led to the detection of the CLTC-ALK fusion in an ALCL case and to the identification of two novel fusion partners of ALK: ALO17 (KIAA1618), a gene with unknown function, which was fused to ALK in an ALCL case with a t(2;17)(p23;q25), and CARS, encoding the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, which was fused to ALK in an IMT case with a t(2;11;2)(p23;p15;q31). These results confirm the recurrent involvement of ALK in IMT and further demonstrate the diversity of ALK fusion partners, with the ability to homodimerize as a common characteristic. PMID:12112524

  12. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed. PMID:20497052

  13. PERCEPTUAL RESEMBLANCE OF FACIAL IMAGES: A NEAR SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MUSTAFI

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a near set approach to image analysis. Near sets result from generalization of rough settheory. One set X is near another set Y to the extent that the description of at least one of the objects in X matches thedescription of at least one of the objects in Y. Near set Evaluation And Recognition (NEAR system is used to measure thedegree of resemblance between facial images. The goal of the NEAR system is to extract perceptual information fromimages using near set theory, which provides a framework for measuring the perceptual nearness of objects. In this work,we have used images from Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. The images were first converted intoLocal Binary Patterns (LBP images and then divided into non-overlapping blocks. The degree of nearness of histogramsof all the blocks of one image is measured with the corresponding blocks of another image by using NEAR system

  14. Paraspinal Gossypiboma Resembling an Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Coþkun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with complaints of low back pain, sciatalgia on the  left persisting for five months and fluid leakage from the wound. He had been operated for L4-5 disc herniation before seven months. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI detected a contrasted mass lesion resembling abscess formation localized in the left posterior paravertebral region. Paravertebral abscess was diagnosed and aspiration was planned under local anesthesia with ultrasonography guidance. During intervention, a needle was inserted into cavity but enough material was not aspirated. Thus, surgery was plannedand a retained sponge material was found within the left paraspinal region  and removed totally. The patient healed without complication.

  15. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    OpenAIRE

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depend...

  16. Facial Resemblance to Emotions: Group Differences, Impression Effects, and Race Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2...

  17. Sibling resemblance in habitual physical activity. A study with sibling pairs from northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Vítor P.; Vasques, Catarina; Maia, José A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) lifestyle is known to have significant health benefits. Familial resemblance reflecting gene ti c and environmental factors shared by farnily members could be an important determinant of habitual P A leveIs. However, in the literature the results in familial resemblance are controversial. Purpose: to analyze sibling resemblance in habitual P A.

  18. Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers

    OpenAIRE

    Park Peter J; Johnson Mark D; Dreyfuss Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between ...

  19. Remission of the Lambert-Eaton Syndrome and small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient presented with the Lambert-Eaton syndrome and small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung was subsequently diagnosed. Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in remission of both the cancer and the neuromuscular disorder. This case represents the first documented remission of the Lambert-Eaton syndrome following nonoperative treatment of the primary malignancy and emphasizes the therapeutic value of early diagnosis of this disorder

  20. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951

    OpenAIRE

    Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C.M.; Gorlia, Thierry; Kros, Johan M.; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A.; Bromberg, Jacolien E.C.; Mokhtari, Karima; van Duinen, Sjoerd G.; Teepen, Johannes L.; Wesseling, Pieter; Vandenbos, Fanny; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sipos, László; Mirimanoff, Rene; Vecht, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the clinical outcome of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors is variable, but also that the histological diagnosis is subject to interobserver variation. We investigated whether the assessment of 1p/19q codeletion, polysomy of chromosome 7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification (EGFRamp), and loss of chromosome 10 or 10q offers additional prognostic information to the histological diagnosis and would allow molecular subtyping. For this study, ...

  1. Prognostic significance of NPM-ALK fusion transcript overexpression in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Takino, Hisashi; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Ishida, Takashi; Inagaki, Atsushi; Ueda, Ryuzo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    In anaplastic large-cell lymphomas positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein, the ALK gene is most commonly fused to the NPM gene, and less commonly to TPM3, TFG, ATIC, and other rare genes. Although this lymphoma is generally associated with a favorable clinical outcome, 25% of the patients die of the disease within 5 years. In this study, we developed three assays, all of which can be used with archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues: (1) a sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for various X-ALK fusion genes, (2) a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) assay to identify unknown fusion partners, and (3) a real-time RT-PCR assay to quantify the amount of the NPM-ALK fusion transcript. In 26 cases of ALK(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, the RT-PCR assay showed that the ALK was fused to NPM in 21 cases, to TPM3 in three, and to TFG in one. The 5' RACE assay detected ATIC-ALK fusion in the remaining case. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay showed that the NPM-ALK transcript was over expressed in four of 20 quantifiable cases. Patients with NPM-ALK overexpression showed a significantly unfavorable overall survival compared with those with a low expression of this transcript. The RT-PCR and 5' RACE assays developed here may be useful for identification of known and unknown gene partners fused to the ALK gene. Overexpression of the NPM-ALK fusion transcript may be associated with a poor prognosis of the patients with ALK(+) anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. PMID:17464320

  2. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71

    OpenAIRE

    Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine (131I) therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an upd...

  3. Anaplastic plasmacytomas: relationships to normal memory B cells and plasma cell neoplasms of immunodeficient and autoimmune mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Chen-feng; Shin, Dong-mi; Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Hongsheng; Feng, Jianxum; Hartley, Janet W.; Fredrickson, Torgny N.; Kovalchuk, Alexander L.; Morse, Herbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Anaplastic plasmacytomas (APCTs) from NFS.V+ congenic mice and pristane-induced plasmacytic PCTs from BALB/c mice were previously shown to be histologically and molecularly distinct subsets of plasma cell neoplasms (PCNs). Here we extended these comparisons, contrasting primary APCTs and PCTs by gene expression profiling in relation to the expression profiles of normal naïve, germinal centre, and memory B cells and plasma cells. We also sequenced immunoglobulin genes from APCT and APCT-deriv...

  4. Anaplastic Transformation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Young Man: A Case Study with Immunohistochemical and BRAF Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Hye; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Park, Cheong Soo; Hong, SoonWon

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a case of anaplastic transformation from a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a young patient. The first recurrent tissue contained poorly differentiated foci that revealed lower thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and galectin-3 expression than the well-differentiated area. However there was no increased p53 or Ki-67 expression in the poorly differentiated foci, nor in the well-differentiated area. The tissue subsequently relapsed and revealed only...

  5. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; MCMAHON, MARTIN; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    We generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse and used this strain to model progression of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)-mutant papillary thyroid cancer to anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). These murine tumors recapitulated the temporal progression and molecular hallmarks of human ATC. We demonstrated that combined mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) and BRAF inhibition resulted in enhanced antitumor activity vs. single-agent BRAF inhibitors in this preclinical model. This mo...

  6. Preference for facial self-resemblance and attractiveness in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsor, Ferenc; Rezneki, Rita; Juhász, Szabolcs; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2011-12-01

    Empirical studies present considerably consistent data about human mate choice, from which we may infer that it tends to be homogamous for various traits. However, different experiments on facial resemblance led to contradictory results. To obtain additional data about the preference for self-resembling potential mates, male and female composite faces were modified in a manner to resemble subjects. Volunteers were asked to choose a potential partner from three images in different situations: self-resembling faces, non-resembling faces (both with the same degree of other-rated attractiveness), and images which were rated by others as more attractive than the self-resembling faces. Women did not show any preference for similarity; they preferred the most attractive male and female faces. In contrast, men preferred the most attractive images of the opposite sex to self-resembling faces and the self-resembling to non-resembling faces. The self-resemblance of same-sex faces was preferred by neither men nor women. Our results support the hypothesis that both facial similarity (i.e., cues of shared genes) and observer-independent features of attractiveness (i.e., honest signals of genetic quality) play an important role in males' mate choice. The lack of choice for self-resemblance on the female side in this particular study might reflect their more complex decision-making rules that are probably based on other cues beside visual stimuli. PMID:21267643

  7. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

  8. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL. Results The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7 and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+ and ALK negative (ALK- was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (?18 were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51% or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%. Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14?years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results show that ALK expression alone is not sufficient to determine the outcome of ALCL and other prognostic factors must be considered. Clinical stage is an independent prognostic factor. Ki-67 expression is a promising prognostic factor.

  9. Laboratory evolution of one disulfide isomerase to resemble another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiniker, Annie; Ren, Guoping; Heras, Begoña; Zheng, Ying; Laurinec, Stephanie; Jobson, Richard W.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Bardwell, James C. A.

    2007-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine which of the sequence and structural differences between divergent members of multigene families are functionally important. Here we use a laboratory evolution approach to determine functionally important structural differences between two distantly related disulfide isomerases, DsbC and DsbG from Escherichia coli. Surprisingly, we found single amino acid substitutions in DsbG that were able to complement dsbC in vivo and have more DsbC-like isomerase activity in vitro. Crystal structures of the three strongest point mutants, DsbG K113E, DsbG V216M, and DsbG T200M, reveal changes in highly surface-exposed regions that cause DsbG to more closely resemble the distantly related DsbC. In this case, laboratory evolution appears to have taken a direct route to allow one protein family member to complement another, with single substitutions apparently bypassing much of the need for multiple changes that took place over ?0.5 billion years of evolution. Our findings suggest that, for these two proteins at least, regions important in determining functional differences may represent only a tiny fraction of the overall protein structure. PMID:17609373

  10. Resemblance between rhodopsin kinase and S-antigen induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenblatt, R B; Shichi, H; Kuwabara, T; Cevario, S; Gery, I

    1981-01-01

    The retinal S-antigen (S-Ag) has been shown to induce uveitis effectively in subhuman primates, and lymphocytes from patients with certain uveitic conditions show cell-mediated responses to this antigen. Rhodopsin kinase (RK), an enzyme probably unique to the mammalian eye, is reported here to resemble the retinal S-Ag in its capacity to induce uveitis in experimental animals. A histological comparison of rat eyes taken 2 and 3 weeks after immunisation with either RK or S-Ag reveals essentially identical pathological alterations. Ocular inflammation is seen in both the anterior and posterior portion of the globe. Areas of focal degeneration of the photo-receptor layer, from which both the S-Ag and RK are extracted, could be seen in both RK and S-Ag immunised animals. Cells from draining lymph nodes of both groups responded by increased thymidine incorporation when cultured in the presence of either RK or S-Ag. In addition antibodies directed against the S-Ag were detected in both groups. These findings, in addition to the biochemical similarities of these preparations, reported elsewhere, would strongly suggest that RK and S-Ag are one and the same. The identification of potentially uveitogenic ocular antigens could help to reclassify uveitic entities that at present have clinically similar courses. Images PMID:6976794

  11. On the resemblance of synapse formation and CNS myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R G; Lyons, D A

    2014-09-12

    The myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for nervous system formation, function and health. CNS myelination continues well into adulthood, but not all axons become myelinated. Unlike the peripheral nervous system, where we know of numerous axon-glial signals required for myelination, we have a poor understanding of the nature or identity of such molecules that regulate which axons are myelinated in the CNS. Recent studies have started to elucidate cell behavior during myelination in vivo and indicate that the choice of which axons are myelinated is made prior to myelin sheath generation. Here we propose that interactions between axons and the exploratory processes of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) lead to myelination and may be similar to those between dendrites and axons that prefigure and lead to synapse formation. Indeed axons and OPCs form synapses with striking resemblance to those of neurons, suggesting a similar mode of formation. We discuss families of molecules with specific functions at different stages of synapse formation and address studies that implicate the same factors during axon-OPC synapse formation and myelination. We also address the possibility that the function of such synapses might directly regulate the myelinating behavior of oligodendrocyte processes in vivo. In the future it may be of benefit to consider these similarities when taking a candidate-based approach to dissect mechanisms of CNS myelination. PMID:24035825

  12. Random walks on semantic networks can resemble optimal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Austerweil, Joseph L; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-07-01

    When people are asked to retrieve members of a category from memory, clusters of semantically related items tend to be retrieved together. A recent article by Hills, Jones, and Todd (2012) argued that this pattern reflects a process similar to optimal strategies for foraging for food in patchy spatial environments, with an individual making a strategic decision to switch away from a cluster of related information as it becomes depleted. We demonstrate that similar behavioral phenomena also emerge from a random walk on a semantic network derived from human word-association data. Random walks provide an alternative account of how people search their memories, postulating an undirected rather than a strategic search process. We show that results resembling optimal foraging are produced by random walks when related items are close together in the semantic network. These findings are reminiscent of arguments from the debate on mental imagery, showing how different processes can produce similar results when operating on different representations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25642588

  13. Current Status of Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues is 3%-5%. The first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. A randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients demonstrated durable responses and well tolerance in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802, and AP26113, and new agents shock protein 90 inhibitors. This review aims to present the current knowledge on this fusion gene, the treatment advances, and novel drug clinical trials in ALK rearranged NSCLC.

  14. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  15. A rare case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a young woman with prolonged survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taušanovi? Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive tumors in human medicine. Despite the multimodal therapy, the average survival of patients is just several months. Fortunately, it is an extremely rare tumor. Most frequently, ATC occurs in the elderly, with the average age of the patients being almost 70 years. It is extremely rare that ATC occurs in people under the age of 40. We report a case of a 33 year old woman with ATC, with the diameter of the tumor being 8x7cm, confirmed by histopathology and imunohistochemistry. In January 2001, a total thyroidectomy was performed, and the tumor was completely resected. Postoperatively, the patient received radiation therapy. Ten years after the surgery, on regular check-ups, the patient is still living and there is no evidence of a recurrent tumor or metastases. This case is instructive for two reasons, as it shows that ATC can occur in younger people and that there is a possibility of long term survival.

  16. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A comprehensive review of current and future therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Carlo Buonerba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the rarest, but deadliest histologic type among thyroid malignancies, with a dismal median survival of 3-9 mo. Even though ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid tumors, it is responsible for 14%-39% of thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. ATC clinically presents as a rapidly growing mass in the neck, associated with dyspnoea, dysphagia and vocal cord paralysis. It is usually locally advanced and often metastatic at initial presentation. For operable diseases, the combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs for advanced/metastatic ATC are poorly effective. On the other hand, targeted agents might represent a viable therapeutic option. Axitinib, combretastatin A4, sorafenib and imatinib have been tested in small clinical trials of ATC, with a promising disease control rate ranging from 33% to 75%. Other clinical trials of targeted therapy for thyroid carcinoma are currently ongoing. Biological agents that are under investigation include pazopanib, gefitinib and everolimus. With the very limited therapeutic armamentarium available at the present time, targeted therapy constitutes an exciting new horizon for ATC. In future, biological agents will probably represent the standard of care for this aggressive malignancy, in the same fashion as it has recently occurred for other chemo-refractory tumors, such as kidney and hepatic cancer.

  17. Testing for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement to target crizotinib therapy: oncology, pathology and health economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James A; Bubendorf, Lukas; Stahel, Rolf; Peters, Solange

    2013-05-01

    Crizotinib is a first-in-class oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor targeting ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer. The therapy was approved by the US FDA in August 2011 and received conditional marketing approval by the European Commission in October 2012 for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A break-apart FISH-based assay was jointly approved with crizotinib by the FDA. This assay and an immunohistochemistry assay that uses a D5F3 rabbit monoclonal primary antibody were also approved for marketing in Europe in October 2012. While ALK rearrangement has relatively low prevalence, a clinical benefit is exhibited in more than 85% of patients with median progression-free survival of 8-10 months. In this article, the authors summarize the therapy and alternative test strategies for identifying patients who are likely to respond to therapy, including key issues for effective and efficient testing. The key economic considerations regarding the joint companion diagnostic and therapy are also presented. Given the observed clinical benefit and relatively high cost of crizotinib therapy, companion diagnostics should be evaluated relative to response to therapy versus correlation alone whenever possible, and both high inter-rater reliability and external quality assessment programs are warranted. PMID:23617353

  18. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Li, Yanxia; Nand, Sucha; Quek, Marcus L; Kini, Ameet R; Barkan, Güliz A

    2015-01-01

    T cell-derived malignant lymphoma is rarely detected as a bladder neoplasm. A literature review for anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) involving urinary bladder reveals only seven previously reported cases. Here, we report a case of a 59-year-old HIV-negative man with ALK-positive ALCL. He presented an unusual clinical course with initial consideration of adult onset Still's Disease (AOSD) due to his negative results searching for malignancy and infectious diseases. He rapidly developed macrophage activation (hemophagocytic) syndrome and experienced an unusual rapid disease progression and died in 39 days after onset of symptoms. Compared to previously reported cases, the current case of ALK-1-positive ALCL is a rare case with an unusual presentation. From this case, we learned that ALCL is one malignancy that should be considered and screened in patients with suspected AOSD. Also, T-cell lymphoma associated hemophagocytic syndrome should be considered in a patient with sustained corticosteroid-resistant spike fever, high serum ferritin, and rapid exacerbation of the disease course. PMID:24623571

  19. Clinical challenges in targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvergia, Namrata; Mehra, Ranee

    2014-09-01

    The revolution in individualized therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has seen the emergence of a number of molecularly targeted therapies for distinct patient molecular subgroups. Activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-gene rearrangement has been detected in 3-7 % of NSCLC cases, and the ALK inhibitor crizotinib is now an approved treatment for patients with tumors harboring this event. However, resistance to ALK-targeted therapies is a ubiquitous problem in the management of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC and can be mediated by secondary kinase mutations or the activation of compensatory alternative oncogenic drivers. New, more potent ALK inhibitors such as ceritinib (LDK378), alectinib (CH5424802), and AP26113 are now emerging, together with an increased knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance. There is a need to evaluate the optimal clinical application of these new agents, either as sequential therapies or in combination with other targeted agents, to combat resistance and prolong survival in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. The remarkable clinical activity of ALK inhibitors also emphasizes the importance of optimal diagnostic testing algorithms, to ensure that all eligible patients receive these breakthrough therapies. PMID:25135623

  20. Alectinib: a novel second generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitor for overcoming clinically-acquired resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilan Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of inhibitors for the tyrosine anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has advanced rapidly, driven by biology and medicinal chemistry. The first generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib was granted US FDA approval with only four years of preclinical and clinical testing. Although this drug offers significant clinical benefit to the ALK-positive patients, resistance has been developed through a variety of mechanisms. In addition to ceritinib, alectinib is another second-generation ALK inhibitor launched in 2014 in Japan. This drug has a unique chemical structure bearing a 5H-benzo[b]carbazol-11(6H-one structural scaffold with an IC50 value of 1.9 nmol/L, and is highly potent against ALK bearing the gatekeeper mutation L1196M with an IC50 of 1.56 nmol/L. In the clinic, alectinib is highly efficacious in treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and retains potency to combat crizotinib-resistant ALK mutations L1196M, F1174L, R1275Q and C1156Y.

  1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A comprehensive review of current and future therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Lorenzo, Giuseppe Di; Scarpati, Giuseppina Della Vittoria; Buonerba, Carlo

    2011-03-10

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the rarest, but deadliest histologic type among thyroid malignancies, with a dismal median survival of 3-9 mo. Even though ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid tumors, it is responsible for 14%-39% of thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. ATC clinically presents as a rapidly growing mass in the neck, associated with dyspnoea, dysphagia and vocal cord paralysis. It is usually locally advanced and often metastatic at initial presentation. For operable diseases, the combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs for advanced/metastatic ATC are poorly effective. On the other hand, targeted agents might represent a viable therapeutic option. Axitinib, combretastatin A4, sorafenib and imatinib have been tested in small clinical trials of ATC, with a promising disease control rate ranging from 33% to 75%. Other clinical trials of targeted therapy for thyroid carcinoma are currently ongoing. Biological agents that are under investigation include pazopanib, gefitinib and everolimus. With the very limited therapeutic armamentarium available at the present time, targeted therapy constitutes an exciting new horizon for ATC. In future, biological agents will probably represent the standard of care for this aggressive malignancy, in the same fashion as it has recently occurred for other chemo-refractory tumors, such as kidney and hepatic cancer. PMID:21611089

  2. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK and p53 Are Potentially Useful Markers to Distinguish Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Iwamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT of the urinary bladder is a clinically and histologically uncommon benign tumor that can be easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. We sought to determine whether immunohistochemical staining would be evaluated IMT of the urinary bladder. We have also shown the literatures that imminohistochemical staining of IMT was investigated to distinguish malignant lesions using PubMed data base. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, p53, cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, myoglobin, smooth muscle myosin and S100, was carried out on serial sections from archival specimens of three patients who underwent transurethral resection and partial cystectomy. Results: Immunohistchemical staining in all patients was positive for ALK and weak positive for p53 protein. In the literatures, positive rates of ALK and p53 inthe IMT of the urinary bladder were 60.9% and 53.1%, respectively. Sarcoma and carcinosarcoma were shown in the pathological specimens with negative ALK and strongly positive p53 inthe same data base. Conclusions: Both ALK and p53 were potentially useful protein markers to distinguish between IMT and sarcoma. However, this study was small sample size. Further study was warranted an investigation of the availability of these proteins in IMT.

  3. Standard immunohistochemistry efficiently screens for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gahee; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Lee, Hae-Ock; Lim, Jung Ah; Won, Jae-Kyung; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Do Joon; Park, Young Joo; Park, Woong-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is frequently rearranged in various types of cancer and is highly responsive to targeted therapeutics. We developed a system to detect rearrangement of ALK in a large group of Korean thyroid cancer patients. We screened 474 malignant or benign thyroid tumor cases to identify ALK fusions. Expression and translocation of the ALK gene were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and digital multiplexed gene expression (DMGE) analysis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Four cases of rearrangement of ALK were detected by IHC, and these cases were validated with FISH on 189 samples. On the other hand, DMGE analysis using Nanostring detected three out of four IHC-positive cases. Two rearrangements of ALK were striatin (STRN)-ALK fusions, which were identified by 5' RACE analysis. Rearrangements of ALK were found exclusively in v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) WT papillary carcinomas. Given the wide availability and accuracy of IHC for detecting ectopic expression of ALK in the thyroid, we suggest that IHC-based screening can be a practical method for identifying patients with ALK rearrangements in differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25527510

  4. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade II and grade III gliomas samples, collected in Sweden and Denmark. The statistically significant genetic variants from the first dataset (P <0.05) were taken forward for confirmation in a second dataset of 72 grade II and III gliomas from northern UK. In this dataset, eight gene variants mapping to five different DNA repair genes (ATM, NEIL1, NEIL2, ERCC6 and RPA4) which were associated with survival. Finally, these eight genetic variants were adjusted for treatment, malignancy grade, patient age and gender, leaving one variant, rs4253079, mapped to ERCC6, with a significant association to survival (OR 0.184, 95% CI 0.054-0.63, P = 0.007). We suggest a possible novel association between rs4253079 and survival in this group of patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas that needs confirmation in larger datasets.

  5. 18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  6. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001–2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage hyperabundant and habituated urban wildlife.

  7. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  8. The Male Advantage in Child Facial Resemblance Detection: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Sun, Shiyue; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Males have been suggested to have advantages over females in reactions to child facial resemblance, which reflects the evolutionary pressure on males to solve the adaptive paternal uncertainty problem and to identify biological offspring. However, previous studies showed inconsistent results and the male advantage in child facial resemblance perception, as a kin detection mechanism, is still unclear. Here we investigated the behavioral and brain mechanisms underlying the self-resembling faces...

  9. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depended on both the sex of the judge and the sex of the face being judged: facial resemblance increased attractiveness judgements of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces, despite the use of identical procedures to manipulate resemblance. A control experiment indicated these effects were caused neither by lower resemblance of other-sex faces than same-sex faces, nor by an increased perception of averageness or familiarity of same-sex faces due to prototyping or mere exposure affecting only same-sex faces. The differential impact of self-resemblance on our perception of same-sex and other-sex faces supports the hypothesis that humans use facial resemblance as a cue of kinship. PMID:15451700

  10. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - case report / Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células anaplásicas - relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Silveira Rabello de, Oliveira; Madeleyne Palhano, Nobrega; Maira Gomes, Monteiro; Wagner Leite de, Almeida.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T anaplásicas faz parte do espectro de processos linfoproliferativos cutâneos CD30+ e caracteriza-se por nódulos únicos ou multifocais, ulcerados, autorregressivos e recidivantes. Pode haver disseminação extracutânea, principalmente para linfonodos regiona [...] is. O histológico mostra infiltrado difuso, não-epidermotrópico, grandes células linfóides anaplásicas de imunohistoquímica CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- e TIA1-/+. O prognóstico é bom e independe da invasão ganglionar. Radioterapia, retirada da lesão e/ou metotrexato em baixas doses são os tratamentos de escolha. Este estudo relata o caso de uma mulher, 57 anos, com Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T com lesões multifocais e que, após 7 anos, evoluiu com acometimento pulmonar. Apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com metotrexato em baixas doses semanais. Abstract in english Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histol [...] ogy shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly.

