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1

Collision tumor of anaplastic oligodendroglioma and gangliocytoma: a case report.  

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A 53-year-old woman presented with a rare case of coexistence of anaplastic oligodendroglioma with gangliocytoma manifesting as progressive disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium demonstrated the mass lesion consisted of a strongly enhanced area around the middle cerebral artery and less enhanced areas in the right temporal lobe, insula, and basal ganglia. She underwent subtotal resection of the tumor, resulting in improvement of her symptoms. Macroscopic and histological examination showed the tumor consisted of two distinct components, grayish soft tissue and yellowish hard tissue. The former consisted of cells with equal-sized round-to-oval hyperchromatic nuclei and perinuclear halo with microvascular proliferation and necrosis, and the diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma. The latter consisted of large and dysplastic neurons with marked nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm containing Nissl bodies, with nonneoplastic glial cells in the stroma, and the diagnosis was gangliocytoma. Both lesions were distinct, but intermingled at the border. These two tumors apparently occurred as a collision tumor. PMID:19856221

Takeuchi, Yoichi; Kanamori, Masayuki; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Saito, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

2009-01-01

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Feline anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term remission through radiation therapy and chemotherapy.  

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A 10-year-old spayed female Abyssinian cat was presented with cluster limbic focal seizures with secondary generalisation. From magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the cat was diagnosed clinically as having a glioma in the left piriform lobe, and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) was performed using a linear accelerator. Although the tumour size had reduced significantly at 4 months after RT, recurrence was observed at 11 months after RT. Additional RT was performed and was effective; however, recurrence was observed at 11 months after the additional RT. Chemotherapy was started using nimustine (ACNU; 30 mg/m(2), every 6 weeks). Tumour regression was confirmed by follow-up MRIs from 2 to 5 months after starting chemotherapy. Four years and 2 months after the first presentation the cat died as a result of tumour lysis syndrome following treatment of a high-grade lymphoma. Histopathological diagnosis of the brain tumour confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:23651604

Tamura, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Ochi, Naoko; Fujita, Michio

2013-12-01

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Chemoradiation for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas: clinical outcomes and prognostic value of molecular markers.  

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Combination of procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine (PCV) with radiation therapy (RT) has been associated with longer survival in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA), especially in those with chromosome 1p/19q codeletion. We report a multicenter retrospective study of 84 consecutive adult patients with AO and AOA treated with RT plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) between February 2004 and January 2011. Correlations between chromosome 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase1 (IDH1) mutation, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation with survival outcomes have been analyzed. For all 84 patients the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival rates were 55.6 and 45.2 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicity occurred in 17 % of patients. Chromosome 1p/19q codeletion was detected in 57 %, IDH1 mutation in 63 %, and MGMT promoter methylation in 74 % of evaluable patients. In multivariate analysis the presence of chromosome 1p/19q codeletion was associated with significant survival benefit (median OS 34 months in noncodeleted tumors and not reached in codeleted tumors; HR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.03-0.45; P = 0.005). IDH1 mutation was also of prognostic significance for longer survival (P = 0.001; HR 0.20, 95 % 0.06-0.41), whereas MGMT promoter methylation was only of borderline significance. The study indicates that RT with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ is a relatively safe treatment associated with longer survival in patients with 1p/19q codeleted and IDH1 mutated tumors. Results from ongoing randomized studies will be essential to clarify if RT plus TMZ may provide survival as good as or better than RT combined with PCV for patients with AO and AOA. PMID:24162810

Minniti, Giuseppe; Arcella, Antonella; Scaringi, Claudia; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Di Stefano, Domenica; Scarpino, Stefania; Pace, Andrea; Giangaspero, Felice; Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

2014-01-01

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MicroRNA expression profiling in recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with postoperative radiotherapy  

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Full Text Available In anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO, genetic alternation was associated with clinical outcome. We explored radiation-associated up or downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs in AO by comparing miRNA expression profiles in newly-diagnosed AO to recurrent AO treated with postoperative radiotherapy. We identified that 23 miRNAs were upregulated and 42 miRNAs were downregulated in recurrent AO compared with newly-diagnosed AO. Especially, the expression of MiR-124, miR-128, miR-139-5p, miR-153, miR-210, miR-582-5p, and miR-96 were highly increased in the patient with recurrent AO. In contrast, MiR-1, miR-1180, miR-133b, miR-135b, miR-1539, miR-193a-5p, miR-196a, miR-196b, miR-200b, miR-21*, miR-221*, miR-224, miR-24-1*, miR-31, miR-32*, miR-34a*, miR-34c-5p, miR-455-5p, miR-503, and miR-631 showed extremely decreased expression in the patient with recurrent AO. Our results provide meaningful data for miRNAs as molecular diagnosis and novel therapeutic targets in recurrent AO treated with radiotherapy.

Giwon Kim

2011-08-01

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Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402  

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Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOthere were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

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Clinicopathologic features of pediatric oligodendrogliomas: a series of 50 patients.  

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Oligodendrogliomas are an important adult form of diffuse gliomas with a distinctive clinical and genetic profile. Histologically similar tumors occurring rarely in children are incompletely characterized. We studied 50 patients with oligodendrogliomas (median age at diagnosis 8 y, range 7 mo to 20 y). Tumors resembling dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or pilocytic astrocytomas or those having a "mixed" histology were excluded. Tumors at first diagnosis were low grade (n=38) or anaplastic (n=12). Histologic features included uniform round cells with perinuclear halos (100%), secondary structures (predominantly perineuronal satellitosis) (90%), calcifications (46%), and microcysts (44%). Sequential surgical specimens were obtained in 8 low-grade oligodendroglioma patients, with only 1 progressing to anaplasia. Studies for 1p19q performed in 40 cases demonstrated intact 1p19q loci in 29 (73%), 1p19q codeletion in 10 (25%), and 1p deletion with intact 19q in 1 (2%). Except for 2 young patients (3 and 11 y of age), patients with 1p19q codeletion were older than 16 years at diagnosis. Mutant IDH1 (R132H) protein immunohistochemistry was positive in 4 (of 22) (18%) cases, 3 of which also had 1p19q codeletion, whereas 1p19q status was not available on the fourth case. There was a nonsignificant trend for worse overall survival in grade III tumors, but no significant association with age, extent of resection, or 1p19q status. In summary, oligodendrogliomas with classic histology occur in the pediatric population but lack 1p19q codeletion and IDH1 (R132H) mutations in most instances. They are predominantly low grade, recur/clinically progress in a subset, but demonstrate a relatively low frequency of histologic progression. PMID:24805856

Rodriguez, Fausto J; Tihan, Tarik; Lin, Doris; McDonald, William; Nigro, Janice; Feuerstein, Burt; Jackson, Sadhana; Cohen, Kenneth; Burger, Peter C

2014-08-01

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Imunoistoquímica em oligodendrogliomas / Immunohistochemstry in oligodendrogliomas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os oligodendrogliomas (OL) são tumores gliais caracterizados histologicamente pela presença de núcleo redondo e homogêneo com halo claro perinuclear. A diferenciação microscópica desses tumores com neurocitoma central, DNT e algumas vezes com ependimoma de células claras pode ser difícil. O estudo i [...] munoistoquímico com marcadores glial e neuronal tem sido utilizado e pode auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a diferenciação neuronal e glial por meio de técnica imunoistoquímica utilizando anticorpos de rotina em tumores com características microscópicas de OL. Foram estudados 42 pacientes com idade entre 4 e 60 anos. Dez apresentavam sinais de maior malignidade (anaplásico). Trinta e três casos (78,5%) mostraram positividade para GFAP, sendo em 10 focal e 6 casos com expressão intensa. Doze casos (28,5%) apresentaram positividade para NSE e/ou sinaptofisina, demonstrando alguma diferenciação neuronal, principalmente focal. Trinta e quatro casos (80,9%) foram positivos para S-100 e três casos (7,1%) foram positivos focalmente para NeuN. Concluimos que áreas focais de diferenciação neuronal e/ou glial podem estar presente em OL típicos e, portanto, é necessário cautela no diagnóstico diferencial em amostras pequenas de tumor. A positividade difusa para marcadores neuronais deve sugerir o diagnóstico de neurocitoma central. Abstract in english Oligodendrogliomas (OL) are neuroepithelial tumors characterized by the presence of uniformly round nuclei with a clear cytoplasm around it. These features can also be seen in central neurocytomas, DNTs and clear cell ependymomas. Immunohistochemstry with glial and neuronal markers may be helpful in [...] diferential diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the glial and neuronal differentiation in 42 specimes of otherwise typical OL using immunohistochemical techniques. Ten cases showed anaplastic characteristics. Thirty-three samples (78.5%) were positive to GFAP with few cells stained in ten cases and many positive cells in six. Twelve cases (28.5%) were focally positive to NSE and/or synaptophysin showing neuronal differentiation. Thirty-four cases (80.9%) expressed S-100. In conclusion, glial proteins may be present focally in OL due to presence of mature reactive astrocytes or transitional forms between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Focal areas of neuronal differentiation can also be found in typical OL. The widespread staining with neuronal marker suggests central neurocytoma, but this diagnosis should not be done with small amount of tissue.

Arlete, Hilbig.

2006-03-01

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Imunoistoquímica em oligodendrogliomas Immunohistochemstry in oligodendrogliomas  

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Full Text Available Os oligodendrogliomas (OL são tumores gliais caracterizados histologicamente pela presença de núcleo redondo e homogêneo com halo claro perinuclear. A diferenciação microscópica desses tumores com neurocitoma central, DNT e algumas vezes com ependimoma de células claras pode ser difícil. O estudo imunoistoquímico com marcadores glial e neuronal tem sido utilizado e pode auxiliar no diagnóstico diferencial. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a diferenciação neuronal e glial por meio de técnica imunoistoquímica utilizando anticorpos de rotina em tumores com características microscópicas de OL. Foram estudados 42 pacientes com idade entre 4 e 60 anos. Dez apresentavam sinais de maior malignidade (anaplásico. Trinta e três casos (78,5% mostraram positividade para GFAP, sendo em 10 focal e 6 casos com expressão intensa. Doze casos (28,5% apresentaram positividade para NSE e/ou sinaptofisina, demonstrando alguma diferenciação neuronal, principalmente focal. Trinta e quatro casos (80,9% foram positivos para S-100 e três casos (7,1% foram positivos focalmente para NeuN. Concluimos que áreas focais de diferenciação neuronal e/ou glial podem estar presente em OL típicos e, portanto, é necessário cautela no diagnóstico diferencial em amostras pequenas de tumor. A positividade difusa para marcadores neuronais deve sugerir o diagnóstico de neurocitoma central.Oligodendrogliomas (OL are neuroepithelial tumors characterized by the presence of uniformly round nuclei with a clear cytoplasm around it. These features can also be seen in central neurocytomas, DNTs and clear cell ependymomas. Immunohistochemstry with glial and neuronal markers may be helpful in diferential diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the glial and neuronal differentiation in 42 specimes of otherwise typical OL using immunohistochemical techniques. Ten cases showed anaplastic characteristics. Thirty-three samples (78.5% were positive to GFAP with few cells stained in ten cases and many positive cells in six. Twelve cases (28.5% were focally positive to NSE and/or synaptophysin showing neuronal differentiation. Thirty-four cases (80.9% expressed S-100. In conclusion, glial proteins may be present focally in OL due to presence of mature reactive astrocytes or transitional forms between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Focal areas of neuronal differentiation can also be found in typical OL. The widespread staining with neuronal marker suggests central neurocytoma, but this diagnosis should not be done with small amount of tissue.

Arlete Hilbig

2006-03-01

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Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients  

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Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of infiltrative lesions. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas may be more malignant than supratentorial oligodendrogliomas

Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: femidas@naver.com; Suh, Yeon-Lim (Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea))

2010-03-15

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Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

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Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resect...

Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

2010-01-01

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Age-related differences in 1p and 19q deletions in oligodendrogliomas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports indicate that anaplastic oligodendrogliomas frequently show allelic losses on chromosome arms 1p and 19q, and that these deletions are associated with better chemotherapeutic response and overall patient survival. Because of the diversified genetic makeup of the population and the centralized provincial referral system for brain tumor patients in Manitoba, the epidemiological features of such tumors sometimes differ from the published data acquired from non-community based settings. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of allelic deletions for chromosome arms 1p and 19q in anaplastic and in low-grade oligodendrogliomas in the Manitoba population. Methods Loss of heterozygosity (LOH analysis of brain tumors was carried out using 4 microsatellite markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D19S219 and D19S412 and a PCR based assay. The tumors were consecutively acquired during the period September 1999–March 2001 and a total of 63 tumors were assessed. Results We found that allelic loss of chromosome 1p and 19q was higher in oligodendrogliomas than in other diffuse gliomas and that for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, younger patients exhibited significantly more deletions than older patients (>60 years of age. Conclusions These studies suggest that age may be a factor in the genetic alterations of oligodendrogliomas. In addition, these studies demonstrate that this assay can easily be carried out in a cost-effective manner in a small tertiary center.

Del Bigio Marc R

2003-12-01

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p53 protein alterations in adult astrocytic tumors and oligodendrogliomas  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the genesis of a variety of malignancies including brain tumors. Overexpression of the p53 protein is often used as a surrogate indicator of alterations in the p53 gene. AIMS: In this study, data is presented on p53 protein expression in adult cases (>15 years of age of astrocytic (n=152 and oligodendroglial (n=28 tumors of all grades. Of the astrocytic tumors, 86% were supratentorial in location while remaining 14% were located infratentorially - 8 in the the cerebellum and 13 in the brainstem. All the oligodendrogliomas were supratentorial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: p53 protein expression was evaluated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections using streptavidin biotin immunoperoxidase technique after high temperature antigen retrieval. RESULTS: Overall 52% of supratentorial astrocytic tumors showed p53 immunopositivity with no correlation to the histological grade. Thus, 58.8% of diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II, 53.8% of anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO Grade III and 50% of glioblastomas (WHO Grade IV were p53 protein positive. In contrast, all the infratentorial tumors were p53 negative except for one brainstem glioblastoma. Similarly, pilocytic astrocytomas were uniformly p53 negative irrespective of the location. Among oligodendroglial tumors, the overall frequency of p53 immunopositivity was lower (only 28%, though a trend of positive correlation with the tumor grade was noted - 25% in Grade II and 31.5% in grade III (anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Interestingly, p53 labeling index (p53 LI did not correlate with the histopathological grade in both astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, this study gives an insight into the genetic and hence biological heterogeneity of gliomas, not only between astrocytic tumors vs. oligodendrogliomas but also within astrocytic tumors with regard to their grade and location. With p53 gene therapy trials in progress, this will possibly have future therapeutic implications.

Nayak Anupma

2004-04-01

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Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

Levidou Georgia

2010-09-01

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Allelic loss of chromosome 1p and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in patients with oligodendrogliomas  

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Introduction: Allelic loss of the short arm of chromosome 1 predicts radiographic response to chemotherapy and long overall survival times in patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Using a database of patients with oligodendrogliomas in whom chromosome 1p status was known, we explored whether allelic loss of 1p also predicted longer duration of tumor control when radiotherapy was part of the initial treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: We measured progression-free survival following radiotherapy in a cohort of patients with World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II and WHO Grade III oligodendrogliomas. The effects on progression-free survival of patient age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor grade when irradiated and chromosome 1p status were examined by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. For the subset of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, relationships between use of chemotherapy, chromosome 1p status and progression-free survival were also examined. Results: Fifty-five patients (29 male, 26 female; ages 18-75 years; median, 44 years; KPS 50-90, median 80) were irradiated for either a WHO Grade II (n = 19) or Grade III (n = 36) oligodendroglioma. Twenty-eight patients had chemotherapy immediately prior to radiotherapy, and 27 had chemotherapy at progression following radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 54 Gy in 30 fractions. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome 1p was evident in 36 tumOH) at chromosome 1p was evident in 36 tumors and absent in 19. Overall median progression-free survival after radiotherapy was 40.4 months. Median progression-free survival was 55.0 months for patients whose tumors harbored 1p loss vs. 6.2 months for those patients whose tumors retained both copies of chromosome 1p (p < 0.001). On both univariate and multivariate analyses, chromosome lp loss was the principal independent predictor of longer progression-free survival for patients with Grade II and III oligodendrogliomas. For Grade III oligodendrogliomas, chemotherapy as an adjunct to radiotherapy prolonged tumor control for those patients whose tumors harbored allelic loss of chromosome 1p (p = 0.004). Conclusion: These data suggest allelic loss of chromosome 1p in patients with oligodendroglial neoplasms predicts longer progression-free survival among patients receiving radiotherapy ± chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment. Chromosome 1p loss may be an important stratification variable in future therapeutic trials of oligodendroglioma

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Oligodendroglioma  

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... Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor Dictionary Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor ...

16

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to study some characteristics and posibility of surgery of anaplastic thyroid cancer. During five years period in Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patienst (44 female and 21 male, median age 63 years (from 37 to 88 years. Surgical treatment was peerformed in one half (32 anaplastic thyroid cancer patients, at majority of them operative biopsy or tumor reduction only. Radical syrgery was performed in about 10% patients. Posibility of surgery in anaplastic thyroid cancer are very limited. In one third patients there were longstanding goter or thyroid nodul or histological verified dediferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. This patienst should be operated formerly, before anaplastic transformation.

Havelka Marija J.

2003-01-01

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Gliosarcoma arising from an oligodendroglioma (oligosarcoma).  

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Gliosarcoma, a biphasic tumor with both mesenchymal and glial elements, is typically considered a variant of astrocytoma (glioblastoma), WHO Grade IV. A 57-year-old man presented with altered mental status and was found to have a large right frontal mass. Biopsy and subsequent subtotal resection revealed a WHO Grade II oligodendroglioma with classic histological features, expression of IDH1 R132H mutant protein, and chromosome 1p19q co-deletion. Fifteen months later, the patient developed recurrent tumor composed of intersecting fascicles of spindled cells with necrosis and a high mitotic index. The recurrent tumor stained for both mesenchymal and glial elements, consistent with the diagnosis of gliosarcoma, and showed retained IDH1 R132H expression. By FISH analysis, the gliosarcoma showed no evidence of 1p19q co-deletion. We performed SNP arrays and detailed SNP analysis of both the oligodendroglioma and the gliosarcoma. This demonstrated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1 and 19 in the gliosarcoma with retention of the same full-length chromosomes 1 and 19 found intact in the oligodendroglioma. Not surprisingly, the gliosarcoma harbored multiple additional alterations, consistent with clonal evolution. There have been only rare reports of sarcomatous transformation of oligodendroglioma ("oligosarcoma") and most were published prior to the development of modern genetic modalities. Here we present a case with detailed genetic evidence that suggests that mesenchymal metaplasia sarcomatous transformation is possible in classic oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletions. PMID:23254140

Hiniker, Annie; Hagenkord, Jill M; Powers, Martin P; Aghi, Manish K; Prados, Michael D; Perry, Arie

2013-01-01

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First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep.  

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Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. PMID:21247018

Derakhshanfar, A; Mozaffari, A A

2010-06-01

19

Anaplastic thyroid cancer  

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... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Anaplastic thyroid cancer grows very rapidly and is an invasive type of thyroid cancer . It occurs most often in people ...

20

Multiple Sclerosis and Oligodendroglioma: An Exceptional Association  

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The cooccurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and oligodendroglioma is very rare. We present a 43-year-old male patient with the diagnosis of MS lasting for 14 years who developed seizures and right hemiparesis; cerebral MRI revealed an already known extensive lesion, previously misdiagnosed as tumefactive demyelinating lesion. Cerebral biopsy leads to oligodendroglioma diagnosis, successfully treated with radiotherapy. The diagnosis of a brain tumor in a MS patient is challenging. The atypical clinical and radiological features are the key for accurate diagnosis. In such cases, a brain tumor has to be kept in mind no matter how rare this association is. PMID:25180114

Linhares, Paulo; Castro, Ligia; Sa, Maria Jose

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

ADAM 12: a putative marker of oligodendrogliomas?  

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ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) belongs to a large family of molecules, consisting of members with both disintegrin and metalloproteinase properties. ADAMs have been implicated in several cell physiological processes including cell adhesion, cell fusion, proteolysis and signalling. ADAM 12 is widely expressed, including skeletal muscle, testis, bone, intestine, heart and kidney. In addition, a variety of tumours show elevated expression of ADAM12; among them being breast-, colon-, gastric- and lung-carcinoma. As to the brain, ADAM 12 has been shown previously to be expressed in rat and human oligodendrocytes. However, little is known about the expression of this protease in brain tumours. This study demonstrates the presence of ADAM 12 in non-neoplastic oligodendroglial cells of normal human brain as well as in neoplastic oligodendroglia and minigemistocytes arising from four pure oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligoastrocytomas. Double stainings revealed a notable preference of ADAM 12 for the oligodendroglial over astroglial components. The results of immunohistochemistry are in accordance with the results obtained from the RT-PCR, which further demonstrated a mild difference concerning the mRNA concentration of ADAM 12 between similar grades of eight astrocytomas and eight oligodendrogliomas (namely four astrocytomas grade II versus four oligodendrogliomas grade II and four astrocytomas grade III versus four oligodendrogliomas grade III). Both cellular immunostaining for ADAM 12 and ADAM 12 mRNA content decrease with higher histologic grade of the tumour. Surprisingly, the latter parameter (ADAM12 mRNA) showed a significant opposite correlation to the degree of histologic tumour malignancy. From our data showing that ADAM 12 is highly expressed in, but not restricted to, oligodendrogliomas, we conclude that ADAM 12 immunohistochemistry may be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of brain tumours. PMID:23324579

Kanakis, Dimitrios; Lendeckel, Uwe; Theodosiou, Paraskevi; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Mawrin, Christian; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Bukowska, Alicia; Dietzmann, Knut; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

2013-01-01

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Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.  

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Well-documented cases of malignant degeneration in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are rare in the literature. We report 2 cases of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, 1 of which demonstrated clear evidence of malignant degeneration in the absence of prior radiation therapy over an 18-year period. Both anaplastic tumors were characterized by foci of necrosis and increased mitotic activity (3 and 2 mitotic figures/10 high-power fields). Both tumors demonstrated focal positive staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and showed marked reticulin deposition. An MIB-1 labeling index (marker of cell proliferation) in the initial low-grade-appearing tumor in case 1 was 0.1%. The recurrent tumor in case 1 had an MIB-1 labeling index of 4.9%, and the anaplastic tumor in case 2 had an MIB-1 labeling index of 5.4%. Significant cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was not observed in either anaplastic tumor. Two percent to 3% of tumor cells stained positive with p53 protein antibody in the recurrent anaplastic tumor in case 1. Although histology may not reliably predict aggressive behavior in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, the presence of increased mitosis, necrosis, and increased cell proliferation labeling indices may be indicative of a higher grade tumor. PMID:9870856

Prayson, R A; Morris, H H

1998-12-01

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Radical Resection of Adult Low Grade Oligodendroglioma without Adjuvant Therapy: Results of a Prospective Treatment Protocol—Surgical Treatment of Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma  

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Full Text Available The goal of this work was to demonstrate prospectively that maximal surgical resection of low grade oligodendrogliomas without adjuvant therapy does not reduce life expectancy over that of historical controls. All patients with surgically accessible grade II oligodendrogliomas underwent maximal resection using stereotactic guidance and/or cortical mapping and were followed with serial MRI scans without adjuvant therapy until either progression or spread into brain regions deemed not surgically resectable. Nineteen patients were treated between 1993 and 2006. Ten patients required reoperation an average of 55 months after their first surgery. Nine patients progressed to anaplastic tumors an average of 42 months after their first surgery: six patients died from their tumors an average of 73 months after diagnosis, two are still alive 76 and 18 months after progression, and one was lost to follow up. Ten patients are alive and progression-free an average of 116 months after diagnosis, one of whom was lost to follow up at 106 months from diagnosis. Four patients are alive and event-free an average of 125 months after diagnosis. All are male and three had tumors in the superior frontal gyrus. The event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival of our patients are not worse than those of patients treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy. Withholding adjuvant therapy at diagnosis appears to be safe. It will be important to establish the molecular differences between the patients who did very well and those who progressed so that adjuvant therapy could be offered to the latter.

Amy M. Ross

2011-06-01

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Meningioma anaplásico / Anaplastic meningioma  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente que comenzó a presentar cefalea, vértigos, trastornos visuales y pérdida del equilibrio. Mediante la resonancia magnética se visualizó una imagen tumoral parietal izquierda de 3 cm diámetro, de localización extraaxial y contornos lobulados bien definidos, c [...] on gran captación no homogénea de contraste, rodeada de extenso edema perilesional. Se realizó angiotomografía, previa a la cirugía, en busca de irrigación y daño vascular. Se logró la resección de 95% de la lesión (grado II de Simpson), que incluyó duramadre adyacente infiltrada y respetó el seno longitudinal superior. Los resultados anatomopatológicos confirmaron que se trataba de un meningioma anaplásico de grado III, con criterio de tratamiento coadyuvante. Abstract in english The case report of a patient who began presenting headache, vertigos, visual disorders and loss of balance is presented. By means of the magnetic resonance a left tumoral parietal image of 3 cm diameter was visualized, of extra-axial localization and well defined lobulated contours, with great non-h [...] omogeneous zones of contrast, surrounded by extensive perilesional edema. An angiotomography was carried out, previous to the surgery, looking for irrigation and vascular compromise. The resection of 95% of the lesion was achieved (grade II of Simpson) which included adjacent infiltrated dura madre and preserving the superior longitudinal sinus. Pathological results confirmed that it was an anaplastic meningioma grade III, with criterium for adyuvant treatment.

Arlines Alina, Piña Tornés; Fernando, Mendoza Montero; Francisco José, Oliva Pontón.

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Meningioma anaplásico Anaplastic meningioma  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente que comenzó a presentar cefalea, vértigos, trastornos visuales y pérdida del equilibrio. Mediante la resonancia magnética se visualizó una imagen tumoral parietal izquierda de 3 cm diámetro, de localización extraaxial y contornos lobulados bien definidos, con gran captación no homogénea de contraste, rodeada de extenso edema perilesional. Se realizó angiotomografía, previa a la cirugía, en busca de irrigación y daño vascular. Se logró la resección de 95% de la lesión (grado II de Simpson, que incluyó duramadre adyacente infiltrada y respetó el seno longitudinal superior. Los resultados anatomopatológicos confirmaron que se trataba de un meningioma anaplásico de grado III, con criterio de tratamiento coadyuvante.The case report of a patient who began presenting headache, vertigos, visual disorders and loss of balance is presented. By means of the magnetic resonance a left tumoral parietal image of 3 cm diameter was visualized, of extra-axial localization and well defined lobulated contours, with great non-homogeneous zones of contrast, surrounded by extensive perilesional edema. An angiotomography was carried out, previous to the surgery, looking for irrigation and vascular compromise. The resection of 95% of the lesion was achieved (grade II of Simpson which included adjacent infiltrated dura madre and preserving the superior longitudinal sinus. Pathological results confirmed that it was an anaplastic meningioma grade III, with criterium for adyuvant treatment.

Arlines Alina Piña Tornés

2013-03-01

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Glycolipid markers of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.  

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Neutral glycolipids and gangliosides were analyzed in 149 astrocytomas (A), 46 oligodendrogliomas (O), and 21 oligoastrocytomas (OA) to determine if specific glycolipids correlate with histologic diagnosis and grade. Positivity for asialoGM1 (GA1) and negativity for paragloboside by immuno-TLC correlated with histological diagnosis of O and OA, whereas the reverse pattern correlated with A. High levels (over 5 microg hexose per mg dry weight) of CMH generally correlated with an O component, but the association was not as strong as for either GA1 presence or paragloboside absence. Pilocytic astrocytomas and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas had high proportions (> 15%) of globoside, low ratios (< 0.5) of GD1a: GD1b, and identifiable ceramide trihexoside (CTH). Three gangliosides of the 1b pathway were progressively lost with increasing grade of A, but a similar correlation with grade was not seen in O or OA. A high proportion of cases expressing sialosylparagloboside (3'LM1; 6'LM1) were grade 4 A. Glycolipids are synthesized by glycosyltransferases that add specific sugars to the nascent oligosaccharide. Correlation of specific glycolipids with histological diagnoses and grades indicate that these tumor types express specific patterns of glycosyltransferases, several of which have been cloned. It is possible that critical genes coding for these enzymes are deleted, overexpressed, or mutated in certain tumor types and grades, thus leading to the patterns of glycolipids that we found to be associated with these tumors. PMID:10604750

Yates, A J; Comas, T; Scheithauer, B W; Burger, P C; Pearl, D K

1999-12-01

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Oligodendrogliomas en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía: comportamiento biológico en una población definida / Oligodebdrogliomas the National Institute of Neurology and neurosurgery mvs: biologic behavior in a defined population  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los oligodendrogliomas corresponden entre el 2 y 5% de los tumores intracranerales siendo diagnosticados en la 4º ó 5º décadas de la vida. La localización más frecuente es el lóbulo frontal. La cirugía es la piedra angular del tratamiento utilizado. Material y métodos: entre enero de 1990 y enero de [...] l 2000, 28 pacientes tuvieron diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma. Se revisaron los expedientes en busca de localización, signos y síntomas de presentación, diagnóstico preoperatorio, estirpe histológica, tipo de tratamiento recibido y complicaciones. Resultados: el sitio de localización más frecuente fue el lóbulo frontal (43%), mientras que el síntoma de presentación principal fue epilepsia (61%). El diagnóstico preoperatorio fue glioma de bajo grado en 39% de los casos. Se realizó resección parcial en 36% de los casos. La cirugía fue realizada por un neurocirujano recibido en la mitad de los casos y por un residente de último año en la otra mitad. Recibió radioterapia fraccionada el 71% de los pacientes, mientras que 21% recibieron quimioterapia. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue oligodendroglioma en 71% de los casos y oligodendroglioma anaplásico en el 29%. La mortalidad operatoria fue del 8%. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos en el estudio son similares a los descritos en la literatura. Abstract in english Oligodendrogliomas represent 2 to 5% of the intracraneal tumors. Usually these tumors are diagnosed between the 4th and the 5th decades of life. The most commonly site is the frontal lobe. Surgery is the milestone of the treatment approach. Material and methods: between January 1990 and January 2000 [...] , 28 patients had a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. We looked for localization, signs and symtoms of presentation, peroperative diagnosis, histopathology, type of treatment received and complications. Results: the most frecuent site was the frontal lobe (43%), while the main symptom of presentation were seizures (61%). The preoperative diagnosis with clinical data and imaging was low-grade glioma in 39% of the cases. Partial resection was performed in 36% of the cases being the most prevalent of all treatments. The surgery was performed by neurosurgeons in half the cases and by residents of the last year in the other half. Seventy one porcent of patients were treated with radiotherapy, and 21% with chemotherapy. The hystopathologic diagnosis was oligodendroglioma in 71% and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in 29%. The operative mortality was 8%. Conclusion: our results are similar to the ones described

Sergio, Moreno-Jiménez; Mario Alonso, Vanegas; Antonio, Bramasco Aviléz; Cuauhtémoc, García-Pastor; Javier, Terrazo-Lluch; Martha, Tena; Lucinda, Aguirre.

2005-07-01

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Supratentorial astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas treated in the MRI era  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

cytoma. Oligodendroglioma has a more protracted course of disease progression than astrocytoma. This particular feature and the sensitivity of LGGs to chemotherapy as well as their relevant prognostic factors, such as age, histopathology and amount of tumor removal, should be taken into account before any decision on treatment methods for LGGs is made. (author)

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ATRX loss refines the classification of anaplastic gliomas and identifies a subgroup of IDH mutant astrocytic tumors with better prognosis.  

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Mutation/loss of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) expression has been described in anaplastic gliomas. The present study explored the role of ATRX status in the molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas and its impact on survival in the biomarker cohort of the NOA-04 anaplastic glioma trial. Patients (n = 133) of the NOA-04 trial were analyzed for ATRX expression using immunohistochemistry. ATRX status was correlated with age, histology, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), 1p/19q, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status, and the trial efficacy endpoints. Loss of ATRX expression was detected in 45 % of anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 27 % of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA) and 10 % of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO). It was mostly restricted to IDH mutant tumors and almost mutually exclusive with 1p/19q co-deletion. The ALT phenotype was significantly correlated with ATRX loss. ATRX and 1p/19q status were used to re-classify AOA: AOA harboring ATRX loss shared a similar clinical course with AA, whereas AOA carrying 1p/19q co-deletion shared a similar course with AO. Accordingly, in a Cox regression model including ATRX and 1p/19q status, histology was no longer significantly associated with time to treatment failure. Survival analysis showed a marked separation of IDH mutant astrocytic tumors into two groups based on ATRX status: tumors with ATRX loss had a significantly better prognosis (median time to treatment failure 55.6 vs. 31.8 months, p = 0.0168, log rank test). ATRX status helps better define the clinically and morphologically mixed group of AOA, since ATRX loss is a hallmark of astrocytic tumors. Furthermore, ATRX loss defines a subgroup of astrocytic tumors with a favorable prognosis. PMID:23904111

Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Holland-Letz, Tim; Korshunov, Andrey; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan Michael; Platten, Michael; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

2013-09-01

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Integrated DNA methylation and copy-number profiling identify three clinically and biologically relevant groups of anaplastic glioma.  

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The outcome of patients with anaplastic gliomas varies considerably. Whether a molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas based on large-scale genomic or epigenomic analyses is superior to histopathology for reflecting distinct biological groups, predicting outcomes and guiding therapy decisions has yet to be determined. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis, using a platform which also allows the detection of copy-number aberrations, was performed in a cohort of 228 patients with anaplastic gliomas (astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas), including 115 patients of the NOA-04 trial. We further compared these tumors with a group of 55 glioblastomas. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation patterns revealed two main groups correlated with IDH status: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positive (77.5 %) or negative (22.5 %). CIMP(pos) (IDH mutant) tumors showed a further separation based on copy-number status of chromosome arms 1p and 19q. CIMP(neg) (IDH wild type) tumors showed hallmark copy-number alterations of glioblastomas, and clustered together with CIMP(neg) glioblastomas without forming separate groups based on WHO grade. Notably, there was no molecular evidence for a distinct biological entity representing anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Tumor classification based on CIMP and 1p/19q status was significantly associated with survival, allowing a better prediction of outcome than the current histopathological classification: patients with CIMP(pos) tumors with 1p/19q codeletion (CIMP-codel) had the best prognosis, followed by patients with CIMP(pos) tumors but intact 1p/19q status (CIMP-non-codel). Patients with CIMP(neg) anaplastic gliomas (GBM-like) had the worst prognosis. Collectively, our data suggest that anaplastic gliomas can be grouped by IDH and 1p/19q status into three molecular groups that show clear links to underlying biology and a significant association with clinical outcome in a prospective trial cohort. PMID:25008768

Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Bertoni, Anna; Schweizer, Leonille; Korshunov, Andrey; Weiß, Elisa K; Schliesser, Maximilian G; Radbruch, Alexander; Herold-Mende, Christel; Roth, Patrick; Unterberg, Andreas; Hartmann, Christian; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Platten, Michael; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

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Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor originally diagnosed as astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma / Tumor neuroepitelial disembrioplásico diagnosticado originalmente como astrocitoma ou oligodendroglioma  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O tumor neuroepitelial disembrioplásico (DNT), descrito em 1988 e incorporado na classificação da OMS em 1993, acomete predominantemente crianças ou adultos jovens, causando crises convulsivas parciais complexas farmacorresistentes. Como é benigno e tratável com ressecção cirúrgica, seu reconhecimen [...] to é importante. Tem semelhanças com gliomas de baixo grau e gangliogliomas, que podem recidivar e malignizar. OBJETIVOS: Investigar se o DNT foi originalmente diagnosticado como astrocitoma, oligodendroglioma ou ganglioglioma e determinar sua frequência numa série de neoplasias gliais/glioneuronais de baixo grau. MÉTODOS: Foram revistos aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e histológicos de 58 neoplasias operadas entre 1978 e 2008, classificadas como astrocitomas (32, sendo 8 pilocíticas), oligodendrogliomas (12), gangliogliomas (7) e DNT (7). RESULTADOS: Foram identificados quatro novos DNT, um operado antes de 1993, originalmente diagnosticado como astrocitoma (3) e oligodendroglioma (1). Um DNT diagnosticado em 2002 foi reclassificado como glioma angiocêntrico. Portanto, 10 DNT (17,2%) foram identificados. CONCLUSÕES: Correlações clínico-radiológicas e histopatológicas contribuíram para o diagnóstico do DNT. Abstract in english Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), described in 1988 and introduced in the WHO classification in 1993, affects predominantly children or young adults causing intractable complex partial seizures. Since it is benign and treated with surgical resection, its recognition is important. It has [...] similarities with low-grade gliomas and gangliogliomas, which may recur and become malignant. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether DNT was previously diagnosed as astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, or ganglioglioma and to determine its frequency in a series of low-grade glial/glio-neuronal tumors. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and histological aspects of 58 tumors operated from 1978 to 2008, classified as astrocytomas (32, including 8 pilocytic), oligodendrogliomas (12), gangliogliomas (7), and DNT (7), were reviewed. RESULTS: Four new DNT, one operated before 1993, previously classified as astrocytoma (3) and oligodendroglioma (1), were identified. One DNT diagnosed in 2002 was classified once more as angiocentric glioma. Therefore, 10 DNT (17.2%) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical-radiological and histopathological correlations have contributed to diagnose the DNT.

Diego Cassol, Dozza; Flávio Freinkel, Rodrigues; Leila, Chimelli.

2012-09-01

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Oligodendroglioma occurring after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma  

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A 38 year old male dentist developed an oligodendroglioma of the left medial temporal lobe and parasellar region 12 years after radiotherapy with 6600 rads for acromegaly. The 30 cases of radiation-induced gliomas reported in the English literature are reviewed and analysed. The criteria for defining radiation-induced tumours of the central nervous system are proposed as follows: the tumour has a long quiescent ''latency period'', a location in the previously irradiated field, a verified histological difference from a primary condition, and does not arise from a primary condition associated with a genetic syndrome such as neurofibromatosis or tuberous sclerosis. The reported case fulfilled these criteria but appears to be the only reported radiation-induced oligodendroglioma.

Chuni Huang; Wenhysang Chiou; Ho, D.M.

1987-12-01

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First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication  

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Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral he...

Mozaffari, A. A.; Derakhshanfar, A.

2012-01-01

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Cerebral ganglioglioma with anaplastic oligodendroglial component.  

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We report an unusual and possibly unique example of cerebral ganglioglioma with an anaplastic oligodendroglial component. The latter was documented on both morphological and immunohistochemical grounds. Immunohistochemically, the anaplastic cells were strongly positive with the monoclonal antibody anti-Leu-7, while they lacked glial fibrillary acid protein, vimentin and neurofilaments. PMID:1706300

Allegranza, A; Pileri, S; Frank, G; Ferracini, R

1990-11-01

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Surgical treatment for anaplastic thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is relatively rare but extremely aggressive neoplasm. The aim of the present paper was to study the possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer. Methods: During 5-year period (from 1998 to 2002 in the Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patients (44 female and 21 male patients of median age 63 years (range: 37-88 years. Diagnosis was determined on the basis of histological analysis in operated patients or on cytology findings in case of patients who were not operated. Histological analysis confirmed anaplastic transformation of papillary thyroid cancer in 18 cases. Results In 50% patients we performed only fine needle biopsy, and in 37% patients operative biopsy or tumor reduction. We performed radical surgery hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy, in 13% patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid goiter was present in 35% patients longer than a year before diagnosis of anaplastic cancer was made. Conclusion: Possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer is very limited. In about one third of patients there were longstanding goiter or histological verified dedifferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. These patients should have been operated before anaplastic transformation.

Živaljevi? Vladan R.

2003-01-01

36

Classical and anaplastic seminoma: Difference in survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors undertook a retrospective study of seminoma patients treated with radiation therapy between 1961 and 1985. The classical group consisted of 66 patients, of whom 47 were stage I and 19 were stage II. The anaplastic group consisted of 21 patients, of whom 11 were stage I, nine were stage II, and one was stage III. The median follow-up was 66 months. The five-year crude survival rate for the entire group was 92%, for classical 96%, and for anaplastic 78% (P<.005). Similarly, there was a significant difference (P<.005) in actuarial relapse-free survival at 5 years between classical and anaplastic seminoma. For classical stage I, the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 96; for classical stage II, 84%. For anaplastic stage I the relapse-free actuarial 5-year survival rate was 82%, and for stage II 75%. Six patients in the classical group (9%) failed treatment. In the anaplastic group, five patients or 24 failed treatment. Therefore, the authors' data suggest a difference in survival and failure rate between classical and anaplastic seminoma. Extratesticular seminoma with anaplastic histology has an even worse prognosis

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GFAP and alpha1a-AR staining and nuclear morphometry of oligodendrogliomas by confocal microscopy and image analysis: useful parameters for predicting survival in oligodendrogliomas  

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Abstract Objective This study attempts to evaluate the GFAP and alpha1a-AR staining and morphometrical nuclear features of oligodendrogliomas and their prognostic implications as compared to present histopathology classification and their survival outcome. Study design Surgical specimens from 24 patients with oligodendrogliomas during the period 1981–2000 were included. These cases were classified into two groups defined by the grade of the neoplasm: Group I: ...

Uranga-Ocio José A; Alvira Mariano; Figols Javier; Moro-Rodríguez Ernesto; García-Poblete Eduardo

2008-01-01

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Anaplastic seminoma: an analysis of 77 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over a 28 year period, 77 patients with early stage anaplastic seminoma of the testis were treated by orchiectomy and lymphatic irradiation at three Army medical centers. With a median follow-up period of 97 months, the 10 year actuarial survival is 96% for Stage I patients and 87% for Stage II patients. For patients with Stage I anaplastic seminoma no survival advantage can be demonstrated for adding mediastinal and supraclavicular irradiation versus para-aortic and pelvic irradiation alone. The addition of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy to lymphatic irradiation increased the frequency of major gastrointestinal complications without significantly improving survival. Patients with anaplastic seminoma and elevated serum beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotrophin levels have a poor prognosis and should be considered for adjuvant combination chemotherapy. Anaplastic seminoma of the testis has a similar clinical presentation, response to therapy and prognosis compared to typical seminoma and should be managed in the same way

39

Oligodendroglioma cístico e positividade das reações para cisticercose relato de caso Cystic oligodendroglioma and positivity of reactions for cysticercosis: case report  

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Full Text Available São poucos os estudos sobre gliomas «low-grade». Os oligodendrogliomas representam de 1,3 a 10% dos tumores intracerebrais. A neurocisticercose é uma das mais graves parasitoses do SNC, com evidente polimorfismo clínico e laboratorial. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar o caso de um doente com cefaléia, perda progressiva da visão, alteração do comportamento e, provas imunológicas positivas para cisticercose no líquido cístico e cefalorra-queano. Após tentativas para tratamento da neurocisticercose, sem muito sucesso, foi submetido a craniotomia frontal para exérese de tumor cístico, que revelou tratar-se de oligodendroglioma. Discutem-se aspectos relacionados aos possíveis mecanismos para associação de neurocisticercose e oligodendroglioma.A case of a 32-years old male patient with complaints of frontal headache progressive decrease in visual acuity, altered behaviour, and positive results of immunological tests for cysticercosis performed on the cystic and cerebrospinal fluids is presented. After several clinical and surgical proceedings, the frontal craniotomy was indicated and a multi-lobulated cystic tumor was excised. Biopsy material revealed an oligodendroglioma invading the degenerated membrane of cystic wall. Some aspects related to the possible mechanisms involved in the association cf oligodendroglioma with neurocysticercosis in the presented case are discussed. Three different types of conclusions may be reached: (1 neurocysticercosis may have acted as an oncogenetic factor for the oligodendroglioma; (2 the glycoprotein nature of the antigens of gliomas and cysticercosis and the similarity in the molecular weight range of their polypeptides may be responsible for the positivity of the reactions for cysticercosis in the cystic fluid; or (3 the association of oligodendroglioma with cysticercosis may be a simple coincidence. The present study strengthens the opinion that other pathologies should be looked for when clinical treatment of cysticercosis does not follow the expected course.