  11. Single agent nanoparticle for radiotherapy and radio-photothermal therapy in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Wen, Xiaoxia; Erwin, Bill; Mawlawi, Osama; Lai, Stephen Y; Li, Chun

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [(64)Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of (64)Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC. PMID:25913249

  12. Cytomorphology of non-small cell lung carcinoma with anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Adam D; Maleki, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase demonstrating activating mutations in several malignancies including a subset (1-5%) of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Prior work examining, the histologic features of these tumors found a spectrum of findings, notably a solid/acinar pattern, as well as a mucinous cribriform pattern. We present the first study to date describing the cytomorphology of NSCLC harboring ALK rearrangements. A retrospective database search was conducted to identify cytologic specimens of NSCLC demonstrating ALK rearrangement. Cytogenetic analysis was performed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. A total of 12 patients were identified, 10 with available material. Cellular morphology and smear background was evaluated in the study group, as well as control cases lacking ALK rearrangement. A total of 25 specimens from 10 patients were obtained. Five patients never smoked, and four patients had a remote smoking history. ALK rearrangements were identified in cells with unique cytologic characteristics. All cases demonstrated moderate to poor differentiation with a predominance of single cells showing anisonucleosis and frequent intracytoplasmic neutrophils. The control cases showed cells with smaller, less pleomorphic nuclei, and smaller nucleoli with more clusters/tissue fragments. Several unique cytomorphologic features were consistently identified in the study population relative to the control population and include a prominence of single, markedly enlarged tumor cells with plasmacytoid features and anisonucleosis, as well as intracytoplasmic neutrophils. Larger studies are warranted to confirm our preliminary findings, as these features may help establish a more cost-effective means to select patients being tested for ALK mutational analysis. PMID:24723496

  13. Characterization of the mutational landscape of anaplastic thyroid cancer via whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, John W; Juhlin, C Christofer; Goh, Gerald; Brown, Taylor C; Stenman, Adam; Healy, James M; Rubinstein, Jill C; Choi, Murim; Kiss, Nimrod; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Mane, Shrikant; Rimm, David L; Prasad, Manju L; Höög, Anders; Zedenius, Jan; Larsson, Catharina; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P; Carling, Tobias

    2015-04-15

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a frequently lethal malignancy that is often unresponsive to available therapeutic strategies. The tumorigenesis of ATC and its relationship to the widely prevalent well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are unclear. We have analyzed 22 cases of ATC as well as 4 established ATC cell lines using whole-exome sequencing. A total of 2674 somatic mutations (121/sample) were detected. Ontology analysis revealed that the majority of variants aggregated in the MAPK, ErbB and RAS signaling pathways. Mutations in genes related to malignancy not previously associated with thyroid tumorigenesis were observed, including mTOR, NF1, NF2, MLH1, MLH3, MSH5, MSH6, ERBB2, EIF1AX and USH2A; some of which were recurrent and were investigated in 24 additional ATC cases and 8 ATC cell lines. Somatic mutations in established thyroid cancer genes were detected in 14 of 22 (64%) tumors and included recurrent mutations in BRAF, TP53 and RAS-family genes (6 cases each), as well as PIK3CA (2 cases) and single cases of CDKN1B, CDKN2C, CTNNB1 and RET mutations. BRAF V600E and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive; all ATC cell lines exhibited a combination of mutations in either BRAF and TP53 or NRAS and TP53. A hypermutator phenotype in two cases with >8 times higher mutational burden than the remaining mean was identified; both cases harbored unique somatic mutations in MLH mismatch-repair genes. This first comprehensive exome-wide analysis of the mutational landscape of ATC identifies novel genes potentially associated with ATC tumorigenesis, some of which may be targets for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:25576899

  14. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD30+ Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (CALCL) is a relatively rare and indolent variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). This report examines the response of localized disease to radiation alone. Methods: The Yale Cancer Center records were examined, and all patients with CTCL from January 1, 2001, to September 1, 2006, evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology were identified. Only those patients with localized or single CALCL lesions, no clinical evidence or history of lymphomatoid papulosis, no history of other CTCLs, no history of other skin disorders, lack of lymph node involvement, unambiguous pathology reports, and treatment with radiation alone were included. Results: Eight patients were identified. Median age was 67 years, and gender was split evenly. Patients received radiation ranging from 34 to 44 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Most patients (5 of 8) received 40 Gy, using 6 to 9 MeV electrons with 0.5 to 2 cm of bolus. All patients had a complete response. All patients were without evidence of disease at the most recent follow-up (median follow-up, 12 months). Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and the only recorded toxicity was Grade I to II dermatitis. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone for localized CALCL is very well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. A dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions seems to be well tolerated and effective in inducing a complete response. Lower doses may be effective in achieving the sadoses may be effective in achieving the same result, but data are not available. Longer follow-up is necessary before conclusions regarding durable disease-free survival can be made

  15. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement in lung cancer: its biological and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Seto, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been found to fuse with other partners, such as echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4), leading to potent malignant transformation in lung cancer, specifically non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The frequency of the ALK rearrangement in patients with NSCLC is reported to be 4-7%, and the rearrangement is frequently observed in relatively younger patients, non- or light smokers and those with adenocarcinoma histology without other genetic disorders, such as mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Crizotinib, which is a first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), was shown to be effective and well tolerated in ALK-positive NSCLC patients by a single-arm phase I study. Furthermore, a phase III randomized study demonstrated the superiority of crizotinib to standard chemotherapy (pemetrexed or docetaxel) in the treatment of NSCLC patients harboring the ALK rearrangement who had received one prior platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the mechanisms of resistance to crizotinib are major concerns when administering crizotinib to ALK-positive NSCLC patients, and they include second mutations and a gain in the copy number of the ALK gene, activation of other oncogenes, etc. Treatment strategies to overcome these mechanisms of resistance have been developed, including the use of second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib and ceritinib, heat shock protein 90 inhibitors and so on. In this article, we review the pre-clinical and clinical data regarding the biologal and clinical significance of the ALK rearrangement in lung cancer. PMID:25453376

  16. An integrative analysis of treatment, outcomes and prognostic factors for primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiqin; Sui, Mingxing; Ye, Jingliang; Wan, Zhiping; Chen, Feng; Luo, Chun

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of treatment modalities in primary spinal anaplastic ependymomas (PSAE) and identify promising prognostic factors. PSAE are rare tumors of the central nervous system with poorly understood clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. We reviewed the literature in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to identify patients with PSAE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed on the PSAE patients and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Of the 40 patients with PSAE, the tumors were mostly intramedullary (n=19; 47.5%) and frequently involved the thoracic cord (n=25; 62.5%). Eighteen patients suffered recurrence during the follow-up with a median PFS of 24 months. The 1, 2, and 5year OS rates of the PSAE patients were 91.5%, 82.1%, and 63.1%, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) was independently associated with prolonged PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.11; p=0.004) and OS (HR 0.11; p=0.003) in the multivariate analysis. Adjuvant radiotherapy also conferred improved PFS (HR 0.15; p=0.008) and OS (HR 0.16; p=0.022). Age, sex, tumor location and chemotherapy did not influence the outcomes in this group. The results of our study suggest that GTR and adjuvant radiotherapy are strong prognostic indicators in patients with PSAE and the role of chemotherapy is yet to be defined. PMID:25769252

  17. Salvage therapy with lomustine for temozolomide refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2015-04-01

    There is no standard therapy for recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Assess response and toxicity of lomustine (CCNU) in recurrent AA following prior surgery, radiotherapy and TMZ in a retrospective case series. Thirty-five adults (18 males; 17 females: median age 42.5 years) with TMZ refractory recurrent AA were treated with lomustine. Seven patients were treated at 1st recurrence and 28 patients were treated at 2nd recurrence. Prior salvage therapy included re-resection in 19, TMZ in 20 and radiotherapy in 7. A cycle of lomustine was defined as 110 mg/m(2) on day 1 only administered once every 6-8 weeks. Success of treatment was defined as progression free survival at 6 months of 40 % or better. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included anemia (14 patients), constipation (1), fatigue (4), lymphopenia (5), nausea/vomiting (2), neutropenia (8) and thrombocytopenia (10). No grade five toxicities were seen. The median number of cycles of therapy was 3 (range 1-6). Best radiographic response was progressive disease in 14 (40 %), stable disease in 19 (54 %) and partial response in 2 (5.7 %). Median progression free survival (PFS) was 4.5 months (range 1.5-12 months), 6-month PFS was 40 % and 12 month PFS was 11.4 %. Median survival after onset of CCNU was 9.5 months (range 2.5-15 months). Median overall survival was 2.7 years (range 1.7-4.3). In this small retrospective series of patients with recurrent AA refractory to TMZ, lomustine appears to have modest single agent with manageable toxicity. Confirmation in a larger series of similar patients is required. PMID:25563816

  18. The Emphasis of Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Anaplastic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ç???r Biray AVCI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to the determine the profiles of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes which cause brain tumor, establishing the association between the prognosis of cancer and the quantitation of genetic and epigenetic changes, and bringing a molecular approach to definite diagnosis. For this purpose, explant cell cultures are performed from the anaplastic brain tumor tissues of the cases. The expression analysis of the tumor suppressor genes (p53, RB1, PTEN, MGMT, RUNX3, DMBT1, PIKE and oncogenes (EGFR, PIK3CA, MDM2, Olig2, GSTT1, COX–2 and hTERT were determined by comparing the expression of GAPDH housekeeping gene using real-time online RT-PCR. The promoter regions of all the tumor suppressor genes' hypermethylation and also methylated and unmethylated copy numbers were determined with Q-PCR by using methylation specific primer and probes and the quantitation was carried out by comparing with each other. A significant difference was determined among the oncogenes; EGFR and hTERT gene expressions in patient tumor group. hTERT gene expression showed a significant difference with tumor grades. DMBT1 gene expression showed a significant difference with tumor grades. A prominent decrease was found in the aberration of tumor suppressor gene copy number in the glioma group. Gene copy number and gene expression of GSTT1 gene showed a significant correlation. RB1 and MGMT promoter methylation showed a significant difference in tumor patient group. Over expression of PIK3CA, EGFR and COX-2 among oncogenes and loss of copy number of PTEN, RB1 and RUNX3 among tumor suppressor genes found associated with short survival.

  19. A case of anaplastic astrocytoma arising 8 years after initial treatment by partial resection and irradiation for central neurocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Shinzitsu; Nishino, Akiko; Arai, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi [Sendai National Hospital (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    A 31-year-old female developed the anaplastic astrocytoma in the right basal ganglia and temporal lobe 8 years after partial resection and irradiation of the central neurocytoma. Probably the malignant astrocytoma was an irradiation-induced tumor. Postoperative radiation therapy for the central neurocytoma appears to have a good effect on tumor local control. But it should be carefully decided whether to use radiation therapy for residual tumor because of the risk of delayed complications of irradiation, such as the present case. (author)

  20. Ovarian mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy with a mural nodule of anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Matsuzawa, Akiyo; Shoda, Takashi; Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Kyushima, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cystic tumors with a mural nodule are a rare entity. We report a case of a mural nodule of anaplastic spindle cell carcinoma in an ovarian mucinous cystic tumor of borderline malignancy. The patient was a 45-years-old Japanese woman who presented with an ovarian cyst. She suffered from mature cystic teratoma of both ovaries 9 years before the present history. Image analysis and laboratory data showing a high serum CA19-9 level suggested ovarian malignancy. She underwent bilateral sal...

  1. A case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma: when you hear hoof beats, sometimes consider zebras, not horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohatee, Mark Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A 22-year-old man presented with fever, lymphadenopathy and abdominal pain. With a travel history and considering the young age of the patient, an infective aetiology was thought most likely. Investigations yielded no evidence of infection. Given the increasing severity of the symptoms a neoplastic cause was subsequently considered. Following abdominal ultrasound and CT a lymph node and bone marrow biopsy were performed. These investigations revealed the diagnosis to be anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient consequently underwent a course of chemotherapy followed by a course of high-dose chemotherapy with an autologous bone marrow transplant. PMID:21918660

  2. 18F-DOPA-PET in Planning Surgery in Patients With Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-17

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Medulloepithelioma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  3. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII like 4 (TCEAL4 in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Shizuyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII-like 4 (TCEAL4, encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required.

  4. A novel patient-derived tumorgraft model with TRAF1-ALK anaplastic large-cell lymphoma translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, F; Todaro, M; van der Krogt, J-A; Boi, M; Landra, I; Machiorlatti, R; Tabbò, F; Messana, K; Abele, C; Barreca, A; Novero, D; Gaudiano, M; Aliberti, S; Di Giacomo, F; Tousseyn, T; Lasorsa, E; Crescenzo, R; Bessone, L; Ficarra, E; Acquaviva, A; Rinaldi, A; Ponzoni, M; Longo, D L; Aime, S; Cheng, M; Ruggeri, B; Piccaluga, P P; Pileri, S; Tiacci, E; Falini, B; Pera-Gresely, B; Cerchietti, L; Iqbal, J; Chan, W C; Shultz, L D; Kwee, I; Piva, R; Wlodarska, I; Rabadan, R; Bertoni, F; Inghirami, G

    2015-06-01

    Although anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL) carrying anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human patient-derived tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and nuclear factor kB (NFkB) pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells, lacking PRDM1/Blimp1 and carrying c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to the downregulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover, a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Although a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, nevertheless the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable tools to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and implement patient specific therapies. PMID:25533804

  5. Assessment of t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation and variants in pediatric ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiayuan; Meech, Sandra J; Odom, Lorrie F; Bitter, Mitchell A; Ryder, John W; Hunger, Stephen P; Lovell, Mark A; Meltesen, Lynn; Wei, Qi; Williams, Sara A; Hutchinson, Rebecca N; McGavran, Loris

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate t(2;5) and its variants, we studied 21 pediatric cases of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by using immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed 7 (33%) cases with t(2;5), 6 (29%) with variant gene rearrangements, 7 (33%) with uncharacterized rearrangements, and 1 with ALK protein expression but no ALK rearrangement. Among 6 variant gene rearrangements, 1 had TPM4-ALK/t(2;19)(p23;p13) and 2 had inv(2) with the breakpoint proximate to ATIC-ALK and an unknown partner gene separately. The genetic features of the remaining 3 cases were as follows: ins(8;2) with an unknown partner gene; conversion from ALK- at diagnosis to ALK+ at recurrence with unspecified gene rearrangement; complex karyotype without involvement of 2p23, suggesting a cryptic translocation. Concordance between different laboratory results varied from 47% to 81%. These data suggest that ALK variants are not uncommon and underscore the necessity of integrating immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic approaches to detect, characterize, and confirm t(2;5) and its variant translocations. PMID:15080301

  6. Pediatric case of primary cutaneous eosinophil-rich CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with follicular mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2014-03-01

    We report a pediatric case of primary cutaneous CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma showing a combination of rare histopathologic features. The patient was a 14-year-old boy who had a solitary 2 × 1-cm ulcerated nodule with purulent discharge and undermined borders located in the right preauricular area that had been present for 3 weeks. Histopathologically, there was a dense, nonepidermotropic multinodular to diffuse infiltrate involving the reticular dermis and, focally, the subcutis. The infiltrate was composed of numerous eosinophils, neutrophils, small well-differentiated lymphocytes, and large pleomorphic and anaplastic cells. Eosinophils dominated the infiltrate. Focally, the infiltrate was accentuated around hair follicles, many of which manifested features of follicular mucinosis and/or collections of neutrophils in the follicular epithelium. Occasional hair follicles were partly destroyed by the infiltrate. A conspicuous feature was a prominent myxoid change in the stroma surrounding the hair follicles and eccrine glands. Immunohistochemically, the large lymphoid cells expressed CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD30. PMID:23823024

  7. The nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase oncogene interacts, activates, and uses the kinase PIKfyve to increase invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Coronas, Sophie; Lagarrigue, Frédéric; Ramel, Damien; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Saland, Estelle; Gaits-Iacovoni, Frédérique; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2011-09-16

    NPM-ALK is a chimeric tyrosine kinase detected in most anaplastic large cell lymphomas that results from the reciprocal translocation t(2,5)(p23;q35) that fuses the N-terminal domain of nucleophosmin (NPM) to the catalytic domain of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor. The constitutive activity of the kinase is responsible for its oncogenicity through the stimulation of several downstream signaling pathways, leading to cell proliferation, migration, and survival. We demonstrated previously that the high level of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate measured in NPM-ALK-expressing cells is controlled by the phosphoinositide kinase PIKfyve, a lipid kinase known for its role in vesicular trafficking. Here, we show that PIKfyve associates with NPM-ALK and that the interaction involves the 181-300 region of the oncogene. Moreover, we demonstrate that the tyrosine kinase activity of the oncogene controls PIKfyve lipid kinase activity but is dispensable for the formation of the complex. Silencing or inhibition of PIKfyve using siRNA or the PIKfyve inhibitor YM201636 have no effect on NPM-ALK-mediated proliferation and migration but strongly reduce invasive capacities of NPM-ALK-expressing cells and their capacity to degrade the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, immunofluorescence studies confirm a perturbation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 localization at the cell surface and defect in maturation. Altogether, these results suggest a role for PIKfyve in NPM-ALK-mediated invasion. PMID:21737449

  8. Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Peter J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between these tumor types, comparative studies so far have resulted in gene lists that show little overlap. Results To achieve a more accurate and stable list of the differentially expressed genes and pathways between primary GBM and AA, we performed a meta-analysis using publicly available genome-scale mRNA data sets. There were four data sets with sufficiently large sample sizes of both GBMs and AAs, all of which coincidentally used human U133 platforms from Affymetrix, allowing for easier and more precise integration of data. After scoring genes and pathways within each data set, we combined the statistics across studies using the nonparametric rank sum method to identify the features that differentiate GBMs and AAs. We found >900 statistically significant probe sets after correction for multiple testing from the >22,000 tested. We also used the rank sum approach to select >20 significant Biocarta pathways after correction for multiple testing out of >175 pathways examined. The most significant pathway was the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway. Our analysis suggests that many of the most statistically significant genes work together in a HIF1A/VEGF-regulated network to increase angiogenesis and invasion in GBM when compared to AA. Conclusion We have performed a meta-analysis of genome-scale mRNA expression data for 289 human malignant gliomas and have identified a list of >900 probe sets and >20 pathways that are significantly different between GBM and AA. These feature lists could be utilized to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and grade reduction of high-grade gliomas and to identify genes that were not previously suspected of playing an important role in glioma biology. More generally, this approach suggests that combined analysis of existing data sets can reveal new insights and that the large amount of publicly available cancer data sets should be further utilized in a similar manner.

  9. Differential pattern of integrin receptor expression in differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S; Maschuw, K; Hassan, I; Reckzeh, B; Wunderlich, A; Lingelbach, S; Zielke, A

    2005-09-01

    Adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial step for the development of metastatic disease and is mediated by specific integrin receptor molecules (IRM). The pattern of metastatic spread differs substantially among the various histotypes of thyroid cancer (TC). However, IRM have only occasionally been characterized in TC until now. IRM expression was investigated in 10 differentiated (FTC133, 236, 238, HTC, HTC TSHr, XTC, PTC4.0/4.2, TPC1, Kat5) and two anaplastic TC cell lines (ATC, C643, Hth74), primary cultures of normal thyroid tissue (Thy1,3), and thyroid cancer specimens (TCS). Expression of 16 IRM (beta1-4, beta7, alpha1-6, alphaV, alphaIIb, alphaL, alphaM, alphaX) and of four IRM heterodimers (alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta5), was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining. Thyroid tumor cell adhesion to ECM proteins and their IRM expression in response to thyrotropin (TSH) was assessed. Follicular TC cell lines presented high levels of integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3 and low levels of alpha1, whereas papillary lines expressed a heterogenous pattern of IRM, dominated by alpha5 and beta1. ATC mainly displayed integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, beta1 and low levels of alpha1, alpha4 and alphaV. Integrin heterodimers correlated with monomer expression. Evaluation of TCS largely confirmed these results with few exceptions, namely alpha4, alpha6, and beta3. The ability of TC cell lines to adhere to purified ECM proteins correlated with IRM expression. TSH induced TC cell adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion, despite an unchanged array of IRM expression or level of a particular IRM. Thyroid carcinoma cell lines of different histogenetic background display profoundly different patterns of IRM expression that appear to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. In vitro adhesion to ECM proteins and IRM expression concur. Finally, TSH-stimulated adhesion of thyroid tumor cell lines to ECM may not be associated with altered IRM expression. PMID:16187909

  10. The male advantage in child facial resemblance detection: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Sun, Shiyue; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Males have been suggested to have advantages over females in reactions to child facial resemblance, which reflects the evolutionary pressure on males to solve the adaptive paternal uncertainty problem and to identify biological offspring. However, previous studies showed inconsistent results and the male advantage in child facial resemblance perception, as a kin detection mechanism, is still unclear. Here, we investigated the behavioral and brain mechanisms underlying the self-resembling faces processing and how it interacts with sex and age using event-related potential (ERP) technique. The results showed a stable male advantage in self-resembling child faces processing, such that males have higher detectability to self-resembling child faces than females. For ERP results, males showed smaller N2 and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitudes for self-resembling child faces, which may reflect face-matching and self-referential processing in kin detection, respectively. Further source analysis showed that the N2 component and LPC were originated from the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus, respectively. Our results support the male advantage in self-resembling child detection and further indicate that such distinctions can be found in both early and late processing stages in the brain at different regions. PMID:24053135

  11. Inhibition of Src with AZD0530 Reveals the Src-Focal Adhesion Kinase Complex as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Kerege, Anna A.; French, Jena D.; Sharma, Vibha; Grzywa, Rachel L.; Haugen, Bryan R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src are overexpressed and activated in many cancers and have been associated with tumor progression. The role of the Src-FAK complex has not been characterized in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer (PTC and ATC).

  12. Adding Chemotherapy to Radiation Improves Survival for Some Patients with Rare Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term results from two clinical trials confirm that certain patients with rare brain tumors called anaplastic oligodendrogliomas live substantially longer if they are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy rather than radiation alone.

  13. Bevacizumab and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumor, Lymphoma, Intracranial Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma or Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Robert G.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a ‘pop-out’ effect for anger, more quickly locati...

  15. Familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Szöke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Alter, Caroline; Roy, Isabelle; Méary, Alexandre; Etain, Bruno; Bellivier, Frank; Leboyer, Marion.

    2006-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions are considered to be putative markers of familial/genetic vulnerability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, familial resemblance must be demonstrated before executive functions are used as a potential endophenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar subjects. We assessed executive functions by means of two tests - the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the T...

  16. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity ...

  17. Who Resembles Whom? Mimetic and Coincidental Look-Alikes among Tropical Reef Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    Studies of mimicry among tropical reef-fishes usually give little or no consideration to alternative explanations for behavioral associations between unrelated, look-alike species that benefit the supposed mimic. I propose and assess such an alternative explanation. With mimicry the mimic resembles its model, evolved to do so in response to selection by the mimicry target, and gains evolved benefits from that resemblance. In the alternative, the social-trap hypothesis, a coincidental resembla...

  18. Inv(2)(p23q35) in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma induces constitutive anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase activation by fusion to ATIC, an enzyme involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Cools, J; Marynen, P; Cui, X; Siebert, R; Gesk, S; Schlegelberger, B; Peeters, B; De Wolf-Peeters, C; Wlodarska, I; Morris, S W

    2000-03-15

    The non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is frequently associated with a t(2;5)(p23;q35) that results in the fusion of the ubiquitously expressed nucleophosmin (NPM) gene at 5q35 to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene at 2p23, which is not normally expressed in hematopoietic tissues. Approximately 20% of ALCLs that express ALK do not contain the t(2;5), suggesting that other genetic abnormalities can result in aberrant ALK expression. Here we report the molecular characterization of an alternative genetic means of ALK activation, the inv(2)(p23q35). This recurrent abnormality produces a fusion of the amino-terminus of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC), a bifunctional homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate and final steps of de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis, with the intracellular portion of the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase. RT-PCR analysis of 5 ALCL tumors that contained the inv(2) revealed identical ATIC-ALK fusion cDNA junctions in all of the cases. Transient expression studies show that the ATIC-ALK fusion transcript directs the synthesis of an approximately 87-kd chimeric protein that is localized to the cytoplasm, in contrast to NPM-ALK, which typically exhibits a cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular distribution. ATIC-ALK was constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated and could convert the IL-3-dependent murine hematopoietic cell line BaF3 to cytokine-independent growth. Our studies demonstrate an alternative mechanism for ALK involvement in the genesis of NHL and suggest that ATIC-ALK activation results from ATIC-mediated homodimerization. In addition, expected decreases in ATIC enzymatic function in ATIC-ALK-containing lymphomas may render these tumors more sensitive to antifolate drugs such as methotrexate. (Blood. 2000;95:2144-2149) PMID:10706887

  19. Trustworthy but not lust-worthy: context-specific effects of facial resemblance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2005-01-01

    If humans are sensitive to the costs and benefits of favouring kin in different circumstances, a strong prediction is that cues of relatedness will have a positive effect on prosocial feelings, but a negative effect on sexual attraction. Indeed, positive effects of facial resemblance (a potential cue of kinship) have been demonstrated in prosocial contexts. Alternatively, such effects may be owing to a general preference for familiar stimuli. Here, I show that subtly manipulated images of other-sex faces were judged as more trustworthy by the participants they were made to resemble than by control participants. In contrast, the effects of resemblance on attractiveness were significantly lower. In the context of a long-term relationship, where both prosocial regard and sexual appeal are important criteria, facial resemblance had no effect. In the context of a short-term relationship, where sexual appeal is the dominant criterion, facial resemblance decreased attractiveness. The results provide evidence against explanations implicating a general preference for familiar-looking stimuli and suggest instead that facial resemblance is a kinship cue to which humans modulate responses in a context-sensitive manner. PMID:16024346

  20. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine ((131)I) therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an update about preclinical studies. In addition, the overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71) by neoplastic cells of ATC is emphasized in that it could represent a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of monoclonal or recombinant antibodies, or transferrin-gallium-TfR1/CD71 molecular complexes, or lastly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are proposed. PMID:25097549

  1. Large-cell anaplastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma originating in donor cells after allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, H C; Hopman, A H; Haesevoets, A M; Arends, J W

    1995-09-01

    Second neoplasms after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) occur in donor cells; however, host origin generally cannot be excluded. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) the origin of the malignant population can be proven indisputably. In a female patient with CD30+ large-cell anaplastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LCAL) after BMT with an HLA-identical brother donor, FISH using anti-CD30 immunocytochemistry in combination with anti-Y- and anti-EBV RNA probes was applied. In pathological lymph nodes the majority of cells were of donor type (Y). CD30-positive cells were Y-positive; these cells were also EBV-positive. Using FISH and immunocytochemistry we have demonstrated convincingly that this, possibly EBV-induced, LCAC originated in donor cells. PMID:7577625

  2. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  3. The logic of identity and resemblance in culturally appropriate health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Susan J

    2010-09-01

    Greater diversity in the health care workforce is frequently proposed as a means of addressing health disparities between minority and majority populations in the USA by improving health care access and quality for minority groups. 'Culturally appropriate' health care programs that include ethnic resemblance between physician and patient are emerging as new technologies of knowledge and power in a wide range of health care settings. Based on participant-observation research and interviews with patients and health care providers at a federally funded New England clinic, this article uses theories of cultural identity supported by ethnographic examples to examine arguments in favor of patient-provider resemblance. While ethnic identity is often assumed to incorporate cultural expertise or competence, in practice, developing and maintaining such expertise is the result of repeated performances developed in part through didactic trainings described herein. Claims for the efficacy of patient-provider resemblance in addressing disparities in quality of care mobilize notions of specificity, difference and recognition that both depend on and construct racialized ethnic identities. Proposed as a means to expand access to health care, resemblance programs nonetheless perpetuate segregation in health care by relying on minority health care providers to care for the minority poor. Both patients and health care providers I interviewed perceived benefits associated with ethnic resemblance, yet also articulated critiques of the essentialized notions of identity that render ethnicity automatically efficacious. Following Laclau, I argue that an exclusive focus on physician-patient resemblance constructs ethnicity as 'mere particularity' and in so doing helps to obscure the relations of power and inequality that produce the very health disparities that resemblance is meant to solve. PMID:20801998

  4. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Robert G; Zebrowitz, Leslie A

    2013-09-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a 'pop-out' effect for anger, more quickly locating an angry than a happy face in a neutral array, suggests that both age groups may be equally sensitive to emotion resemblance. We used computer modeling to assess the degree to which neutral faces objectively resembled emotions and assessed whether that resemblance predicted trait impressions. We found that both OA and YA showed anger and surprise overgeneralization in ratings of danger and naiveté, respectively, with no significant differences in the strength of the effects for the two age groups. These findings suggest that well-documented OA deficits on emotion recognition tasks may be more due to processing demands than to an insensitivity to the social affordances of emotion expressions. PMID:24058225

  5. Correlation of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Overexpression and the EML4-ALK Fusion Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu-Feng Huang; Yi-Rong Chen; Ya-Ting Chen; Chi-Liang Wang; Yi-Cheng Wu; Hui-Ping Liu; Il-Chi Chang; Tai-Di Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene with transforming activity was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, NSCLC patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene had a dramatic response and longer progression free survival after ALK inhibitor treatment than those without this fusion gene. However, the incidence and clinical and molecular characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC pat...