Svetlana Agapejev

1992-06-01

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Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging  

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Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

 
 
 
 
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BILATERAL THALAMIC ANAPLASTIC GLIOMA : CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available The authors report on patient with bilateral thalamic anaplastic glioma. A 54-year-old man was presented with headache and gradually increasing personality changes. Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance (MR of the brain demonstrated bilateral thalamic lesions. MR Spectroscopy of the thalamic lesions showed an increased Choline and creatinin peak and glial tumor was diagnosed radiologically. Stereotactic brain biopsy was performed. Pathological examination revealed anaplastic astrosytoma grade III (World Health Organisation Classification 1993. Patient was referred to radiation therapy. Gliomas of the thalamus are rare and Bilateral Thalamic Anaplastic Gliomas are less defined. Surgical treatment is limited since eloquency of the region and stereotactic biopsy is necessary. The choice of the treatment is radiotherapy.

Halil Ibrahim Sun

2008-01-01

42

Unexpected expression of intermediate filament protein genes in human oligodendroglioma cell lines  

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From a human oligodendroglioma cell line cDNA library, ten intermediate filament (IF) cDNA clones were isolated. Five clones corresponded to vimentin mRNA, two corresponded to cytokeratin K7 mRNA, and two corresponded to cytokeratin K8 mRNA. One clone encoded a novel IF mRNA. The expression of these and other IF protein genes was examined in five cell lines derived from human oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma and neuroblastoma tumors. Vimentin mRNA and K18 mRNA were expressed in all the cell lines. The K7 and K8 genes were expressed only in the oligodendroglioma cell lines. Surprisingly, nestin mRNA was expressed in the astrocytoma lines and the neuroblastoma line, but was not expressed in the oligodendroglioma lines. These results indicate that oligodendroglioma cell lines express Types I and II cytokeratin genes. This pattern of IF gene expression was different from that of the astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines, which expressed IF genes usually associated with the mature cell types or with differentiating fetal neural precursor cells, i.e. GFAP and neurofilament-L. The results also suggest that the oligodendroglioma cell lines are more epithelial in character and do not reflect the gene expression of mature oligodendrocytes. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Kashima, Tsuyoshi; Vinters, H.V.; Campagnoni, A.T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-01-01

43

Farewell to oligoastrocytoma: in situ molecular genetics favor classification as either oligodendroglioma or astrocytoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma are histologically and genetically well-defined entities. The majority of astrocytomas harbor concurrent TP53 and ATRX mutations, while most oligodendrogliomas carry the 1p/19q co-deletion. Both entities share high frequencies of IDH mutations. In contrast, oligoastrocytomas (OA) appear less clearly defined and, therefore, there is an ongoing debate whether these tumors indeed constitute an entity or whether they represent a mixed bag containing both astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. We investigated 43 OA diagnosed in different institutions employing histology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization addressing surrogates for the molecular genetic markers IDH1R132H, TP53, ATRX and 1p/19q loss. In all but one OA the combination of nuclear p53 accumulation and ATRX loss was mutually exclusive with 1p/19q co-deletion. In 31/43 OA, only alterations typical for oligodendroglioma were observed, while in 11/43 OA, only indicators for mutations typical for astrocytomas were detected. A single case exhibited a distinct pattern, nuclear expression of p53, ATRX loss, IDH1 mutation and partial 1p/19q loss. However, this was the only patient undergoing radiotherapy prior to surgery, possibly contributing to the acquisition of this uncommon combination. In OA with oligodendroglioma typical alterations, the portions corresponding to astrocytic part were determined as reactive, while in OA with astrocytoma typical alterations the portions corresponding to oligodendroglial differentiation were neoplastic. These data provide strong evidence against the existence of an independent OA entity. PMID:25143301

Sahm, Felix; Reuss, David; Koelsche, Christian; Capper, David; Schittenhelm, Jens; Heim, Stephanie; Jones, David T W; Pfister, Stefan M; Herold-Mende, Christel; Wick, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolf; Hartmann, Christian; Paulus, Werner; von Deimling, Andreas

2014-10-01

44

Anaplastic meningioma with extremely rapid recurrence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 62-year-old woman presented with an uncommon case of anaplastic meningioma manifesting as recent memory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass located in the right temporal lobe. She became unconscious because of uncal herniation and underwent urgent surgery. The tumor was completely resected, except for a lesion tightly attached to arteries. Histological examination indicated the presence of anaplastic meningioma with an extremely high MIB-1 labeling index (70%). After 43 days, the patient developed local recurrence and dissemination in the left temporal lobe. The exceptionally high MIB-1 labeling index corresponded with a short tumor doubling time (8.2 days). Whole-brain irradiation and linear accelerator surgery for disseminated lesions were performed, and the tumor growth halted. Although meningiomas rarely show malignant behavior, corresponding to World Health Organization grade III, it is necessary to consider malignant behavior when treating meningiomas. PMID:21613768

Kawahara, Yosuke; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takuya; Tamase, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nitta, Hisashi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

2011-01-01

45

Youngest case of third ventricular anaplastic neurocytoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolamide chemotherapy.

Chinnikatti Shravan

2010-01-01

46

Youngest case of third ventricular anaplastic neurocytoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 6-year-old child presented to us with on and off headache and vomiting for 4 months. On examination, there was bilateral papilledema with mild intracranial hypertension but with no neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus with possibility of glioma. The patient underwent gross tumor excision and histopathology confirmed anaplastic neurocytoma. The postoperative MRI showed residual disease. The patient treated with a...

Chinnikatti Shravan; Sharma D; Sharma Kuldeep; Haresh K; Rath G

2010-01-01

47

Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, there is no report in the international literature of an oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body, nor is there an analysis of the possible origins of this lesion. Case presentation Here we report on a 52-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a ciliary body tumor revealed by clinical examination and ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies. Following enucleation, pathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Postoperative histopathological staining results included OLIGO-2(+ and GFAP(-, leading to a pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body in the right eye (WHO grade II. Conclusions Since malignant gliomas derive from transformed neural stem cells, the presence of oligodendroglioma in the ciliary body supports the hypothesis that gliomas can occur wherever neural stem cells exist. Tumors of the ciliary body derived from oligodendrocytes are difficult to diagnose; pathological analyses are essential.

Yang Qian

2010-10-01

48

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ost valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

49

Clinical analysis of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine  

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Full Text Available Primary anaplastic carcinoma is a rare variant of small intestinal cancer. Most reports of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are isolated case reports, therefore the clinicopathological features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this tumor type remain unclear. This review analyzes the available clinical characteristics of primary anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine and investigates key differences from differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. A Medline search was performed using the keywords ‘small intestine’ and ‘anaplastic carcinoma’ or ‘undifferentiated carcinoma’. Additional articles were obtained from references within the papers identified by the Medline search. The literature revealed a poor prognosis for patients who underwent surgical resection for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, which gave a 3-year overall survival rate of 10.8% and a median survival time of 5.0 mo. The literature suggests that anaplastic carcinoma is markedly more aggressive than differentiated adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. Surgical resection with the aim of complete tumor removal provides the only beneficial therapeutic option for patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine, because chemotherapy and radiation therapy have no significant effect on the rate of survival. However, despite complete tumor resection, most patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine are at great risk of disease recurrence. Multicenter clinical trials are expected to provide additional therapeutic strategies and establish the efficacy of multimodality adjuvant therapy. This report also highlights the importance of a systematic diagnostic approach for anaplastic carcinoma of the small intestine.

Tsutomu Namikawa, Kazuhiro Hanazaki

2009-02-01

50

Diagnosis and Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma  

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Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. It cannot uptake iodine or synthesis thyroglobulin. The incidence is low; about 2% - 5% of thyroid cancer. The peak age incidence is 60 - 70 years and it is more common in females (55% - 77% of all patients. In recent years, the incidence has declined; however, it may be higher in areas of endemic goiter. ATC may occur with a coexisting carcinoma and may represent transformation of a well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing anterior neck mass and aggressive symptoms. The most reliable tool in detecting thyroid malignancies is fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Sensitivity of FNAC for thyroid malignancy ranged from 61% to 97.7%. Fine-needle aspiration can diagnose ATC by the demonstration of spindled or giant cells, bizarre neoplastic cells that may be multinucleated, or atypical cells with high mitotic activity. A syncytial pattern is the predominant cellular pattern of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other laboratory tests, including tumor markers (cytokeratin, vimentin, and carcinoembryogenic antigen are helpful in diagnosis and follow-up of the patients. Multimodality therapy (surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy is the recommended treatment and it seems to have slightly improved outcomes. The prognosis is not as bad in younger patients with smaller tumors. The most common cause of death is lung metastasis. The mean survival time is less than 6 months from the time of diagnosis. The prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential modality to achieve optimal outcomes.

Teeraporn Ratanaanekchai

2012-01-01

51

Anaplastic thyroid cancer: multimodal treatment results  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare and lethal disease. It accounts for 1–2% of thyroid malignancies, but specific mortality is higher than 90%. It is an aggressive locoregional disease with a high metastatic capacity. There is no agreement with regards to the best treatment. We analysed the results of treatment in a mestizo population treated in the National Cancer Institute (Mexico). Methods We reviewed 1,581 files of thyroid carcinomas; of these, 29 (1.83%) had anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Demographic variables, clinical manifestations, tumour characteristics, and treatments were analysed. Results The median age was 64.5 ± 13.2 years. Females were more affected (female/male ratio: 2.6:1); 21 cases occurred in women (72.4%), and eight in males (27.6%). The most common manifestations were neck enlargement (93.10%) and hoarseness (71.31%). The median tumour size was 8 cm (range: 4–20 cm). The percentage of cases which presented in clinical stage IVA was 10.3%, with 62.1% presenting in clinical stage IVb and 27.6% presenting in clinical stage VIc. Complete resection (R0) (p = 0.05), radiation doses of higher than 33.1 Gy (p = 0.04), and multimodal therapy were associated with better survival. Surgery plus radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment (p = 0.006). The median overall survival was 119 days (IC 95%, 36.3–201.6). Six-month, one-year and two-year survival was 37.9%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion Complete surgical resection is associated with better survival but is very difficult to achieve due to aggressive biological behaviour. Multimodal therapy is associated with better survival and a better quality of life. There is a need for more effective systemic treatments as extensive surgical resections have little overall benefit in highly invasive and metastatic disease. PMID:25114721

Aslan, Zaki Antonio Taissoun; Granados-Garcia, Martin; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Guerrero-Huerta, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Pedraza, Antonio; Namendys-Silva, Silvio A; Meneses-Garcia, Abelardo; Ordonez-Mosquera, Juliana Maria

2014-01-01

52

Midline oligodendrogliomas as studied by means of computed tomographic, angiographic, and positron-emission tomographic evaluations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five patients with intraventricular oligodendroglioma involving the lateral ventricle were reviewed by computed tomography (CT), cerebral angiography, and positron-emission tomography (PET) to delineate specific neuroradiological features of the tumors in comparison to those involving the cerebral hemispheres. Intraventricular mass lesions, extending largely from the anterior horn to the body or trigone of the lateral ventricle, were seen as hyperdense tumors in 5 cases on CT; none was iso- or hypodense. Of particular note was the fact that all of the lesions demonstrated a homogeneous contrast enhancement. Calcification of varying sizes and shapes was found in 4 cases. Hypodense areas within the tumor matrix suggestive of cyst formation were found in 4 cases. In all 5 cases, asymmetrical dilatation of the lateral ventricle was noted. No peritumoral edema was demonstrated. On angiograms, in all cases the tumors were visualized as hypervascular, spaceoccupying mass lesions supplied by such feeding arteries as anterior and posterior choroidal, lenticulo-striate, thalamo-perforating, and pericallosal arteries. Among these arteries, either medial or lateral posterior choroidal arteries, or both, were commonly seen in these vascular tumors. Fine tumor vessels were also seen in the distal portion of these arteries. They were accompanied by a homogeneous tumor stain at either the late-arterial, capillary, or early-venous phase. PET was performed on a 21-year-old female. The as performed on a 21-year-old female. The PET images showed that the intraventricular tumor had an increased cerebral blood flow and volume at the tumor site, indicating a hypervascular tumor. However, this tumor was considered less malignant on the basis of its decreased rate of glycolysis, as evaluated by PET studies with 18-F-deoxyglucose. Lateral ventricular oligodendrogliomas, synonymously termed 'midline oligodendrogliomas,' have fairly specific neuroradiological features different from those of hemispheric oligodendrogliomas. (J.P.N.)

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Oligodendroglioma arising in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma in a child.  

Science.gov (United States)

In childhood mature cystic teratomas are the most common type of ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumors of neuroepithelial origin are extremely rare in mature teratomas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report oligodendroglioma arising in a mature cystic ovarian teratoma in children. A 13-year-old girl presented with a history of pelvic pain for 2 months. An ultrasound examination showed a monolateral multicystic, calcific ovarian mass, measuring approximately 6 x 5 cm, arising in the left over and adnexia, suggesting a teratoma. An exploratorative laparotomy and ooferectomy were performed. On histopatological examination, various samples from cystic areas had mature tissues from all 3 germ cell layers, including skin, bone, bronchial structures, and cerebellum. Sections from solid areas showed uniform population of monotonous, rounded cells with indistinct cytoplasm and having perinuclear halo (fried-egg appearance) on a fibrillary, neuropilic background. Microcalcifications as calcospherites were noted in the stroma. Based on the typical morphological features, the cased was diagnosed as mature cystic teratoma with low-grade oligodendroglioma. To the authors' knowledge, there are a few reports in the literature of an oligodendroglioma arising in an ovarian teratoma in adults and this presented patient is the first case in childhood. PMID:20863158

Büyükka Bay, Sema; Corapcioglu, Funda; Kavurt, Sumru; Müezzino?lu, Bahar; Anik, Yonca; Tugay, Melih

2010-11-01

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Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry of oligodendrogliomas with special reference to prognosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. The biologic behavior of oligodendrogliomas is somewhat unpredictable. A supplementary prognostic factor is, therefore, desirable. Methods. Thirty-two pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas were investigated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 immunohistochemical analyses. The correlation of PCNA and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) with prognosis were studied, and the correlation of LI with clinical data was evaluated. Results. The PCNA LI had a range of 0-17% (mean, 5.27%; standard deviation [SD] = 4.65), and the Ki-67 LI had a range of 0-29% (mean, 4.19%; SD = 5.66). In general, the PCNA LI seemed to be higher than the Ki-67 LI. The mean survival time was 4.4 years, and 5- and 10-year survival rates were 38% and 19%, respectively. Ki-67 and PCNA staining indicated that patients with a high LI (>3% and >4%, respectively) had a significantly higher mortality, with mean survival time of 23.5 months and 26.2 months, respectively. No significant correlation between LI (or survival) and tumor size, cerebral localization, radiation, resection/biopsy, sex, age, or cytologic atypia was found. Conclusions. The use of Ki-67 and PCNA LI higher than 3% and 4%, respectively, appears reliable as prognostic factors when investigating pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas.

Sommer, Helle MØlgaard

1995-01-01

55

Reports of oligodendrogliomas in three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Central nervous system tumors are rarely reported in cervids. The current report describes gross and histopathologic oligodendrogliomas in 3 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and selected immunohistochemical properties of 2 deer. All deer were euthanized due to central nervous system signs. Grossly, masses were variably circumscribed, locally invasive in the brain, light grey, and soft, and ranged from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Histologically, tumors were characteristic for oligodendroglioma. The tumors were composed primarily of oval to round cells with round normochromatic to hyperchromatic nuclei, a pale granular cytoplasm, and well-delineated cytoplasmic membrane, and variable amounts of mucinous material, hemorrhage, and dystrophic mineralization. Immunohistochemistry, performed on masses from 2 deer, had positive cytoplasmic staining for S100 and variable staining on glial fibrillary acidic protein (1 deer negative and the other with rare positivity in astrocytes within the mass). This manuscript includes a discussion on the significance of these findings relative to central nervous system tumors of cervids and oligodendrogliomas from other species. PMID:22362955

Gottdenker, Nicole L; Gerhold, Richard; Cartoceti, Andrew; Keel, M Kevin; Goltz, James P; Howerth, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

56

Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres  

Science.gov (United States)

We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

57

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: features presenting diagnostic challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma has histopathologic features that necessitate a broad differential diagnosis. Diagnostic considerations include carcinoma, melanoma, and hematopoietic malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid sarcoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Unusual features can include subtle sinusoidal involvement, histiocytic morphology, cytokeratin expression, CD15 expression, and variant patterns of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression. Cases with unusual morphologic or immunohistochemical findings will be presented to highlight the complexity encountered in practice. PMID:25268191

Pletneva, Maria A; Smith, Lauren B

2014-10-01

58

Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide / Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O carcinoma diferenciado de tireóide, papilífero ou folicular, usualmente tem um curso relativo benigno após a tireoidectomia total e ablação de remanescentes tireoideanos com 131I. Em contraste, o carcinoma anaplásico de tireóide ou carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide, também derivado do epitélio [...] folicular tireoideano, é uma das neoplasias humanas mais agressivas, que perdeu a maioria ou todas as características do tecido de origem. Crescimento tumoral rápido é um presságio de mortalidade precoce a menos que se institua tratamento combinado agressivo. Não dispomos ainda de um tratamento que leva à cura definitiva para a maioria dos pacientes. A melhor conduta se constitui de um tratamento cirúrgico agressivo associado com a combinação de novos agentes quimioterápicos e radioterapia externa. Abstract in english Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC), as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I. In contrast, anaplastic TC or undiferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refer [...] s to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated. Rapid tumor growth presages early mortality unless combined therapy is aggressively pursued. Definitive curative approach does not exist for most patients. The best approach is still aggressive surgery combined with the associated use of new chemotherapies associated with local external beam radiotherapy.

Gisah A. de, Carvalho; Hans, Graf.

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Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses  

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Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

Lee, Jun Won; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Chang, Suk Ki; Yun, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Lan; Rho, Young-Soo; Jin Cho, Sung; Kim, Keon Ha (Depts. of Radiology, Otorhinolaryngology, and Pathology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

2008-04-15

60

Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

2013-01-15

 
 
 
 
61

Metachronous primary cranial tumors: Temporal lobe oligodendroglioma and temporal bone epidermoid carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma hasbeen detected at ipsilateral middle ear of a man aged 41years old who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of oligodendrogliomaat left temporal lobe of brain 5 years ago.It is an uncommon finding to detect more than one primarymalignant tumor with distinct pathological featuresin the same patient. The aim of this report is to remind thatthere may be tumors with distinct pathological features inthe presence of a primary tumor. J Clin Exp Invest 2013;4 (1: 110-112Key words: Oligodendroglioma, squamous cell carcinoma,metachronous

Ercan Akbay

2013-03-01

62

Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in patients with oligodendroglioma: a survival study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether cerebral blood volume measurement based on pretreatment perfusion MRI is a prognostic bio-marker for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed oligo-astrocytoma. Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 54 patients (23 females and 31 males), aged 21-73 years, with oligodendroglioma (or mixed tumour) were examined prior to beginning treatment with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI during gadolinium first-pass. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was calculated by dividing the measurement within the tumour by the measurement of the normal-appearing contralateral region. Patients were classified in two groups, grade A and grade B, according to the Saint-Anne Hospital classification and followed-up clinically and by means of MRI until their death or for a minimum of 5 years. Patients were also classified in grade II and grade III-IV, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, and were analysed with the same methods. Age, sex, treatment, tumour grade, contrast agent uptake, and rCBV were tested using survival curves with Kaplan-Meier's method, and their differences were analysed using the log-rank test. Results: In this population, median survival was 3 years. A rCBV threshold value of 2.2 was validated as a prognostic factor, for survival in these patients with oligodendrogliomas. Age, sex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV wersex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV were found to be prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumour grade (grade A/grade B), rCBV, age, and sex were prognostic factors independent of the other factors. The tumour grade according to the WHO classification (II versus III-IV) was also detected as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: Pretreatment rCBV measured by DSC perfusion MRI was found to be a prognostic factor for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed tumour, by using the Saint-Anne Hospital classification, which separate the IIB from the IIA. (authors)

63

Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - Case report*  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histology shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly. PMID:24346900

de Oliveira, Luciana Silveira Rabello; Nobrega, Madeleyne Palhano; Monteiro, Maira Gomes; de Almeida, Wagner Leite

2013-01-01

64

Primary cutaneous multifocal CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented with asymptomatic tumors all over the body. The tumors showed no signs of ulceration or regression. There were generalized, nontender, firm to hard enlarged lymph nodes without hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy and immunophenotyping revealed CD 30+ anaplastic primary cutaneous large cell lymphoma. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by single or grouped reddish-brown tumor nodules, which frequently tend to ulcerate. Secondary involvement of lymph nodes is seen in only 25%. The lesions responded dramatically to chemotherapy, but recurred.

Asha L

2006-01-01

65

Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature / Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empíric [...] o para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL. Abstract in english In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuro [...] radiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.

Marcelo E., Corti; Claudio, Yampolsky; Humberto, Metta; Mario, Valerga; Gustavo, Sevlever; Andrés, Capizzano.

2004-08-01

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Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature / Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empíric [...] o para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL. Abstract in english In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuro [...] radiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.

Marcelo E., Corti; Claudio, Yampolsky; Humberto, Metta; Mario, Valerga; Gustavo, Sevlever; Andrés, Capizzano.

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Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuroradiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empírico para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL.