  6. Radiotherapy and temozolomide in anaplastic astrocytoma: a retrospective multicenter study by the Central Nervous System Study Group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology)

    OpenAIRE

    Scoccianti, Silvia; Magrini, Stefano Maria; RICARDI, Umberto; Detti, Beatrice; Krengli, Marco; Parisi, Salvatore; Bertoni, Filippo; Sotti, Guido; Cipressi, Samantha; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Dall'Oglio, Stefano; Lioce, Marco; Saieva, Calogero; Buglione, Michela; MANTOVANI, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Although the evidence for the benefit of adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy (RT) is limited to glioblastoma patients, there is currently a trend toward treating anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) with combined RT + TMZ. The aim of the present study was to describe the patterns of care of patients affected by AA and, particularly, to compare the outcome of patients treated exclusively with RT with those treated with RT + TMZ. Data of 295 newly diagnosed AAs treated with postoperative RT ± TM...

  7. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Sowinski; Maciej Gembicki; Jan Breborowicz; Marek Ruchala; El Ali Ziad; Marian Grzymislawski

    2009-01-01

    We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1) and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we deci...

  8. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  9. Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: Results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987. After surgery, low-risk patients (R0, M0) received maintenance chemotherapy until elective RT at age of three. In high-risk patients (R+, M+) intensive induction chemotherapy was followed by maintenance chemotherapy and subsequently delayed RT. If there was, progression radiotherapy started immediately. In the HIT-SKK 92, trial MTX-based chemotherapy was applied. RT was administered in non-responders only. Results: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months). All children received chemotherapy. In 13 children, no RT was administered. Preventive RT after chemotherapy was given in nine, and salvage RT in 12 children. OS and PFS rates after 3-year were 55.9 and 27.3%, respectively. Twenty-five children relapsed. Positive impact on survival was observed in children with higher age, M0-stage, complete resection, and treatment with radiotherapy. Without RT only 3/13, children survived. Conclusion: Delaying RT jeopardizes survival even after intensive chemotherapy. Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site. RT of the neuraxis should be omitted in localized disease

  10. Radiation therapy and bromodeoxyuridine chemotherapy followed by procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a Phase II study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with intravenous bromodeoxyuridine for patients with anaplastic glioma tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1987, study patients received 1.7-1.8 Gy radiation once a day, Monday through Friday, to a total dose of 60 Gy. On the Thursday prior to beginning radiotherapy and for the next 5 weeks (6 weeks total), patients received a continuous 96 h intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine at 0.8 g/m2/24 h; following radiotherapy, patients received procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine (PCV) for 1 year or until tumor progressed. Results: One-hundred thirty eight patients (median age, 43 years) were evaluable for analysis. Estimated 4-year survival for the anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) stratum (n 116) is 46%. For the astrocytoma (ASTRO) stratum (n = 22), the 6-year survival is estimated at 79%. Estimated 4-year progression-free survival for AAs is 42%, and for ASTROs, 68%. Whole brain irradiation was used in 23% and limited-field irradiation in 77%; patients receiving limited-field irradiation had a better survival rate (p = 0.07). Total tumor resection was performed in 15%, partial resection in 53%, and biopsy only in 32%. For the 81 patients with tumor recurrence, 34 (42%) are known to have received additional treatment(s). For AA, fits of the Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that covariates individually predictive of sut covariates individually predictive of survival were younger age (p < 0.001), Karnofsky performance score (p = 0.04), and extent of surgery (p = 0.04); limited-field irradiation was not significant (p = 0.10). Major toxicities were rash during Weeks 1 through 6 requiring dose modification in 14%, Grade ?III leukopenia in 18%, and Grade ?III thrombocytopeni in 9%. Conclusion: The study suggests that the bromodeoxyuridine-radiotherapy-PCV, compared with other published therapies, can improve progression-free survival, and aggressive treatment of ASTRO patients can lead to substantial increases in survival compared to published survival data

  11. Central nervous system and vertebral malformation resembling the Arnold-Chiari syndrome in a Simmental calf.

    OpenAIRE

    LeClerc, S; López, A.; Illanes, O

    1997-01-01

    Multiple congenital anomalies were identified in a stillborn calf, including severe cerebellar hypoplasia and central nervous system abnormalities resembling the Arnold-Chiari syndrome of malformation of calves. The Arnold-Chiari malformation occurs sporadically and has little economic impact, whereas cerebellar hypoplasia implies the presence of BVD virus in the herd.

  12. Startle eye-blink modulation by facial self-resemblance and current mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Johannes B; Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Although salient stimuli are known to modulate startle eye-blink responses, and one's own face is considered of particular salience, effects of facial self-resemblance on startle responsiveness have not been systematically investigated. For the present study, pictures from the FACES database (rated as neutral) were digitally morphed to resemble the participants' (N=37) faces to varying degrees (25-50-75%). Perceptually matched geometrical shapes served as a control condition. At SOAs of either 300ms or 3000ms after picture onset, startle responses were elicited by white noise (50ms, 105dB), and recorded at the orbicularis oculi via EMG. Prior to the experiment, self-reported mood was assessed by means of the PANAS. Relative to non-face stimuli, the presentation of faces reduced startle magnitude at short, but not long, lead intervals. Furthermore, for probes presented at a SOA of 300ms, a linear decrease in startle magnitude with higher levels of self-resemblance was observed, presumably reflecting higher salience of the self-face. The startle modulating effect of self-resembling faces during longer lead intervals was moderated by the participants' current mood: negative affect predicted stronger patterns of attenuation, which might be interpreted as an increase in self-focus resulting from more negative mood. PMID:25913094

  13. Familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Alter, Caroline; Roy, Isabelle; Méary, Alexandre; Etain, Bruno; Bellivier, Frank; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions are considered to be putative markers of familial/genetic vulnerability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, familial resemblance must be demonstrated before executive functions are used as a potential endophenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar subjects. We assessed executive functions by means of two tests – the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT) - in 351 subjects from five populations: schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients, a group of relatives for each patient group and controls. For both tests, cognitive assessment results were consistent with previous studies: schizophrenic patients showed the greatest impairment, followed by bipolar patients and then the two groups of relatives. In families of bipolar patients we observed familial resemblance for the WCST and part A and part B of the TMT. However, by contrast with the classical point of view, considering executive measures to be markers of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia, we did not demonstrate familial resemblance for either of the two executive tests in families of schizophrenic patients. Thus, executive measures, as assessed by WCST or TMT, should not be used as endophenotypes in genetic studies of schizophrenia unless confounders are identified and their effects eliminated. PMID:17011636

  14. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  15. Human Coinfection with Bartonella henselae and Two Hemotropic Mycoplasma Variants Resembling Mycoplasma ovis?

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Jane E.; Lindsay, Leann L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    Two variants of an organism resembling the ovine hemoplasma, Mycoplasma ovis, were detected by PCR in blood samples from a veterinarian in Texas. Coinfection with similar variants has been described in sheep. This represents the first report of human infection with this organism. The veterinarian was coinfected with Bartonella henselae.

  16. A highly crystalline microporous hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicate resembling the AFI-type zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellussi, Giuseppe; Millini, Roberto; Montanari, Erica; Carati, Angela; Rizzo, Caterina; Parker, Wallace O; Cruciani, Giuseppe; de Angelis, Alberto; Bonoldi, Lucia; Zanardi, Stefano

    2012-07-28

    ECS-14, a crystalline microporous hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicate, has been synthesized by using 1,4-bis-(triethoxysilyl)-benzene (BTEB) as a source of silica. Its structure contains a system of linear channels with 12-membered ring openings, running along the [001] direction, resembling the pore architecture of the AFI framework type. PMID:22717682

  17. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Maria A. C.; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Castilho, Emanuel C.; Carelli, Guareide; Paes, Norberto S.; Mazeto, Glaucia M. F. S.

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5?cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material. PMID:25295208

  18. Survivin in relation to Bcl-2, Bax and in situ apoptotic cell death in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šelemetjev Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare but highly aggressive human malignancy. It is known that disturbances in apoptotic pathways have a great impact on tumor progression and aggressiveness. In this study the apoptosisrelated molecules Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic, Bax (proapoptotic and survivin (an inhibitor of apoptosis were analyzed immunohistochemically in thirty archival cases of ATC. In situ apoptotic cell death was analyzed by the TUNEL method. Mean Bcl-2 staining score (calculated from individual scores from 0-3 was low compared to those for Bax and survivin (p<0.05. High expression of survivin was associated with high Bax expression, and was significantly segregated from high Bcl-2 expressing cases (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas. In addition, the mean apoptotic index in high survivin expressing carcinomas was significantly lower than in low survivin expressing carcinomas (p<0.05. It could be concluded that down-regulation of Bcl-2 is counterbalanced by up-regulation of survivin, which may overcome the effects of high Bax expression, and, at least partly, explain the low apoptosis rate and high biological aggressiveness of ATC.

  19. Immediate disappearance of hemifacial spasm after partial removal of ponto-medullary junction anaplastic astrocytoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Cordella, Roberto; Acerbi, Francesco; Ferroli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is generally caused by a neurovascular conflict (NC) at the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve at the brainstem. Although a direct compression to the seventh cranial nerve (CN) by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is generally the most frequent cause, secondary HFS may be related to other pathological conditions. HFS due to an intracranial mass lesion is exceptionally rare and it has been reported in very few cases. The online database was searched for English-language articles reporting cases of HFS due to brainstem mass lesions and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. A 47-year-old man affected by an anaplastic astrocytoma of the brainstem at the level of the ponto-medullary junction developed right HFS. He underwent a subtotal surgical removal of the tumor with complete resolution of the HFS. This is the ninth reported case of HFS caused by an intrinsic brainstem tumor. The exceptional rarity of the relationship between intra-axial tumors and peripheral HFS was analyzed. PMID:25382264

  20. Treatment of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer during the last 20 years: whether any progress has been made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisof, Vesna; Rakusic, Zoran; Despot, Marija

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most deadly cancers in humans. Searching a PubMed database, studies published during the last 20 years, 63 publications dealing with treatment of patients were identified. Cohort studies comprised 6,609 patients with the median age 68 years (range 57-77 years). The median survival was 3.9 months, and 1 year survival, 20 %. The median survival of patients treated with multimodal therapy was 10.5 months. There was significant difference in median survival (7.0 vs. 3.8 months; p < 0.05) and 1 year survival (30.5 vs. 16.8 months; p < 0.05) between the patients <68 and 68 or more years old. Clinical trials, both randomized and non-randomized, comprised 205 patients. Unfortunately, considerable improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis and genetics of the ATC has not yet resulted in the improvement of the outcome of these patients. PMID:24890977

  1. Concurrent doxorubicin and radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid cancer: A critical re-evaluation including uniform pathologic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. The potential for pathologic misclassification complicates interpretation of published data. One standard treatment option for locoregionally advanced disease is weekly low-dose doxorubicin with concurrent radiation therapy, and was previously developed at our institution. We evaluated our more recent experience with this approach, which included pathologic confirmation of all cases. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed on patients identified through the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Cancer Database. Inclusion criteria: pathologically confirmed ATC; locoregional disease encompassable within a radiation portal; treatment with curative intent at MSKCC with planned weekly doxorubicin (10 mg/m2) and concurrent radiation. Principle outcomes assessed were locoregional progression-free survival (LR-PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Thirty-seven patients were included. Median radiotherapy dose was 57.6 Gy, and was ?50 Gy in 29 (78%), administered through hyperfractionated or once-daily schedules. One-year outcomes were LR-PFS, 45%; OS, 28%. Conclusion: The prognosis of patients with ATC remains grim and our current results appear inferior to those reported previously by our institution. More accurate histologic diagnoses and patient selection in the present series compared to the prior one may be responsible in part. Better tone may be responsible in part. Better therapy is desperately needed for this aggressive disease.

  2. Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwama E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Iwama,1,2 Isamu Okamoto,3 Taishi Harada,2 Koichi Takayama,2 Yoichi Nakanishi2,3 1Department of Comprehensive Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 2Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%–5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Keywords: ALK, rearrangement, NSCLC, ALK inhibitor, targeted therapy, diagnosis

  3. Non-muscle myosin heavy chain (MYH9): a new partner fused to ALK in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamant, Laurence; Gascoyne, Randy D; Duplantier, Marie Michèle; Armstrong, Florence; Raghab, Ashraf; Chhanabhai, Mukesh; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Raghab, Janie; Delsol, Georges; Espinos, Estelle

    2003-08-01

    In anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the ALK gene at 2p23 is known to be fused to NPM, TPM3, TPM4, TFG, ATIC, CLTC, MSN, and ALO17. All of these translocations result in the expression of chimeric ALK transcripts that are translated into fusion proteins with tyrosine kinase activity and oncogenic properties. We report a case showing a restricted cytoplasmic staining pattern of ALK and a novel chromosomal abnormality, t(2;22)(p23;q11.2), demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The result of 5' RACE analysis showed that the ALK gene was fused in-frame to a portion of the non-muscle myosin heavy chain gene, MYH9. Nucleotide sequence of the MYH9-ALK chimeric cDNA revealed that the ALK breakpoint was different from all those previously reported. It is localized in the same exonic sequence as MSN-ALK, but 6 bp downstream, resulting in an in-frame fusion of the two partner proteins. In contrast to the previously reported ALK fusion proteins, MYH9-ALK may lack a functional oligomerization domain. However, biochemical analysis showed that the new fusion protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo but seems to lack tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. If further investigations confirm this latter result, the in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of MYH9-ALK protein could involve mechanisms different from those described in the other ALK hybrid proteins. PMID:12800156

  4. FDA approval: ceritinib for the treatment of metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozin, Sean; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Zhang, Lijun; Tang, Shenghui; Brower, Margaret; Fox, Emily; Helms, Whitney; Leong, Ruby; Song, Pengfei; Pan, Yuzhuo; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Hong; Lu, Donghao; Tang, Zhe; Al Hakim, Ali; Boyd, Karen; Keegan, Patricia; Justice, Robert; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-06-01

    On April 29, 2014, the FDA granted accelerated approval to ceritinib (ZYKADIA; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation), a breakthrough therapy-designated drug, for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. The approval was based on a single-arm multicenter trial enrolling 163 patients with metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC who had disease progression on (91%) or intolerance to crizotinib. Patients received ceritinib at a starting dose of 750 mg orally once daily. The objective response rate (ORR) by a blinded independent review committee was 44% (95% CI, 36-52), and the median duration of response (DOR) was 7.1 months. The ORR by investigator assessment was similar. Safety was evaluated in 255 patients. The most common adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities included diarrhea (86%), nausea (80%), increased alanine transaminase (80%), increased aspartate transaminase (75%), vomiting (60%), increased glucose (49%), and increased lipase (28%). Although 74% of patients required at least one dose reduction or interruption due to adverse reactions, the discontinuation rate due to adverse reactions was low (10%). With this safety profile, the benefit-risk analysis was considered favorable because of the clinically meaningful ORR and DOR. Clin Cancer Res; 21(11); 2436-9. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25754348

  5. Nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) oncoprotein induces the T regulatory cell phenotype by activating STAT3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzycka, Monika; Marzec, Michal; Liu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation mediated by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells secrete IL-10 and TGF-? and express FoxP3, indicating their T regulatory (Treg) cell phenotype. The secreted IL-10 suppresses proliferation of normal immune, CD3/CD28-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and enhances viability of the ALK+TCL cells. The Treg phenotype of the affected cells is strictly dependent on NPM/ALK expression and function as demonstrated by transfection of the kinase into BaF3 cells and inhibition of its enzymatic activity and expression in ALK+TCL cells. NPM/ALK, in turn, induces the phenotype through activation of its key signal transmitter, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). These findings identify a mechanism of NPM/ALK-mediated oncogenesis based on induction of the Treg phenotype of the transformed CD4+ T cells. These results also provide an additional rationale to therapeutically target the chimeric kinase and/or STAT3 in ALK+TCL. PMID:16766651

  6. Mimicry on the edge: why do mimics vary in resemblance to their model in different parts of their geographical range?

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, George R; Pfennig, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Batesian mimics—benign species that predators avoid because they resemble a dangerous species—often vary geographically in resemblance to their model. Such geographical variation in mimic–model resemblance may reflect geographical variation in model abundance. Natural selection should favour even poor mimics where their model is common, but only good mimics where their model is rare. We tested these predictions in a snake-mimicry complex where the geographical range of the mimic extends beyon...

  7. Children and adolescents' understandings of family resemblance: a study of naïve inheritance concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naïve inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naïve biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The first task required participants to predict and explain feature outcomes in both an offspring and a sibling, in a modified version of the phenotypic similarity task. In the second task, participants offered explanations for instances of parent-offspring dissimilarity and grandparent-offspring resemblance (phenotypic difference task). The inclusion of two tasks and a broad age range revealed significant age trends between 4 and 10 years in naïve inheritance concepts. However, there was little consistency in children's inheritance explanations within or across tasks. The findings are discussed with reference to debates concerning the development and structure of naïve biology concepts. PMID:22550946

  8. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction resembling Takotsubo syndrome after self-injection of adrenaline

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, Hans Christian; Erbel, Christian; Berentelg, Johannes; Katus, Hugo A.; Frey, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Transient left ventricular (LV) ballooning syndrome, or Takotsubo syndrome, is characterized by a reversible LV dysfunction. The pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, but an excess of catecholamines seems to have an essential role. The case of a 27-year-old man who developed transient LV dysfunction resembling Takotsubo syndrome after self-injection of adrenaline is described. The present case may provide additional evidence to the hypothesis of excess sympathetic activation in LV ba...

  9. Trustworthy but not lust-worthy: context-specific effects of facial resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    If humans are sensitive to the costs and benefits of favouring kin in different circumstances, a strong prediction is that cues of relatedness will have a positive effect on prosocial feelings, but a negative effect on sexual attraction. Indeed, positive effects of facial resemblance (a potential cue of kinship) have been demonstrated in prosocial contexts. Alternatively, such effects may be owing to a general preference for familiar stimuli. Here, I show that subtly manipulated images of oth...

  10. Parent–child dietary intake resemblance in the United States: Evidence from a large representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

    2009-01-01

    We studied the association in dietary intakes and patterns between parents (aged 20–65 years) and their children (aged 2–18 years), using nationally representative data collected by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals 1994–96. We analyzed two 24-h recall dietary data for 1061 fathers, 1230 mothers, 1370 sons and 1322 daughters. All analyses adjusted for sampling design complexity. We assessed multivariate-adjusted parent–child correlations in selected nutrients, food groups and overall dietary quality assessed using the new USDA 2005 Healthy Eating Index score (HEIn). The parent–child correlations were weak or moderate (0.20–0.33) for most intake measures. There were clear patterns of interaction with gender dyads in the intakes of calcium and dairy products (P < 0.05 for dyad × parental intake), whereby multivariate-adjusted correlations in mother–daughter or mother–child dyads were significantly stronger compared to their father–child counterparts. The reverse was true for multivariate-adjusted correlations in HEIn. Hispanics and other ethnic groups had significantly stronger resemblance than Non-Hispanic whites and blacks in soft drinks and HEIn. Resemblance in general was stronger among older children, though the reverse was true when considering agreement in HEIn's upper quintile. The influence of family income and parental education on the resemblance was small. In conclusion, parent–child dietary resemblance in the US is relatively weak, and varies by nutrients and food groups, and by the types of parent–child dyad and population groups. Factors other than parental eating behaviors seem to play an important role in affecting American young people's dietary intake. PMID:19375837

  11. The applicability of Relative Floristic Resemblance to evaluate the conservation value of protected areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    s – It is important to know the contribution of a protected area to global conservation. A new method called ‘Relative Floristic Resemblance’ that uses databased and georeferenced herbarium specimens, is introduced. Its usefulness and applicability to assess the conservation value of protected areas is addressed. Method – This is tested using the collection database of the National Herbarium of The Netherlands (NHN) and species checklists of Gabon and of five national parks in Gabon and the C...

  12. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico; Lillholm, Martin; Karsdal, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study with...

  13. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    OpenAIRE

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...

  14. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    OpenAIRE

    Monden, C

    2007-01-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, ...

  15. Analysis of family resemblance. V. Height and weight in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D C; MacLean, C J; Morton, N E; Yee, S

    1975-01-01

    Sib correlations for height and weight decrease with absolute age difference. Parent-child correlations increase with age of child, with greater resemblance to the mother than the father. Estimates of the relative variance due to common environment are greater, and heritability estimates less, than for earlier studies. Heritability is less for adults than children. There is no significant major locus for height or weight. PMID:1155459

  16. A case of cilioretinal artery occlusion resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sato Y.; Ohkawara Y; Makino S

    2012-01-01

    Shinji Makino, Yuriko Ohkawara, Yukihiro SatoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 77-year-old man presented with an inferior hemivisual field defect in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed well demarcated retinal edema of the superior quadrant resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion. Further, the upper and inferior retinal arteries emerged separately from the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a marked filling delay of...

  17. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  18. An insulinoma with clinical and electroencephalographic features resembling complex partial seizures*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuang; Hu, Hai-tao; Wen, Shu-qun; Wang, Zhong-jin; Zhang, Bao-rong; Ding, Mei-ping

    2008-01-01

    We described a female patient with insulinoma who experienced recurrent episodes of automatism, confusion and convulsion. Furthermore, her electroencephalography (EEG) findings resembled the pattern in complex partial seizures with secondary generalization. The interictal EEG showed spikes and sharp waves, as well as focal slowing over the left temporal lobe, and the ictal EEG revealed generalized spikes and sharp waves associated with diffused slowing. She was initially misdiagnosed as pharm...

  19. Captive fledgling American kestrels prefer to play with objects resembling natural prey

    OpenAIRE

    Negro, Juan J.; Bustamante, Javier; Milward, Jane; Bird, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Object play may be a mechanism by which young predators acquire skills in manipulating prey, as well as physical strength and endurance. It has also been proposed that fledgling raptors play with live or dead prey if available, but would play with surrogates such as sticks or grass if not. Different objects were offered to captive fledgling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, to test whether they prefer to play with objects resembling prey. Individuals were divided into two groups: ...

  20. An unusual clinical presentation resembling superior vena cava syndrome post heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrini Ronald; Kaczorowski David; López-Candales Angel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background An unusual sequence of post operative events heralded by hemodynamic deterioration followed by dyspnea and rapidly progressive dilatation of superficial neck and facial veins, resembling a superior vena cava syndrome, two days post surgical resection of filamentous aortic valve masses, closure of a patent foramen ovale, and performance of a modified Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in a patient that presented with transient neurologic findings is presented. Case Pres...

  1. Early duodenal adenocarcinoma resembling a submucosal tumor cured with endoscopic resection: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi Akira; Goda Kenichi; Yoshimura Noboru; Sumiyama Kazuki; Toyoizumi Hirobumi; Saito Shoichi; Kato Tomohiro; Ishikawa Hiroki; Yanaga Katsuhiko; Tajiri Hisao; Ikegami Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary adenocarcinomas resembling submucosal tumors are rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Almost all the submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas previously reported invaded the submucosa or deeper. Therefore, submucosal tumor-like lesions are usually treated by surgical resection, and those that arise in the duodenum have been treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy. Case presentation A 65-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinoma in his...