Marcelo E. Corti

2004-08-01

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Diagnosis and management of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low-grade gliomas are a diverse group of neoplasms which, as the name implies, are thought to arise from glial cells. Common among this group are astrocytomas (low-grade astrocytoma; LGA), oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas. Among these, LGA is the commonest low-grade glioma and, occasionally, although incorrectly, the terms are used interchangeably. Advances in imaging technology have improved the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis. However, the management of low-grade gliomas is controversial. Recent evidence suggests that previously considered standard therapy (i.e. surgery plus radiotherapy) may not be In the patient's best interests. A review of the available published research concerning low-grade gliomas is given. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

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ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate clinical outcomes.  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a CD30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that morphologically resembles ALK-positive ALCL but lacks chromosomal rearrangements of the ALK gene. The genetic and clinical heterogeneity of ALK-negative ALCL has not been delineated. We performed immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization on 73 ALK-negative ALCLs and 32 ALK-positive ALCLs and evaluated the associations among pathology, genetics, and clinical outcome. Chromosomal rearrangements of DUSP22 and TP63 were identified in 30% and 8% of ALK-negative ALCLs, respectively. These rearrangements were mutually exclusive and were absent in ALK-positive ALCLs. Five-year overall survival rates were 85% for ALK-positive ALCLs, 90% for DUSP22-rearranged ALCLs, 17% for TP63-rearranged ALCLs, and 42% for cases lacking all 3 genetic markers (P < .0001). Hazard ratios for death in these 4 groups after adjusting for International Prognostic Index and age were 1.0 (reference group), 0.58, 8.63, and 4.16, respectively (P = 7.10 × 10(-5)). These results were similar when restricted to patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as well as to patients not receiving stem cell transplantation. Thus, ALK-negative ALCL is a genetically heterogeneous disease with widely disparate outcomes following standard therapy. DUSP22 and TP63 rearrangements may serve as predictive biomarkers to help guide patient management. PMID:24894770

Parrilla Castellar, Edgardo R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Said, Jonathan W; Swerdlow, Steven H; Ketterling, Rhett P; Knudson, Ryan A; Sidhu, Jagmohan S; Hsi, Eric D; Karikehalli, Shridevi; Jiang, Liuyan; Vasmatzis, George; Gibson, Sarah E; Ondrejka, Sarah; Nicolae, Alina; Grogg, Karen L; Allmer, Cristine; Ristow, Kay M; Wilson, Wyndham H; Macon, William R; Law, Mark E; Cerhan, James R; Habermann, Thomas M; Ansell, Stephen M; Dogan, Ahmet; Maurer, Matthew J; Feldman, Andrew L

2014-08-28

70

Extra and intramedullary anaplastic ependymoma in thoracic spinal cord.  

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Spinal ependymoma occupies 40-60% of primary spinal cord tumors and has a feature of intramedullary tumor. The tumor most commonly arises from the central canal of the spinal cord, the conus medullaris or the filum terminale and its pathological features are usually benign. Unlike above characteristics, intra and extramedullary ependymomas are reported very rarely and have wide variety of histological features. We present a rare case of spinal anaplastic ependymoma with an accompanied exophytic lesions extramedullary as well. The tumor was poorly delineated between a spinal cord and the extramedullary components in operative view. After we had confirmed the frozen biopsy as anaplastic ependymoma, the remnant mass embedded in the spinal cord was remained because of its unclear resection margin and the risk of neurological deterioration. She underwent radiotherapy with 50.4 Gy, and there were newly developed mass lesions at the lumbosacral region on the MRI, 14 months postoperatively. PMID:24757483

Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Sang Woo; Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Jun Huck

2013-09-01

71

DNA methylation alterations in grade II- and anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  

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Background Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare WHO grade II tumor accounting for less than 1% of all astrocytomas. Malignant transformation into PXA with anaplastic features, is unusual and correlates with poorer outcome of the patients. Methods Using a DNA methylation custom array, we have quantified the DNA methylation level on the promoter sequence of 807 cancer-related genes of WHO grade II (n?=?11) and III PXA (n?=?2) and compared to normal brain tissue (n?=?10) and glioblastoma (n?=?87) samples. DNA methylation levels were further confirmed on independent samples by pyrosequencing of the promoter sequences. Results Increasing DNA promoter hypermethylation events were observed in anaplastic PXA as compared with grade II samples. We further validated differential hypermethylation of CD81, HCK, HOXA5, ASCL2 and TES on anaplastic PXA and grade II tumors. Moreover, these epigenetic alterations overlap those described in glioblastoma patients, suggesting common mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Conclusions Even taking into consideration the small size of our patient populations, our data strongly suggest that epigenome-wide profiling of PXA is a valuable tool to identify methylated genes, which may play a role in the malignant progression of PXA. These methylation alterations may provide useful biomarkers for decision-making in those patients with low-grade PXA displaying a high risk of malignant transformation. PMID:24650279

2014-01-01

72

Distinctive properties of an anaplastic Wilms' tumor and its associated epithelial cell line.  

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Clinically the anaplastic variant of Wilms' tumor differs from the classical Wilms' tumor by its poor prognosis. To begin to understand and characterize the distinctive biology of this rare form of Wilms' tumor, a study of the histology, ultrastructure, and mRNA expression was performed on the anaplastic tumor and its associated cell line. The anaplastic tumor generated mouse heterotransplants that were readily used to establish epithelial cell cultures. The epithelial cultures, in turn, prod...

Hazen-martin, D. J.; Re, G. G.; Garvin, A. J.; Sens, D. A.

1994-01-01

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Resemblances in the Wedding and Natal Customs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article describes the natal rites and customs of the Azerbaijan and Bulgarian nations. Special attention is paid to the resemblances in the practicing and understanding of the traditions. Despite the fact that the two nations live in regions remote from each other, they have common beliefs and strive to provide prosperity for the home, family and children.

Reneta Zlateva

2011-07-01

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Genetically Modified Neural Stem Cells, Flucytosine, and Leucovorin Calcium in Treating Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2014-10-09

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Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

2013-10-17

76

Prophylactic irradiation in bronchogenic small cell anaplastic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 114 patients with bronchogenic small cell anaplastic carcinoma and staged as having regional disease all underwent combination chemotherapy consisting of CCNU, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. They were randomized to receive either radiotherapy to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes (4000 rad) or extensive radiotherapy, which included the brain, adrenals, and upper retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Fifteen patients were free of disease after 18 months of chemotherapy and the treatment was discontinued. Only 3 patients subsequently relapsed. No difference was observed between the two groups of patients in median survival time, response rate, duration of response, or relapse pattern, including the frequency of brain metastasis

77

Response and acquired resistance to everolimus in anaplastic thyroid cancer.  

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Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is effective in treating tumors harboring alterations in the mTOR pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to everolimus remain undefined. Resistance developed in a patient with metastatic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma after an extraordinary 18-month response. Whole-exome sequencing of pretreatment and drug-resistant tumors revealed a nonsense mutation in TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR, suggesting a mechanism for exquisite sensitivity to everolimus. The resistant tumor also harbored a mutation in MTOR that confers resistance to allosteric mTOR inhibition. The mutation remains sensitive to mTOR kinase inhibitors. PMID:25295501

Wagle, Nikhil; Grabiner, Brian C; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Rosenberg, Mara; Gray, Nathanael; Barletta, Justine A; Guo, Yanan; Swanson, Scott J; Ruan, Daniel T; Hanna, Glenn J; Haddad, Robert I; Getz, Gad; Kwiatkowski, David J; Carter, Scott L; Sabatini, David M; Jänne, Pasi A; Garraway, Levi A; Lorch, Jochen H

2014-10-01

78

Gefitinib and Radiation Therapy in Treating Children With Newly Diagnosed Gliomas  

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Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma

2014-05-15

79

p28 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Central Nervous System Tumors  

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Teratoid Tumor, Atypical; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brainstem Tumors; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Neuroectodermal Tumor, Primitive

2014-10-27

80

A case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skeletal muscle.  

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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a high grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is comprised of the malignant proliferation of large lymphoid cells, which express CD30. Primary ALCL of the skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. A 51-year-old Japanese female presented at our hospital with a 2-month history of severe pain and swelling of the right leg. A gallium-67 SPECT/CT scan showed a large mass involving the skeletal muscles from the gluteus to femoris. A biopsy of the mass demonstrated diffuse infiltration of medium and large neoplastic cells with round or lobulated hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei. A subset of Reed-Sternberg-like cells was also identified. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CD4 and CD30, but negative for CD3, CD8, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), CD20, CD79?, CD21 and CD23. Based on the histological examination, this patient was diagnosed to have ALK-negative ALCL of the skeletal muscle. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological behavior of primary skeletal muscle ALCL. PMID:25292453

Kubo, Yosuke; Aoi, Jun; Johno, Takamitsu; Makino, Takamitsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Clinicopathological study of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventeen cases (5 males and 12 females) of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland treated at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, between January 1999 and January 2009 were reviewed. Ages of the patients ranged from 54 to 94 years. Six cases were treated by radical surgery. All cases were treated by radiotherapy and 5 cases received additional chemotherapy. The 6 cases treated by radical surgery were able to experience home life. Survival time of the radical surgery cases ranged from 8 to 36 months, with a median of 17 months. In cases without surgery, the survival time ranged from 1 to 8 months, with a median of 4 months. As the final outcome, only 1 case is alive after 36 months; 8 cases died by primary tumor, 7 by lung metastasis and 1 by suicide. Although the prognosis of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland is generally poor, radical surgery, if possible, may provide better survival results. (author)

82

Large anaplastic spinal B-cell lymphoma in a cat.  

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A 5-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of tetraparesis. The neurologic lesion was localized to the cervical spinal segment (C1-C6). A left axillary mass was identified, and the results of fine needle aspiration cytology indicated malignant round cell neoplasia of possible histiocytic origin. The cells were large, had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, occasional bi- and multinucleation, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Euthanasia was performed due to the poor prognosis associated with severe, progressive neurologic signs and a malignant neoplasm. Postmortem examination revealed spinal cord compression and an extradural mass at the C1-C2 spinal segment, with neoplastic cells in the adjacent vertebral bodies, surrounding skeletal muscle, left axillary lymph node, and bone marrow from the right femur. The initial histologic diagnosis was anaplastic sarcoma, but immunohistochemical results indicated the cells were CD20+ and CD45R+ and CD3-, compatible with a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. CD79a staining was nonspecific and uninterpretable. Weak to moderate CD18 positivity and E-cadherin positivity were also observed. Clonality of the B-cell population could not be demonstrated using PCR testing for antigen receptor gene rearrangement. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline spinal anaplastic B-cell lymphoma exhibiting bi- and multinucleated cells. The prognostic significance of this cell morphology and immunophenotype is unknown. PMID:19055573

Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Newman, Shelley J; Moore, Peter F; Smith, Joanne R; Thomas, William B; Casimir, Roslyn H

2008-12-01

83

Magnetic resonance images resembling jugular venous thrombosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Juglar venous blood flow resembled venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in three cases. We present these cases together with MRI of juglar venous thrombosis and also discuss on flow signals and thrombus through the clinical cases and the experimental study. Left jugular angiography showed hemostasis in two of three cases and normal venous flow in one. In clinical cases and experimental study the blood clot appeared high intense on spin echo image (SE) and inversion recovery image (IR). Water flow appeared high intense at a certain range of velocity on SE and IR. Consequently the normal venous flow as well as hemostasis can look like thrombus on MRI. (author)

84

The efficiency of radiation therapy in the treatment of intracranial oligodendrogliomas: factors influencing the prognosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oligodendrogliomas (ODG) are a rare, slow growing, tumor in the brain, which can be cured by complete surgical resection, but as yet it is not known if postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) is essential. We analyzed the treatment results of patients with irradiated ODG to investigate the efficacy of RT in terms of survival rates and other influencing prognostic factors. Between March 1983 and December 1997, 42 patients with ODG were treated with RT at our hospital. The RT was performed daily at a dose of 1.8 ? 2.0 Gy, at 5 fractions per week, to a total dose of between 39.6 Gy and 64.8 Gy (mean 53.3 Gy). The ages of the patients ranged between 5 and 62 years, with a median age of 39 years. The mean follow-up period was 63.4 months (8-152 months). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the survival, and 5 year survival rates (5-YSR). Log rank tests and Cox regression analyses were used to define the significance of prognostic factors. The majority of ODG in this study were located in the cerebral hemisphere (83.3%). ODG are slightly more common in men than women, and commonly occurs in middle age, between the 3rd and 4th decades. It has been recommended that RT is commenced within 4 weeks following surgery (5-YSR; 86% vs. 49%; ? 0.05). A local involved field irradiation with conventional fractionation, commencing within 4 weeks following surgical excision of the tumor, was beneficial for the 5-YSR, but a total radiation dose exceeding 60 Gy did not improve the 5-YSR

85

Glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components: glioblastoma or anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors.  

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There have been some recent reports about glioblastoma with oligodendroglial (OG) components and malignant glioma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)-like components. We investigated whether the presence and extent of OG components and PNET-like components influenced the prognosis in patients with glioblastoma. Eighty-six patients with glioblastoma were divided into an OG group (28 %), which revealed areas with a honeycomb appearance, and a non-OG group (72 %) without a honeycomb appearance. Patients with glioblastoma were also divided into a PNET group (27 %), which revealed areas with PNET-like features defined as neoplastic cells with high N/C ratios and hyperchromatic oval-carrot-shaped nuclei, and lacked the typical honeycomb appearance, and a non-PNET group (73 %) without PNET features. There were no significant differences in overall survival among the OG, the non-OG, the PNET, and the non-PNET groups. Two patients who survived longer than 36 months had both OG and PNET components with 1p or 19q loss of heterozygosity. Perinuclear halo, which is a characteristic feature of oligodendrogliomas, is an artifact of tissue fixation. Therefore, we should not readily use the term glioblastoma with OG components. PNET-like components, which are considered rare in malignant gliomas, may be frequently identified in glioblastomas. PMID:22527749

Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Tetsuya; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshiaki; Arishima, Hidetaka; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Sato, Kazufumi; Imamura, Yoshiyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toshihiko; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

2012-07-01

86

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma associated with acquired ichthyosis.  

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Anaplastic, CD30(+), large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that accounts for 2% to 8% of all lymphomas. Its most common form is a classical systemic type, which involves multiple nodal and extranodal sites, including the skin. Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, especially Hodgkin's disease, are known rarely to be associated with acquired ichthyosis, whereas only 1 case of ALCL has been reported to be associated with acquired ichthyosis. We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with ALCL, involving lymph nodes and the skin, who exhibited acquired ichthyosis. The clinical and histopathologic findings were recorded, and immunophenotyping, T-cell receptor (TCR), and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement were determined. Clinically, right axillary and bilateral inguinal lymph nodes were palpable. The cutaneous eruptions were multiple pinkish and yellow colored, up to thumb-sized nodules, some of which were ulcerated. Histologically, the right axillary lymph node showed proliferation of anaplastic large cells in the paracortical and sinusoidal areas. Both the lymph node and skin showed pleomorphic proliferation of lymphoid cells with a mixture of mononuclear cells having oval, embryo-shaped, reniform, and lobulated nuclei, binucleated Reed-Sternberg-like cells, and multinucleated cells, with giant anaplastic and wreath-shaped nuclei. Immunophenotyping of the neoplastic cells revealed that they were positive for CD30 (Ber-H2), CD15 (Leu-M1), CD45 (LCA), and CD45RO (UCHL-1). Southern blot analysis demonstrated clonal rearrangement of the TCR beta region. In contrast, no novel bands were detected with the immunoglobulin heavy chain JH probe. Several months after the detection of the axillary nodes, an ichthyosiform, scaly eruption developed over almost the entire body of the patient. Histologically, it showed orthokeratotic, slight hyperkeratosis of the epidermis without a granular layer or with only a single layer of cells in the granular layer. Several kinds of lymphoproliferative diseases are associated with acquired ichthyosis, including Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and lymphomatoid papulosis. This is the second case report of acquired ichthyosis associated with ALCL. Although a common pathomechanism is suspected of underlying the development of acquired ichthyosis in these diseases, it is still unexplained. PMID:10767704

Kato, N; Yasukawa, K; Kimura, K; Yoshida, K

2000-05-01

87

Anaplastic myeloma presenting as mandibular swelling: Diagnosis by cytology.  

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Multiple myeloma is a disease resulting from clonal proliferation of plasma cells. A disease of the elderly, jaw lesions are seen in 14% of patients affected with myeloma. Rarely the oral and maxillofacial lesions can be the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented with mandibular swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done from the swelling and smears were suggestive of anaplastic myeloma, which is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma. The diagnosis of a plasmacytoma was confirmed by biopsy. Further workup of the patient revealed osteolytic lesions in skull, M band in electrophoresis and evidence of renal failure. Peripheral smear and bone marrow findings were also consistent with myeloma. PMID:25210245

Subitha, K; Renu, Thampy; Lillykutty, Pothen; Letha, V

2014-04-01

88

A Rare Case of a Synchronous Anaplastic Carcinoma Thyroid with Ductal Carcinoma Breast  

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Dual malignancy was first reported by Billroth in 1889. Incidence of second malignancy in cancer patients is as high as 10%, but synchronous anaplastic thyroid cancer along with breast tumor is a rare entity. We present a case of a 61-year-old female with a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast. The plausible association of breast cancers with thyroid carcinomas should thus be evaluated in larger cohort studies. More importantly, this report is to highlight the unusual synchronous occurrence of anaplastic thyroid cancer with ductal breast cancer and the therapeutic challenges involved in such cases. PMID:24822141

Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, P. B. Ananda; Sarkar, Shreyasee; Kotne, Sivasankar; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Mishra, Anindita

2014-01-01

89

Modulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in human oligodendroglioma cells by Sox17 regulates proliferation and differentiation  

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Oligodendrogliomas originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor (OPs), whose development is regulated by the Sonic hedgehog and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways. We investigated the contribution of these pathways in the proliferation and differentiation of human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG). Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine decreased cell survival and increased phosphorylated beta-catenin without altering myelin protein levels. Conversely, treatment of HOG with the Wnt antagonist secreted Frizzled Related Protein (SFRP1), led to increased myelin protein levels and reduced cell proliferation, suggesting cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Unlike normal primary human OPs, beta-catenin in HOG cells is not associated with endogenous Sox17 protein despite high levels of both proteins. Retroviral overexpression of recombinant Sox17 increased HOG cell cycle exit and apoptosis, and raised myelin protein levels and the percentage of O4+ cells, indicating increased differentiation. Recombinant Sox17 also increased beta-catenin-TCF4-Sox17 complex formation and decreased total cellular levels of beta-catenin. These changes were associated with increased SFRP1, and reduced expression of Wnt-1 and Frizzled-1,?3 and ?7 RNA, indicating that Sox17 induced a Hedgehog target, and regulated Wnt signaling at multiple levels. Our studies indicate that Wnt signaling regulates HOG cell cycle arrest and differentiation, and that recombinant Sox17 mediates modulation of the Wnt pathway through changes in beta-catenin, SFRP1 and Wnt/Frizzled expression. Our results thus identify Sox17 as a potential molecular target to include in HOG therapeutic strategies. PMID:23474492

Chen, Hui-Ling; Chew, Li-Jin; Packer, Roger J.; Gallo, Vittorio

2013-01-01

90

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: current and future perspectives in adult and paediatric disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T-cell lymphoma seen in both adults and children. ALCL is associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation, t(2;5)(p23;35) which fuses the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene on chromosome 2 with the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5, resulting in a NPM-ALK fusion protein, ALK over-expression and constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. This aggressive lymphoma is more prevalent in males and can present with extranodal involvement (lung, skin and marrow infiltration) and haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis. The long-term overall survival is approximately 70-90% in children and over 70% in adults. Staging systems and prognostic risk factors are different in both childhood and adult ALCL. Treatment in adults is typically anthracycline-based, with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) salvaging patients in relapsed disease. There is evidence for ALL-like therapy or intensive, pulsed anthracycline-based induction in children. ASCT, allogeneic SCT and vinblastine maintenance are all considered reasonable options in relapsed childhood disease. The anti-CD30 immunoconjugate Brentuximab Vedotin and the specific ALK inhibitor Crizotinib are changing the treatment paradigm in ALCL (ALK-positive or negative) and ALK-positive ALCL respectively. Both agents have shown encouraging responses in relapsed ALCL. It remains to be seen how these novel agents are used, but it is very possible that they may improve overall responses and survival in both children and adults. This review highlights the presentation, histopathological features, prognostic factors, and evidence-based treatment approaches in the first line and relapsed setting in ALK-positive ALCL. The review concludes by discussing the novel approaches using Brentuximab and Crizotinib which are being tested in clinical trials. PMID:24766435

Eyre, Toby A; Khan, Dalia; Hall, Georgina W; Collins, Graham P

2014-12-01

91

Cytodiagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma with metastasis to the cerebrospinal fluid in a neonate - A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of left cerebral hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma with metastasis to the cerebrospinal fluid in a 50-day-old male child diagnosed on cytology and later confirmed by histological examination is reported.

Goel S

2003-04-01

92

Anaplastic human gliomas grown in athymic mice. Morphology and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression.  

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The morphologic and biochemical characteristics of human surgical biopsy specimens taken from 17 patients with anaplastic human gliomas and of athymic mouse-grown tumors derived from them were examined. Fourteen were categorized as glioblastoma multiforme, one as an anaplastic astrocytoma, one as a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, and one as a gliosarcoma. Fifteen of 17 tumors stained positively immunohistochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a glial-specific marker. When ...

Jones, T. R.; Bigner, S. H.; Schold, S. C.; Eng, L. F.; Bigner, D. D.

1981-01-01

93

Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Preliminary Report  

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Anaplastic glioma is a highly aggressive tumor in the central nervous system. The conventional treatment for patients with anaplstic glioma consists of the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the effect of the currently available therapies is limited, and the prognosis is very poor in these patients. The purpose of this abstract is to introduce our preliminary experience of using focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) for the treatment of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.

Park, Jung-Wuk; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol

2006-05-01

94

A novel immunohistochemical classifier to distinguish Hodgkin lymphoma from ALK anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

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Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and ALK(-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma share many features like strong CD30 expression and usually loss of B- and T-cell markers. However, their clinical course is dramatically different with curability rates of >90% for classical Hodgkin lymphoma and an unfavorable prognosis for anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and ALK(-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma can usually be distinguished by PAX5 expression in the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and expression of cytotoxic molecules in tumor cells of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. However, in some cases the differential diagnosis is difficult owing to absence of established markers. To be able to better classify these cases, we reevaluated gene expression data of microdissected tumor cells of both lymphomas for differentially expressed genes. A classifier was established, comprising four genes strongly expressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (MDC/CCL22, CD83, STAT3, and TUBB2B). Applying this classifier to a test cohort, Hodgkin lymphoma was successfully distinguished from ALK(-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma with an accuracy of 97% (43/44). MDC/CCL22, CD83, and STAT3 have also been found to be expressed in antigen-presenting cells. Therefore, based on our established classifier, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells differ from tumor cells of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which can successfully be applied for practical purposes in histopathologic diagnostics. PMID:24633193

Döring, Claudia; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Agostinelli, Claudio; Piccaluga, Pier P; Facchetti, Fabio; Pileri, Stefano; Küppers, Ralf; Newrzela, Sebastian; Hartmann, Sylvia

2014-10-01

95

Primary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Nasal Cavity: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma occurring in the nasal cavity is a rare disease. The latest World Health Organization (WHO Classification recognizes three distinct subtypes: primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive been our case, primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative and primary cutaneous types. Through this case study, we focus on the clinical presentation, treatment and prognostic characteristics of this pathology.Case Presentation: We report the case of a patient aged 32 years, who presented for seven months a runny nose associated with swelling of the face on the left side, without peripheral lymphadenopathy or general signs. A Blondeau scanner objectified a total filling of the frontal and left maxillary sinus, and a filling of the left nasal cavity. Complete resection of the tumor was performed. Histological examination was in favor of anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive. The patient was stage IE according to Ann Arbor classification, with an International Prognostic Index estimated at one. Thus, the patient received six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy. Currently, he is in good loco-regional control with a decline of three months.Conclusion: The rarity of this case lies partly in the lymphomatous localization in the nasal cavity, and secondly in the anaplastic histology. It poses a diagnostic problem. So, we conclude that in case of any symptom of nasal cavities, it is necessary to explore and possibly biopsy if tumor, before surgery, because lymphomas are chemosensitive disease.

Imane Ouafki

2013-04-01

96

Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma of central nervous system  

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Full Text Available Background Primary anaplastic large T cell lymphoma (ALCL of central nervous system (CNS can occur in people of all ages, and is usually unrelated with immunodeficiency. It is often misdiagnosed as meningitis, especially tuberculous meningitis, on clinical practice and imaging examination. In pathological diagnosis, the morphological changes of primary ALCL of CNS are similar to the systemic ALCL and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 can be positive or negative. Being misdiagnosed as meningitis, hormone therapy with glucocorticoid before biopsy is always used, and massive necrosis and a lot of histocyte proliferation and phagocytosis can be found under histological findings. Therefore, when the material is not enough, primary ALCL of CNS is often misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction or malignant histocytosis and so on. This paper reports a case of primary ALCL of CNS and makes a review of relevant literature, so as to summarize the clinical manifestations and elevate the recognition of clinicians and pathologists on this disease. Methods and Results A 12-year-old boy was admitted because of fever, worsening headache, numbness and weakness of right limbs. MRI showed local gyri swelling and abnormal enhancement of pia mater in the right parietal lobe, expanding to the right temporal lobe, and pia mater enhancement in the left parietal lobe. The right temporo-parietal lobe lesion biopsy revealed irregularly shaped tumor cells of large size, rich and eosinophilic cytoplasm and horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemical examination showed tumor cells positive for CD3, CD45RO, CD30, ALK-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, and negative for CD20 and CD79a. Conclusion Primary ALCL of CNS is an extremely rare tumor which is usually misdiagnosed as meningitis according to clinical and imaging examinations. Therefore, for those patients who are considered as meningitis but with poor treatment effect and replase of illness, brain tissue biopsy, which is an important means for diagnosis, or cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination, should be carried out as soon as possible.

ZHANG Yan

2013-01-01

97

Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma  

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A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

1992-04-01

98

Pulmonary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma - a Rare Case  

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Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare NHL, representing only 2-3% of all lymphomas. Pulmonary involvement is rare (5-15%. A thirty one year old female was admitted to a center with purulent fistulized lesions on the neck and axilla and enlargement of the breasts. There was no improvement with antibiotics and she had a fever. Pyogenic granulation was detected in the soft tissue biopsy of the axillary and breast. All the cultures were negative. Antituberculosis therapy was given for three months. This patient was admitted to our clinic due to clinical progression. Bilaterally painful, purulent flowing lesions on the neck and axilla, tension and sensitive breasts and high fever were found. Anemia, thrombocytosis, neutrophilic leukocytosis, low iron level and iron binding capacity and high CRP levels were detected in the laboratory tests. Anaerobic, actinomycosis, mycobacteria, nocardia and tularemia cultures were negative. Thorax CT showed a mediastinal conglomerate LN, left upper apicoposterior cavitary lesion and millimetric nodules. Abdominal CT was normal. Neck CT showed masses which erased the fat plain and submandibular LN. LN biopsy diagnosed an inflammatory variant of CD30(+ ALCL. It was considered to be stage IV due to pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, neck, axilla and breast involvement. After five chemotherapy sessions, there was a significant improvement in the lesions.

Züleyha Bingöl

2009-03-01

99

Genetically Modified T-cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Malignant Glioma  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2014-08-01

100

Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. Methods p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT, and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3 was readily detected. Conclusion Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein.

Shah Keerti V

2005-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas. Review of the literature with reference to malignancy potential.  

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Malignancy potential of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) has rather been an underestimated reality. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure. The child had been epileptic since the age of 2. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans revealed a huge left frontal mass. At surgery, a subtotal excision was accomplished. Histopathological diagnosis was anaplastic PXA (grade III; WHO, 2000). The tumor showed an increased mitotic index and minimal endothelial proliferation. The patient died 3.5 months later due to a fatal intracranial hemorrhage. A review of the entire PXA literature revealed 15 well-documented cases of PXA with subsequent malignant transformation and 11 cases of primary anaplastic PXA. The prognosis was grim for both subsets of patients. Anaplastic PXAs clearly represent the transition between the original PXA concept and lipidized giant-cell glioblastoma. PMID:15608490

Tekkök, Ismail H; Sav, Aydin

2004-01-01

102

Anaplastic transformation from papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased serum CA19-9.  

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A 24-year-old woman presented with anaplastic transformation from papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased serum CA19-9. The patient had been diagnosed as having papillary thyroid carcinoma with lung metastasis at 11 years of age. She received a total thyroidectomy with cervical lymph node dissection followed by iodine-131 ((131)I) therapy over 12 years, but died due to sudden onset of rapid dissemination. Elevated serum CA19-9 was detected in the terminal stage, and anaplastic transformation was confirmed by post-mortem examination. Although there are few clinical reports suggesting a prognostic indicator for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, CA19-9 may be a useful serum marker for this tumor. PMID:15770642

Ogawa, Masahiro; Hori, Hiroki; Hirayama, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Minako; Shiraishi, Taizou; Watanabe, Yuri; Komada, Yoshihiro

2005-07-01

103

A Spontaneous Oligodendroglioma in the Lumbar Portion of the Spinal Cord in a Young BrlHan:WIST@Jcl (GALAS) Rat  

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Oligodendroglioma is a rare tumor originating from oligodendrocytes found mainly in the cerebrum in aged rats. Only a few reports have shown spontaneous occurrence of this tumor in the spinal cord, and no report has mentioned its occurrence in young rats. We encountered a case of spontaneous oligodendroglioma in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord in a young (9 weeks old) female BrlHan:WIST@Jcl (GALAS) rat. Here we report the detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this case. No clinical signs, no gross lesions at necropsy, and no specific changes in hematology or blood biochemistry were observed. The tumor was located in the dorsal funiculus in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord and widely spread to the dorsal root nerve. The neoplastic cells showed a sheet-like growth pattern and had small round nuclei, clear cytoplasm and distinct cell borders that resulted in a honeycomb pattern. No mitotic figures or other histological lesions were observed. The neoplastic cells were positively stained for Olig2 and PCNA. The present case was considered to be a low-grade oligodendroglioma based on the histological and immunohistochemical features. To our knowledge, our case is considered to be extremely rare and the first report in a young rat. PMID:25352716

Takeda, Shuji; Asano, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Ryo; Ogata, Keiko; Kushida, Masahiko

2014-01-01

104

Breast Implant-Associated, ALK-Negative, T-Cell, Anaplastic, Large-Cell Lymphoma: Establishment and Characterization of a Model Cell Line (TLBR-1) for This Newly Emerging Clinical Entity  

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BACKGROUND Primary lymphomas of the breast are very rare (0.2–1.5% of breast malignancies) and the vast majority (95%) are of B-cell origin. Recently, 40 cases of clinically indolent anaplastic large-cell kinase (ALK)-negative, T-cell, anaplastic, non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-ALCL) have been reported worldwide. METHODS A tumor biopsy specimen from a patient in this series was obtained for characterization. By using a human stromal feeder layer and IL-2, a novel cell line, TLBR-1, was established from this biopsy and investigated by using cytogenetics and various biomolecular methods. RESULTS Immunoperoxidase staining of the tumor biopsy showed a CD30/CD8/CD4 coexpressing T-cell population that was epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)+ and perforin+. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of TCR? genes showed monoclonality that suggested a T-cell origin, yet pan-T markers CD2/5/7, anaplastic large-cell kinase (ALK)-1, pancytokeratins, CD20, CD56, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by in situ hybridization (ISH) were negative. TLBR-1 is IL-2 dependent, has a relatively long doubling time (55 hours), and displays different cellular shapes in culture. Cytogenetic analysis of tumor and TLBR-1 cells confirmed a highly anaplastic cell population with a modal number of 47 chromosomes lacking t(2;5). PCR screens for EBV and human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) were negative. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis showed strong positivity for CD4/8, CD30, CD71, and CD26 expression, and antigen presentation (HLA-DR+CD80+CD86+), IL-2 signaling (CD25+CD122+), and NK (CD56+) markers, and Western blots demonstrated strong Notch1 expression. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse TLBR-1 heterotransplants recapitulated the histology and marker characteristics of the original tumor. CONCLUSIONS TLBR-1, a novel ALK-negative, T-cell, anaplastic, large-cell lymphoma, closely resembles the original biopsy and represents an important tool for studying this newly recognized disease entity. PMID:21425149

Lechner, Melissa G.; Lade, Stephen; Liebertz, Daniel J.; Prince, H. Miles; Brody, Garry S.; Webster, Howard R.; Epstein, Alan L.

2014-01-01

105

Cytopathological Dilemma of Anaplastic Sacral Chordoma with Radiological and Histological Corroboration  

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Full Text Available Chordoma is a relatively rare locally invasive and potentially malignant tumor of fetal notochord origin, affecting the axial skeleton. Cytopathological diagnosis of chordoma is favored by the presence of characteristic physaliphorous cells, bearing abundant foamy cytoplasm dispersed in a myxoid matrix. Anaplastic chordoma or dedifferentiated chordoma, an even rarer variant, can cause a diagnostic confusion with chondrosarcoma from the cytopathological point of view, with similar chondromyxoid matrix and atypical cells. Hence, chordoma bearing anaplastic features needs to be identified and should be distinguished from chondrosarcoma on aspiration cytopathology. We present a case of anaplastic sacral chordoma in a man 59 years of age, causing extensive destruction of sacrum and invading the paravertebral tissues as evidenced by radiology. Fine needle aspiration cytopathology revealed few large pleomorphic hyperchromatic cells, admixed with characteristic physaliphorous cells and myxoid matrix. The cytopathological diagnosis has been confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Since anaplastic chordoma bears an unfavorable prognosis, it should be suspected on preoperative aspiration cytopathology. Clinicoradiological correlation along with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation is necessary subsequently.

Arghya BANDYOPADHYAY

2011-05-01

106

Metastatic anaplastic adenocarcinoma suspected to be of mammary origin in an intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  

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A 7-year-old, intact male, pet dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. Histolopathology of the resected mass was suggestive of a mammary adenocarcinoma. Six months later, the rabbit died from severe dyspnea. Necropsy showed recurrence of the original mass with hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the anaplastic adenocarcinoma, suspected to be of mammary origin. PMID:24790235

Summa, Noémie M; Eshar, David; Snyman, Heindrich N; Lillie, Brandon N

2014-05-01

107

Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells  

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Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to r...

Rotiroti Domenicoantonio; Bulotta Stefania; Calvagno Maria; Russo Diego

2004-01-01

108

Hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma appearing 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia  

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A radiation-induced cerebellar glioma is extremely rare, and the etiology of such a tumor is unknown. We report a rare case of hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma occurring 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. We discuss the etiologies of the radiation-induced hemorrhagic cerebellar glioma as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy. (author)

109

Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

2013-11-12

110

Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2014-11-03

111

Morphological approach of radiation induced DNA strand breakage by immuno-detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP): an in vitro study of human oligodendrogliomas  

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Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme encompassing two zinc finger motifs which specifically binds to radiation induced DNA strand breaks. We develop a new immuno-labelling of poly ADP-ribose which coupled together with the immuno-detection of cells in cycle with MIB1, permits to detect and quantify the DNA fragmentation induced by ? radiations (Cesium137). This method, applied to organo-typical cultures of human oligodendrogliomas, submitted to ? radiation, a dose dependant nuclear signal. This one increased significantly in the presence of a radiosensitizer like iododeoxyuridine (IUDR 5 ?g/ml). (authors)

112

Ectopic cortical anaplastic ependymoma: an unusual case report and literature review.  

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Ependymona occasionally occurs outside the ventricular structures, which is called ectopic ependymona (EE), while pure cortex location is uncommon. However, cortical anaplastic ependymoma (CE) is rare, especially in children. There were only four primary CEs, which is located in the superficial cortex, were reported the age of the patient under 12 years old. The present case is a 20-month-old boy presenting with simple partial seizure was treated in our department. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a fronto-parietal lobe mass of more than 50mm in diameter with mixed signal intensity. Total removal of the mass lesion was performed without any neurological deficit. Pathological examination of the excised tumor were consistent with anaplastic ependymoma (AE). The patient had a good recovery after his surgical resection. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were not taken into account in view of his age, the favorable site and the complete resection. The management of this unusual tumor is summarized in this paper. PMID:25051164

Zhang, Ji; Sai, Ke; Wang, Jian; Chen, Yin Shen; Yan, Shu-Mei; Chen, Zhong-Ping

2014-09-01

113

Angiomatoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Anaplastic carcinoma with follicular and medullary features mimicking angiosarcoma.  

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A 79-year-old man with a 28-year history of a substernal goiter had an anaplastic thyroid neoplasm with prominent angiomatoid features develop. Based on the light microscopic appearance of the tumor and the presence of immunocytochemical staining for Factor VIII-related antigen, a diagnosis of angiosarcoma was made. Subsequent immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies suggested follicular and medullary differentiation without staining for Ulex europeaus I lectin or evidence of Weibel-Palade bodies. Based on these findings, the tumor is interpreted as an anaplastic carcinoma with evidence of mixed follicular and medullary differentiation and extensive intravascular growth producing an angiomatoid appearance. Positivity for Factor VII-related antigen may be due to nonspecific uptake of antigen-rich serum and platelets by the phagocytic tumor cells. Factor VIII-related antigen immunoreactivity should be interpreted with caution in intravascular neoplasms. PMID:3776922

Mills, S E; Stallings, R G; Austin, M B

1986-11-01

114

Radiation-induced spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma subsequent to radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. Case report  

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A 54-year-old man presented with a very rare case of radiation-induced intramedullary spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma, which developed 37 years after radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. The patient presented with weakness and numbness of the left lower extremity that had gradually aggravated for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intramedullary mass lesion with syringomyelia at the T9 to T12 levels. Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed using standard microsurgical technique. Histological examination revealed anaplastic astrocytoma. Although radiotherapy was seriously considered, chemotherapy was employed as adjuvant therapy considering the previous treatment. Although his neurological status improved transiently after surgery, relentless neurological decline occurred and resulted in death 9 months following surgery. Considering that subtotal removal of the tumor and chemotherapy had little influence on the quality of life and the length of survival in our case, cordectomy may be the optimum treatment for patients with radiation-induced spinal intramedullary malignant astrocytoma. (author)

115

A case of recurrent anaplastic meningioma of the skull base with radiologic response to hydroxyurea.  

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Anaplastic meningiomas are rare and aggressive tumors with a high propensity for local recurrence. Surgical resection and postoperative radiotherapy are the standard of care for primary disease and local recurrences. Refractory disease is managed with chemotherapy with limited success. A highly efficacious, well-tolerated chemotherapeutic agent has yet to be found for this disease entity. Hydroxyurea is currently receiving renewed attention because of its efficacy in inducing apoptosis of meningioma cells in vitro and its favorable side-effect profile. Thus far, in humans, this agent has only induced stable disease. We describe the first patient showing a near complete/partial clinical and radiological regression after 5 months of 25 mg/kg of hydroxyurea once daily, given within 1?month after stereotactic fractionated reirradiation of a previously irradiated and operated anaplastic meningioma of the skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a significant and sustained response with tumor shrinkage and cavitation. PMID:25083390

Gurberg, Joshua; Bouganim, Nathaniel; Shenouda, George; Zeitouni, Anthony

2014-08-01

116

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with diffuse thoracic skin metastasis: A case report  

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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a significantly fatal endocrine neoplasm, with an average survival time of 4–12 months following diagnosis. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old male patient who presented to the Ba?c?lar Training and Research Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) due to swelling in the neck and difficulty swallowing. The jugular mass biopsy results were consistent with a diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer. The patient was regarded to have advanced-stage subcarinal, paratracheal, aortopulmonary, trancheobronchial and mediastinal lymphadenopathies and exhibited a good prognosis following chemotherapy. However, the patient succumbed one month later due to the emergence of diffuse skin lesions. The histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment of the skin biopsy displayed the characteristics of the underlying thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24932230

ALTINAY, SERDAR; TAS, BETUL; OZEN, AYNUR; SUT, PELIN ALTINOK

2014-01-01

117

Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation  

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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain. Some PXAs are accompanied by anaplastic features and are difficult to manage because of frequent recurrences that lead to early death. No previous reports have demonstrated consistent efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy for this disease. We report a case of PXA with anaplastic features treated with stereotactic irradiation (STI) that resulted in long-term control of repeatedly recurring nodules throughout the neuraxis. A 47-year-old woman presented with an epileptic seizure due to a large tumor in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was resected and diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic features. Sixteen months later, a relapse at the primary site was noted and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using Gamma Knife. Two years later, the patient developed a tumor nodule in the cervical spinal cord that histologically corresponded to a small-cell glioma with high cellularity and prominent MIB-1 (mindbomb homolog 1) labeling. In the following months, multiple nodular lesions appeared through-out the CNS, and STI was performed six times for eight intracranial lesions using Gamma Knife and twice using a linear accelerator, for three spinal cord lesions in total. All lesions treated with STI were well controlled, and the patient was free from symptomatic progression for 50 months. However, diffuse dissemination along the craniospinal axis eventually progressed, and she died 66 months after initial diagnosis. Autopsy showed that the nodules remained well demarcated from the surrounding nervous system tissue. STI may be an effective therapeutic tool for controlling nodular dissemination of PXA with anaplastic features. PMID:19164434

Koga, Tomoyuki; Morita, Akio; Maruyama, Keisuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Yasushi; Shibahara, Junji; Louis, David N.; Reifenberger, Guido; Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryusuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Todo, Tomoki

2009-01-01

118

Update on Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Morphological, Molecular, and Genetic Features of the Most Aggressive Thyroid Cancer  

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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. It shows a wide spectrum of morphological presentations and the diagnosis could be challenging due to its high degree of dedifferentiation. Molecular and genetic features of ATC are widely heterogeneous as well and many efforts have been made to find a common profile in order to clarify its cancerogenetic process. A comprehensive review of the current literature is here performed, focusing on histopathological and genetic features. PMID:25214840

Ragazzi, Moira; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Piana, Simonetta

2014-01-01

119

An Evolutionary Conserved Role for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Behavioral Responses to Ethanol  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk exp...

Lasek, Amy W.; Lim, Jana; Kliethermes, Christopher L.; Berger, Karen H.; Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Xue, Liquan; Robertson, Margaret; Moore, Monica S.; Vranizan, Karen; Morris, Stephan W.; Schuckit, Marc A.; White, Raymond L.; Heberlein, Ulrike

2011-01-01

120

The role of chemotherapy and latest emerging target therapies in anaplastic thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Nerina Denaro,1,2 Cristiana Lo Nigro,3 Elvio G Russi,4 Marco C Merlano1 1Oncology Department, AO S Croce e Carle, 2Human Pathology Department, Messina University, 3Cancer Genetics and Translational Oncology Department, 4Radiation Oncology Department, AO S Croce e Carle, Messina, Italy Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid cancer represents 1%–2% of thyroid cancers. For its aggressiveness, it is considered a systemic disease at the time of diagnosis. Surgery remains the cornerstone of therapy in resectable tumor. Traditional chemotherapy has little effect on metastatic disease. A multimodality approach, incorporating cytoreductive surgical resection, chemoradiation, either concurrently or sequentially, and new promising target therapies is advisable. Doxorubicin is the most commonly used agent, with a response rate of 22%. Recently, other chemotherapy agents have been used, such as paclitaxel and gemcitabine, with superimposable activity and response rates of 10%–20%. However, survival of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer has changed little in the past 50 years, despite more aggressive systemic and radiotherapies. Several new agents are currently under investigation. Some of them, such as sorafenib, imatinib, and axitinib have been tested in small clinical trials, showing promising disease control rates ranging from 35%–75%. Referral of patients for participation in clinical trials is needed. Keywords: thyroid cancer, emerging therapies, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

Denaro N

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

A case of adult onset medulloblastoma during maintenance chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma one year after radiotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple primitive intracranial tumors with different histological characteristics are uncommon. Although coexistence of a medulloblastoma with glial tumors has been reported in children, medulloblastoma is rarely found in adults, especially those older than 40 years of age. We present an extremely rare case of a medulloblastoma developing in a 40-year-old male undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma for 21 months after radiotherapy. Initially, he complained of intractable epilepsy characterized by complex partial seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a slightly enhanced mass lesion in the left insula region. He underwent subtotal removal of the tumor and it was histologically diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma. After 19 months of treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy, he presented with vertigo and headache. A homogeneously enhanced mass had developed in the left cerebellar hemisphere. He received gross total resection of the second tumor, pathologically diagnosed as medulloblastoma. In conclusion, this is the first case report of an adult medulloblastoma coexisting with anaplastic astrocytoma. PMID:24101275

Takeshi, Nishimoto; Kazuhiko, Sugiyama; Koji, Iida; Toshikazu, Hidaka; Kaoru, Kurisu

2013-01-01

122

Giant lymph node hyperplasia resembling abdominal abscess on gallium scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia with systemic symptoms resembling chronic infection is described which showed intense gallium uptake and indistinguishable from uptake seen in an abscess. This rare syndrome may mimic an abdominal abscess and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients without prior history of abdominal surgery and in whom an abdominal abscess is suspected. The condition is relatively benign

123

Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

2013-03-18

124

SN 2013fs now resembles a SN IIP  

Science.gov (United States)

Further to ATel #5455, we obtained another 40-minutes spectrum of SN 2013fs (was PSN J23194467+1011045) with WiFeS on 2013 Oct 24. The spectrum now strongly resembles an SN IIP, with clear P-Cygni H-alpha, with no evidence of broadened emission. SNID gives a best match to SN 1999em at phase +7. The previously observed emission from the Oct 08 spectrum which prompted a possible IIn classification was most likely due to the host, however we cannot rule out SN-related emission which has faded since the first epoch.