  2. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the ?-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hall...

  3. Metabolism of a Lipid Nanoemulsion Resembling Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Grade III Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Alves Dantas; Elisabeth Salvatori Ficker; Vinagre, Carmen G. C.; Barbara Maria Ianni; Raul Cavalcante Maranhão; Charles Mady

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of pati...

  4. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  5. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  6. Pathobiology of NPM-ALK and variant fusion genes in anaplastic large cell lymphoma and other lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, H G; Gignac, S M; von Wasielewski, R; Werner, M; Dirks, W G

    2000-09-01

    Despite its clinical and histological heterogeneity, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is now a well-recognized clinicopathological entity accounting for 2% of all adult non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and about 13% of pediatric NHL. Immunophenotypically, ALCL are of T cell (predominantly) or Null cell type; by definition, cases expressing B cell antigens are officially not included in this entity. The translocation (2;5)(p23;q35) is a recurring abnormality in ALCL; 46% of the ALCL patients bear this signature translocation. This translocation creates a fusion gene composed of nucleophosmin (NPM) and a novel receptor tyrosine kinase gene, named anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). The NPM-ALK chimeric gene encodes a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be a potent oncogene. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms leading to lymphomagenesis remain elusive; however, the synopsis of evidence obtained to date provides an outline of likely scenarios. Several t(2;5) variants have been described; in some instances, the breakpoints have been cloned and the genes forming a new fusion gene with ALK have been identified: ATIC-ALK, TFG-ALK and TPM3-ALK. Cloning the translocation breakpoint and identifying the ALK and NPM genes provided tools for screening material from patients with ALCL using various approaches at the chromosome, DNA, RNA, or protein level: positive signals in the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the immunostaining with anti-ALK monoclonal antibodies (McAb) serve as the most convenient tests for detection of the t(2;5) NPM-ALK since the fusion gene and ALK protein expression do not occur in normal or reactive lymphoid tissue. The wide range of NPM-ALK positivity reported in different series appears to be dependent on the inclusion and selection criteria of the ALCL cases studied. Overall, however, 43% of ALCL cases were NPM-ALK+ (83% of pediatric ALCL vs 31% of adult ALCL). Occasional non-ALCL B cell lymphomas (4%) with diffuse large cell and immunoblastic histology and Hodgkin's disease cases (3%) were NPM-ALK-, but these data are questionable. The aggregate results indicate that, in contrast to primary nodal (systemic) ALCL, the t(2;5) may be present in only 10-20% of primary cutaneous ALCL and rarely, if at all, in lymphomatoid papulosis, a potential precursor lesion; however, these 10-20% positive cases were not confirmed by anti-ALK McAb immunostaining and may represent an overestimate. Positivity for NPM-ALK is associated to various degrees with the following parameters: 44% and 45% of ALCL cases with T cell and Null cell immunophenotype, respectively, are positive, whereas only 8% of cases with a B cell immunoprofile are positive; the mean age of positive patients is significantly younger than that of negative patients; positive cases carry a better overall prognosis (but not in all studies). Recently, the homogenous category of ALK lymphoma ('ALKoma') has emerged as a distinct pathological entity within the heterogenous group of ALCL. The fact that patients with ALK lymphomas experience significantly better overall survival than ALK- ALCL demonstrates further that analysis of ALK expression has important prognostic implications. The term ALK lymphoma signifies a switch in the use of the diagnostic criteria: cases are selected on the basis of a genetic abnormality (the ALK rearrangement), instead of the review of morphological or immunophenotypical features which are clearly more prone to disagreement and controversy. Since its initial description in 1985 ALCL has become one of the best characterized lymphoma entities. PMID:10994999

  7. Extrinsic apoptotic pathways: A new potential "Target" for more sufficient therapy in a case of cutaneous anaplastic large CD30+ ALK-T--cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30+ T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30 + /ALK? anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin, Vincristin (Oncovin®, Predniso(lon. Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30 + cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis.

  8. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  9. Synergistic anti-proliferative effect of metformin and sorafenib on growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and their stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guofang; Nicula, Diana; Renko, Kostja; Derwahl, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor has recently been approved for the treatment of radio-iodine refractory thyroid carcinoma. However, toxic side effects may lead to dose reduction. In the present study, we analyzed whether a combined therapy with metformin may allow a dose reduction of sorafenib without loss of effectiveness at the same time. In HTh74 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells and its derived doxorubicin-resistant HTh74Rdox cell line, the growth inhibitory effect of sorafenib with or without metformin was investigated. Furthermore, an analysis of cell cycle arrest in response to sorafenib was performed and the ability of a combined treatment to induce apoptosis was analyzed. In addition, the effects on clonal growth and formation of stem cell-derived spheres were assayed. The influence of sorafenib and metformin on MAP kinase pathway was investigated by analysis of ERK phosphorylation. Sorafenib and metformin synergistically inhibited growth of the two thyroid cancer cell lines, with a more pronounced effect on the doxorubicin-resistant HTh74Rdox cell line. The two drugs also synergistically decreased sphere formation, which suggested a specific effect on thyroid cancer stem cells. The addition of metformin enabled a 25% dose reduction of sorafenib without loss of its growth inhibitory efficacy. Sorafenib and metformin synergistically decreased the proliferation of ATC cell lines and the outgrowth of their derived cancer stem cells. A combined treatment enabled a significant dose reduction of sorafenib. In respect to frequent toxic side effects, clinical studies in future should demonstrate whether the addition of metformin may be an advantage in the chemotherapy of patients with radio-iodine?resistant thyroid cancer. PMID:25683253

  10. Successful radiation treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the right cardiac atrium and ventricle in a pacemaker-dependent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roach Mack

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare, aggressive malignancy, which is known to metastasize to the heart. We report a case of a patient with ATC with metastatic involvement of the pacemaker leads within the right atrium and right ventricle. The patient survived external beam radiation treatment to his heart, with a radiographic response to treatment. Cardiac metastases are usually reported on autopsy; to our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful treatment of cardiac metastases encasing the leads of a pacemaker, and of cardiac metastases from ATCs, with a review of the pertinent literature.

  11. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sur Monalisa; Ross Cathy; Bishara Mona RY

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the breast represents 0.04–0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7–2.2% of extra-nodal NHL. Most primary cases are of B-cell phenotype and only rare cases are of T-cell phenotype. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations. There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described...

  12. Successful use of brentuximab vedotin for refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma as a bridging therapy to haploidentical stem cell transplantation and maintenance therapy post-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Im, Ho Joon; Suh, Jin Kyung; Lee, Seong Wook; Choi, Eun Seok; Seo, Jong Jin

    2015-06-01

    Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is a monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate that targets CD30, and has been reported to be effective for relapsed/refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We here report a patient who experienced multiple relapses after conventional chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). He achieved a complete metabolic response with BV and proceeded to undergo haploidentical HSCT. After HSCT, he received three doses of BV to prevent an early relapse, and remains in remission 16 months post-transplantation. Our case suggests the potential use of BV both as a bridging therapy to allogeneic HSCT and as a maintenance therapy post-transplantation. PMID:25641881

  13. ATIC-ALK: A Novel Variant ALK Gene Fusion in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Resulting from the Recurrent Cryptic Chromosomal Inversion, inv(2)(p23q35)

    OpenAIRE

    Colleoni, Gisele W. B.; Bridge, Julia A.; Garicochea, Bernardo; Liu, Jian; Filippa, Daniel A.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The subset of CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) with the NPM-ALK gene fusion arising from the t(2;5)(p23;q35) forms a distinct clinical and prognostic entity. Recently, various cytogenetic, molecular, and protein studies have provided evidence for the existence of several types of variant ALK fusions in up to 20% of ALK+ ALCL, of which only one, a TPM3-ALK fusion resulting from a t(1;2)(q25;p23), has so far been cloned. A cryptic inv(2)(p23q35) has been described as another...

  14. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should not ignore the model species (or co-mimic in Mullerian mimicry rings) even if it is not itself endangered. PMID:25103364

  15. The self-similarity properties of natural images resemble those of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Turiel, A M; Parga, N; Nadal, J P

    1998-01-01

    We show that the statistics of an edge type variable in natural images exhibits self-similarity properties which resemble those of local energy dissipation in turbulent flows. Our results show that extended self-similarity remarkably holds for the statistics of the local edge variance, and that the very same models can be used to predict all the associated exponents. These results suggest to use natural images as a laboratory for testing scaling models of interest for the statistical description of turbulent flows. The properties we have exhibited are relevant for the modeling of the early visual system: they should be included in models designed for the prediction of receptive fiel$

  16. Charge on luminous bodies resembling natural ball lightning produced via electrical arcs through lump silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christina L.; Miley, Galen P.; Griffiths, David J.; Sánchez, Erik

    2014-12-01

    A phenomenon resembling natural ball lightning can be produced via electrical arcing through silicon. We use lump silicon instead of silicon wafers to achieve higher production rates and larger, longer-lived luminous balls than previously reported. The luminous balls consist of a silicon core surrounded by a porous network of loosely bound silicon dioxide nanoparticles. We find that the balls carry a small net charge on the order of 10-12 C and propose that the nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the core due to this charge.

  17. HyperPeer : Searching for resemblance in a P2P network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest.

  18. Ribosome profiling reveals resemblance between long non-coding RNAs and 5? leaders of coding RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Guo-Liang; Pauli, Andrea; Rinn, John L.; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F; Valen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics and computational approaches have identified thousands of putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). It has been controversial, however, as to what fraction of these RNAs is truly non-coding. Here, we combine ribosome profiling with a machine-learning approach to validate lncRNAs during zebrafish development in a high throughput manner. We find that dozens of proposed lncRNAs are protein-coding contaminants and that many lncRNAs have ribosome profiles that resemble the 5? l...

  19. PARP inhibitor olaparib increases the oncolytic activity of dl922-947 in in vitro and in vivo model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Carmela; Volpe, Massimiliano; Botta, Ginevra; Scamardella, Eloise; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Gillespie, David; Libertini, Silvana; Portella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors are mostly effective as anticancer drugs in association with DNA damaging agents. We have previously shown that the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 induces extensive DNA damage, therefore we hypothesized a synergistic antitumoral effect of the PARP inhibitor olaparib in association with dl922-947. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was chosen as model since it is a particularly aggressive tumor and, because of its localized growth, it is suitable for intratumoral treatment with oncolytic viruses. Here, we show that dl922-947 infection induces PARP activation, and we confirm in vitro and in vivo that PARP inhibition increases dl922-947 replication and oncolytic activity. In vitro, the combination with olaparib exacerbates the appearance of cell death markers, such as Annexin V positivity, caspase 3 cleavage, cytochrome C release and propidium iodide permeability. In vivo, we also observed a better viral distribution upon PARP inhibition. Changes in CD31 levels suggest a direct effect of olaparib on tumor vascularization and on the viral distribution within the tumor mass. The observation that PARP inhibition enhances the effects of dl922-947 is highly promising not only for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but, in general, for the treatment of other tumors that could benefit from the use of oncolytic viruses. PMID:25139258

  20. Additive effect by combination of Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, and PDGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1296, in suppressing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell viability and motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che HY

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Huan-yong Che, Hang-yuan Guo, Xu-wei Si, Qiao-ying You, Wei-ying Lou Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases regulate many tumorigenesis related cellular processes including cell metabolism, cell survival, cell motility, and angiogenesis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare type of thyroid cancer with no effective systemic therapy. It has been shown that Akt activation is associated with tumor progression in ATC. Here we observed the additive effect between an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206 and a novel platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor (tyrphostin AG 1296 in ATC therapy. We found an additive effect between MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 in suppressing ATC cell viability. The combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induces additive apoptosis, additive suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, as well as additive inhibition of cell migration and invasion of ATC cells. Furthermore, the combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induced additive suppression of ATC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that the combination of Akt and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an efficient therapeutic strategy for ATC treatment, which might shed new light on ATC therapy. Keywords: anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, Akt inhibitor, PDGFR inhibitor, synergy, additive effect, viability, motility

  1. Aberrant expression and biological significance of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell transcriptional factor, in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sox2 (sex-determining region Y-Box) is one of the master transcriptional factors that are important in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In line with this function, Sox2 expression is largely restricted to ESCs and somatic stem cells. We report that Sox2 is expressed in cell lines and tumor samples derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL), for which the normal cellular counterpart is believed to be mature T-cells. The expression of Sox2 in ALK+ALCL can be attributed to nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the oncogenic fusion protein carrying a central pathogenetic role in these tumors. By confocal microscopy, Sox2 protein was detectable in virtually all cells in ALK+ALCL cell lines. However, the transcriptional activity of Sox2, as assessed using a Sox2-responsive reporter construct, was detectable only in a small proportion of cells. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 using short interfering RNA in isolated Sox2active cells, but not Sox2inactive cells, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity. To conclude, ALK+ALCL represents the first example of a hematologic malignancy that aberrantly expresses Sox2, which represents a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK mediates tumorigenesis. We also found that the transcriptional activity and oncogenic effects of Sox2 can be heterogeneous in cancer cells

  2. Greater Resemblance of Telomere Length in Dizygotic Twins with Increasing Paternal Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Dalgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex human trait. It is longer in women than men and influenced by environmental factors. LTL is longer in offspring of older fathers, a finding that might stem from the longer telomeres in sperm of older men. Materials and Methods: The analysis is based on two independent twin studies, comprising 939 twin pairs, The discovery sample comprised 137 dizygotic and 167 monozygotic Danish twin pairs (both men andwomen) and the replicative sample comprised 217 dizygotic and 368 monozygotic British twin pairs (all women). For the statistical analysis, generalized additive mixedmodels and the polygenetic biometrical model were fitted. Results: An increase in the resemblance of LTL between dizygotic twins of older fathers could be shown, which is not the case for monozygotic twins. The biometric model attributed the increased resemblance in LTL in the dizygotic twins to shared environment factors. Conclusion: We hypothesize that this phenomenon results from a paternal age-dependent germ stem cell selection process, whereby the selected stem cells are longer, more homogenous with respect to telomere length and share resistance to aging.

  3. Familial Resemblance of Borderline Personality Disorder Features: Genetic or Cultural Transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A.; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Willemsen, Gonneke; Derom, Catherine A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance) genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N?=?5,017) and their siblings (N?=?1,266), parents (N?=?3,064) and spouses (N?=?939) from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17–26%) and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17–31%) factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51–60%) explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance). There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring. PMID:19390632

  4. Perceptual factors affecting the ability to assess facial resemblance between parents and newborns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Gwenaël; Méary, David; Mermillod, Martial; Gentaz, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    People undeniably pay attention to faces, and facial resemblance may act as a kinship cue. However, previous studies have shown that the ability to detect kinship through facial resemblance is limited, and it has been suggested that this may be due to several types of perceptual factors. To further understand the processes that underpin kinship judgment, it is important to investigate which perceptual factors predict the probability of parent-child pairs being detected as related. To this end, we performed two experiments. In the first, we evaluated the ability of human observers to match newborns with one of their parents. In the second, we explored three perceptual factors that may have influenced kinship detection (gender discrimination, facial attractiveness, and perceptual similarity). Results showed that the participants were able to match newborns with one of their parents, even though the task was perceived as difficult. Moreover, our study goes further than previous findings, showing that the perceptual factors investigated may significantly contribute to kinship detection. PMID:20698475

  5. Ultrastructural features resembling those of harlequin ichthyosis in patients with severe congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolainen, E; Niemi, K M; Gånemo, A; Kere, J; Vahlquist, A; Saarialho-Kere, U

    2001-09-01

    Congenital ichthyoses are a group of heterogeneous disorders of cornification. Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) can be clinically subdivided into congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma and lamellar ichthyosis. Ultrastructurally, ARCI is classified into four groups: ichthyosis congenita (IC) types I-IV. The genetic background of the ARCI disorders is heterogeneous, but only one disease gene, transglutaminase 1, has been detected so far. We describe six patients with severe congenital ichthyosis from six different Scandinavian families. They could not be classified ultrastructurally into the four IC groups because of atypical findings of electron microscopy. These included abnormal lamellar bodies, alterations in keratohyalin, remnant organelles and lipid inclusions in the upper epidermal cells, which resembled the ultrastructural findings of harlequin ichthyosis (HI), although the HI phenotype was not present at birth. Some clinical features, such as thick scales, erythroderma, alopecia and ectropion were common to all patients. Ichthyosis was usually accentuated in the scalp and four patients had clumped fingers and toes. None of the patients carried the transglutaminase 1 mutation. We conclude that ultrastructural findings resembling those detected in previous HI cases (type 1 and 2) can also be found in patients who do not have classic clinical features of that rare ichthyosis. This may be due to lack of specificity of ultrastructural markers for HI or to its clinical heterogeneity. PMID:11531841

  6. Rules and resemblance: their changing balance in the category learning of humans (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, Justin J; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Smith, J David

    2010-04-01

    In an early dissociation between intentional and incidental category learning, Kemler Nelson (1984) gave participants a categorization task that could be performed by responding either to a single-dimensional rule or to overall family resemblance. Humans learning intentionally deliberately adopted rule-based strategies; humans learning incidentally adopted family resemblance strategies. The present authors replicated Kemler Nelson's human experiment and found a similar dissociation. They also extended her paradigm so as to evaluate the balance between rules and family resemblance in determining the category decisions of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys heavily favored the family resemblance strategy. Formal models showed that even after many sessions and thousands of trials, they spread attention across all stimulus dimensions rather than focus on a single, criterial dimension that could also produce perfect categorization. PMID:20384398

  7. Deregulation of EGFR/PI3K and activation of PTEN by photodynamic therapy combined with carboplatin in human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and xenograft tumors in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Raktim; Mondal, Arindam; Ahn, Jin-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is one of the major activated pathways involved in the progression of anaplastic thyroid cancer. The activated PI3K pathway starts from the overexpression of epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) which plays a key role in cancer development and metastasis. However, a protein, PTEN negatively regulates the PI3K pathway. Here we studied the possibility of using a combination of conventional chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to inhibit the growth of human anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo. Carboplatin (CBDCA) and radachlorin-photodynamic therapy (PDT) were used for the combination treatment of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells FRO and tumor xenograft in athymic mice. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric observations showed that cell death was mainly through an enhanced apoptosis with the combination of CBDCA and PDT. Generation of reactive oxygen species and dysfunction of mitochondrial membranes suggested that the enhanced apoptosis was achieved through the mitochondrial cell death pathway. This was confirmed by Western blot analysis of caspase 3, 9 expressions. Further analysis showed that the combination of CBDCA and PDT inhibited the expression of EGFR and PI3K with higher efficacy. PTEN also was activated more in this combination group. This suggests a combination of CBDCA and PDT modulates EGFR and PI3K as well as activates PTEN to inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis with an enhanced efficacy in anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:25910816

  8. Rules and Resemblance: Their Changing Balance in the Category Learning of Humans (Homo sapiens) and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Justin J. Couchman; Coutinho, Mariana V. C.; Smith, J. David

    2010-01-01

    In an early dissociation between intentional and incidental category learning, Kemler Nelson (1984) gave participants a categorization task that could be performed by responding either to a single-dimensional rule or to overall family resemblance. Humans learning intentionally deliberately adopted rule-based strategies; humans learning incidentally adopted family-resemblance strategies. The present authors replicated Kemler Nelson’s human experiment and found a similar dissociation. They also...

  9. A universal, easy-to-apply light-quality index based on natural light spectrum resemblance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chou, Kun-Yi; Yang, Fu-Chin; Agrawal, Abhishek; Chen, Sun-Zen; Tseng, Jing-Ru; Lin, Ching-Chiao; Chen, Po-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Chi, Yun

    2014-05-01

    Light-quality is extremely crucial for any light source to be used for illumination. However, a proper light-quality index is still missing although numerous electricity-driven lighting measures have been introduced since past 150 yr. We present in this communication a universal and easy-to-apply index for quantifying the quality of any given lighting source, which is based on direct comparison of its lumen spectrum with the natural light counterpart having the same color temperature. A general principle for creating high quality pseudo-natural light is accordingly derived. By using organic light-emitting diode technology, for example, daylight-style emission with a 96% natural light resemblance is obtained as a high number of organic emitters with diffused colors spanning throughout the entire visible range are employed. The same principle can be extended to other lighting technology such as light-emitting diode to generate natural light-style emission.

  10. Static and space-time visual saliency detection by self-resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hae Jong; Milanfar, Peyman

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel unified framework for both static and space-time saliency detection. Our method is a bottom-up approach and computes so-called local regression kernels (i.e., local descriptors) from the given image (or a video), which measure the likeness of a pixel (or voxel) to its surroundings. Visual saliency is then computed using the said "self-resemblance" measure. The framework results in a saliency map where each pixel (or voxel) indicates the statistical likelihood of saliency of a feature matrix given its surrounding feature matrices. As a similarity measure, matrix cosine similarity (a generalization of cosine similarity) is employed. State of the art performance is demonstrated on commonly used human eye fixation data (static scenes (N. Bruce & J. Tsotsos, 2006) and dynamic scenes (L. Itti & P. Baldi, 2006)) and some psychological patterns. PMID:20053106

  11. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

  12. Exophytic Colon Cancer: Resemblance to a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Hi; Kim, Ha Na; Byun, Sung Su; Ha, Seung Yeon [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    An exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon is very rare with only a few reports to date. To the best of our knowledge, the CT appearance of colon cancer, which simulated the classic appearance of a GIST has only been reported once in the world's literature. We recently evaluated a patient with a large lobulated mass involving the stomach, pancreas and colon. The CT appearance of the case was consistent with the diagnosis of an exophytic gastric GIST. However, at surgery, the patient was found to have a large ulcerated carcinoma of the colon near the splenic flexure that had invaded the stomach and pancreas. We report a case of an exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon that resembled the classic appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

  13. Dynamical holographic QCD model: resembling renormalization group from ultraviolet to infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Danning

    2013-01-01

    Resembling the renormalization group from ultraviolet to infrared, we construct a dynamical holographic model in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework, where the dilaton background field $\\Phi$ and scalar field $X$ are responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. At the UV boundary, the dilaton field is dual to the dimension-4 gluon operator, and the scalar field is dual to the dimension-3 quark-antiquark operator. The metric structure at IR is automatically deformed by the nonperturbative gluon condensation and chiral condensation in the vacuum. The produced scalar glueball spectra in the graviton-dilaton framework agree well with lattice data, and the light-flavor meson spectra generated in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework are in well agreement with experimental data. Both the chiral symmetry breaking and linear confinement are realized in this dynamical holographic QCD model. The necessary condition for the existence of linear quark potential is discussed, and the pion form fact...

  14. Exophytic Colon Cancer: Resemblance to a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon is very rare with only a few reports to date. To the best of our knowledge, the CT appearance of colon cancer, which simulated the classic appearance of a GIST has only been reported once in the world's literature. We recently evaluated a patient with a large lobulated mass involving the stomach, pancreas and colon. The CT appearance of the case was consistent with the diagnosis of an exophytic gastric GIST. However, at surgery, the patient was found to have a large ulcerated carcinoma of the colon near the splenic flexure that had invaded the stomach and pancreas. We report a case of an exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon that resembled the classic appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach

  15. The heat-pipe resembling action of boiling bubbles in endovenous laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geld, Cees W M; van den Bos, Renate R; van Ruijven, Peter W M; Nijsten, Tamar; Neumann, H A Martino; van Gemert, Martin J C

    2010-11-01

    Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) produces boiling bubbles emerging from pores within the hot fiber tip and traveling over a distal length of about 20 mm before condensing. This evaporation-condensation mechanism makes the vein act like a heat pipe, where very efficient heat transport maintains a constant temperature, the saturation temperature of 100 degrees C, over the volume where these non-condensing bubbles exist. During EVLA the above-mentioned observations indicate that a venous cylindrical volume with a length of about 20 mm is kept at 100 degrees C. Pullback velocities of a few mm/s then cause at least the upper part of the treated vein wall to remain close to 100 degrees C for a time sufficient to cause irreversible injury. In conclusion, we propose that the mechanism of action of boiling bubbles during EVLA is an efficient heat-pipe resembling way of heating of the vein wall. PMID:20644976

  16. Early duodenal adenocarcinoma resembling a submucosal tumor cured with endoscopic resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobashi Akira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary adenocarcinomas resembling submucosal tumors are rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Almost all the submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas previously reported invaded the submucosa or deeper. Therefore, submucosal tumor-like lesions are usually treated by surgical resection, and those that arise in the duodenum have been treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy. Case presentation A 65-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with a submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinoma in his duodenum. We considered it possible that the tumor invasion was limited to the mucosal or submucosal layers and could be removed by endoscopic resection. Tumor histopathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma confined to the muscularis mucosae with no lymphovascular invasion. Complete resection of the carcinoma was achieved and there has been no recurrence three years after endoscopic resection. Conclusions We suggest that submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas arising in nonampullary duodenal sites should be diagnosed carefully with a view to possible endoscopic resection.