Childress, M.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B.; Tucker, B.

2013-10-01

125

FDG PET staging compared to C.T. in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accuracy of initial staging in Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic lymphoma is very important since treatment depends on the initial staging disease. An error of assessment can have serious consequences on evolution and survival. To judge PET scan performances initial staging was done on our patients by both conventional imaging and PET scan. Methods: 21 children (10 girls, 11 boys), median age 14,9 years (8 to 22) had a PET scan for the initial staging (17 Hodgkin's disease, 4 anaplastic lymphomas). Conventional staging for imaging included: Thorax x-ray, thorax and abdomen C.T., abdominal echography, and also two bone marrow biopsies. Others exams were done in accordance with special clinical data. PET scan was done on a C PET scan ADAC one hour after IV injection of 2 MBq/Kg of 18 FDG. C.T. and PET scan images were revised blindly and separately by radiologist and nuclearist with no knowledge of clinical data. Results: the staging by C.I. and PET scan were concordant in 84% of cases. In 16% of cases PET scan displayed localisation not seen by C.I., particularly bone lesions. The staging changed grading status from stage III to stage IV. The clinical cases will be presented. PET scan upgrading were confirmed by resonance imaging or bone scintigraphy. The change of stage led in each child an intensification of chemotherapy (6 courses instead of 4). Conclusion: FDG PET is a useful diagnostic tool in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma to achieve with a single exam an accurate staging allowing to choose the best treatment

126

Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

2004-09-01

127

The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic possibilities.

Kelleher, Fergal C

2012-02-01

128

Intraspinal metastasis in a patient with a stage I anaplastic Wilms' tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of an intraspinal metastasis by a young child with anaplastic Wilms' tumor (stage I). A 9-year-old girl developed 8 months following nephrectomy and pre-operative chemotherapy strong back pain. Within 2 weeks signs of beginning of spinal cord compression were obtained. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a spinal cord compression with an intraspinal tumor mass Th 8 to 10. The child underwent immediate spinal cord decompression followed by chemotherapy and an additional radiotherapy of the metastatic region up to 30 Gy with most of neurologic recovery within 6 weeks. (orig.)

129

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction: A case report and review of literature  

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Full Text Available Granulomatous reactions have been reported in association with lymphomas, more often with Hodgkins disease than with Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. Not many reports are available on the association of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with sarcoid-type granuloma. Herein, we report a case of an elderly female with generalized lymphadenopathy who had a florid granulomatous reaction almost masking the lymphoma cells in the lymph node biopsy. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis.

Balamurugan S

2009-01-01

130

Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of central nervous system-A case report  

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Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement is extremely rare in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL. Primary ALCL of CNS on radiology is often misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. We report a fatal case of primary ALCL of CNS in a 17 year old male. He came with history of headache and left partial seizures. MRI showed a well- circumscribed lesion in the right fronto-parietal lobe eroding the skull bone. Biopsy showed large pleomorphic cells. Immunohistochemical stains showed positivity for CD30, CD43, EMA and ALK-1. In spite of radiotherapy and steroids, patient expired. Hence a high level of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and for instituting appropriate treatment.

Rupani A

2005-01-01

131

Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

132

Development of children's ability to detect kinship through facial resemblance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial features appear to be a prominent kinship cue for ascribing relatedness among human individuals. Although there is evidence that adults can detect kinship in unrelated and unfamiliar individual's faces, it remains to be seen whether people already possess the ability when they are young. To further understand the development of this skill, we explored children's ability to detect parent-offspring resemblance in unrelated and unfamiliar faces. To this end, we tested approximately 140 children, aged 5-11, in two photo-matching tasks. We used a procedure that asked them to match one neonate's face to one of three adults' faces (Task 1), or to match one adult's face to one of three neonate's faces (Task 2). Our findings reveal asymmetrical performance, depending on the tasks assigned (performance of Task 2 is stronger than for Task 1), and on the sex of individuals who made up the parent-offspring pair (male parents are better matched with neonates than female parents, and boys are better matched than girls). The picture that emerges from our study is, on one hand, that the ability to detect kinship is already present at the age of five but continues to improve as one gets older, and on the other, that perception of parent-offspring facial resemblance varies according to the appraisers' characteristics. PMID:21927845

Kaminski, Gwenaël; Gentaz, Edouard; Mazens, Karine

2012-05-01

133

Analysis of sibling resemblance in anthropometric somatotype components.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analysed the Heath-Carter somatotype familial resemblance degree in a sample of 1350 siblings (685 males and 665 females) from 634 nuclear families in the province of Biscay (Basque Country, Spain). Sibling correlations were estimated according to maximum likelihood procedures for endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy and somatotypical attitudinal distance (SADi), after having adjusted for age, sex and the two other components (Model I), and after taking into account several environmental variables shared by all members of each sibship (Model II). All sibling correlations of the somatotype components were significant, tending to be higher in the case of mesomorphy than in the case of endomorphy. Same-sex siblings (BB and SS) displayed significant mesomorphic and ectomorphic resemblances, but in the case of endomorphy, sisters (SS) revealed relatively low correlation compared with brothers (BB). The sex of sibs had a significant influence on correlations of mesomorphy, but not on the other two components. Further control of socio-familial variables such as the father's occupation and education, and the sibship size, resulted in lower mesomorphy correlation coefficients, but had no effect whatsoever on the other two components. SADi correlations were very low and not significant, indicating high degrees of dispersion in the individual somatotypes of the sample. PMID:10768420

Rebato, E; Salces, I; Rosique, J; San Martín, L; Susanne, C

2000-01-01

134

Clinical evaluation of 67Ga scanning in the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While 67Ga uptake has been reported to be highly variable and nonspecific in the diagnosis of malignant tumors of the thyroid, it has also been observed to depend on the histological nature of the lesion. For this reason, the behavior of 67Ga in various types of thyroid cancer was investigated in a prospective study of 86 patients with thyroid masses compatible with anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. The study demonstrated a distinct difference in uptake between well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and the more undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma

135

Disseminated struma ovarii containing focal anaplastic carcinoma in peritoneal implants: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant changes in struma ovarii have been defined using histopathologic criteria for carcinomas of the cervical thyroid gland. We report a case of struma ovarii with extensive extraovarian spread containing a small focus of anaplastic carcinoma (AC) in peritoneal implants. AC arising in benign-looking struma ovarii with peritoneal implants has not been reported. Multiple pelvic masses were identified on abdominopelvic computed tomography in a 38-yr-old woman. An exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple, variable-sized masses on the omentum, and colonic and uterine serosa. A microscopic but grossly unidentifiable lesion in the right ovary had a histologic appearance that mimicked hyperplastic follicular epithelium of nodular thyroid goiter. Multiple peritoneal implants showed histology similar to the ovarian lesions except a focal area of AC in the omental mass. Anaplastic cells demonstrated characteristic immunoreactivity for p53, cyclin D1, and a high Ki-67 index of about 30%, with loss of expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin, whereas the remaining goitrous background showed opposite expression patterns in all aspects. Furthermore, the areas of AC showed p53 mutation by molecular analysis. The AC harboring p53 mutation within extraovarian spread suggests that disseminated struma ovarii mimicking nodular goiter has potential for histologic progression through similar pathogenetic mechanism with cervical thyroid carcinoma despite the innocuous appearance. PMID:25272300

Kim, Wook Youn; Kim, Sehun; Hyun, Jee; Song, Kee-Ho

2014-11-01

136

Proteomic Profile Modification of Anaplastic Medulloblastoma after in-Vivo Radiotherapy: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MDB is an aggressive tumor of Central Nervous System (CNS. Radiotherapy after radical surgery has an important role in treatment of standard and high risk patients and is followed by intensive chemotherapy. To explore modifications of protein expression induced by in vivo radiotherapy proteomic analysis was performed on a case of Anaplastic MDB. 2D-gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected qualitative differences of protein expression in Anaplastic MDB at diagnosis and in relapse after radiotherapy. Relevant proteomic data were confirmed by western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis, validating the presence of Sthatmin 1 (STMN1, Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HSP27 and Disulfide Isomerase (ER60 among the six proteins present in both samples. The most relevant modification induced by radiotherapy was a drastic reduction of the total number of proteins (60.6% and the appearance of few new proteins. The modifications and the striking simplification of proteins expressed by the tumor after radiotherapy may allow to tailor subsequent chemotherapy on a rational basis. A proteomic guided chemotherapy may be of great benefit to patients.

C. Zanini

2010-06-01

137

High intratumoral macrophage content is an adverse prognostic feature in anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: Macrophage infiltration has been associated with prognosis in several cancers, including lymphoma, but has not been assessed systematically in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of the study was to correlate expression of the macrophage-associated antigens CD68 and CD163 with pre-therapeutic parameters and outcome in a cohort of treatment-naive ALCL patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-therapeutic tumour specimens from 52 patients with ALCL were included in a tissue microarray. The intratumoral macrophage content was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163, and quantified using digital image analysis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive patients were significantly younger and had a favourable outcome compared with ALK-negative ALCL patients (median age: 42 versus 59 years; P = 0.008). However, ALK expression was not a significant predictor when adjusting for age. Although classical risk factors were distributed evenly between the compared groups, high intratumoral content of CD68 and/or CD163 correlated with poor outcome, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. High intratumoral CD163 content showed the strongest adverse association with both overall and progression-free survival in ALK-negative patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A high content of intratumoral CD68- and/or CD163-positive macrophages correlates with an adverse outcome in ALK-negative ALCL.

Pedersen, Martin B; Danielsen, Allan V

2014-01-01

138

The family resemblance metaphor: some unfinished business of interpretive inquiry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapidly expanding discipline of interpretive inquiry, especially in its narrative analysis form, has not been fully cognizant of certain crucial epistemological and methodological assumptions that form the ultimate basis of its purpose. Even after abandoning traditional positivist views, the related disciplines within the human sciences that are engaged in interpretive inquiry have still not discovered the core implicit assumptions that militate against a full acceptance of this form of inquiry. This article outlines the locus of these implicit assumptions and then argues that the legitimacy of these enterprises must be grounded in a well-known but heretofore undiscovered perspective, namely, Wittgenstein's notion of a family resemblance. It is argued that this metaphoric phrase is the key to unlocking the real and unique nature of narrative analysis. PMID:11010071

Miller, S I; Fredericks, M

2000-07-01

139

A case of cervical radiation radiculopathy resembling motor neuron disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 67-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscular weakness in the bilateral upper extremities (C5-7 regions) without signs of sensory deficit following the cervical radiation therapy (70.5 Gy) for right laryngeal cancer 4 years before. These clinical signs resembled those of lower motor neuron disease. MRI with gadolinium-DTPA, however, showed enhancement in the bilateral C5 and C6 anterior roots, suggesting the cervical radiculopathy due to radiotherapy. It is known that radiation to the spinal cord can lead to ``selective anterior horn cell injury``. This is the first case report of the cervical radiation radiculopathy, which, if without MRI, might be classified into selective anterior horn cell injury. Suggestion is made for the hypothesis that the spinal motoneuron loss in radiation myelopathy would be caused by retrograde degeneration due to anterior root damages. (author)

Mitsunaga, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Takeo; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Takeshi; Kira, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Takuro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

1998-05-01

140

Autonomously Moving Colloidal Objects that Resemble Living Matter  

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Full Text Available The design of autonomously moving objects that resemble living matter is an excellent research topic that may develop into various applications of functional motion. Autonomous motion can demonstrate numerous significant characteristics such as transduction of chemical potential into work without heat, chemosensitive motion, chemotactic and phototactic motions, and pulse-like motion with periodicities responding to the chemical environment. Sustainable motion can be realized with an open system that exchanges heat and matter across its interface. Hence the autonomously moving object has a colloidal scale with a large specific area. This article reviews several examples of systems with such characteristics that have been studied, focusing on chemical systems containing amphiphilic molecules.

Youichi Morimune

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma resembling chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cases of primary pulmonary artery sarcoma resembling chronic thromboembolic disease features are presented. Tumour identification was achieved after pulmonarv thromboendarterectomy, which was indicated by documentation of a prothrombotic state in both patients. A doubtful history of pulmonary emboli or deep venous thrombosis should alert medical personnel to the possible presence of a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma. Advanced imaging methods such as gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging could be useful in considering pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. If a tumour is detected, its surgical resection should be considered with caution, taking into account the poor survival results. Invasion of the adventitia or the right ventricle, as documented in the present cases, is unusual. As far as the present authors know, this is the first report of this kind of tumour and its coexistence with an activated protein C resistance state and type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:11292127

Kaplinsky, E J; Favaloro, R R; Pombo, G; Perrone, S V; Vigliano, C A; Schnidt, J L; Boughen, R P

2000-12-01

142

Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

2012-09-28

143

A new variant anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-fusion protein (ATIC-ALK) in a case of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lymphomas ("ALKomas") constitute a distinct molecular and clinicopathological entity within the heterogeneous group of CD30-positive large cell lymphomas. In 80-85% of cases tumor cells express a Mr 80,000 hybrid protein comprising the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) and the ALK. We report here the cloning and expression of a novel ALK-fusion protein from an ALK-positive lymphoma. This case was selected for molecular investigation because of (a) the absence of NPM-ALK transcripts; (b) the atypical staining patterns for ALK (cytoplasm-restricted) and for NPM (nucleus-restricted); and (c) the presence of a Mr 96,000 ALK-protein differing in size from NPM-ALK. Nucleotide sequence analysis of ALK transcripts isolated by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed a chimeric mRNA corresponding to an ATIC-ALK in-frame fusion. ATIC is a bifunctional enzyme (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and IMP cyclohydrolase enzymatic activities) that catalyzes the penultimate and final enzymatic activities of the purine nucleotide synthesis pathway. Expression of full-length ATIC-ALK cDNA in mouse fibroblasts revealed that the fusion protein (a) possesses constitutive tyrosine kinase activity; (b) forms stable complexes with the signaling proteins Grb2 and Shc; (c) induces tyrosine-phosphorylation of Shc; and (d) provokes oncogenic transformation. These findings point to fusion with ATIC as an alternative mechanism of ALK activation. PMID:10706082

Trinei, M; Lanfrancone, L; Campo, E; Pulford, K; Mason, D Y; Pelicci, P G; Falini, B

2000-02-15

144

Anaplastic clear cell ependymoma of the conus medullaris and cauda equina in a 3-year-old child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Only a minority of ependymomas present in the spinal cord. We report on a child with recurrence of a rare anaplastic clear cell type of ependymoma. This was initially misdiagnosed as a World Health Organization grade I myxopapillary ependymoma because this type of ependymoma occurs more commonly and the magnetic resonance imaging features and location at the conus medullaris were considered characteristic. PMID:22009009

Eshraghi, Hoda; Andronikou, Savvas; Fisher-Jeffes, Norman; Truter, Rene; Walt, Adri v d

2012-05-01

145

[CD30-positive anaplastic large cell T-cell lymphoma developing during immunosuppressive therapy of pityriasis rubra pilaris with ustekinumab].  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of malignancies during therapy with biologics has been discussed controversially. A patient with extensive pityriasis rubra pilaris failed to respond to standard therapeutic approaches. While receiving immunomodulatory therapy, lastly with ustekinumab, the patient developed a CD30(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma. PMID:23322178

Humme, D; Beyer, M; Röwert-Huber, H-J; Sterry, W; Philipp, S

2013-03-01

146

Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides de manejo quirúrgico / Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, review of six patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides corresponde al 2 a 5% del total de cánceres tiroideos. Afecta a mujeres en la sexta o séptima década de la vida, presentándose como masa cervical pétrea de crecimiento rápido, adherida a planos profundos. El tratamiento incluye cirugía, quimioterapia y [...] radioterapia, siendo de elección el tratamiento multimodal. Objetivo: Conocer los resultados de una serie de casos manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de serie de casos de Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides tratados exclusivamente con cirugía entre los años 2002 y 2008. Se registraron características generales, técnica operatoria, complicaciones, uso de otras terapias y sobrevida. Resultados: Se manejaron 6 pacientes, cuatro hombres y dos mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 59 años. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días. Se realizó tiroidectomía total bilateral en 4 pacientes. Dos pacientes requirieron traqueostomía durante el postoperatorio. En ninguno de ellos se realizó radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante o adyuvante. La sobrevida promedio fue de 108 días. Discusión: Destaca en esta serie el diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, lo cual determina la imposibilidad de realizar terapia multimodal y la sobrevida observada. Por lo anterior, es de importancia la sospecha y la derivación inmediata para el manejo especializado, aumentando así la posibilidad del uso de terapia multimodal con mejores resultados en términos de sobrevida. Se observó una sobrevida menor a la reportada en la literatura. Abstract in english Background: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma corresponds 2 to 5% of all thyroid cancers. It affects mainly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life, appearing as a hard, fast growing cervical mass that is adhered to surrounding structures. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A [...] im: to report a series of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer operated between 2002 and 2008. Results: The records of six patients aged 46 to 82 years (four males), were retrieved. A bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in four patients. Two patients required tracheostomy during the postoperative period. Mean hospital stay was six days. None received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Three patients died within one month of the operation. The rest died at 115, 184 and 283 days after surgery. Conclusions: All these patients were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, a fact that can explain the dismal evolution observed.

ADRIANA, LOBOS M; DIEGO, VILLAGRÁN R; CAROLINA, OPAZO T; FELIPE, CARDEMIL M.

147

Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [3H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [3H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

148

Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling early gastric cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast in a 48-year-old woman. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection nine years prior. A gastric endoscopy performed for evaluation of nausea and anorexia showed the presence of a slightly elevated mucosal lesion in the cardia, suggestive of a type IIa EGC. A histological examination revealed nests of a carcinoma in the subepithelial lymphatics, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor was positive. This is an extremely rare case with features of type IIa EGC, but the lesion was finally identified as a cancer metastasis to the cardia of the stomach from an IDC of the breast. PMID:19688132

Eo, Wan Kyu

2008-12-01

149

Genomically Driven Precision Medicine to Improve Outcomes in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid cancer is an endocrine malignancy with an incidence rate that has been increasing steadily over the past 30 years. While well-differentiated subtypes have a favorable prognosis when treated with surgical resection and radioiodine, undifferentiated subtypes, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), are far more aggressive and have a poor prognosis. Conventional therapies (surgical resection, radiation, chemotherapy, and radioiodine) have been utilized for treatment of ATC, yet these treatments have not significantly improved the overall mortality rate. As cancer is a genetic disease, genetic alterations such as mutations, fusions, activation of oncogenes, and silencing of tumor suppressors contribute to its aggressiveness. With the use of next-generation sequencing and the Cancer Genome Atlas, mutation-directed therapy is recognized as the upcoming standard of care. In this review, we highlight the known genetic landscape of ATC and the need for a comprehensive genetic characterization of this disease in order to identify additional therapeutic targets to improve patient outcomes. PMID:25276134

Patel, Krupal; Mymryk, Joe S.; Barrett, John W.; Nichols, Anthony C.

2014-01-01

150

Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection between posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas

Oscar Mauricio Aguilar Mejía

2011-01-01

151

MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Diagnostic Signatures for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma  

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Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS), and normal T cells, and demonstrated that ALCLs express many of the miRNAs that are highly expressed in normal T cells with the prominent exception of miR-146a. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering demonstrated distinct clustering of ALCL, PTCL-NOS, and the AITL subtype of PTCL. Cases of ALK(+) ALCL and ALK(-) ALCL were interspersed in unsupervised analysis, suggesting a close relationship at the molecular level. We identified an miRNA signature of 7 miRNAs (5 upregulated: miR-512-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-708, miR-135b; 2 downregulated: miR-146a, miR-155) significantly associated with ALK(+) ALCL cases. In addition, we derived an 11-miRNA signature (4 upregulated: miR-210, miR-197, miR-191, miR-512-3p; 7 downregulated: miR-451, miR-146a, miR-22, miR-455-3p, miR-455-5p, miR-143, miR-494) that differentiates ALK(-) ALCL from other PTCLs. Our in vitro studies identified a set of 32 miRNAs associated with ALK expression. Of these, the miR-17?92 cluster and its paralogues were also highly expressed in ALK(+) ALCL and may represent important downstream effectors of the ALK oncogenic pathway.

Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed

2013-01-01

152

Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides: Reporte de caso / Anaplastic thyroid cancer: A case report  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mujer de 40 años, sin antecedente de patología tiroidea, con historia de enfermedad de cuatro semanas caracterizado por baja de peso, aumento rápido del tamaño de la glándula tiroides y dolor óseo generalizado. El examen físico mostró bocio multinodular no doloroso con múltiples ganglios cervicales. [...] Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia y niveles elevados de transaminasas, fosfatasa alcalina y deshidrogenasa láctica. El perfil tiroideo fue normal y los anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea fueron negativos. La biopsia por aspiración mostró carcinoma de tiroides. Se realizó una tiroidectomía total con disección amplia de los ganglios del cuello y en el estudio de anatomía patológica resultó un carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides. La evolución de la paciente fue desfavorable, falleciendo por insuficiencia respiratoria, secundaria a embolismo pulmonar. El carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides es poco frecuente, pero tiene una alta mortalidad. Las metástasis a distancia están asociadas a mal pronóstico. Abstract in english A 40-year-old woman presented with a four weeks history of weight loss, rapid thyroid enlargement, and generalized bone pain. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination showed a painless multinodular goiter with multiple cervical lymph nodes. Laboratory tests showed anemia, [...] elevated levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase. Thyroid profile was normal and thyroid autoantibodies were negative. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed a malignant carcinoma of thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and extensive neck dissection for lymph nodes were performed. Pathology examination showed an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The clinical evolution was torpid, and patient died because of respiratory insufficiency, secondary to pulmonary embolism. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon and lethal malignancy. Distant metastases are associated with a low survival rate.

Miguel, Pinto-Valdivia; Milagros, Ortiz-Torres; Jaime, Villena-Chávez; César, Chian-García.