  17. Ribosome profiling reveals resemblance between long non-coding RNAs and 5? leaders of coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Guo-Liang; Pauli, Andrea; Rinn, John L.; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F.; Valen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics and computational approaches have identified thousands of putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). It has been controversial, however, as to what fraction of these RNAs is truly non-coding. Here, we combine ribosome profiling with a machine-learning approach to validate lncRNAs during zebrafish development in a high throughput manner. We find that dozens of proposed lncRNAs are protein-coding contaminants and that many lncRNAs have ribosome profiles that resemble the 5? leaders of coding RNAs. Analysis of ribosome profiling data from embryonic stem cells reveals similar properties for mammalian lncRNAs. These results clarify the annotation of developmental lncRNAs and suggest a potential role for translation in lncRNA regulation. In addition, our computational pipeline and ribosome profiling data provide a powerful resource for the identification of translated open reading frames during zebrafish development. PMID:23698349

  18. Ribosome profiling reveals resemblance between long non-coding RNAs and 5' leaders of coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Guo-Liang; Pauli, Andrea; Rinn, John L; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F; Valen, Eivind

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale genomics and computational approaches have identified thousands of putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). It has been controversial, however, as to what fraction of these RNAs is truly non-coding. Here, we combine ribosome profiling with a machine-learning approach to validate lncRNAs during zebrafish development in a high throughput manner. We find that dozens of proposed lncRNAs are protein-coding contaminants and that many lncRNAs have ribosome profiles that resemble the 5' leaders of coding RNAs. Analysis of ribosome profiling data from embryonic stem cells reveals similar properties for mammalian lncRNAs. These results clarify the annotation of developmental lncRNAs and suggest a potential role for translation in lncRNA regulation. In addition, our computational pipeline and ribosome profiling data provide a powerful resource for the identification of translated open reading frames during zebrafish development. PMID:23698349

  19. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case-control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1+S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage.RESULTS:The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0+/-5.7years and 55.2+/-10.5years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC)=0.63+/-0.02, P

  20. Familial resemblance of bone turnover rate in men aged 40 and over-the MINOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Hoda; Feyt, Clément; Chapurlat, Roland; Szulc, Pawel

    2013-03-01

    Familial resemblance of bone mineral density (BMD) is well known in both sexes. Fewer data concern the familial resemblance of bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone size in men. Our aim was to assess the correlation of BMD, bone size, BTM levels and hormones regulating bone turnover in 50 pairs of brothers aged ? 40 and 50 pairs of unrelated men matched for age, weight and height. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, hip, forearm and whole body. We measured serum osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) as well as urinary free and total deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and CTX-I. After adjustment for age, weight, bioavailable 17?-estradiol, and parathyroid hormone, all the BTMs (except bone ALP) were significantly correlated in the brothers (ICC = 0.36-0.64). Most of these correlations were significantly stronger than in the unrelated men. Bone size correlated significantly between the brothers (ICC = 0.55-0.65). These correlations were significantly stronger than in the unrelated men. BMD correlated between the brothers at most of the skeletal sites and, for some of them, more strongly than in the unrelated men. Serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly correlated in the brothers, but not more strongly than in the unrelated men. BTM levels correlated independently in the brothers aged ? 40, when their shared environment was limited. These data suggest a substantial hereditary determinism of the BTM levels in men. PMID:23179229

  1. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli. PMID:20814814

  2. Anaplastic meningioma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna Asdrubal; Santos José Augusto Nasser dos; Chimelli Leila; Ferraz Fernando Antonio Patriani; Bonatelli Antonio de Padua Furquim

    2001-01-01

    Intracranial meningiomas continue to challenge our best clinical efforts to eliminate them once discovered and deemed appropriate for treatment. Malignant meningiomas constitute 10% to 15% of all meningiomas and limited information exists regarding adjuvant treatment. The external whole brain irradiation is recommended. Traditional chemotherapy has proven ineffective; thus, new chemotherapeutic agents and new methods of delivery should be developed. Immunotherapy may be considered for patient...

  3. Long-Term Remission in a Case of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Local Irradiation and High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kato

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a tumor with bad prognosis and long-term survival is very low. However, appropriate combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radition have been reported to potentially improve the treatment results for ATC. We describe a case of refractory ATC successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT. There has not been any evidence of recurrence for 10 years after auto-PBSCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ATC that has been followed up for a longterm period after HDC with auto-PBSCT. This case suggests that intensive therapeutic approach such as HDC with auto- PBSCT may be useful.

  4. Resveratrol enhances the expression of death receptor Fas/CD95 and induces differentiation and apoptosis in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ling; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Wu, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Liang-In

    2011-10-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and other plants, plays a protective role in human atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. We examined the effects of resveratrol on the anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell line SR-786. Resveratrol inhibited growth and induced cellular differentiation, as demonstrated by morphological changes and elevated expression of T cell differentiation markers CD2, CD3, and CD8. Resveratrol also triggered cellular apoptosis, as demonstrated by morphological observations, DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle analyses. Further, the surface expression of the death receptor Fas/CD95 was increased by resveratrol treatment. Our data suggest that resveratrol may have potential therapeutic value for ALCL. PMID:21683516

  5. Energy and protein intake and nutritional status in non-surgically treated patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous food intake and nutritional status was assessed in 23 patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung before and two times during a treatment period of 6 weeks. Radiation therapy was given for 2 weeks followed by a course of chemotherapy and another 2 weeks of radiation therapy. The energy intake decreased during the treatment from 146 to 130 per cent of basal metabolic rate (p>0.10). The protein intake remained unchanged (mean 0.9 g/kg body weight).There were insignificant and small losses of weight, body fat, free body mass and arm muscle circumference, and no changes were seen in serum albumin and serum transferrin. However, 6 patients suffered a weight loss of 5 per cent or more. No correlation existed between the nutritional parameters measured before treatment and the changes during treatment. Patients who suffered a loss of body weight could therefore not be singled out before the treatment. (orig.)

  6. Crizotinib: a novel and first-in-class multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged nonsmall cell lung cancer and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou SH

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Hong Ignatius OuChao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CAAbstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine inhibitors were first approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in 2003 in the US. Activating EGFR mutations were subsequently discovered in 2004, and heralded the era of molecular targeted therapy in NSCLC. The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement in NSCLC in 2007 by two independent groups not only represents the first time ALK rearrangement has been discovered in common solid tumors but also represents another important milestone in the era of molecular targeted therapy in NSCLC. Crizotinib, a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET/ALK multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor went into early Phase I clinical development in 2007. Using the knowledge that NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations benefited from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, crizotinib was rapidly and successfully developed as an inhibitor in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, based on a break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, developed by two of the crizotinib Phase I sites. It cumulated in the conditional approval of crizotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration on August 26, 2011 for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The conditional approval was based on response rates of 50% and 61% from 255 ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients enrolled in two single-arm trials. Common adverse events of crizotinib include mild transient visual disorders, mild gastrointestinal toxicities, fatigue, rare alanine transaminase elevations, and even rarer pneumonitis (1.6%. Confirmatory trials comparing crizotinib with standard chemotherapy are ongoing. It took an unprecedented four years from the discovery of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC to the approval of crizotinib, the first ever ALK inhibitor, for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC.Keywords: crizotinib, PF-02341066, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, rearrangement, non-small cell lung cancer

  7. Environmental and sibling resemblance components of variance and covariance in traits of early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshits, G

    1988-03-01

    The multiple regression analyses were undertaken to elucidate the significance and relative importance of different potential determinants of several child development traits (i.e. age at which child 1. turns himself over; 2. sits up; 3. stands up; 4. walks, and 5. cuts his first tooth). Despite the fact that we used a relatively wide gamut of potential determinants (such as parental age, geographic origin, occupation, current residence, or family size) of trait variability, the results of multiple regression analysis (N = 300 families) indicate an almost complete absence of significant factors and studied variables of development. Sibling resemblance component of variance and covariance for five mentioned traits of development and some morphological characters (weight, length and head circumference at day of birth and at 16 months) were studied in 66 families. The transmissibility ("heritability") values for the development traits were small, ranging from 0 ("Turn") to 0.42 ("Walked"). The Findings suggest that there are significant inverse relationship between some of the developmental traits and inborn morphological characters. PMID:3389765

  8. Labeling and family resemblance in the discrimination of polymorphous categories by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; Ryan, Catriona M E; Bryant, Catherine M L; Lea, Stephen E G

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether pigeons discriminate polymorphous categories on the basis of a single highly predictive feature or overall similarity. In the first experiment, pigeons were trained to discriminate between categories of photographs of complex real objects. Within these pictures, single features had been manipulated to produce a highly salient texture cue. Either the picture or the texture provided a reliable cue for discrimination during training, but in probe tests, the picture and texture cues were put into conflict. Some pigeons showed a significant tendency to discriminate on the basis of the picture cue (overall similarity or family resemblance), whereas others appeared to rely on the manipulated texture cue. The second experiment used artificial polymorphous categories in which one dimension of the stimulus provided a completely reliable cue to category membership, whereas three other dimensions provided cues that were individually unreliable but collectively provided a completely reliable basis for discrimination. Most pigeons came under the control of the reliable cue rather than the unreliable cues. A minority, however, came under the control of single dimensions from the unreliable set. We conclude that cue salience can be more important than cue reliability in determining what features will control behavior when multiple cues are available. PMID:20652343

  9. Brief communication: Familial resemblance in digit ratio (2D:4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G

    2009-10-01

    Familial resemblance in the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a proxy for prenatal androgen action, was studied in 1,260 individuals from 235 Austrian families. In agreement with findings from twin studies of 2D:4D, heritability estimates based on parent-child and full-sib dyad similarity indicated substantial genetic contributions to trait expression (57% for right hand, 48% for left hand 2D:4D). Because twin studies have found nonadditive genetic as well as shared environmental effects on 2D:4D to be negligible or nil, these family-based estimates in all likelihood reflect the narrow-sense (additive genetic) heritability of the trait. Directional (right-minus-left) asymmetry in 2D:4D was only weakly heritable (6%). The pattern of same-sex and different-sex parent-child and full-sib correlations yielded no evidence for X-linked inheritance. This is surprising, considering evidence for associations of male 2D:4D with sensitivity to testosterone (functional variants of the X-linked androgen receptor gene). 2D:4D was particularly strongly heritable through male lines (father-son and brother-brother correlations), thus raising the possibility that Y-linked genes (such as the sex-determining region SRY) might influence 2D:4D expression. PMID:19530144

  10. Features of graded category structure: Generalizing the family resemblance and polymorphous concept models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Matthew J; Storms, Gert

    2010-03-01

    Many real-world categories contain graded structure: certain category members are rated as more typical or representative of the category than others. Research has shown that this graded structure can be well predicted by the degree of commonality across the feature sets of category members. We demonstrate that two prominent feature-based models of graded structure, the family resemblance (Rosch & Mervis, 1975) and polymorphous concept models (Hampton, 1979), can be generalized via the contrast model (Tversky, 1977) to include both common and distinctive feature information, and apply the models to the prediction of typicality in 11 semantic categories. The results indicate that both types of feature information play a role in the prediction of typicality, with common features weighted more heavily for within-category predictions, and distinctive features weighted more heavily for contrast-category predictions. The same pattern of results was found in additional analyses employing rated goodness and exemplar generation frequency. It is suggested that these findings provide insight into the processes underlying category formation and representation. PMID:20053389

  11. Source misattributions and false recognition errors: examining the role of perceptual resemblance and imagery generation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Mary Ann; Bays, Rebecca Brooke; Foy, Jeffrey; Woodfield, Mila

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine the extent to which participants' memory errors are affected by the perceptual features of an encoding series and imagery generation processes. Perceptual features were examined by manipulating the features associated with individual items as well as the relationships among items. An encoding instruction manipulation was included to examine the effects of explicit requests to generate images. In all three experiments, participants falsely claimed to have seen pictures of items presented as words, committing picture misattribution errors. These misattribution errors were exaggerated when the perceptual resemblance between pictures and images was relatively high (Experiment 1) and when explicit requests to generate images were omitted from encoding instructions (Experiments 1 and 2). When perceptual cues made the thematic relationships among items salient, the level and pattern of misattribution errors were also affected (Experiments 2 and 3). Results address alternative views about the nature of internal representations resulting in misattribution errors and refute the idea that these errors reflect only participants' general impressions or beliefs about what was seen. PMID:24931435

  12. Ad-hoc KEEN-type Waves and their Occasional Resemblance to KdV Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyshetskiy, Yuriy; Afeyan, Bedros

    2005-10-01

    Nonlinear kinetic waves of the KEEN type [1] but constructed with two BGK recipes are tested with 1D Vlasov-Poisson simulation (1DVPS). One is that of Allis [2] as modified by Johnston (unpublished), the other is that of Eliasson and Shukla [3]. Strong kinetic waves survive well, but not weaker ones. The potential wave trains resemble those from the Korteweg-deVries equation. This proves to be natural when charge density variation with electrostatic potential is like a quadratic polynomial. For expositions on the physics of ponderomotively driven KEEN waves, consult presentations by Afeyan and Savchenko, this conference. (Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG03-NA00059.) [1] B. Afeyan et al., ``Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves and their interactions driven by the ponderomotive force of crossing laser beams'', Proc. IFSA (Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2003, Monterey, CA), 213, B. Hammel, D. Meyerhofer, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn and H. Azechi, editors, American Nuclear Society, 2004. [2] W.P. Allis, paper 3 (pp.21-42), in ``In Honor of Philip M. Morse'', ed. H. Feshbach and K. Ingard, MIT Press (1969). [3] B. Eliasson and P.K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 71, 046402 (2005)

  13. FOXL2 Mutation is Absent in Uterine Tumors Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Sarah; Staats, Paul N; Senz, Janine; Kommoss, Friedrich; De Nictolis, Michele; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; Oliva, Esther

    2015-05-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare uterine neoplasms characterized by pure or predominant epithelial-like patterns that share morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with ovarian sex cord tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression has recently been found in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, including granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas, but mutations have been identified mostly in adult granulosa cell tumors. In this study, we investigated FOXL2 mutation status and protein expression in UTROSCTs. Mutational analysis using a TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction-based allelic discrimination assay was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 15 UTROSCTs. FOXL2 mutation was absent in all tumors. FOXL2 immunoexpression was tested in all 15 tumors. Intensity of staining was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. Percentage of tumor cells with nuclear staining was recorded as follows: 0 (negative); 1+ (1% to 25%); 2+ (26% to 50%); 3+ (51% to 75%); and 4+ (76% to 100%). Nuclear expression of FOXL2 was present in 6 of 15 (40%) UTROSCTs. One tumor demonstrated strong 4+ staining. Moderate expression was seen in 3 cases, including 2 and 1 showing 2+ and 1+ staining, respectively. Weak expression was observed in 2 tumors demonstrating 3+ and 1+ staining. Although UTROSCTs show overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary, they do not harbor FOXL2 mutation despite focal immunoreactivity in a subset of these tumors. PMID:25581731

  14. Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer

  15. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to sunlight resembles the phenom of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte Giacobone, Ana F; Oppezzo, Oscar J

    2015-01-01

    During exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stationary phase cells to natural solar radiation, a reduction in the rate of loss of bacterial viability was observed when survival fractions were lower than 1/10,000. This reduction was independent of the growth medium used and of the initial bacterial concentration, and was also observed when irradiation was performed with artificial UVA radiation (365nm, 47Wm(-2)). These results indicate the presence of a small bacterial subpopulation with increased tolerance to radiation. Such a tolerance is non-heritable, since survival curves comparable to those of the parental strain were obtained from survivors to long-term exposure to radiation. The radiation response described here resembles the phenomenon called persistence, which consists of the presence of a small subpopulation of slow-growing cells which are able to survive antibiotic treatment within a susceptible bacterial population. The condition of persister cells is acquired via a reversible switch and involves active defense systems towards oxidative stress. Persistence is probably responsible for biphasic responses of bacteria to several stress conditions, one of which may be exposure to sunlight. The models currently used to analyze the lethal action of sunlight overestimate the effect of high-dose irradiation. These models could be improved by including the potential formation of persister cells. PMID:25553385

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities resembling Joubert syndrome: two cases illustrating the diagnostic pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Hester Y; Hochstenbach, Ron; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Den Hollander, Anneke I; Lugtenberg, Dorien T; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Lindhout, Dick; Poot, Martin

    2011-07-01

    We describe two patients with severe developmental delay, hypotonia and breathing abnormalities initially diagnosed with the autosomal recessive Joubert syndrome (JBS) who at a later stage appeared to carry chromosomal abnormalities. One case was due to a 4.8 Mb terminal 1q44 deletion, and the other due to a 15.5 Mb duplication of Xq27.2-qter containing the MECP2 gene. Critical evaluation of the clinical data showed that, retrospectively, the cases did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for JBS, and that the diagnosis of JBS was incorrectly made. We discuss the diagnostic pitfalls and recommend adhering strictly to the JBS diagnostic criteria in the case of a negative molecular diagnosis. Critical assessment of the MRI findings by a specialized neuroradiologist is imperative. As chromosomal abnormalities may give rise to symptoms resembling JBS, we recommend array-based screening for segmental aneuploidies as an initial genetic test in all cases with a JBS-like phenotype. PMID:21527849

  17. Status dystonicus resembling the intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead William

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Status dystonicus is a rare but life-threatening disorder characterized by increasingly frequent and severe episodes of generalized dystonia that may occur in patients with primary or secondary dystonia. Painful and repetitive spasms interfere with respiration and may cause metabolic disturbances such as hyperpyrexia, dehydration, respiratory insufficiency, and acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis. Intrathecally administered baclofen, delivered by an implantable pump system, is widely used for the treatment of refractory spasticity. Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen infusion has been associated with a severe withdrawal syndrome comprised of dystonia, autonomic dysfunction, hyperthermia, end-organ failure and sometimes death. The aetiology of this syndrome is not well understood. Status dystonicus describes the episodes of acute and life-threatening generalized dystonia, which occasionally manifest themselves in patients with dystonic syndromes. Case presentation We present the case of a nine-year-old Caucasian boy who experienced a severe episode of status dystonicus with no known cause and clinical features resembling those described in intrathecal baclofen withdrawal. Our patient subsequently underwent the placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump without incident. Conclusion The similarity between the clinical features of the case we present and those reported in connection to abrupt withdrawal of intrathecal baclofen is emphasized. Several drugs, although not intrathecal baclofen withdrawal, have previously been associated with status dystonicus. The similarity between the life-threatening dystonic episode experienced by our patient, and those reported in intrathecal baclofen withdrawal, highlights the possibility that, rather than representing a true physiological withdrawal syndrome, abrupt withdrawal of intrathecal baclofen may simply precipitate an episode of status dystonicus in susceptible individuals. The clinical similarities between the intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome and status dystonicus have not previously been highlighted.

  18. Simultaneous compression and encryption of closely resembling images: application to video sequences and polarimetric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

    2014-09-22

    This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707

  19. Familial resemblance of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme level: the Nancy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambien, F; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Herbeth, B; Andre, J L; Rakotovao, R; Gonzales, M F; Allegrini, J; Bloch, C

    1988-01-01

    Plasma angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity has been measured in a sample of 87 healthy families participating in a study of cardiovascular risk factors. The mean +/- SD levels of plasma ACE were 34.1 +/- 10.7, 30.7 +/- 10.4 and 43.1 +/- 17.2 units/liter in fathers (n = 87), mothers (n = 87) and offspring (n = 169), respectively. Plasma ACE was uncorrelated with age, height, weight, or blood pressure in the parents, but a negative correlation with age was observed in offspring (r = -.32). The age-adjusted familial correlations of plasma ACE were .038, .166, .323 and .303 for spouses, father-offspring, mother-offspring, and siblings, respectively. The results of the genetic analysis suggest that a major gene may affect the interindividual variability of plasma ACE, with different codominant effects in parents and offspring. According to this model, the major gene effect accounts for 4.8, 4.0, and 10.8 units/liter of the overall mean and for 29%, 29% and 75% of the variance of age-adjusted ACE in fathers, mothers, and offspring, respectively. The estimate of the probability of the less frequent allele is .26, and the major gene effect is approximately twice as great in high homozygotes than in heterozygotes and in offspring than in parents. The results of this study demonstrate the occurrence of a familial resemblance of plasma ACE activity in healthy families and suggest that this observation can be explained by the segregation of a major gene. PMID:2847529

  20. Distinctive features and resemblances between VVER and PWR fuels tested in the Halden Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PWR types of fuel have been tested in the Halden reactor (HBWR) since 1970’s when the first Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) was loaded. Since that time hundreds of PWR fuel rods have been tested under different conditions towards high fuel burnup. The VVER types of fuel have been tested in HBWR since 1995 when first VVER and PWR fuels have been loaded in IFA-503. Since that time a few fuel assemblies with several VVER fuel rods have been tested. In this paper general characterization of VVER and PWR fuels as well as VVER and PWR fuel and material investigations in the Halden reactor (comparison of in-pile performances - differences and resemblances) are presented. Conclusions: 1) Fuel temperatures of VVER hollow fuel pellets and PWR solid pellets can be compared for different diameter rods (also for the same as VVER design) to analyse effect of hollow. 2) The conductivity degradation (and reference functions used for modeling) are very similar for both fuels up to a burnup of 60 MWd/kg U. 3) Original VVER fuel densification was larger than PWR fuel but modified fuel exhibited improved dimensional behaviour, which is dependent on initial fuel microstructure. Analysis shows similar correlations of in-pile densification against re-sintering test, garin size and fission density at BOL. 4) The higher internal gas pressure at power was in the rods with hollow pellets (with the same outer diameter rods), whereas the temperature FGR threshold is identical to the PWR fuel. 5) The fuel and cladding mechanical behaviour was not enough investigated to make some conclusions (cladding creep test is going on, PCMI was done at different conditions, lift- off test was done at low coolant temperature (VVER-440), fuel creep test was not performed). 6) Corrosion behaviour of modern VVER and PWR claddings is under investigation. 7) The VVER fuel rods behaviour under LOCA conditions vs. PWR fuel is going to be analysed

  1. A Japanese girl with an early-infantile onset vanishing white matter disease resembling Cree leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kyoko; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Sato, Mutsumi; Takagi, Mariko; Anzai, Rie; Okuda, Mitsuko; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    Vanishing white matter disease (VWM)/childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH) is an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in one of five genes, EIF2B1-5, encoding the 5 subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). The classical phenotype is characterized by early childhood onset and chronic progressive neurological deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, optic atrophy and epilepsy. However, the onset of disease varies from antenatal period to adulthood. Cree leukoencephalopathy (CLE) is a severe variant of VWM and caused by a homozygous mutation (R195H) in the EIF2B5 gene. The patient reported in this study developed lethargy, vomiting and seizure 3days after an oral poliovirus vaccination at the age of 4months. She presented with rapid neurological deterioration within a month of onset. Brain MRI showed abnormal white matter intensity. Whole-exome sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations in the EIF2B5 gene: a known mutation, c.584G>A (R195H, which is homozygous in CLE), and a novel mutation, c.1223T>C (I408T, which resides in the "I-patch"). Mutations in the "I-patch" encoded region of eIF2B? may be related to an early-infantile onset phenotype. This patient exhibits an early-infantile onset and progressive disease course resembling CLE, suggesting a severe functional disruption of eIF2B? caused by R195H as well as by I408T mutations. PMID:25457085

  2. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear. PMID:19372010

  3. Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade III obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [³H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m²] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040, and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h-1 was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971 in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

  4. Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade III obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Alves, Dantas; Elisabeth Salvatori, Ficker; Carmen G. C., Vinagre; Barbara Maria, Ianni; Raul Cavalcante, Maranhão; Charles, Mady.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein meta [...] bolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [³H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m²] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h-1) was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

  5. The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

  6. Osteoclast-rich tumor of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling those of clear cell sarcoma of soft parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xinhua; Li, Dongjie; Chen, Jieyu; Meng, Kui; Wang, Yan; Lu, Zengfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2006-02-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a high-grade sarcoma with morphological features resembling those of malignant melanoma. An osteoclast-rich tumor of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling those of clear cell sarcomas of soft parts is very rare. Herein, we report an unusual stomach tumor with microscopic and immunohistochemical characteristics of an osteoclast-rich tumor of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling those of clear cell sarcomas of soft parts. The tumor cells were predominantly oval, admixed with some round and spindle elements arranged in nests and fascicles, and admixed with scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for S-100 protein, and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells were immunoreactive to CD68. The unusual morphology of the tumor caused significant diagnostic difficulties. The differential diagnosis included gastrointestinal stromal tumor, primary or metastatic melanoma, and epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is possibly the second description of an osteoclast-rich tumor of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling those of clear cell sarcomas of soft parts. PMID:16220298

  7. Resemblance of dinner meals consumption among mother and preschool-aged child dyads from families with limited incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents’ eating habits are associated with food and nutrient intake of their children; yet, the associations have not always been very strong. The objective of this study was to expand the current literature to include an examination of resemblance in intakes of foods, within the context of a meal, ...

  8. Aberrant CCND1 copies and cyclin D1 mRNA expression do not result in the production of functional cyclin D1 protein in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bobos, Mattheos; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kaloutsi, Vassiliki; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Constantine S.; Kostopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Scattered reports in the literature have shown that Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein may be expressed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). ALCLs are characterized by the presence of ALK translocations. Aberrant Cyclin D1 expression seems to promote proliferation in other types of lymphoma, while a growth promoting CCND1/TACSD1(TROP2) fusion product has also been described in tumors. Herein, we investigated 44 ALCL cases for chromosome 11 and CCND1 status (by FISH), c...

  9. Cross-trait familial resemblance for body fat and blood pressure: familial correlations in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T.; Province, M.; Pérusse, L.; Bouchard, C.; Rao, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Cross-trait resemblance between body fat and blood pressure (BP) was examined among families in the Québec Family Study by using a bivariate familial correlation model assessing both intraindividual (e.g., comparison of father's body fat with his own BP) and interindividual (e.g., comparison of father's body fat with son's BP) cross-trait correlations. Each of six body-fat measures-(i) percent body fat, (ii) body-mass index, (iii) the sum of six skinfolds, (iv) the ratio of the sum of six skinfolds to total fat mass, (v) the ratio of the trunk skinfold sum to the extremity skinfold sum, and (vi) the regression of the trunk-extremity skinfold ratio on the sum of six skinfolds--was analyzed separately with systolic BP and with diastolic BP. Results showed that (1) upper-body fat was the strongest interindividual correlate of BP (especially the correlation of trunk-extremity ratio with diastolic BP), suggesting shared pleiotropic genetic and/or common familial environmental effects; (2) summary body-fat measures either were inconsistent (in the case of both percent body fat and sum of six skinfolds) or gave no evidence of interindividual cross-trait resemblance with BP (in the case of body-mass index); and (3) intraindividual resemblance between the sum of six skinfolds and BP largely vanished once the skinfold sum was adjusted for fat mass, suggesting that the intraindividual association may be mediated largely by the absolute amount of subcutaneous fat rather than by the subcutaneous proportion. Finally, the magnitude of the spouse resemblance for the trunk-extremity ratio with diastolic BP suggests that a significant proportion of the resemblance may be due to environmental influences. In summary, our investigation confirms a heritable link between BP and truncal-abdominal fat as predicted by the metabolic-syndrome hypothesis. That this result is obtained in primarily normotensive, nonobese families, suggests the connection involves normal metabolic paths. PMID:7977339

  10. Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations include RMLO, RCC, LMLO, LCC views. Thus here we investigated the interrelation and combination of MTR scoring from several views. METHOD AND MATERIALS The study included mammograms of 495 women (aged 58.0±5.7 years) from the Dutch screening program of which 250 controls were without diagnosis the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step is included to reduce input space dimensionality. Weak local decision scores for pixels were fused into an overall risk score. The dataset was randomly separated into a training data set (60%) and a test data set (40%). Risk scores for combinations of views were obtained by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude that view combination may reduce some of the risk

  11. The latent membrane protein oncoprotein resembles growth factor receptors in the properties of its turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Sugden, B

    1991-12-01

    The latent membrane protein (LMP) of Epstein-Barr virus functions as an oncogene in rodent cell lines (D. Wang, D. Liebowitz, and E. Kieff, Cell, 43: 831-840, 1985; V. R. Baichwal and B. Sugden, Oncogene, 2: 461-467, 1988) and, therefore, is likely to be essential for immortalization of human B-lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus. LMP has a short half-life in Epstein-Barr virus-infected B-lymphoblastoid cells (V. R. Baichwal and B. Sugden, J. Virol., 61: 866-875, 1987; K. P. Mann and D. Thorley-Lawson, J. Virol., 61: 2100-2108, 1987) and in LMP-transformed rodent cell lines (V. R. Baichwal and B. Sugden, Oncogene 2: 461-467, 1988). The hypothesis that the turnover of LMP functions to down-regulate LMP activity has been tested by determining whether the turnover of LMP resembles that of several receptors for growth factors and neurotransmitters. The rapid turnover of LMP in transformed BALB/c 3T3 cells is blocked by cycloheximide, which indicates that turnover requires ongoing protein synthesis. Greater than 90% of newly synthesized LMP is present at the cell surface within 20 min of synthesis, and the detectable protein remains at this location for up to 6 h. If cells are grown in the presence of cycloheximide such that turnover of LMP is inhibited, an internalized pool of LMP can be detected; this observation indicates that turnover of LMP is likely to be preceded by internalization and that, once internalized, LMP is rapidly degraded. Also, this result indicates that the degradation of LMP, as opposed to its internalization, requires ongoing protein synthesis. The turnover of LMP and its biological activity (as assayed by cytotoxicity) are not regulated by factor(s) present only in serum, because the half-life of LMP in cells maintained in serum-free medium does not differ from that in the same cells grown in 5% calf serum. The rapid turnover, the requirement of protein synthesis for turnover, and the internalization of LMP are consistent with the functioning of this protein as a (ligand-dependent or independent) cell surface receptor. PMID:1667088

  12. Wild-type p53 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radionuclide gene therapy using sodium iodide symporter in a murine anaplastic thyroid cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of p53 in radionuclide gene therapy, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of 131I and 188Re following cotransfection of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and wild-type p53 (wt-p53) genes into cancer cells. The NIS gene was transfected to human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) expressing mutant p53 (mt-p53) using liposomes. The uptakes of 125I and 188Re were measured in the transfected (ARO-N) and wild-type cell lines (ARO). A recombinant adenovirus-5 vector containing a CMV promoter and wt-p53 cDNA, called Ad-p53, was established and transduced to ARO and ARO-N cells. After incubating cells with 131I and 188Re, the survival rate of each cell line was measured using a clonogenic assay. For radionuclide gene therapy in an animal model, Ad-p53 was injected directly into ARO and ARO-N tumours which were transplanted to nude mice. Two days later, 188Re or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the mice, and the tumours were measured using a calliper for 4 weeks. In ARO-N cells, the uptakes of 125I and 188Re were 505.16±21.30 pmol/106 cells and 13,875.20±504.85 cpm/106 cells at 30 min, respectively. There was no difference between the survival rates of ARO cells and ARO-N cells after incubation with 131I or 188Re. When Ad-p53 was transduced to ARO-N cells, the survival rate of wt-p53-expressing ARO- survival rate of wt-p53-expressing ARO-N cells incubated with 131I (18.5 MBq/5 ml) and 188Re (18.5 MBq/5 ml) decreased to 48.8±18.4% and 32.6±23.5%, respectively. In the nude mice experiment, ARO and ARO-N tumours gradually grew up to six to eight times larger than the initial volume. ARO and ARO-N tumours transduced with Ad-p53 continued to grow. However, the ARO-N tumours treated with Ad-p53 and 185 MBq of 188Re regressed to 20% of the initial volume. Growth of ARO-N tumour treated with 131I or 188Re was significantly inhibited by Ad-p53 transduction in vivo as well as in vitro. Transfection of the NIS gene into human anaplastic thyroid cancer induced the accumulation of beta-emitter radionuclides, and cotransfection with a wt-p53 gene enhanced the cytotoxic effect. (orig.)

  13. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

  14. Case report: a unique pediatric case of a primary CD8 expressing ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaiser Timo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary involvement of skeletal muscle is a very rare event in ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL. We describe a case of a 10-year old boy presenting with a three week history of pain and a palpable firm swelling at the dorsal aspect of the left thigh. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a tumoral and diffuse polymorphic infiltration of the muscle by large lymphoid cells. Tumor cells displayed eccentric, lobulated "horse shoe" or "kidney-shape" nuclei. The cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for CD30, ALK-1, CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, and Perforin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a characteristic rearrangement of the ALK-1 gene in 2p23 leading to the diagnosis of ALK-1 positive ALCL. Chemotherapy according to the ALCL-99-NHL-BFM protocol was initiated and resulted in a complete remission after two cycles. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of a pediatric ALCL in soft tissue with a good response to chemotherapy.

  15. Case report: A unique pediatric case of a primary CD8 expressing ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Timo; Geissinger, Eva; Schattenberg, Torsten; Scharf, Hanns-Peter; Dürken, Matthias; Dinter, Dietmar; Rosenwald, Andreas; Marx, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Primary involvement of skeletal muscle is a very rare event in ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We describe a case of a 10-year old boy presenting with a three week history of pain and a palpable firm swelling at the dorsal aspect of the left thigh. Histological examination of the lesion revealed a tumoral and diffuse polymorphic infiltration of the muscle by large lymphoid cells. Tumor cells displayed eccentric, lobulated "horse shoe" or "kidney-shape" nuclei. The cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for CD30, ALK-1, CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8, and Perforin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed a characteristic rearrangement of the ALK-1 gene in 2p23 leading to the diagnosis of ALK-1 positive ALCL. Chemotherapy according to the ALCL-99-NHL-BFM protocol was initiated and resulted in a complete remission after two cycles. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of a pediatric ALCL in soft tissue with a good response to chemotherapy. PMID:22497840

  16. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Piazza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs through recruitment of MeCP2 and the SIN3a/histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2 corepressor complex. This event requires BIM CpG methylation/demethylation with 5-azacytidine that leads to detachment of the MeCP2 corepressor complex and reacetylation of the histone tails. Treatment with the ALK inhibitor PF2341066 or with an inducible shRNA targeting NPM/ALK does not restore BIM locus reacetylation; however, enforced expression of NPM/ALK in an NPM/ALK-negative cell line significantly increases the methylation at the BIM locus. This study demonstrates that BIM is epigenetically silenced in NPM/ALK-positive cells through recruitment of the SIN3a/HDAC1/2 corepressor complex and that NPM/ALK is dispensable to maintain BIM epigenetic silencing but is able to act as an inducer of BIM methylation.

  17. An interaction map of small-molecule kinase inhibitors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutants in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xinghao; Shen, Shengping; Shen, Lan; Lu, Shun

    2015-05-01

    Human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become a well-established target for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we have profiled seven small-molecule inhibitors, including 2 that are approved drugs, against a panel of clinically relevant mutations in ALK tyrosine kinase (TK) domain, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying inhibitor response to ALK TK mutation. We find that (i) the gatekeeper mutation L1196M causes crizotinib resistance by simultaneously increasing and decreasing the binding affinities of, respectively, ATP and inhibitor to ALK, whereas the secondary mutation C1156Y, which is located far away from the ATP-binding site of ALK TK domain, causes the resistance by inducing marked allosteric effect on the site, (ii) the 2nd and 3rd generation kinase inhibitors exhibit relatively high sensitivity towards ALK mutants as compared to 1st generation inhibitors, (iii) the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine is insensitive for most mutations due to its high structural compatibility, and (iv) ATP affinity to ALK is generally reduced upon most clinically relevant mutations. Furthermore, we also identify six novel mutation-inhibitor pairs that are potentially associated with drug resistance. In addition, the G1202R and C1156Y mutations are expected to generally cause resistance for many existing inhibitors, since they can address significant effect on the geometric shape and physicochemical property of ALK active pocket. PMID:25769414

  18. Additive effect by combination of Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, and PDGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1296, in suppressing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell viability and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Huan-Yong; Guo, Hang-Yuan; Si, Xu-Wei; You, Qiao-Ying; Lou, Wei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases regulate many tumorigenesis related cellular processes including cell metabolism, cell survival, cell motility, and angiogenesis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare type of thyroid cancer with no effective systemic therapy. It has been shown that Akt activation is associated with tumor progression in ATC. Here we observed the additive effect between an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) and a novel platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor (tyrphostin AG 1296) in ATC therapy. We found an additive effect between MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 in suppressing ATC cell viability. The combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induces additive apoptosis, additive suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, as well as additive inhibition of cell migration and invasion of ATC cells. Furthermore, the combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induced additive suppression of ATC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that the combination of Akt and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an efficient therapeutic strategy for ATC treatment, which might shed new light on ATC therapy. PMID:24665203

  19. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancio, Walter; Carina, Valeria; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Laura; Pitrone, Maria; Baiamonte, Concetta; Amato, Marco Calogero; Giordano, Carla

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. PMID:25705224

  20. Isolation of gram-positive rods that resemble but are clearly distinct from Actinomyces pyogenes from mixed wound infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu?st, J.; Lucchini, G. M.; Lu?thy-hottenstein, J.; Brun, F.; Altwegg, M.

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, gram-positive rods resembling Actinomyces pyogenes were found with increasing frequency in mixed cultures from various infectious processes, most of them from patients with otitis, empyema, pilonidal cysts, perianal abscesses, and decubitus ulcers. Ribotyping and hybridization showed that these gram-positive rods could be divided into five groups not related to known Actinomyces species. Biochemical markers for reliable differentiation into these groups, however, could not ...

  1. Are there mappable genes for family resemblance for the magnitude of intra-individual variation in systolic blood pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichs Anthony; Lin Jennifer; Suarez Brian K

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The genetic regulation of variation in intra-individual fluctuations in systolic blood pressure over time is poorly understood. Analysis of the magnitude of the average fluctuation of a person's systolic blood pressure around his or her age-adjusted trend line, however, shows moderate, albeit significant, family resemblance in Cohort 1 of the Framingham Heart Study. To determine whether genomic regions affecting this phenotype could be identified, we pursued a "model-free"...

  2. Cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating: correlations between parent and adolescent. : Familial resemblance in eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Heude, Barbara; Basdevant, Arnaud; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, in a general population, the resemblance in eating behaviour between adolescents and their parents. This study was based on the first examination of a community-based epidemiological study in Northern France. Subjects were offspring aged 14-22 years (135 boys and 125 girls) and their parents (174 fathers and 205 mothers). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18) identified three aspects of eating behaviour: cognitive re...

  3. Bruck 88 : a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 +- 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a Bright Red...

  4. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Jen Chen; Yinghui Liu; Youfa Wang

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-...

  5. A mental hook for learning the three-dimensional anatomy of the sphenoid bone: an angelic resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope

    2010-07-01

    The sphenoid bone seems to resemble a biblical angel. The angel had six wings, and used two to cover the eyes (lesser wings with optic canal representing the eyes), two to fly (greater wings), and two (broad lateral pterygoid plates) to cover the feet (medial pterygoid plates with hamulus). This illustration may help surgical trainees to conceptualise and understand the clinical implications of this wide-ranging bone. PMID:20472332

  6. Meiotic crossover number and distribution are regulated by a dosage compensation protein that resembles a condensin subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chun J.; Mets, David G.; Albrecht, Michael R.; Nix, Paola; Chan, Annette; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Biological processes that function chromosome-wide are not well understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans protein DPY-28 controls two such processes, X-chromosome dosage compensation in somatic cells and meiotic crossover number and distribution in germ cells. DPY-28 resembles a subunit of condensin, a conserved complex required for chromosome compaction and segregation. In the soma, DPY-28 associates with the dosage compensation complex on hermaphrodite X chromosomes to repre...

  7. White Spot Syndrome Virus Induces Metabolic Changes Resembling the Warburg Effect in Shrimp Hemocytes in the Early Stage of Infection ?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSS...

  8. Development of a Spontaneous Liver Disease Resembling Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice Lacking Tyro3, Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Nan; Liu, Peipei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe type of chronic liver disease. The lack of appropriate animal models has resulted in a limited understanding regarding the etiology of AIH. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient in Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) developed persistent inflammatory liver damage resembling AIH. Tyro3?/?Axl?/?Mer?/? triple mutant (TAM?/?) mice exhibited chronic hepatitis, manifested by progressive appearance of interface hepatiti...

  9. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Preisinger Rudolf; Sharifi Ahmad R; Weigend Steffen; Philipp Hans-Christian; Cn, Schwarz Susanne; Trapp Sascha; Kothlow Sonja; Bader Sophie R; Schmahl Wolfgang; Kaspers Bernd; Matiasek Kaspar

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from o...

  10. Socioeconomic and demographic factors for spousal resemblance in obesity status and habitual physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  11. Searching for resemblance between large-scale sea level pressure patterns leading to ``intense'' precipitation events over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, N.; Maugeri, M.; Dalan, F.; Brunetti, M.; Nanni, T.; Speranza, A.

    2009-01-01

    How strong is the resemblance between two states of the atmosphere leading to the same outcome? In the following pages this question was addressed by studying the resemblance of the surface pressure fields, obtained by NCEP reanalyses, corresponding to “intense” precipitation events over 5 Italian climatic areas. Such “intense” precipitation events were selected by means of 45 daily precipitation records covering the period from 1951 to 2000. Two pressure patterns that resemble one another are termed soft-analogues in this paper. The mathematical measures used to assess the difference between two pressure patterns were: the root-mean-square difference, the correlation, and the S1 score. The comparison outcomes were categorized into classes according to the previous measures. Once a couple of the pressure patterns were found to be good soft-analogues (that was a rare occurrence), these pressure patterns were compared with all pressure patterns excluded by the initial selection being not associated with intense precipitation events. The few soft-analogues associated with “intense” precipitation events were found to be also soft-analogue to several, and sometimes a great deal of, pressure patterns not associated with the selected “intense” precipitation events.

  12. A phase II trial of primary temozolomide in patients with grade III oligodendroglial brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Hui K.; Rosenthal, Mark A.; Dowling, Anthony; Kalnins, Renate; Algar, Elizabeth; Wong, Nicholas; Benson, Angela; Woods, Anne-Marie; Cher, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Glial tumors with oligodendroglial components are considered chemo-responsive. Forty newly diagnosed patients (11 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas [OD] and 29 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas [OA]) were enrolled into this multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase II trial of first-line temozolomide (200 mg/m2 on days 1–5 every 4 weeks for 6 cycles). The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) with response rate (RR), median PFS, and median overall survival (OS) as secondary e...

  13. Cross-trait familial resemblance for body fat and blood pressure: familial correlations in the Québec Family Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, T.; Province, M.; Pe?russe, L.; Bouchard, C.; Rao, D C

    1994-01-01

    Cross-trait resemblance between body fat and blood pressure (BP) was examined among families in the Québec Family Study by using a bivariate familial correlation model assessing both intraindividual (e.g., comparison of father's body fat with his own BP) and interindividual (e.g., comparison of father's body fat with son's BP) cross-trait correlations. Each of six body-fat measures-(i) percent body fat, (ii) body-mass index, (iii) the sum of six skinfolds, (iv) the ratio of the sum of six ski...

  14. Path analysis of family resemblance with temporal trends: applications to height, weight, and Quetelet index in northeastern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Province, M.A.; Rao, D C

    1985-01-01

    A multifactorial model incorporating temporal trends in its parameters is discussed. The model is a generalization of the tau model of Rice et al. in which the parameters are assumed to be specific functions of time. A special case of this model is fit to data on height, weight, and Quetelet index in 1,067 nuclear families to demonstrate the utility of the approach. The results indicate that there is considerable temporal variation in family resemblance over time for all three traits. For hei...

  15. Digital Redesign of Undesign Interval Systems Based on Frequency-Response Resemblance via a Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chen-Chien; Gao, Chun-Hwui

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid optimizer incorporating particle swarm optimization (PSO) and an enhanced NM simplex search method is proposed to derive an optimal digital controller for uncertain interval systems based on frequency-response resemblance. By combining the uncertain plant and controller, extremal systems for the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart can be obtained as the basis for comparison. The design problem is then formulated as an optimization problem of an aggregated error function in terms of deviation on frequency response between the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart, and subsequently optimized by the proposed optimizer to obtain an optimal set of parameters for the digital controller.

  16. Two-dimensional proteome reference map of Rhizobium tropici PRF 81 reveals several symbiotic determinants and strong resemblance with agrobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Batista, Jesiane Stefania da Silva; Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; de Souza Andrade, Diva; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitoria; Hungria, Mariangela

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81 is used in commercial inoculants for common-bean crops in Brazil because of its high efficiency in nitrogen fixation and, as in other strains belonging to this species, its tolerance of environmental stresses, representing a useful biological alternative to chemical nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, a proteomic reference map of PRF 81 was obtained by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. In total, 115 spots representing 109 different proteins were successfully identified, contributing to a better understanding of the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and supporting, at proteomics level, a strong resemblance with agrobacteria. PMID:22539436

  17. Pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma: The association of arterio-venous malformations with skin lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient is described with skin lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Arteriography revealed multiple arteriovenous malformations in the affected limb. This condition has been termed pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma. Although reports of this condition have appeared in dermatological journals, as yet we are unaware of any account in the radiological literature. This paper presents a case and reviews the literature. In suspected cases of KS in which the history or clinical features are atypical, this unusual condition should be considered and a search made for the diagnostic vascular lesions. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Radiologisches Institut, Markuskrankenhaus Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian [Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Pathology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the published data for future treatment decision-making remains difficult when the histologic diagnosis has not been based on the new improved classification system.

  19. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangements in patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: CT characteristics and response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few articles have been published on the imaging findings of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To investigate the radiological findings of ALK-positive NSCLC in the advanced stage, CT scans were examined. In addition, the response to chemotherapy was evaluated. Of the 36 patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC, a mass and a nodule were identified in 17 (47.2%) and 16 (44.4%), respectively, indicating that more than 40% had a small-sized tumor. Overall, 31 (86.1%) patients had lymphadenopathy, seven (19.4%) had extranodal lymph node invasion, and three (8.3%) had lymphangitis. A pleural effusion was seen in 15 patients (41.7%). All but one patient had no ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions, indicating that most ALK-positive tumors showed a solid growth pattern without GGO on CT. Twenty were evaluable for response to chemotherapy; 10 (50.0%) had a partial response (PR), nine (45.0%) had stable disease (SD), and one (5.0%) had progressive disease (PD) with first-line chemotherapy. With second-line chemotherapy, five (26.3%) had PR, 11 (57.9%) had SD, and three (15.8%) had PD. The five patients with PR were all treated by using crizotinib. Time to progression was 8.2 months with first-line chemotherapy, and 6.0 months with second-line chemotherapy. Advanced-stage ALK-positive tumors have a relatively aggressive phenotype, which cannot be inferred from the size of the tumor alone. ALK-positive patients have a good response to first-line cytotoxic drugs and to crizotinib as second-line therapy, but a relatively poor response to cytotoxic drugs as second-line therapy

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and human ether-a'-go-go-related gene potassium channels modulate migration in human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Yasir; Viitanen, Tero; Kemppainen, Kati; Törnquist, Kid

    2012-10-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive form of human thyroid cancer, lacking any effective treatment. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and human ether-a'-go-go-related gene (HERG (KCNH2)) potassium channels are important modulators of cell migration. In this study, we have shown that the S1P(1-3) receptors are expressed in C643 and THJ-16T human ATC cell lines, both at mRNA and protein level. S1P inhibited migration of these cells and of follicular FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells. Using the S1P(1,3) inhibitor VPC-23019, the S1P(2) inhibitor JTE-013, and the S1P(2) receptor siRNA, we showed that the effect was mediated through S1P(2). Treatment of the cells with the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase abolished the effect of S1P on migration. S1P attenuated Rac activity, and inhibiting Rac decreased migration. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor enhanced basal migration of cells, and addition of exogenous S1P inhibited migration. C643 cells expressed a nonconducting HERG protein, and S1P decreased HERG protein expression. The HERG blocker E-4031 decreased migration. Interestingly, downregulating HERG protein with siRNA decreased the basal migration. In experiments using HEK cells overexpressing HERG, we showed that S1P decreased channel protein expression and current and that S1P attenuated migration of the cells. We conclude that S1P attenuates migration of C643 ATC cells by activating S1P(2) and the Rho pathway. The attenuated migration is also, in part, dependent on a S1P-induced decrease of HERG protein. PMID:22889737

  1. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important role in the development of radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer. (authors)

  2. Radiotherapy and temozolomide in anaplastic astrocytoma: a retrospective multicenter study by the Central Nervous System Study Group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoccianti, Silvia; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Ricardi, Umberto; Detti, Beatrice; Krengli, Marco; Parisi, Salvatore; Bertoni, Filippo; Sotti, Guido; Cipressi, Samantha; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Dall'oglio, Stefano; Lioce, Marco; Saieva, Calogero; Buglione, Michela; Mantovani, Cristina; Rubino, Giovanni; Muto, Paolo; Fusco, Vincenzo; Fariselli, Laura; de Renzis, Costantino; Masini, Laura; Santoni, Riccardo; Pirtoli, Luigi; Biti, Giampaolo

    2012-06-01

    Although the evidence for the benefit of adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy (RT) is limited to glioblastoma patients, there is currently a trend toward treating anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) with combined RT + TMZ. The aim of the present study was to describe the patterns of care of patients affected by AA and, particularly, to compare the outcome of patients treated exclusively with RT with those treated with RT + TMZ. Data of 295 newly diagnosed AAs treated with postoperative RT ± TMZ in the period from 2002 to 2007 were reviewed. More than 75% of patients underwent a surgical removal. All the patients had postoperative RT; 86.1% of them were treated with 3D-conformal RT (3D-CRT). Sixty-seven percent of the entire group received postoperative chemotherapy with TMZ (n = 198). One-hundred sixty-six patients received both concomitant and sequential TMZ. Prescription of postoperative TMZ increased in the most recent period (2005-2007). One- and 4-year survival rates were 70.2% and 28.6%, respectively. No statistically significant improvement in survival was observed with the addition of TMZ to RT (P = .59). Multivariate analysis showed the statistical significance of age, presence of seizures, Recursive Partitioning Analysis classes I-III, extent of surgical removal, and 3D-CRT. Changes in the care of AA over the past years are documented. Currently there is not evidence to justify the addition of TMZ to postoperative RT for patients with newly diagnosed AA outside a clinical trial. Results of prospective and randomized trials are needed. PMID:22539339

  3. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK 1) staining and molecular analysis in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the bladder: a preliminary clinicopathological study of nine cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Alex; Geddes, Nicola; Munson, Philippa; Joseph, Jean; Ramani, Pramila; Sandison, Ann; Fisher, Cyril; Parkinson, M Connie

    2004-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMFT) may arise at any anatomical site, including lung, soft tissues, retroperitoneum and bladder. Although morphologically similar, these lesions encompass a spectrum of entities with differing aetiology, ranging from reactive/regenerative proliferations to low-grade neoplasms with a risk of local recurrence, but no significant metastatic potential. Vesical IMFT usually presents as a polypoid mass with a pale firm cut surface and can be of considerable size, mimicking a malignant tumour clinically and radiologically. Its good outcome, however, warrants conservative surgical excision, emphasising the importance of identification and distinction from malignant tumours of the bladder that may require more radical surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. We conducted a preliminary retrospective, comparative immunocytochemical study of 20 bladder tumours, including nine IMFTs, five spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinomas, two rhabdomyosarcomas, two leiomyosarcomas and two neurofibromas. The results confirmed IMFT positivity for smooth muscle actin, desmin and cytokeratin in 78-89% cases, resulting in potential confusion with sarcomatoid carcinoma or leiomyosarcoma. In contrast, cytoplasmic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK 1) staining was present in eight IMFT (89%), but was not seen in any other lesion examined. The ALK 1 staining was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, with translocation of the ALK gene present in 15-60% tumour cells in four of six IMFT examined, but not in four cases of sarcomatoid carcinoma or three of leiomyosarcoma. In conclusion, ALK 1 staining may be of value in the distinction of vesical IMFT from morphologically similar entities, and often reflects ALK gene translocations in these lesions. PMID:15105807

  4. Correlation of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Overexpression and the EML4-ALK Fusion Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Feng Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene with transforming activity was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In addition, NSCLC patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene had a dramatic response and longer progression free survival after ALK inhibitor treatment than those without this fusion gene. However, the incidence and clinical and molecular characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC patients of Taiwan are still unclear.Methods:Sixty-four fresh frozen tumor specimens were obtained from the tissue bank of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for RNA extraction and EML4-ALK fusion gene detection. Paraffin sections of lung tumors from all of these patients were available and were analyzed for ALK protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC study. The results were correlated with clinical and molecular biomarkers.Results: Three of the 64 tumors (4.7% had the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Two were adenocarcinomas, and one was adenosquamous carcinoma. Twenty patients with non-squamous cell carcinomas had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations, so the EML4-ALK fusion gene was found in 14.3% of EGFR wild type non-squamous cell carcinomas. Two tumors were variant 3 (3a+3b with 3b predominant and had strong staining (3+ for ALK by IHC stains. One tumor was variant 1 and had moderate staining (2+ for ALK. None of the ALK wild type tumors had strong staining for ALK. When compared with other clinical and molecular features, only the IHC stain for ALK was significantly correlated with the EML4-ALK fusion gene (p = 0.0002.Conclusions: ALK overexpression detected by IHC study could be a promising detection method for the EML4-ALK fusion gene and is worth further confirmation with more samples.