153

Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To analyze a prospective protocol combining surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methods and materials: Thirty anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients (mean age, 59 years) were treated during 1990-2000. Tumor extended beyond the capsule gland in 26 patients, with tracheal extension in 8. Lymph node metastases were present in 18 patients and lung metastases in 6. Surgery was performed before RT-CT in 20 patients and afterwards in 4. Two cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and cisplatin (120 mg/m2) were delivered before RT and four cycles after RT. RT consisted of two daily fractions of 1.25 Gy, 5 days per week to a total dose of 40 Gy to the cervical lymph node areas and the superior mediastinum. Results: Acute toxicity (World Health Organization criteria) was Grade 3 or 4 pharyngoesophagitis in 10 patients; Grade 4 neutropenia in 21, with infection in 13; and Grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombopenia in 8 and 4, respectively. At the end of the treatment, a complete local response was observed in 19 patients. With a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 12-78 months), 7 patients were alive in complete remission, of whom 6 had initially received a complete tumor resection. Overall survival rate at 3 years was 27% (95% confidence interval 10-44%) and median survival 10 months. In multivariate analysis, tracheal extension and macroscopic complete tumor resection were significaic complete tumor resection were significant factors in overall survival. Death was related to local progression in 5% of patients, to distant metastases in 68%, and to both in 27%. Conclusions: Main toxicity was hematologic. High long-term survival was obtained when RT-CT was given after complete surgery. This protocol avoided local tumor progression, and death was mainly caused by distant metastases

154

A new der(1;7)(q10;p10) leading to a singular 1p loss in a case of glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component.  

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The combined 1p-/19q- deletions in oligodendrogliomas originate from translocation between both chromosomes. In the few cases of oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) where only 1p deletion was described, the origin remains unknown. We report the first case of GBMO, in which a single 1p deletion was detected and was linked to a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7. Fresh surgical specimens were collected during surgery and the samples were used for cell culture, touch preparation smear slides (TP slides) and DNA extraction. Peripheral venous blood was also collected from the patient. G-banding using Trypsin and stained with Giemsa (GTG) banding and karyotyping were performed and 1p-/19q-, TP53, PTEN and c-MYC were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Multicolor FISH (mFISH) and microsatellites analyses were also performed to complete the investigation. Three-dimensional quantitative FISH (3D-QFISH) of telomeres was performed on nuclei from TP slides and analyzed using TeloView(TM) to determine whether the 3D telomere profile as an assessment of telomere dysfunction and a characterization of genomic instability could predict the disease aggressiveness. An unbalanced chromosomal translocation was found in all metaphases and confirmed by mFISH. The karyotype of the case is: 50?99,XXX, +der(1;7)(q10;p10),inc[47] The derivative chromosome was found in all 47 analyzed cells, but the number of derivatives varied from one to four. There was neither imbalance in copy number for genes TP53 and PTEN, nor amplification of c-MYC gene. We did not find loss of heterozygosity with analysis of microsatellite markers for chromosomes 1p and 19q in tumor cells. The 3D-telomere profile predicted a very poor prognostic and short-term survival of the patient and highlights the potential clinical power of telomere signatures as a solid biomarker of GBMO. Furthermore, this translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7 led to a singular 1p deletion in this GBMO and may generate the 1p and 7q deletions. PMID:24118308

Gadji, Macoura; Crous-Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Mathieu, David; Mai, Sabine; Fortin, David; Drouin, Régen

2014-04-01

155

Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife  

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Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001–2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage hyperabundant and habituated urban wildlife.

Colleen Cassady St. Clair

2005-06-01

156

Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.  

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The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

2010-02-01

157

Thirty-nine cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma: A retrospective review of MRI features and pathological findings  

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Objective: To retrospectively review the imaging features of surgically and pathologically confirmed intracranial hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma. Methods: Thirty-nine cases of surgically and pathologically confirmed hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma were analyzed retrospectively. The MRI features were compared with pathological findings in all cases. Results: Of the 39 cases, 21 were anaplastic hemangiopericytoma (WHO grade III) and the remaining cases were hemangiopericytoma (WHO grade II); all lesions were solitary. MRI of anaplastic hemangiopericytoma showed that 20 cases were lobulated, and nine grew cross-leaf. The lesions showed mixed iso-high-low signal (n = 20) or iso-signal (n = 1) on plain T1WI, and mixed high-low signal (n = 20) or iso-signal (n = 1) on plain T2WI. After contrast injection, marked heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19 cases. Significant necrosis and cystic changes were seen in 16 cases, and the 'dural tail sign' was found in two cases. Ten cases had bony destruction, and 16 showed significant peritumoral edema. In 18 cases of hemangiopericytoma, nine were oval-shaped and three grew cross-leaf. The lesions showed mixed iso-low signal (n = 10) or iso-signal (n = 8) on plain T1WI, and mixed iso-high signal (n = 10) or iso-signal (n = 8) on plain T2WI. After contrast injection, significant uniform enhancement was seen in 10 cases. Significant necrosis and cystic changes were seen in seven cases, and 'dural tail sign' was seen in six cases. Two cases had bony destruction. No case showed significant peritumoral edema. Pathological immunohistochemical Ki67 staining showed a concentration of {approx}18.4% positive cells in anaplastic hemangiopericytoma, whereas in hemangiopericytoma it was 7.12%. Conclusion: Imaging findings of intracranial anaplastic hemangiopericytoma had more pronounced lobulation, cross-leaf growth tendency, more and easier bleeding, more necrosis, more cystic changes giving rise to heterogeneous signals, rarer frequency of the 'dural tail sign', more damage near the skull, and more significant peritumoral edema than hemangiopericytoma. These features may help differentiate these two types of malignancy.

Zhou, Jun-lin, E-mail: zjl601@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University (School of Medicine), Postcode: 710061, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Postcode: 730030, Lanzhou (China); Liu, Jian-li; Zhang, Jing [Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Postcode: 730030, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: lzjl601@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University (School of Medicine), Postcode: 710061, Xi' an (China)

2012-11-15

158

Primary anaplastic astrocytoma of the brain after prophylactic cranial irradiation in a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature.  

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A 6½-year-old boy had developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and was treated with systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal triple drug regimen and prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 10 years he developed anaplastic astrocytoma of the postero-superior cerebellum on the left side while leukemia was in remission. He was treated with surgical excision, followed by adjuvant three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and is on salvage chemotherapy with temozolamide. It is possible that the anaplastic astrocytoma may be a radiation induced malignancy. PMID:25006292

Ahmed, Imtiaz; Krishnamurthy, Sapna; Kakkar, Aanchal; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

2014-01-01

159

Identification of novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors using a common feature pharmacophore model derived from known ligands crystallized with ALK.  

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In this investigation, a common feature pharmacophore model of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors was developed based on several known anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors that were co-crystallized with anaplastic lymphoma kinase. The established pharmacophore model Hypo1 was carefully validated and then adopted to screen two in silico chemical databases, Specs (202 408 compounds) and Enamine (1 105 894 compounds), for retrieving novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors. The hit compounds were further filtered using a fast bumping-check tool and molecular docking. Finally, 25 compounds were selected and purchased from market. The bioactivity of these compounds was firstly measured at the cellular level against a typical anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutant-driven cancer cell line, Karpas299. And six of them showed a good anti-viability activity. The kinase inhibitory potency against the recombinant human anaplastic lymphoma kinase kinase was tested to the most active compound at the cellular level, T0508-5181 (from Specs), which gave a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 5.3 ?M. PMID:23107363

Xie, Huan-Zhang; Lan, Hai; Pan, You-Li; Zou, Jun; Wang, Ze-Rong; Li, Lin-Li; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Sheng-Yong

2013-02-01

160

Feasibility and limitations of radioiodine therapy in oncocytic (oxyphilic), medullary (C-cell) and anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinoma  

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Oncocytic, medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers are not supposed to take up radioiodine because of their cellular differentiation. Therefore, I-131 therapy should not be feasible in these special types of thyroid carcinoma. Literature reports concerning successful I-131 treatment in patients with those cancers may be explained by the occurrence of rare 'mixed tumor types' or 'collision tumors', which consist of oncocytic, medullary or anaplastic parts as well as of sections with follicular or papillary differentiation which may take up I-131. Moreover, in the region of the thyroid gland, tumor tissue which is not able to take up radioiodine may be surrounded by normal thyrocytes taking up I-131. Radioiodine treatment therefore may be indicated in proven mixed tumor types and in collision tumors as well as in cases of residual tumor tissue in the neighbourhood of normal thyrocytes. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
161

Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene  

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Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na125I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future studies will have to concentrate on the possible expression of enzymatically active proteins or the transfer of multiple genes involved in iodide trapping. (orig.)

162

Survival and Compliance with the Use of Radiation Therapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the use of external radiation therapy (ERT) in terms of survival and compliance in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 17 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with ERT between 1993 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. ERT was administered after surgery in 14 patients and after a biopsy in three patients. Among the 14 patients who had undergone surgery, nine underwent a curative resection and five underwent a palliative resection. Six patients had associated well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 14 patients were diagnosed with a tumor size exceeding 5 cm. The radiation dose ranged from 6-70 Gy (median dose, 37.5 Gy). Eleven patients completed the planned course of ERT, whereas six patients did not. The follow-up period ranged from 1-104 months (median, 5 months; mean, 20 months). Results: Five patients started the ERT without the presence of a gross mass and all of the patients completed ERT without a re-growth of tumor. Twelve patients (four patients after a curative resection, five patients after a palliative resection and three patients after a biopsy) started ERT with a gross mass present and only six patients were able to complete the planned course of ERT. Among the six patients who completed ERT, two patients showed a marked regression of the tumor mass, whereas two patients showed slight regression and two patients showed no response. The median survival was five months (range, 1-104 months) and the mean survival was 21 months. The overall survival was 41% at 1-year, 24% at 2-years and 12% at 5-years. Significant prognostic factors included the number of primary tumors present, tumor size, whether surgery was performed and completion of ERT as planned. Long-term survivors showed a tendency of having smaller sized initial tumors and smaller sized pre-ERT tumors than the short-term survivors. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients with a small initial tumor ({<=}5 cm), which was treated by surgery (curative resection or palliative resection) before ERT, and without rapid re-growth of the mass seen at the surgical site at the beginning of the ERT course, would be the best candidates for postoperative ERT. In contrast, patients with a large initial tumor (>5 cm) and did not undergo surgery before ERT or that rapid re-growth of the mass was observed at the surgical site are likely to have a short survival time, along with the interruption of ERT. In these cases, the role of ERT is very limited and the omission of ERT could be considered.

Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Jang, Ji Young [Chosun University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woong Ki [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2008-12-15

163

Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression  

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Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST) and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

Al-Ardati, Hosam; Baeesa, Saleh S.

2014-01-01

164

Comparison of primary thyroid lymphoma with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma on computed tomographic imaging  

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Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LY) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) of the thyroid gland are rare malignant tumors, and the initial symptoms of these diseases are very similar. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of the two diseases using computed tomographic (CT) scans in order to make an accurate differential diagnosis. Ten patients with LY and 10 with AC were analyzed. Differences in the CT findings of the two diseases were evaluated before treatment and statistically tested with either Student's t-test or the chi-square test. In the analysis of characteristics of CT imaging, the existence of calcification and necrosis, and heterogeneous tumor were dominant findings in AC, and there was a statistically significant difference in frequency between the two diseases (p<0.01). Calcification detected in AC was usually multiple and/or gross (mean size: ?8.2 mm). All lymphadenopathies were delineated as having the same homogeneous attenuation as the tumors in the thyroid gland in LY, but were shown as irregular rim enhancement in AC. The CT features of the two diseases are characteristic in terms of calcification, necrosis, and tumor composition. Evaluation by means of CT imaging is useful in distinguishing between LY and AC. (author)

165

Increased Expression of Phosphorylated FADD in Anaplastic Large Cell and Other T-Cell Lymphomas  

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FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is a major adaptor protein involved in extrinsic apoptosis, embryogenesis, and lymphocyte homeostasis. Although abnormalities of the FADD/death receptor apoptotic pathways have been established in tumorigenesis, fewer studies have analyzed the expression and role of phosphorylated FADD (pFADD). Our identification of FADD as a lymphoma-associated autoantigen in T-cell lymphoma patients raises the possibility that pFADD, with its correlation with cell cycle, may possess role(s) in human T-cell lymphoma development. This immunohistochemical study investigated pFADD protein expression in a range of normal tissues and lymphomas, particularly T-cell lymphomas that require improved therapies. Whereas pFADD was expressed only in scattered normal T cells, it was detected at high levels in T-cell lymphomas (eg, 84% anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 65% peripheral T cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified). The increased expression of pFADD supports further study of its clinical relevance and role in lymphomagenesis, highlighting phosphorylation of FADD as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25232277

Patel, Suketu; Murphy, Derek; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Abdulla, Zainalabideen A; Wong, Kah Keng; Chen, Hong; Gould, Edith; Roncador, Giovanna; Hatton, Chris SR; Anderson, Amanda P; Banham, Alison H; Pulford, Karen

2014-01-01

166

Immunological monitoring of patients affected by anaplastic glioma concerning the effects of surgery, radio-, and chemotherapy  

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The authors studied 24 patients affected by anaplastic gliomas as regards immunology. In all of them the authors evaluated the lymphocyte subpopulation (B and T), firstly by simple lymphocyte count, secondly by studying the rosettes E-total and EAC, thirdly by stimulating the lymphocytes with mitogenes phytohaemoagglutinin-P (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and poke-weed mitogen (PWM), and lastly by counting the release of Cr51 in Chang liver cells culture in order to obtain antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The parameters were also evaluated after surgery and during conventional radio-chemotherapy with BCNU. Whereas the so-called B-pool seems to be unaffected, the preliminary results show that the T-pool (identified by the E-t rosettes and by responses to PHA, PWM and ConA) is depressed to a statistically significant degree, if compared with a control group. This depression seems to be related to the tumoral mass and it is not increased by radio-chemotherapy. In addition, ADCC also seems to be depressed in our glioma patients in comparison with a control group and with a group of bladder cancer patients. (author)

167

An evolutionary conserved role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase in behavioral responses to ethanol.  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:21799923

Lasek, Amy W; Lim, Jana; Kliethermes, Christopher L; Berger, Karen H; Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Xue, Liquan; Robertson, Margaret; Moore, Monica S; Vranizan, Karen; Morris, Stephan W; Schuckit, Marc A; White, Raymond L; Heberlein, Ulrike

2011-01-01

168

Short course high dose radiotherapy in the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.  

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Purpose. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare but aggressive tumor with limited survival. To date, the ideal radiation treatment schedule, one that balances limited survival with treatment efficacy, remains undefined. In this retrospective series we investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of hypofractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of ATC. Methods. 17 patients with biopsy proven ATC treated between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed for outcomes and toxicity. All patients received short course radiation. Results. The most commonly prescribed dose was 54?Gy in 18 fractions. Median survival was 9.3 months. 47% of patients were metastatic at diagnosis and the majority of patients (88%) went on to develop metastasis. Death from local progression was seen in 3 patients (18%), 41% experienced grade 3 toxicity, and there were no grade 4 toxicities. Conclusions. Here we demonstrated the safety and feasibility of hypofractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of ATC. This approach offers shorter treatment courses (3-4 weeks) compared to traditional fractionation schedules (6-7 weeks), comparable toxicity, local control, and the ability to transition to palliative care sooner. Local control was dependent on the degree of surgical debulking, even in the metastatic setting. PMID:25379320

Stavas, Mark J; Shinohara, Eric T; Attia, Albert; Ning, Matthew S; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Cmelak, Anthony J

2014-01-01

169

Clinical challenges in targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.  

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The revolution in individualized therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has seen the emergence of a number of molecularly targeted therapies for distinct patient molecular subgroups. Activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-gene rearrangement has been detected in 3-7 % of NSCLC cases, and the ALK inhibitor crizotinib is now an approved treatment for patients with tumors harboring this event. However, resistance to ALK-targeted therapies is a ubiquitous problem in the management of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC and can be mediated by secondary kinase mutations or the activation of compensatory alternative oncogenic drivers. New, more potent ALK inhibitors such as ceritinib (LDK378), alectinib (CH5424802), and AP26113 are now emerging, together with an increased knowledge of the molecular basis of resistance. There is a need to evaluate the optimal clinical application of these new agents, either as sequential therapies or in combination with other targeted agents, to combat resistance and prolong survival in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. The remarkable clinical activity of ALK inhibitors also emphasizes the importance of optimal diagnostic testing algorithms, to ensure that all eligible patients receive these breakthrough therapies. PMID:25135623

Vijayvergia, Namrata; Mehra, Ranee

2014-09-01

170

A case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma: aspiration cytology findings.  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma that exhibits a more aggressive clinical course and poorer prognosis than the typical diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we report the case of a 67-year-old man with left cervical lymph node swelling. Aspiration cytology revealed many clusters of cohesive, large, and solitary cells. The tumor cells had abundant cytoplasm and large round-to-oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli. The Giemsa staining specimens exhibited amorphous global bodies adjacent to some clusters. Histologically, large tumor cells occupied the lymph nodes in a sinusoidal pattern, and immunohistochemically, these cells were cytokeratin-, CD19(-), CD20(-), CD79a(-), CD3(-), CD30(-), CD138(+), IgG(-), IgA(+), and ALK(+). Chromogenic in situ hybridization revealed restricted immunoglobulin light-chain expression. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated translocation of the ALK gene. The tumor cells were negative for Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8. It is important to differentiate ALK+LBCL from metastatic carcinoma and other lymphoma subtypes with similar histological features to ensure a proper treatment strategy and prediction of prognosis. PMID:23457005

Nakatsuka, Shin-ichi; Oku, Kazuko; Nagano, Teruaki; Kimura, Hayato; Hanamoto, Atsushi; Ito, Mahito; Hashimoto, Koji

2014-01-01

171

Crizotinib in advanced, chemoresistant anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lymphoma patients.  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lymphomas respond to chemotherapy, but relapses, which bear a poor prognosis, occur. Crizotinib inhibits ALK in vitro and in vivo and was administered as monotherapy to 11 ALK+ lymphoma patients who were resistant/refractory to cytotoxic therapy. The overall response rate was 10 of 11 (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 58.7% to 99.8%). Disease status at the latest follow-up is as follows: four patients are in complete response (CR) (months >21, >30, >35, >40) under continuous crizotinib administration; 4 patients had progression of disease (months 1, 2, 2, 2); 1 patient obtained CR on crizotinib, received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, and is in CR; 2 patients (treated before and/or after allogeneic bone marrow transplant) obtained and are still in CR but they have stopped crizotinib. Overall and progression-free survival rates at 2 years are 72.7% (95% CI = 39.1% to 94.0%) and 63.7% (95% CI = 30.8% to 89.1%), respectively. ALK mutations conferring resistance to crizotinib in vitro could be identified in relapsed patients. Crizotinib exerted a potent antitumor activity with durable responses in advanced, heavily pretreated ALK+ lymphoma patients, with a benign safety profile. PMID:24491302

Gambacorti Passerini, Carlo; Farina, Francesca; Stasia, Alessandra; Redaelli, Sara; Ceccon, Monica; Mologni, Luca; Messa, Cristina; Guerra, Luca; Giudici, Giovanni; Sala, Elena; Mussolin, Lara; Deeren, Dries; King, Michael H; Steurer, Michael; Ordemann, Rainer; Cohen, Amos M; Grube, Matthias; Bernard, Lea; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Antolini, Laura; Piazza, Rocco

2014-02-01

172

Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors  

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Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

2013-01-15

173

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

Daneshbod Yahya

2006-10-01

174

Anaplastic carcinoma associated with a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas during pregnancy: Report of a case and a review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Oncogenesis of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is a subject of controversy, because it shows sarcomatous nature with extremely poor prognosis. We herein report an unusual case of anaplastic carcinoma occurring with a recurrent mucinous cystic neoplasm in a 38-year-old female. A 10-cm retroperitoneal cystic mass was pointed out in the first pregnancy and a probable diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasm was made in October 2000. She refused surgery first and delivered her baby uneventfully. During her second pregnancy in 2002, however, she presented hematemesis and underwent urgent distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and partial resection of the gastric wall where the tumor perforated. A diagnosis of borderline-type mucinous cystic neoplasm with ovarian-like stroma was made. Nine months later, CT visualized a recurrent cystic tumor near the pancreatic stump, which was subsequently resected. Pathology revealed that the tumor was composed of two different components of borderline-type mucinous cystic neoplasm and anaplastic carcinoma. The latter was intensely positive for vimentin, CD68, p53 and focally for cytokeratin, suggesting both sarcomatous and carcinomatous differentiation. She survived four years after the second surgery without tumor recurrence. Although the origin of anaplastic carcinoma has not been determined yet, it should be remembered that anaplastic carcinoma can occur in association with mucinous cystic neoplasm of more benign histology.

Kenichi Hakamada, Takuya Miura, Akitoshi Kimura, Masaki Nara, Yoshikazu Toyoki, Shunij Narumi, Mutsuo Sasak

2008-01-01

175

Anaplastic PXA in adults: case series with clinicopathologic and molecular features.  