  5. Phase I Study of Ceritinib (LDK378) in Japanese Patients with Advanced, Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Rearranged Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer or Other Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Haruyasu; Horiike, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Hirai, Fumihiko; Suenaga, Naoko; Tajima, Takeshi; Tokushige, Kota; Ishii, Masami; Boral, Anthony; Robson, Matthew; Seto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is sensitive to ALK inhibitors, but resistance develops. This study assessed the maximum-tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor activity of ceritinib, a novel ALK inhibitor (ALKi), in Japanese patients with ALK-rearranged malignancies. Methods: This phase I, multicenter, open-label study (NCT01634763) enrolled adult patients with ALK-rearranged (by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry) locally advanced/metastatic malignancy that had progressed despite standard therapy. The study comprised two parts: dose escalation and dose expansion. Ceritinib (single-dose) was administered orally in the 3-day PK run-in period, then once daily, in 21-day cycles. Adaptive dose escalations were guided by a Bayesian model. Results: Twenty patients (80% with ALKi treatment history [ALKi-pretreated]; 19 NSCLC; one inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor) received ceritinib 300 to 750?mg (19 during dose escalation, one in dose expansion). Two dose-limiting toxicities occurred: grade 3 lipase increase (600?mg); grade 3 drug-induced liver injury (750?mg). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (nausea: 95%; diarrhea, vomiting: 75%). Ceritinib PK profile was dose proportional across 300 to 750?mg dosages; steady state was reached by day 15. Overall response rate was 55% (11 of 20 patients). Among patients with NSCLC, partial response was observed in two of four ALKi-naive patients, five of nine crizotinib-pretreated patients, two of four alectinib-pretreated patients, and one of two crizotinib and alectinib/ASP3026 pretreated patients. The ASP3026-pretreated inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor patient achieved partial response. Conclusions: Ceritinib maximum-tolerated dose was 750?mg once daily in Japanese patients. Antitumor activity was observed irrespective of prior ALKi treatment history. Dose expansion, examining the activity of ceritinib in alectinib-resistant patients, is ongoing. PMID:26020125

  6. Diagnostic and therapeutic issues for patients with advanced non?small cell lung cancer harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement: European vs. US perspective (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Massimo; De Marinis, Filippo; Hirsch, Fred R; Gridelli, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The recent availability of crizotinib in clinical practice, for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement, has relevant implications for both the diagnostic phase and the treatment choices. In the United States, crizotinib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for patients with ALK positivity detected by FDA-approved companion diagnostic test. As of January, 2014, the only FDA-approved diagnostic test is Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. In Europe, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved crizotinib for ALK-positive patients in 2012, without specifying the type of test used for determining the positivity. FISH remains the reference technique for ALK determination, but, if fully validated, immunohistochemistry could challenge the current ALK screening practice. Given the robust evidence of activity of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients both pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve, and the favourable tolerability profile of the drug, many oncologists would prefer to administer the drug as early as possible. This is technically feasible in the United States, where crizotinib was approved well before the availability of the results of the randomized phase III trial comparing the drug with standard second-line chemotherapy, and the use of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients is not restricted to a specific line of treatment. On the contrary, in Europe, differently from the FDA decision, crizotinib cannot be used in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In both realities, a deeper knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, the role of repeated biopsies, the treatment strategy for patients experiencing disease progression with crizotinib, the choice of the best chemotherapy regimen are challenging topics for the management of ALK-positive patients in clinical practice. PMID:24859689

  7. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of se (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important role in the development of radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer. (authors)

  8. IDH mutant diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas have similar age at presentation and little difference in survival: a grading problem for WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, David E; Mamatjan, Yasin; Schrimpf, Daniel; Capper, David; Hovestadt, Volker; Kratz, Annekathrin; Sahm, Felix; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Olar, Adriana; Hartmann, Christian; Reijneveld, Jaap C; Wesseling, Pieter; Unterberg, Andreas; Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Herold-Mende, Christel; Aldape, Kenneth; von Deimling, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    The WHO 2007 classification of tumors of the CNS distinguishes between diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II (A IIWHO2007) and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (AA III WHO2007). Patients with A II WHO2007 are significantly younger and survive significantly longer than those with AA III WHO2007. So far, classification and grading relies on morphological grounds only and does not yet take into account IDH status, a molecular marker of prognostic relevance. We here demonstrate that WHO 2007 grading performs poorly in predicting prognosis when applied to astrocytoma carrying IDH mutations. Three independent series including a total of 1360 adult diffuse astrocytic gliomas with IDH mutation containing 683 A II IDHmut, 562 AA III IDHmut and 115 GBM IDHmut have been examined for age distribution and survival. In all three series patients with A II IDHmut and AA III IDHmut were of identical age at presentation of disease (36-37 years) and the difference in survival between grades was much less (10.9 years for A II IDHmut, 9.3 years for AA III IDHmut) than that reported for A II WHO2007 versus AA III WHO2007. Our analyses imply that the differences in age and survival between A II WHO2007 and AA III WHO2007 predominantly depend on the fraction of IDH-non-mutant astrocytomas in the cohort. This data poses a substantial challenge for the current practice of astrocytoma grading and risk stratification and is likely to have far-reaching consequences on the management of patients with IDH-mutant astrocytoma. PMID:25962792

  9. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  10. Severe cytokine release syndrome after the first dose of Brentuximab Vedotin in a patient with relapsed systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL): a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alig, Stefan K; Dreyling, Martin; Seppi, Bettina; Aulinger, Benedikt; Witkowski, Lukas; Rieger, Christina T

    2015-06-01

    Brentuximab Vedotin is an antibody - drug conjugate targeting CD30. We report a case of severe cytokine release syndrome (CRS) after administration of the first dose of Brentuximab Vedotin in a 64-yr-old patient with relapsed systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). To our knowledge, this is the first case of CRS to Brentuximab Vedotin described in the literature. However, CRS to Brentuximab Vedotin might be underestimated, as the drug has not been tested in large phase III trials yet. PMID:24913471

  11. Bruck 88: a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2014-12-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra, we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour-magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 ± 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a bright red giant (BRG) star located ˜2.6 arcsec in the sky from the cluster centre. We serendipitously observed HW 33, a star cluster located ?3 arcmin to the south-east from Bruck 88. We obtained for the cluster the same age than Bruck 88 and surprisingly, a BRG star located within the cluster radius also appears to be compatible with the cluster age. We estimated the MK type of the BRG star in the Bruck 88 field to be in the range G9 II/Ib-K1 III. By combining the spectrum of a star within this MK type range with a 100-150 Myr template cluster integrated spectrum, we found that a proportion 85/15 in the sense BRG/template results in a spectrum which best resembles that of Bruck 88. This result confirms that a BRG star dominates the cluster integrated spectrum, so that it causes the globular cluster appearance of its integrated light.

  12. Recent radiation within Y-chromosomal haplogroup R-M269 resulted in high Y-STR haplotype resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; van Oven, Mannis; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-03-01

    Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are often used in addition to Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) to detect subtle patterns in a population genetic structure. There are, however, indications for Y-STR haplotype resemblance across different subhaplogroups within haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) which may lead to erosion in the observation of the population genetic pattern. Hence the question arises whether Y-STR haplotypes are still informative beyond high-resolution Y-SNP genotyping for population genetic studies. To address this question, we genotyped the Y chromosomes of more than 1000 males originating from the West-European regions of Flanders (Belgium), North-Brabant and Limburg (the Netherlands) at the highest resolution of the current Y-SNP tree together with 38 commonly used Y-STRs. We observed high resemblance of Y-STR haplotypes between males belonging to different subhaplogroups of haplogroup R-M269. Several subhaplogroups within R-M269 could not be distinguished from each other based on differences in Y-STR haplotype variation. The most likely hypothesis to explain this similarity of Y-STR haplotypes within the population of R-M269 members is a recent radiation where various subhaplogroups originated within a relatively short time period. We conclude that high-resolution Y-SNP typing rather than Y-STR typing might be more useful to study population genetic patterns in (Western) Europe. PMID:24571229

  13. Path analysis of family resemblance with temporal trends: applications to height, weight, and Quetelet index in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Province, M A; Rao, D C

    1985-01-01

    A multifactorial model incorporating temporal trends in its parameters is discussed. The model is a generalization of the tau model of Rice et al. in which the parameters are assumed to be specific functions of time. A special case of this model is fit to data on height, weight, and Quetelet index in 1,067 nuclear families to demonstrate the utility of the approach. The results indicate that there is considerable temporal variation in family resemblance over time for all three traits. For height and Quetelet index, both the transmissibility, comparable to heritability, and residual sibling environmental correlation show temporal changes, while for weight, only the latter exhibits significant trends. Trends were not found in the marital correlation for any of the traits, and only limited evidence was found for trends in the maternal transmission parameter for height. This provides an objective method for evaluating the nature and sources of temporal trends in family resemblance, which can easily be incorporated into the framework of any model-based approach. PMID:3976658

  14. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  15. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  16. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  17. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed typical histological images of dissolution of the connective tissue matrix around eosinophils. Conclusion The present study shows that a timely regulated influx of infiltrating leukocytes is associated with an extensive collagen remodeling process that allows the pubic separation for a normal delivery in guinea-pig. Thus, the findings in this study support the hypothesis that the guinea-pig pubic symphyseal relaxation at parturition resembles an inflammatory process.

  18. An analysis on equal width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding-based discretization and its performance resemblances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2011-12-01

    Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general L p distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.

  19. Nonparenchymal cells cultivated from explants of fibrotic liver resemble endothelial and smooth muscle cells from blood vessel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue specimens from human fibrotic liver obtained by needle biopsy were cultured. Two cell types emerged from the tissue explants. From their morphology and biosynthetic products they resembled smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from blood vessel walls. In the endothelial cells, factor VIII-associated protein was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Synthesis of collagen types I and III, basement membrane collagen types IV and V, and fibronectin by both cell types was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle cells were observed in subcultures. After incubation with [14C]glycine, collagen was isolated and characterized by CM cellulose chromatography, and consisted mainly of types I and III. These data suggest involvement of mesenchymal cells in hepatic fibrosis; they presumably originate from blood vessel or sinusoidal walls

  20. Auricular chondritis in fawn-hooded rats. A spontaneous disorder resembling that induced by immunization with type II collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D J; Young, D M; Counts, D F

    1984-07-01

    A spontaneous apparently unique auricular chondritis in the pinna of fawn-hooded rats is described. The chondritis was bilateral, with adult onset, and resulted in a marked thickening of the auricular cartilage. Microscopically, islands of proliferative cartilage were present, and at the margins between the normal cartilage and the thickened abnormal cartilage a marked cellular inflammatory response was present. The condition was familial in rats of the fawn-hooded strain and appeared to be unrelated to the platelet storage pool deficiency in this strain of rats. Biochemically no increased synthesis of pinna cartilage was detected. No histopathologic lesions were detected in other cartilaginous tissues of affected rats. The lesions in the pinna bore a striking resemblance to those induced in rats by immunization with Type II collagen. The spontaneous condition described herein may, therefore, represent a unique model of relapsing polychondritis of human beings, a disease with auricular chondritis associated with antibodies to Type II collagen. PMID:6331169

  1. Sialylation by ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM?mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin?8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H?ALCL) which was established in our laboratory. The knockdown of ??galactoside ??2,6?sialyltrans-ferase (ST6Gal1) by siRNA showed inhibition of ST6Gal1 expression in the cytoplasm of H?ALCL cells on immunohistochemical findings, and showed dramatic enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin?8. On the other hand, ??2,3?specific neuraminidase treatment resulted in moderate enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin?8. We performed chemically artificial modification of cell surface O?glycans by treatment of benzyl 2?acetamido?2?deoxy???D?galactopyranoside (Bz???GalNAc) in H?ALCL. Cell adhesion to galectin?8 was enhanced by treatment of Bz???GalNAc suggesting that inhibition of elongation of O?glycans may enhance cell adhesion to galectin?8 in H?ALCL cells. On the other hand inhibition of elongation of N?glycosylation by tunicamycin (TM) resulted in inhibition of Phaseolus vulgaris?L (L?PHA) lectin?binding activity and inhibited cell adhesion to galectin?8, laminin and fibronectin. Neuraminidase treatment enhanced cell adhesion to laminin, and knockdown of ST6Gal1 resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to laminin, but not to fibronectin, collagen type 1 and 4. Galectin?8 pre?treatment dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to laminin and neuraminidase treatment also enhanced cell adhesion to laminin in combination with galectin?8. Rho inhibitor, C3?transferase pre?treatment resulted in inhibition of cell invasion to galectin?8. Phosphatidylinositol 3?phosphate kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin inhibits the cell invasive capacity to galectin?8. Neuraminidase treatment induces growth inhibition of lymphoma cells by galectin?8. PMID:25573487

  2. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast arising in reconstruction mammoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for breast cancer: an unusual case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sur Monalisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL of the breast represents 0.04–0.5% of malignant lesions of the breast and accounts for 1.7–2.2% of extra-nodal NHL. Most primary cases are of B-cell phenotype and only rare cases are of T-cell phenotype. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma typically seen in children and young adults with the breast being one of the least common locations. There are a total of eleven cases of primary ALCL of the breast described in the literature. Eight of these cases occurred in proximity to breast implants, four in relation to silicone breast implant and three in relation to saline filled breast implant with three out of the eight implant related cases having previous history of breast cancer treated surgically. Adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy is given in only one case. Secondary hematological malignancies after breast cancer chemotherapy have been reported in literature. However in contrast to acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the association between lymphoma and administration of chemotherapy has never been clearly demonstrated. Case Presentation In this report we present a case of primary ALCL of the breast arising in reconstruction mamoplasty capsule of saline filled breast implant after radical mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma followed by postoperative chemotherapy twelve years ago. Conclusion Primary ALK negative ALCL arising at the site of saline filled breast implant is rare. It is still unclear whether chemotherapy and breast implantation increases risk of secondary hematological malignancies significantly. However, it is important to be aware of these complications and need for careful pathologic examination of tissue removed for implant related complications to make the correct diagnosis for further patient management and treatment. It is important to be aware of this entity at this site as it can be easily misdiagnosed on histologic grounds and to exclude sarcomatoid carcinoma, malignant melanoma and pleomorphic sarcoma by an appropriate panel of immunostains to arrive at the correct diagnosis of ALCL.

  3. ATIC-ALK: A novel variant ALK gene fusion in anaplastic large cell lymphoma resulting from the recurrent cryptic chromosomal inversion, inv(2)(p23q35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, G W; Bridge, J A; Garicochea, B; Liu, J; Filippa, D A; Ladanyi, M

    2000-03-01

    The subset of CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) with the NPM-ALK gene fusion arising from the t(2;5)(p23;q35) forms a distinct clinical and prognostic entity. Recently, various cytogenetic, molecular, and protein studies have provided evidence for the existence of several types of variant ALK fusions in up to 20% of ALK+ ALCL, of which only one, a TPM3-ALK fusion resulting from a t(1;2)(q25;p23), has so far been cloned. A cryptic inv(2)(p23q35) has been described as another recurrent cytogenetic alteration involving ALK and an unidentified fusion partner in some ALCL. In a screen for variant ALK gene fusions, we identified two ALCL that were negative for NPM-ALK by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, but were positive for cytoplasmic ALK with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the ALK tyrosine kinase domain, consistent with ALK deregulation by an alteration other than the t(2;5) Case 1 was a T-lineage nodal and cutaneous ALCL in a 52-year-old woman, and Case 2 was a T-lineage nodal ALCL in a 12-year-old girl. FISH analysis confirmed ALK rearrangement in both cases. An inverse polymerase chain reaction approach was then used to identify the ALK translocation partner in Case 1. We found an in-frame fusion of ALK to ATIC, a gene previously mapped to 2q34-q35. We then confirmed by DNA polymerase chain reaction the localization of ATIC to yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 914E7 previously reported to span the 2q35 break in the inv(2)(p23q35). FISH analysis in Case 1 confirmed rearrangement of YAC 914E7 and fusion to ALK. The ATIC-ALK fusion was confirmed in Case 1 and also identified in Case 2 by conventional reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using ATIC forward and ALK reverse primers. ATIC encodes an enzyme involved in purine biosynthesis which, like other fusion partners of ALK, is constitutively expressed and appears to contain a dimerization domain. ATIC-ALK fusion resulting from the inv(2)(p23q35) thus provides a third mechanism of ALK activation in ALK+ ALCL. PMID:10702393

  4. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the hion-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the published data for future treatment decision-making remains difficult when the histologic diagnosis has not been based on the new improved classification system.

  5. A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). Patients were ? 15 years of age, had a histologic diagnosis of malignant glioma, and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 60%. Methods and Materials: In Randomization 1, patients were assigned to receive either ERT alone (61.2 Gy) or ERT plus mitomycin C (Mito, IV 12.5 mg/m2) during the first and fourth week of ERT. After this treatment, patients went on to Randomization 2, where they were assigned to receive either BCNU (i.v. 200 mg/m2) given at 6-week intervals or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, 750 mg/m2 IV daily for 3 days every 6 weeks), with BCNU given on the third day of the 6-MP treatment. Three hundred twenty-seven patients underwent Randomization 1. One hundred sixty-four received ERT alone, and 163 received ERT + Mito [average age 52.7 years; 63% male; 69% glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 66% had a resection; 56% KPS ? 90%]. Step-wise analysis of survival from Randomization 1 or 2 indicates that survival was significantly diminished by: (a) age ? 45 years (b) KPS < 90%; (c) GBM/Gliosarcoma histology; (d) stereotactic biopsy as opposed to open biopsy or resection. Median survival from Randomization 1 in both arms (ERT + Mito) was 10.8 months. Median survival from Randomization 2 was 9.3 months for BCNU/6MP vs. 11.4 months for the BCNU group (p = 0.35)nths for the BCNU group (p = 0.35). Carmustine/6-MP showed a possible survival benefit for histologies other than GBM/GS. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent Randomization 2. The proportion of patients in the ERT group who terminated study prior to Randomization 2 was significantly less in the ERT group than in the ERT + Mito group (20 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: (a) The addition of Mito to ERT had no impact on survival; (b) patients treated with ERT + Mito were at greater risk of terminating therapy prior to Randomization 2; (c) there was not a significant survival benefit to the addition of 6-MP to BCNU

  6. Adult family members and their resemblance of coronary heart disease risk factors: The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease tends to run in families, and the familial resemblance of major risk factors for the disease was examined among various types of adult family members. Family units were assembled from a total of 4,738 men and women who took part in a cross sectional health survey in four Norwegian municipalities where all inhabitants between 20 and 52 years of age were invited. After adjusting for age and other confounders, correlation coefficients were derived as a measure of the degree of resemblance. Viewed across all types of investigated familial relationships, similarity was found to be stronger for total cholesterol than for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and also stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Between husbands and wives (3,060 subjects), correlations were small (between 0.02 and 0.06), except for 0.11 for total cholesterol. Lipid and blood pressure correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 for parents and their offspring (471 subjects, p < 0.05) and from 0.11 to 0.22 among siblings (2,166 subjects, p < 0.01). Sibling correlations were consistent across age groups. Furthermore, reports from each individual on daily smoking (yes or no) revealed that husbands and wives had similar habits in 63.5% of all marriages as compared with the expected 49.4% had no smoking similarity at all been present. Smoking concordance was also demonstrated among siblings (p < 0.01). The persistent pattern of lipid and blood pressursistent pattern of lipid and blood pressure aggregation among genetically related individuals from 20 to 52 years of age and the much weaker such similarity between husbands and wives, point towards genes or commonly shared environment at early ages as a major reason why coronary heart disease runs in families

  7. 131I radioconjugated antibodies for the locoregional radioimmunotherapy of high-grade malignant glioma. Phase I and II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locoregional radioimmunotherapy (LR-RIT) was administered to 111 patients (20 were recruited in a phase I and 91 in a phase II study) with malignant gliomas: 1 patient with oligodendroglioma, 7 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2 with grade II astrocytoma, 10 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 with glioblastoma, amounting to 58 newly diagnosed and 53 recurrent tumours. The 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies BC-2 and BC-4 were used in order to recognize stromal and intracellular glycoprotein tenascin, and antigen present particularly in glioblastoma. The patients were enrolled between February 1990 and December 1997 after conventional therapy. The radiopharmaceutical was injected directly into the tumour site. Sequential scintigraphies demonstrated a high and enduring uptake in the tumour. The mean irradiation dose in the tumour was 300 Gy per cycle. In the group of 74 phase II glioblastoma patients the clinical responses were as follows: 10 patients with stable disease (SD), 9 with partial responses (PR), 23 with no evidence of disease (NED) and 1 patient with complete response (CR). The median survival was 19 months. The response rate (CR+PR+NED) was 17.8% for those patients with bulky lesions, with a median survival of 17 months, but 66.6% for patients with small lesions, with a median survival of 25 months. Better outcomes were recorded in cases with less aggressive diseases: oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrotic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. We conclude that fractionated LR-RIT can be safely performed, with promising results especially in patients with minimal disease. (orig.)

  8. Familial resemblance for loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Derom, Catherine A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cacioppo, John T; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2010-07-01

    Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural transmission, genotype-environment (GE) correlation and interaction was modeled. GE interaction was considered for several demographic characteristics. Results showed non-random mating for loneliness. We confirmed that loneliness is moderately heritable, with a significant contribution of non-additive genetic variation. There were no effects of vertical cultural transmission. With respect to demographic characteristics, results indicated that marriage, having offspring, more years of education, and a higher number of siblings are associated with lower levels of loneliness. Interestingly, these effects tended to be stronger for men than women. There was little evidence of changes in genetic architecture as a function of these characteristics. We conclude that the genetic architecture of loneliness points to non-additive genetic influences, suggesting it may be a trait that was not neutral to selection in our evolutionary past. Sociodemographic factors that influence the prevalence of loneliness do not affect its genetic architecture. PMID:20145989

  9. Familial Resemblance for Loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Distel, M.A.; Rebollo Mesa, I.; Abdellaoui, A; Derom, C.A.; Willemsen, G; Cacioppo, J.T.; Boomsma, D I

    2010-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural...

  10. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible cytotoxicity, effective transfection, “smart” cancer targeting, and therefore is a promising siRNA nanocarrier. Keywords: small interfering RNA, dendrimer, gene silencing, human ether-à-go-go-related gene, anaplastic thyroid cancer

  11. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Nunez, Alejandro [Department of Astrophysics , American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E., E-mail: jfaherty17@gmail.com, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5{gamma} dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the {approx}10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 {mu}m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  12. No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØrglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    Two European populations are believed to be related to the ancient Germanic tribe Cimbri: one living in Northern Italy, the other living in Jutland, Denmark. The people called Cimbri are documented in the ancient Roman historical record. Arriving from the far north their movements can be tracked from successive battles with the Romans. The Cimbri finally entered Italy from the northeast and were defeated at Vercellae (present day Vercelli) in 101 BC by Gaius Marius and his professional legions. Classical sources from the first centuries AD relate the homeland of the Cimbri to the coasts around the Elb estuary (northern Germany) or specifically towards the north (Himmerland in northern Jutland). In the alpine parts of Veneto, northeast of the historical battlefield, local traditions dating back to late medieval time, identify a local population as Cimbri living in Terra dei Cimbri. They are considered the descendents of the Germanic combatants that fled the battlefield at Vercelli. As the defeated Cimbri that possibly fled to the mountains of Northern Italy most likely would have been male (warriors), the present study investigated the possible Y chromosomal diversity of the two present populations using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms. While Cimbri from Himmerland resembled their geographical neighbors from Denmark for the Y-chromosome markers, Cimbri from Italy were significantly differentiated both from Cimbri from Himmerland and from Danes. Therefore, we were not able to show any biological relationship for uniparentally transmitted markers. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

  13. Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare Policies : Is the 'black' American experience resembled in Britian, Sweden and Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2010-01-01

    The link between ethnic heterogeneity and support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by a large American research effort. Historically the race issue have blocked a number of US welfare schemes, across USA ethnic heterogene-ous states have less generous benefits, and citizens having negative attitudes towards blacks oppose welfare. The question is to what extend increased ethnic heterogeneity in European countries will establish the same mechanisms. Three theoretical positions are discussed; the position that the ‘black’ American experience is unique, the position that it is general, and a middle position of it being contingent on institutional settings. The latter position predicts that the ‘black’ American experience especially can be avoided in social democratic welfare regimes where the political elites have not played the race card. Em-pirically the article is based on survey data from UK, Sweden and Denmark, where a num-ber of American GSS items have been directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare regime effects the findings support the position that the American in-group out-group mechanisms are resembled in Europe.

  14. 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling A Giant Exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Cruz, Kelle L; Mamajek, Eric E; Núñez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and WISE photometry for the low surface gravity L5gamma dwarf 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2MASSJ1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and MKO J,H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3-12 microns indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2MASSJ1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW ...

  15. Predictors of mother-daughter resemblance in dietary intake. The role of eating styles, mothers' consumption, and closeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Hodder, Kellie; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined the resemblance between daughters' and mothers' intake of energy-dense food (EDF) and vegetables as perceived by daughters and the potential moderating influence of relationship closeness. One-hundred and twelve female first-year psychology students (aged 17-25 years) completed an online measure incorporating questions on demographic information, food frequency, eating style, and mother-daughter closeness. The EDF and vegetable consumption of daughters and their perception of their mothers' consumption were significantly related. Daughters who ate more EDF perceived that their mothers consumed more EDF and vegetables overall and had lower levels of restrained eating. Both mothers' consumption of vegetables (as perceived by daughters) and the number of meals consumed within the family home had a strong influence on daughters' vegetable intake. Closeness of the mother-daughter relationship did not moderate the relationship between the EDF or vegetable intake of mothers and daughters. Overall, these findings are consistent with the contention that mothers may have a significant influence on the EDF consumption and vegetable intake of their young adult daughters. The mechanism of this influence requires further investigation. PMID:22056488

  16. Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N2-O2 plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N2-O2 mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N2 and O2, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N2 and O2. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O2 molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. ?5% NO and ?95% N2 and O2, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

  17. Bruck 88 : a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 +- 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a Bright Red Giant (BRG) star located ~ 2.6 arcsec in the sky from the cluster centre. We serendipitously observed HW 33, a star cluster located ~ 3 arcmin to the south-east from Bruck 88. We obtained for the cluster the same age than Bruck 88 and surprisingly, a BRG star located within the cluster radius also appears to be compatible with the cluster age. We estimated the MK type of the BRG star in the Bruck 88 field to be in the range G9 II/Ib - K1 III. By combining the spectrum of a star within this MK type range with a 100-150 Myr template cluster...

  18. Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N2-O2 plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, J. H.; Zijlmans, R. A. B.; Schram, D. C.; Engeln, R.

    2009-05-01

    We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N2-O2 mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N2 and O2, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N2 and O2. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O2 molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. ?5% NO and ?95% N2 and O2, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

  19. Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)

  20. Resemblance of Quikscat radar backscatter and differential emissivity of land surface derived using TRMM TMI through radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agarwal, Vijay K.

    2006-12-01

    Interpretation of microwave radiometric measurements over land for atmospheric studies requires representative information about surface emissivity. A simulation study has been performed to derive some of the meteorological parameters like atmospheric water vapour content over land using TRMM TMI data through assumed land surface emissivity satisfying the radiative transfer model. The process of minimization of simulated and observed radiation at TMI frequencies using a large number of simulated atmospheric and surface conditions simultaneously yields many atmospheric and surface parameters over land. Preliminary analysis of TRMM TMI data over India and adjoining land region for few days during different season has been carried out. The derived surface emissivity difference of vertical and horizontal polarization is found highly resembling with Quikscat radar backscatter of land surface over the same area corroborating the estimation of land surface emissivity parameters. The study has importance in synergic use of microwave radiometer and scatterometer for studying the surface features as well as retrieval of geophysical parameters over land in view of forthcoming Megha-Tropiques and Oceansat-2 satellites. Typical examples of TRMM-TMI and Quikscat scatterometer are presented here.

  1. Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Helden, J H; Zijlmans, R A B; Schram, D C; Engeln, R [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: r.engeln@tue.nl

    2009-05-01

    We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O{sub 2} molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. {approx}5% NO and {approx}95% N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

  2. Resembling a "natural formation pattern" of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins by varying the experimental conditions of hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirler, Werner; Basso, Albino

    2013-11-01

    Until several years ago dioxins were considered as just an unwanted by product of anthropogenic activities and stigmatized as the symbol of man-made environmental pollution. Natural processes, such as forest fires, can emit dioxins, but compared to industrial processes, usually very low quantities are emitted. However after a case of food contamination occurred in the United States of America in 1996 caused by kaolinitic clay a discussion on the provenience started. Besides the relatively high concentration also an unusual PCDD/F distribution pattern was found in these ball clay samples. This specific pattern related to none of the known anthropogenic sources for these contaminants and, in relation to a supposed natural formation, later it was named "natural formation pattern". Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can transform biomass within hours into a brown coal-like product which resembles naturally occurring coal formation. HTC can also transform an already present PCDD/F contamination in a way to obtain a "natural formation pattern" characterized by an unusual high ratio between 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and the absence of almost all chlorinated dibenzofurans. By varying the experimental conditions of the HTC process applied to sewage sludge samples contaminated with PCDD/Fs from anthropogenic sources, beside the "natural formation pattern" at a temperatures of 255 °C, a remarkable increase of the toxicity based on WHO-TEQ was observed. PMID:23948607

  3. Anaplastic transformation of an atypical intraventricular meningioma with metastases to the liver: case report / Transformación anaplásica de un meningioma atípico intraventricular con metástasis hepáticas: caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., García-Conde; H., Roldan-Delgado; D., Martel-Barth-Hansen; C., Manzano-Sanz.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares son muy infrecuentes. En la bibliografía existente sólo se han descrito once casos hasta ahora. Siete de ellos desarrollaron metástasis a través del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR). Presentamos el primer caso de un meningioma maligno intraventricu [...] lar con metástasis extraneurales. Caso clínico. Paciente varón de 44 años de edad con una clínica de cefalea progresiva y desorientación. La resonancia magnética mostraba un proceso expansivo intracraneal en el trígono derecho con captación de contraste de forma homogénea. Intervención. Se practicó una resección total de la lesión a través de un acceso transcortical. El análisis histológico mostró un meningioma atípico. A pesar de la resección total, el tumor recidivó otras dos veces. Después de la primera recidiva, el tumor fue extirpado nuevamente y el paciente recibió radioterapia externa. En la segunda recidiva, el tumor se comportó de forma más agresiva, invadiendo el parénquima cerebral. El análisis histológico mostraba un meningioma anaplásico. El paciente fue ingresado nuevamente por fiebre y dolor en el hipocondrio derecho. Una ecografía abdominal mostró múltiples lesiones hipoecogénicas hepáticas. La biopsia de dichas lesiones fue compatible con metástasis del meningioma maligno. El paciente falleció debido a una insuficiencia hepática aguda siete meses después del diagnóstico inicial. Conclusiones. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares tienden a recurrir y producir metástasis, principalmente a través del LCR. Sin embargo, nuestro caso muestra que los meningioma malignos intraventriculares también pueden metastatizar fuera del sistema nervioso central, siendo el primer caso descrito. Por lo tanto, cuando un deterioro sistémico ocurra en un paciente con un meningioma maligno intraventricular debería descartarse la posibilidad de metástasis extraneurales como sucedió en este caso. Abstract in english Objective. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are very rare. To the best of our knowledge, only eleven cases have been reported thus far. Seven of them developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metastases. We present herein the first case of a malignant intraventricular meningioma with extraneural met [...] astases. Clinical presentation. We report a 44 year-old-man with a history of progressive headache and disorientation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 5-cm homogeneously-enhancing mass in the right trigone. Intervention. The lesion was totally resected via a parietooccipital transcortical approach. Histological examination demonstrated an atypical meningioma. Thereafter, the tumor recurred twice. At first recurrence, the tumor was completely removed again and external radiotherapy was administered. At surgery at second recurrence, the tumor was more aggressive, invading the brain parenchyma. Histological examination showed anaplastic meningioma. The patient was readmitted to hospital with fever and pain in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound examination disclosed multiple hypoechoic liver lesions. Biopsy was consistent with liver metastases of a malignant meningioma. The patient died of acute liver failure seven months after initial diagnosis. Conclusion. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are prone to recur and develop metastases, mainly through the CSF. Nevertheless, our case shows that extraneural metastases are also possible. Therefore, when systemic deterioration occurs in a patient with a malignant intraventricular meningioma, metastases to extraneural organs such as the liver must be ruled out.

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-12-15

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-{sup 18}F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an {sup 18}F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake than low-grade gliomas. Therefore, in spite of its limitations, {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is used for imaging of high-grade glioma. Amino acid PET radiotracers including {sup 18}F-FDOPA display superior contrast to {sup 18}F-FDG because of low uptake of amino acids in normal brain tissue. They have particularly special value in the detection of low-grade gliomas. However, {sup 18}F-FDOPA tumour uptake cannot provide reasonable predictions about tumour grade and proliferation in recurrent tumours that have undergone treatments. Also, their difficult synthesis or need for an on-site cyclotron limits their widespread use. The present case shows the utility of {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT in detection of a recurrent high-grade AA that was missed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. It highlights that {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT can be falsely negative, even in high-grade recurrent gliomas and, therefore, in cases with strong clinical suspicion {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT can be an alternative imaging modality to rule out recurrence even when {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is negative.

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by 18F-FDOPA PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. 18F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-18F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after 18F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an 18F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. 18F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. 18F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake than low-grade gliomas. Therefore, in spite of its limitations, 18F-FDG PET-CT is used for imaging of high-grade glioma. Amino acid PET radiotracers including 18F-FDOPA display superior contrast to 18F-FDG because of low uptake of amino acids in normal brain tissue. They have particularly special value in the detection of low-grade gliomas. However, 18F-FDOPA tumour uptake cannot provide reasonable predictions about tumour grade and proliferation in recurrent tumours that have undergone treatments. Also, their difficult synthesis or need for an on-site cyclotron limits their widespread use. The present case shows the utility of 18F-FDOPA PET-CT in detection of a recurrent high-grade AA that was missed by 18F-FDG PET-CT. It highlights that 18F-FDG PET-CT can be falsely negative, even in high-grade recurrent gliomas and, therefore, in cases with strong clinical suspicion 18F-FDOPA PET-CT can be an alternative imaging modality to rule out recurrence even when 18F-FDG PET-CT is negative

  6. Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase induced by 17-allylamino-demethoxygeldanamycin: role of the co-chaperone carboxyl heat shock protein 70-interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, Paolo; Dalla Rosa, Henry; Vignes, Nadia; Rosolen, Angelo

    2004-05-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a constitutively active fusion tyrosine kinase involved in lymphomagenesis of human anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL), the maturation and activity of which depend on the association with the heat shock protein (hsp) 90 protein chaperone. Targeting hsp90 by the ansamycins geldanamycin and 17-allyl-amino-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) promotes degradation of several proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, including oncogenic Raf, v-Src, erbB2, and BCR-ABL. We have previously shown that 17-AAG prevents hsp90/NPM-ALK complex formation and fosters NPM-ALK turnover, perhaps through its association with the hsp70 chaperone. Here, we show that inhibition of the proteasome activity by the potent and specific compound pyrazylcarbonyl-Phe-Leu-boronate (PS-341) blocks 17-AAG-induced down-regulation of NPM-ALK, which becomes detergent-insoluble and relocates into ubiquitin-rich perinuclear vesicles that represent aggregated polyubiquitinated forms of the protein. Kinase activity was not mandatory for proteasomal degradation of NPM-ALK, because kinase-defective NPM-ALK was even more rapidly degraded upon 17-AAG treatment. Prolonged exposure to the proteasome inhibitor was shown to trigger caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in proliferating ALCL cells at nanomolar concentrations. However, we verified that the accumulation of detergent-insoluble NPM-ALK in ALCL cells was not a spurious consequence of PS341-committed apoptosis, because caspase inhibitors prevented poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage whereas they did not affect partitioning of aggregated NPM-ALK. In line with these observations, the carboxyl hsp70-interacting ubiquitin ligase (CHIP), was shown to increase basal ubiquitination and turnover of NPM-ALK kinase, supporting a mechanism whereby NPM-ALK proceeds rapidly toward hsp70-assisted ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation, when chaperoning activity of hsp90 is prohibited by 17-AAG. PMID:15126367

  7. Specificity of lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres for colorectal tumors in a mouse model which better resembles the clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tokio; Sakuma, Shinji; Shimosato, Moe; Higashino, Haruki; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Morimoto, Naoki; Koike, Seiji; Tobita, Etsuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    We have been investigating an imaging agent that enables real-time and accurate diagnosis of early colorectal cancer at the intestinal mucosa by colonoscopy. The imaging agent is peanut agglutinin-immobilized polystyrene nanospheres with surface poly(N-vinylacetamide) chains encapsulating coumarin 6. Intracolonically-administered lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres detect tumor-derived changes through molecular recognition of lectin for the terminal sugar of cancer-specific antigens on the mucosal surface. The focus of the present study was to evaluate imaging abilities of the nanospheres in animal models that reflect clinical environments. We previously developed an orthotopic mouse model with human colorectal tumors growing on the mucosa of the descending colon to better resemble the clinical disease. The entire colon of the mice in the exposed abdomen was monitored in real time with an in vivo imaging apparatus. Fluorescence from the nanospheres was observed along the entire descending colon after intracolonical administration from the anus. When the luminal side of the colon was washed with phosphate-buffered saline, most of the nanospheres were flushed. However, fluorescence persisted in areas where cancer cells were implanted. Histological evaluation demonstrated that tumors were present in the mucosal epithelia where the nanospheres fluoresced. In contrast, no fluorescence was observed when control mice, without tumors were tested. The lectin-immobilized fluorescent nanospheres were tumor-specific and remained bound to tumors even after vigorous washing. The nanospheres nonspecifically bound to normal mucosa were easily removed through mild washing. These results indicate that the nanospheres combined with colonoscopy, will be a clinically-valuable diagnostic tool for early-stage primary colon carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24976331

  8. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106 subject respectively) were C: 2.4(1.4-4.2), R: 2.4(1.4-4.1), P: 2.5(1.5-4.2), E: non-significant, H: 4.2(2.4-7.2), andA: 5.6(3.2-9.8). The AUC analysis showed a similarly increasing pattern (C: 0.58±0.02, R: 0.57±0.03, P: 0.60±0.03, H: 0.63±0.02, A: 0.66±0.02). The AUC of the aggregate marker (A) surpasses others significantly except H. HRT-MTR (E) did not significantly identify future cancers or correlate with any other marker. Conclusions: Breast cancer risk MTR marker was independent of density scores and more predictive of risk. The hormone replacement treatment MTR marker did not identify patients at risk.

  9. Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2013-04-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

  10. White feces syndrome of shrimp arises from transformation, sloughing and aggregation of hepatopancreatic microvilli into vermiform bodies superficially resembling gregarines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens. Thus, the cause of ATM and their relationship (if any) to AHPND should be determined. PMID:24911022

  11. Hybrid copolymer-phospholipid vesicles: phase separation resembling mixed phospholipid lamellae, but with mechanical stability and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria M

    2015-04-01

    Vesicles whose bilayer membranes contain phospholipids mixed with co-polymers or surfactants comprise new hybrid materials having potential applications in drug delivery, sensors, and biomaterials. Here we describe a model polymer-phospholipid hybrid membrane system exhibiting strong similarities to binary phospholipid mixtures, but with more robust membrane mechanics. A lamella-forming graft copolymer, PDMS-co-PEO (polydimethylsiloxane-co-polyethylene oxide) was blended with a high melting temperature phospholipid, DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), over a broad compositional range. The resulting giant hybrid unilamellar vesicles were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to analogous mixed phospholipid membranes in which a low melting temperature phospholipid, DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), was blended with DPPC. The mechanical properties of the hybrid vesicles, even when phase separated, were robust with high lysis stresses and strains approaching those of the pure copolymer vesicles. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the hybrid vesicles closely resembled that of the mixed phospholipids; with only slightly greater nonidealities in the hybrid compared with DOPC/DPPC mixed membranes. In both systems, it was demonstrated that tension could be used to manipulate DPPC solidification into domains of patchy or striped morphologies that exhibited different tracer incorporation. The patch and stripe-shaped domains are thought to be different solid DPPC polymorphys: ripple and tilt (or gel). This work demonstrates that in mixed-phospholipid bilayers where a high-melting phospholipid solidifies on cooling, the lower-melting phospholipid may be substituted by an appropriate copolymer to improve mechanical properties while retaining the underlying membrane physics. PMID:25687473

  12. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  13. The Chineysky layered massif (Siberia, Russia) and Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex: resemblance and difference features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.

    2009-04-01

    Layered intrusions represent a small part of a large group of continental basic-ultrabasic complexes. They attract geologists' attention due to their unusual magmatic structures and associated PGE, Cr and V deposits. The outstanding example of this phenomenon is the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The largest layered intrusion in Russia is the Chineysky massif (Transbaikalia, Siberia). It is characterized by excellent layering and accompanying titanomagnetite and sulfide mineralization. It hosts Russia's largest deposits of Fe-Ti-V ores which are also among the world's largest [1]. Origin of such huge metal concentrations in the crust is unsettled problem. Therefore the ore conditions' determination from different intrusions is very actually. We compared the structure, rock and parental magmas compositions for two plutons mentioned above. The Chineysky massif consists of gabbronorites and anorthozites and the petrography of the rocks resembles that of the Upper Zone of the Bushveld [3]. Vanadium ores from these two intrusions are very similar: they are represented by massive and disseminated varieties. However, the small size of Chineysky massiv gives an opportunity to observe the number of petrological processes in a frame of one area, as opposed to Bushveld, where this is impossible. The separateness of the bodies and the scarcity of geochemical data on their rocks precluded the development of a comprehensive model for the evolution of magmatism in this part of the Kodar- Udokan trough. So one of the tasks of our research was to study the spatial and genetic relations between the ultrabasite-basite intrusive bodies and their possible grouping within a single magmatic system, with the Chineysky massif being its part. The second tasks was to determine the phase characteristics of the parental magma of the massif . An important aspect of this study was the examination of the inner structure of the Chineysky massiv. The main features of the structure are following: 1) consecutive introduction of magmas of different composition; 2) stratification of different nature; 3) differently grade rhythmicity. The Chineysky massif is thought to have been produced by successive emplacement of magmas, which formed four rock groups. These are the pyroxenite of the first group, titanomagnetite gabbronorites and leucogabbro of the second group, gabbronorites of the third group, and lamprophyres of the fourth group The trace-element patterns of various rocks and the results of simulations by the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer program led us to believe that all four rock groups of the massif were generated by the successive emplacements of several portions of the initial magma, which was a complicatedly differentiated suspension of olivine, plagioclase, and magnetite crystals in ferroabsaltic melt at a temperature of approximately 1130°?. The gravitational separation of these phases in the melt before its emplacement into the chamber and during the subsequent emplacement of various portions of the initial magma into the modern chamber predetermined the heterogeneity of the massif (its block structure). As a result, the bulk of the Chineysky massif is composed of compositionally principally different rocks of the second and third groups, with the predominance of intratelluric plagioclase and magnetite crystals in the former case (gabbronorite and leucogabbro series in the western and southeastern blocks) and orthopyroxene in the latter one (norite series, central block). The rocks of the third group were generated later. The crystallization sequences of minerals modeled for the Chineysky massif can be classed into two major types [2]: (a) "high-Al", which is typical of the "leucogabbro" compositions and characterized by the occurrence of a magnetite-plagioclase cotectic, and (b) "high-Mg", which is typical of the noriteseries and is characterized by the early appearance of olivine on the liquidus or the concurrent crystallization of this mineral with magnetite or plagioclase. It is worth mentioning the early app

  14. Thermo-magnetic hysteretic properties resembling superconductivity in the normal state of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4

    CERN Document Server

    Majoros, M; Nishizaki, T; Iwasaki, H

    2005-01-01

    We have performed detailed magnetic and thermal hysteresis experiments in the normal-state magnetization of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 single crystal. Using a combination of in-field and in-zero-magnetic-field measurements at different stages of thermal history of the sample, we identified subtle effects associated with the presence of magnetic signatures which resemble those below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc=36 K) but survive up to 250 K.

  15. Effect of a cholesterol-rich diet on the metabolism of the free and esterified cholesterol components of a nanoemulsion that resembles LDL in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Padoveze; F. Maniero; Oliveira, T. V.; T.S. Vitorio; R.D. Couto; R.C. Maranhão

    2009-01-01

    We have shown that the free cholesterol (FC) and the cholesteryl ester (CE) moieties of a nanoemulsion with lipidic structure resembling low-density lipoproteins show distinct metabolic fate in subjects and that this may be related to the presence of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The question was raised whether induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits would affect the metabolic behavior of the two cholesterol forms. Male New Zealand rabbits aged 4-5 months were allocated...

  16. The heat shock protein-90 co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40, promotes ALK-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma viability and its expression is regulated by the NPM-ALK oncoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Joel D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL is a T cell lymphoma defined by the presence of chromosomal translocations involving the ALK tyrosine kinase gene. These translocations generate fusion proteins (e.g. NPM-ALK with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity, which activate numerous signalling pathways important for ALK+ ALCL pathogenesis. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90 plays a critical role in allowing NPM-ALK and other signalling proteins to function in this lymphoma. Co-chaperone proteins are important for helping Hsp90 fold proteins and for directing Hsp90 to specific clients; however the importance of co-chaperone proteins in ALK+ ALCL has not been investigated. Our preliminary findings suggested that expression of the immunophilin co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40, is up-regulated in ALK+ ALCL by JunB, a transcription factor activated by NPM-ALK signalling. In this study we examined the regulation of the immunophilin family of co-chaperones by NPM-ALK and JunB, and investigated whether the immunophilin co-chaperones promote the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Methods NPM-ALK and JunB were knocked-down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with siRNA, and the effect on the expression of the three immunophilin co-chaperones: Cyp40, FK506-binding protein (FKBP 51, and FKBP52 examined. Furthermore, the effect of knock-down of the immunophilin co-chaperones, either individually or in combination, on the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines and NPM-ALK levels and activity was also examined. Results We found that NPM-ALK promoted the transcription of Cyp40 and FKBP52, but only Cyp40 transcription was promoted by JunB. We also observed reduced viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA, but not with siRNAs directed against FKBP52 or FKBP51. Finally, we demonstrate that the decrease in the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA does not appear to be due to a decrease in NPM-ALK levels or the ability of this oncoprotein to signal. Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating that the expression of immunophilin family co-chaperones is promoted by an oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Moreover, this is the first report establishing an important role for Cyp40 in lymphoma.

  17. Afasia de conducción como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico parieto-temporo-occipital izquierdo: estudio de caso / Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    OSCAR MAURICIO, AGUILAR MEJÍA; BEATRIZ, RAMÍREZ BERBERJO; JUAN CARLOS, ACEVEDO GONZÁLEZ; MIGUEL ENRIQUE, BERBEO CALDERÓN.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La afasia de conducción es un trastorno caracterizado por un lenguaje espontáneo relativamente fluido, buena comprensión, pero dificultades en la repetición asociadas con parafasias fonológicas. Se ha atribuido a lesiones del fascículo arqueado por desconexión entre el lóbulo temporal posterior y el [...] frontal; sin embargo, se ha debatido esta postura, planteando que la integridad y funcionamiento del fascículo arqueado no es indispensable en la repetición verbal. Se presenta un caso de un sujeto varón de 23 años que, como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico recidivante que abarca áreas parietales y temporo-occipitales, presenta una afasia de conducción. Se plantea una reconceptualización de esta afasia, analizándola en términos clínicos, neuropsicológicos y en las redes neuronales existentes entre áreas cerebrales posteriores ipsilaterales y contralaterales. Abstract in english Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection betwe [...] en posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas.

  18. Matrix comparison, Part 2 : Measuring the resemblance between proximity measures or ordination results by use of the mantel and procrustes statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case of the Mantel test, the degree of resemblance between two measures forecast their potentially different affect upon ordination and clustering results. In principle, two proximity measures with a very strong resemblance most likely produce identical results, thus, choice of measure between the two becomes less important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical solution provided by the superimposition plot and the resulting decomposition of variance components. Accordingly, the Procrustes analysis provides not only a measure of general fit between configurations, but also values for individual objects enabling more elaborate validations. As such, the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures.

  19. Analysis of the Erwinia chrysanthemi ferrichrysobactin receptor gene: resemblance to the Escherichia coli fepA-fes bidirectional promoter region and homology with hydroxamate receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage, C.; Franza, T; Expert, D

    1996-01-01

    The fct cbsCEBA operon from the Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 chrysobactin-dependent iron assimilation system codes for transport and biosynthetic functions. The sequence of the fct outer membrane receptor gene was determined. The fct promoter region displays a strong resemblance to the Escherichia coli bidirectional intercistronic region controlling the expression of the fepA-entD and fes-entF operons. An apparent Fur-binding site was shown to confer iron regulation on an fct::lac fusion express...

  20. Close structural resemblance between putative polymerase of a Drosophila transposable genetic element 17.6 and pol gene product of Moloney murine leukaemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Toh, H; Kikuno, R; Hayashida, H; Miyata, T.; Kugimiya, W; Inouye, S.; Yuki, S; Saigo, K.

    1985-01-01

    We have made a computer-assisted search for homology among polymerases or putative polymerases of various viruses and a transposable element, the Drosophila copia-like element 17.6. The search revealed that the putative polymerase (second open reading frame) of the copia-like element 17.6 bears close resemblance in overall structural organization to the pol gene product of Moloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MuLV): they show significant homology to each other at both the N- and C-terminal porti...