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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features (PXA-As) are rare tumors about which little is known regarding clinicopathologic and molecular features. Several studies have identified BRAF V600E mutations in PXA-As, but the percentage with mutation may differ between adult and pediatric examples, and limited information exists about immunohistochemistry for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1). Ten cases of adult PXA-As seen at our institution since 2000 were assessed for BRAF V600E mutation by polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) and IDH1 by immunohistochemistry. Patients ranged in age from 18-68 years; four PXA-As affected temporal lobe and two were cystic. Four patients underwent gross total resection and 9 of 10 patients received cranial irradiation and/or adjuvant chemotherapy. Five survived less than 5 years, although 2 of 5 patients died from non-tumor causes. Four long-term survivors are alive at 7.5, 9.8, 11.4, and 11.9 years post-diagnosis. Two of four long term survivors had BRAF V600E mutation: patients were ages 18 and 28 years. A 48-year-old male without BRAF mutation survives at 9.8 years, even with thalamic location; conversely a 68-year-old female with temporal lobe tumor and BRAF mutation survived 1.9 years after diagnosis. All tumors were IDH1 immunonegative. This case series details clinicopathologic features of a subset of rare PXA-As in adults. BRAF V600E mutation was identified in 50 % of these cases. PMID:23096133

Schmidt, Yao; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K; Aisner, Dara L; Lillehei, Kevin O; Damek, Denise

2013-01-01

176

Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HART) for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Toxicity and Survival Analysis  

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Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the current protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy was initiated to improve survival while limiting toxicities. Methods and Materials: All patients with ATC from 1991 to 2002 were accrued and received megavoltage radiotherapy from the mastoid processes to the carina up to 60 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.8 and 2 Gy, 6 hours apart. Results: Thirty-one patients were accrued with a median age of 69 years, and 55% were women. Debulking was performed in 26%, and total thyroidectomy, in 6%, whereas 68% received radical radiotherapy alone. Local control data were available for 27 patients: 22% had a complete response, 26% had a partial response, 15% showed progressive disease, and 37% showed static disease. Median overall survival for all 31 patients was 70 days (95% confidence interval, 40-99). There was no significant difference in median survival between patients younger (70 days) and older than 70 years (42 days), between men (70 days) and women (49days), and between patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy (77 days) and radical radiotherapy alone (35 days). Grade III or higher skin erythema was seen in 56% patients; desquamation in 21%; dysphagia in 74%; and esophagitis in 79%. Conclusion: The current protocol failed to offer a significant survival benefit, was associated with severe toxicities, and thus was discontinued. There is a suggestion that younger patid. There is a suggestion that younger patients with operable disease have longer survival, but this would require a larger study to confirm it.

177

Clinical study of 10 cases of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid  

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Ten cases (5 males and 5 females) of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid treated at Hyogo Cancer Center between February 1994 and October 2006 were reviewed. Patient ages ranged from 47 to 84 years with a median of 65.5 years. Only one case is alive after 12 years and 8 months; 8 cases died of the disease and one died of a different disease. The 8 cases who died from the carcinoma consisted of 4 cases of suffocation by primary tumor invasion and 4 cases of distant metastasis. All 9 cases died within one year after their treatment. The 6 cases were treated by surgery with postoperative radiotherapy and the 2 cases of them underwent chemotherapy. The local tumor was resected radically in the 3 cases and was not resected radically but debulked in the 3 cases. Only 1 long-time survivor whose preoperative pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma was treated by induction chemotherapy, radical operation with pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy, and postoperative radiotherapy. Half of the 6 surgical cases died of suffocation. The 4 non-surgical cases were treated by combination therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The 3 cases of the 4 non-surgical cases died of distant metastasis. The rate of life at home during survival time was higher in the cases treated surgically than in the non-surgery cases. The possibility is suggested that the rate of life at home during survival time was higher with surgical treatment even the debulking operation and the improvement of quality of life (QOL) was achieved. But the debulking operation was not more effective for the improvement of the survival time and the local control, compared with the cases treated without surgery. (author)

178

Effects of selective inhibitors of Aurora kinases on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.  

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Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases that play an essential role in cell division. Their aberrant expression and/or function induce severe mitotic abnormalities, resulting in either cell death or aneuploidy. Overexpression of Aurora kinases is often found in several malignancies, among which is anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). We have previously demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitors in restraining cell growth and survival of different ATC cell lines. In this study, we sought to establish which Aurora might represent the preferential drug target for ATC. To this end, the effects of two selective inhibitors of Aurora-A (MLN8237) and Aurora-B (AZD1152) on four human ATC cell lines (CAL-62, BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C) were analysed. Both inhibitors reduced cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 ranges of 44.3-134.2?nM for MLN8237 and of 9.2-461.3?nM for AZD1152. Immunofluorescence experiments and time-lapse videomicroscopy yielded evidence that each inhibitor induced distinct mitotic phenotypes, but both of them prevented the completion of cytokinesis. As a result, poliploidy increased in all AZD1152-treated cells, and in two out of four cell lines treated with MLN8237. Apoptosis was induced in all the cells by MLN8237, and in BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C by AZD1152, while CAL-62 exposed to AZD1152 died through necrosis after multiple rounds of endoreplication. Both inhibitors were capable of blocking anchorage-independent cell growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that either Aurora-A or Aurora-B might represent therapeutic targets for the ATC treatment, but inhibition of Aurora-A appears more effective for suppressing ATC cell proliferation and for inducing the apoptotic pathway. PMID:25074669

Baldini, Enke; Tuccilli, Chiara; Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Gnessi, Lucio; Morrone, Stefania; Moretti, Costanzo; Bononi, Marco; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; D'Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

2014-10-01

179

Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - case report / Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células anaplásicas - relato de caso  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T anaplásicas faz parte do espectro de processos linfoproliferativos cutâneos CD30+ e caracteriza-se por nódulos únicos ou multifocais, ulcerados, autorregressivos e recidivantes. Pode haver disseminação extracutânea, principalmente para linfonodos regiona [...] is. O histológico mostra infiltrado difuso, não-epidermotrópico, grandes células linfóides anaplásicas de imunohistoquímica CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- e TIA1-/+. O prognóstico é bom e independe da invasão ganglionar. Radioterapia, retirada da lesão e/ou metotrexato em baixas doses são os tratamentos de escolha. Este estudo relata o caso de uma mulher, 57 anos, com Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T com lesões multifocais e que, após 7 anos, evoluiu com acometimento pulmonar. Apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com metotrexato em baixas doses semanais. Abstract in english Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histol [...] ogy shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly.

Luciana Silveira Rabello de, Oliveira; Madeleyne Palhano, Nobrega; Maira Gomes, Monteiro; Wagner Leite de, Almeida.

2013-12-01

180

Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - case report / Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células anaplásicas - relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T anaplásicas faz parte do espectro de processos linfoproliferativos cutâneos CD30+ e caracteriza-se por nódulos únicos ou multifocais, ulcerados, autorregressivos e recidivantes. Pode haver disseminação extracutânea, principalmente para linfonodos regiona [...] is. O histológico mostra infiltrado difuso, não-epidermotrópico, grandes células linfóides anaplásicas de imunohistoquímica CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- e TIA1-/+. O prognóstico é bom e independe da invasão ganglionar. Radioterapia, retirada da lesão e/ou metotrexato em baixas doses são os tratamentos de escolha. Este estudo relata o caso de uma mulher, 57 anos, com Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T com lesões multifocais e que, após 7 anos, evoluiu com acometimento pulmonar. Apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com metotrexato em baixas doses semanais. Abstract in english Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histol [...] ogy shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly.

Luciana Silveira Rabello de, Oliveira; Madeleyne Palhano, Nobrega; Maira Gomes, Monteiro; Wagner Leite de, Almeida.

 
 
 
 
181

A case of anaplastic astrocytoma arising 8 years after initial treatment by partial resection and irradiation for central neurocytoma  

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A 31-year-old female developed the anaplastic astrocytoma in the right basal ganglia and temporal lobe 8 years after partial resection and irradiation of the central neurocytoma. Probably the malignant astrocytoma was an irradiation-induced tumor. Postoperative radiation therapy for the central neurocytoma appears to have a good effect on tumor local control. But it should be carefully decided whether to use radiation therapy for residual tumor because of the risk of delayed complications of irradiation, such as the present case. (author)

Utsunomiya, Akihiro; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Shinzitsu; Nishino, Akiko; Arai, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi [Sendai National Hospital (Japan)

2001-08-01

182

Structural resemblance to emotional expressions predicts evaluation of emotionally neutral faces.  

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People make trait inferences based on facial appearance despite little evidence that these inferences accurately reflect personality. The authors tested the hypothesis that these inferences are driven in part by structural resemblance to emotional expressions. The authors first had participants judge emotionally neutral faces on a set of trait dimensions. The authors then submitted the face images to a Bayesian network classifier trained to detect emotional expressions. By using a classifier, the authors can show that neutral faces perceived to possess various personality traits contain objective resemblance to emotional expression. In general, neutral faces that are perceived to have positive valence resemble happiness, faces that are perceived to have negative valence resemble disgust and fear, and faces that are perceived to be threatening resemble anger. These results support the idea that trait inferences are in part the result of an overgeneralization of emotion recognition systems. Under this hypothesis, emotion recognition systems, which typically extract accurate information about a person's emotional state, are engaged during the perception of neutral faces that bear subtle resemblance to emotional expressions. These emotions could then be misattributed as traits. PMID:19348537

Said, Christopher P; Sebe, Nicu; Todorov, Alexander

2009-04-01

183

Pediatric case of primary cutaneous eosinophil-rich CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with follicular mucinosis.  

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We report a pediatric case of primary cutaneous CD30 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma showing a combination of rare histopathologic features. The patient was a 14-year-old boy who had a solitary 2 × 1-cm ulcerated nodule with purulent discharge and undermined borders located in the right preauricular area that had been present for 3 weeks. Histopathologically, there was a dense, nonepidermotropic multinodular to diffuse infiltrate involving the reticular dermis and, focally, the subcutis. The infiltrate was composed of numerous eosinophils, neutrophils, small well-differentiated lymphocytes, and large pleomorphic and anaplastic cells. Eosinophils dominated the infiltrate. Focally, the infiltrate was accentuated around hair follicles, many of which manifested features of follicular mucinosis and/or collections of neutrophils in the follicular epithelium. Occasional hair follicles were partly destroyed by the infiltrate. A conspicuous feature was a prominent myxoid change in the stroma surrounding the hair follicles and eccrine glands. Immunohistochemically, the large lymphoid cells expressed CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD30. PMID:23823024

Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2014-03-01

184

Kawasaki disease, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and anaplastic large cell lymphoma: An uncommon association  

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Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis occurring predominantly in young children less than 5 years of age. Although imperfectly known, the aetiopathogenesis of KD would be secondary to immunological abnormalities that could constitute a favourable terrain for neoplasms. We report on a case in a 2-year-old girl who presented clinical manifestations compatible with Kawasaki disease complicated by coronary aneurysm. Aetiopathological investigations revealed M. pneumoniae infection as specific IgM were present in the serum (Elisa. The patient was initially treated by intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG and aspirin to anti-inflammatory dose. Following a few days of desquamation, resolution of the symptomatology occurred. Four weeks later she developed disseminated tumorous syndrome. Lymph node biopsy revealed massive infiltration by large cells lymphomatous proliferation. Histologic and immunophenotypic findings were characteristic of ALK-1+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Four weeks later, the patient died from a severe nosocomial infection complicated by septic shock. Our observation is the first cases describing the association between anaplastic large cell lymphoma, KD and M. pneumoniae. Immunologic disorder due to KD and M. pneumoniae infection may play probably a central role for malignancy.

Jalel Chemli

2012-09-01

185

18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas  

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Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

2014-11-17

186

Bevacizumab and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumor, Lymphoma, Intracranial Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma or Anaplastic Astrocytoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

2014-02-14

187

C/EBP? expression in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas is required for cell proliferation and is induced by the STAT3 signaling pathway  

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Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation, resulting in the expression of a fusion protein formed of nucleophosmin (NPM) and ALK. Recently, we reported the abnormal expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBP?) in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and demonstrated its dependence on NPM-ALK activity. Design and Methods In this study, the role of C/EBP? in proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas was investigated, as well as the mechanism of its expression and activity. Highly effective short hairpin RNA sequences and/or pharmacological inhibitors were used to abrogate the expression or activity of C/EBP?, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), AKT, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Results Interference with C/EBP? expression resulted in a dramatic decrease in cell proliferation in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, with a mild induction of apoptosis after 6 days. Down-regulation of STAT3 resulted in a marked decrease in C/EBP? mRNA and protein levels with impairment in cell proliferation and viability, underscoring the important role of these two proteins in ALK-mediated oncogenesis. Additionally, we demonstrated that reduction of ERK1/2 activity led to C/EBP? Thr235 dephosphorylation and moderate growth retardation. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway did not have any influence on C/EBP? expression or C/EBP? phosphorylation. Conclusions These findings reveal the convergence of STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways activated by NPM-ALK in mediating the regulation of C/EBP? expression, a transcription factor central to NPM-ALK transformation. PMID:20015877

Anastasov, Natasa; Bonzheim, Irina; Rudelius, Martina; Klier, Margit; Dau, Therese; Angermeier, Daniela; Duyster, Justus; Pittaluga, Stefania; Fend, Falko; Raffeld, Mark; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

2010-01-01

188

Current status of targeted therapy for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer.  

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The identification of chromosomal rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in ~3-5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and the demonstration that the first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. Single-arm studies demonstrating rapid and durable responses in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib have been followed by a randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802802), and AP26113, and heat shock protein 90 inhibitors. PMID:24091716

Solomon, B; Wilner, K D; Shaw, A T

2014-01-01

189

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Current Treatments and Potential New Therapeutic Options with Emphasis on TfR1/CD71.  

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Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Actually, ATC is refractory to conventional therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radioiodine ((131)I) therapy. Accordingly, genetic and molecular characterizations of ATC have been frequently and periodically reviewed in order to identify potential biological markers exploitable for target therapy. This review briefly focuses on main molecular events that characterize ATC and provides an update about preclinical studies. In addition, the overexpression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71) by neoplastic cells of ATC is emphasized in that it could represent a potential therapeutic target. In this regard, new therapeutic approaches based on the use of monoclonal or recombinant antibodies, or transferrin-gallium-TfR1/CD71 molecular complexes, or lastly small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are proposed. PMID:25097549

Parenti, Rosalba; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano

2014-01-01

190

The oncogenic JUNB/CD30 axis contributes to cell cycle deregulation in ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) frequently carries the t(2;5)(p23;q35) resulting in expression of NPM1(NPM)-ALK oncogenic kinase. The latter is capable of activating ERK kinase, which upregulates JUNB expression through ETS1. JUNB, in turn, interacts with the TNFRSF8 (CD30) gene promoter and induces CD30 (TNFRSF8) overexpression. However, the role of CD30 overexpression in ALK+ ALCL oncogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that the JUNB gene is frequently amplified in ALK+ ALCL, suggesting gene amplification as an additional underlying mechanism for JUNB overexpression. Silencing of JUNB resulted in reduced cell growth and colony formation associated with decreased activator protein-1 activity and G1/S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. These effects were linked to decreased CD30 levels, downregulation of CCNA2 (Cyclin A), CCND2 (Cyclin D2) and CCND3 (Cyclin D3) and upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A (p14) and CDKN1A (p21), but not CDKN1B (p27). Similar cell cycle changes were observed following the knock-down of TNFRSF8 gene or blockade of its function using anti-CD30 antibodies, which were associated with upregulation of CDKN2A and CDKN1A, but not CDKN1B. These findings indicate that JUNB may partly operate through CD30 signalling. Silencing of JUNB also sensitized NPM1-ALCL+ cells to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Our findings uncover the oncogenic role of the JUNB/CD30 axis and its potential as therapeutic target in ALK+ ALCL. PMID:25145835

Atsaves, Vassilis; Lekakis, Lazaros; Drakos, Elias; Leventaki, Vasiliki; Ghaderi, Mehran; Baltatzis, George E; Chioureas, Dimitris; Jones, Dan; Feretzaki, Marianna; Liakou, Chryssoula; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Claret, Francois X; Rassidakis, George Z

2014-11-01

191

A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

Zu Youli

2011-01-01

192

Simultaneous cytomorphological and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological features of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in children and to establish the effectiveness of screening and diagnosing ALCL with multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) of lymphoid tissue samples. A total of 121 lymph node tissue specimens obtained from 121 patients with a suspected diagnosis of lymphoma were analyzed with cytomorphological and FCI analysis. Fifteen cases were diagnosed as ALK-positive ALCL based on the pathological features and immunohistochemical results. Of these, there were 3 different types, common type (10 cases), lymphohistiocytic type (4 cases) and neutrophil-rich type (1 case). Thirteen cases (10 common, 2 lymphohistiocytic and 1 neutrophil-rich type) were diagnosed as ALCL using FCI. These cases were CD30-positive and aberrantly expressed at least two T-cell antigens, including CD4 (84.6%), CD2 (76.9%), CD7 (61.5%), CD3 (53.8%) and CD5 (38.4%). Neoplastic cells accounted for only a small proportion of the total cells in FCI, with a median of 19.3% (range, 7.9–31.8%), which was significantly higher than those in the control groups (all <1.0%). The sensitivity of FCI for diagnosing ALCL in lymph node samples was 86.7% with a specificity of 100%. The majority of neoplastic cells demonstrated high light forward and high light side scatter, similar to monocytes or granulocytes in dot plots. FCI may be used as an adjunct to histopathological examination for rapid and reliable diagnosis of pediatric ALCL. Flexible gating strategies and careful analysis are required to identify neoplastic cells with FCI. PMID:23420373

SHEN, HONGQIANG; TANG, YONGMIN; XU, XIAOJUN; TANG, HONGFENG; GU, WEIZHONG

2013-01-01

193

Anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney: a clinicopathologic study of 20 cases of a new entity with polyphenotypic features.  

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We report 20 cases of a distinct, previously unrecognized renal neoplasm, anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney with polyphenotypic features. The tumors were identified by re-reviewing tumors with unusual anaplastic features from the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center, the International Society of Pediatric Oncology and the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group trials. Patients ranged in age from 10 months to 41 years (median age 5 y, mean age 12 y) and females predominated (1.5:1). Twelve tumors presented in the right kidney, and 5 in the left (laterality was unknown in 3 cases). The most common presentation was a renal mass. Grossly, most tumors were large, measured 4 to 21 cm (mean 12.7 cm) and weighed 115 to 1820 g (mean 835 g). Seven out of 12 tumors suitable for assessment had a distinct cystic component. The tumors involved the pelvi-calyceal system in 5 of the cases. Histologically, all tumors showed a spindle cell component which contained either multiple foci or diffuse, widespread anaplastic changes with bizarre pleomorphic cells and very atypical mitotic figures. Chondroid differentiation was seen in 16 cases, usually in the form of islands of hyaline cartilage (13 cases) or chondroid matrix (3 cases). The nodules of cartilage showed both benign and malignant features, often within the same tumor. In 2 cases small foci of osteoid were found whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were seen in 4 cases. Only 3 of the tumors exhibited a primitive blastema-like area. No neoplastic epithelial structures were identified. No nephrogenic rests were found. Limited immunohistochemical studies showed vimentin positivity in 5/5 cases, desmin was positive in 4/6 cases, MYF4 showed focal weak nuclear positivity in 1/4 cases, but MyoD1 was negative in all cases (0/5). PGP9.5 was focally, strongly positive in 4/5 cases and p53 was strongly positive in 3/6 cases. Cytokeratin, using the antibody CAM5.2, was uniformly negative within the tumor cells. Finally, CD56 was focally positive in 1/6 tumors, whereas all other markers were negative including NB84a (4/4), CD34 (5/6), CD99 (5/5), and WT1 (6/6 cases). In 4 tumors reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the SYT-SSX fusion transcript produced by the t(x;18), and the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript using RNA extracted from archived paraffin blocks-results were negative in all 4 specimens. Tumor stage was known in 15 patients including 7 stage I, 4 stage II, 3 stage III, and 1 stage IV tumors. They were usually diagnosed as anaplastic Wilms tumors and treated accordingly. Of the 13 patients with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, 4 patients developed distant metastases and 1 had local recurrence including 1 patient with stage IV, 2 with stage III, and 2 with stage I at presentation. Three of them died and 2 were lost to follow-up. One patient with stage I tumor developed widespread metastases and died. Another stage I patient developed local recurrence after 3 months of diagnosis, but was lost to follow-up. Five stage I patients were alive and free of tumor at last follow-up. The most common sites of metastases were lung (3 cases), and liver and bones (2 cases each). These tumors showed pathologic features similar to the pleuropulmonary blastoma of childhood and undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver. In the differential diagnosis, anaplastic Wilms tumor, primary renal synovial sarcoma, malignant mesenchymoma, ectomesenchymoma, and mesenchymal chondrosarcomas have been considered but none of these tumors shared the same features as the 20 cases described here which represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity with morphologic features of a polyphenotypic anaplastic sarcoma of the kidney. Further molecular studies are needed to better understand its nature and more accurate classification. PMID:17895746

Vujani?, Gordan M; Kelsey, Anna; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Sandstedt, Bengt; Beckwith, J Bruce

2007-10-01

194

Central nervous system and vertebral malformation resembling the Arnold-Chiari syndrome in a Simmental calf.  

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Multiple congenital anomalies were identified in a stillborn calf, including severe cerebellar hypoplasia and central nervous system abnormalities resembling the Arnold-Chiari syndrome of malformation of calves. The Arnold-Chiari malformation occurs sporadically and has little economic impact, whereas cerebellar hypoplasia implies the presence of BVD virus in the herd.

Leclerc, S.; Lo?pez, A.; Illanes, O.

1997-01-01

195

Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.  

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Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related. PMID:22695644

Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

2012-12-01

196

In vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy of healthy and neoplastic brain tissues  

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In this study an in vitro Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic characterization of water soluble metabolites and the lipid fraction obtained from 31 tumors (14 glioblastomas, 3 anaplastic astrocitomas, 2 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas and 10 meningiomas) is reported. The 1H MR spectrum of normal brain tissue is also shown, it is characterized by a low Cho/Cr signal intensity ratio and an intense NAA resonance. The regional metabolic heterogeneity of glioblastomas is documented. For these tumors, specific molecular composition by MRS cannot be defined. Oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed typical Cho/Cr and Ala/Cr metabolite ratios. The degree of histological endothelial proliferation of the malignant astrocitomas and oligodendrogliomas was correlated to the presence of Cholesteryl esters in the 13C Magnetic Resonance spectrum of the lipid fraction obtained from these tumors. Meningiomas are mainly characterized by high Cho/Cr and Ala/Cr ratios.

Tugnoli, V.; Tosi, M. R.; Bertoluzza, A.; Barbarella, G.; Ricci, R.; Fini, G.

1999-05-01

197

Lapatinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors  

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Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma

2014-05-07

198

Identification of a shark sequence resembling the major histocompatibility complex class I alpha 3 domain.  

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Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) branched off from the vertebrate line leading to the mammals more than 400 million years ago. They do not exhibit acute allograft rejection, and so far no report has pointed to the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen-like molecules in elasmobranchs. Here we demonstrate the existence of a gene in the shark (Triakis scyllia) genome with a sequence that resembles the MHC class I alpha 3 domains of other vertebrates. Several amino acids consi...

Hashimoto, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurosawa, Y.

1992-01-01

199

Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.  

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We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

2014-04-01

200

Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.  

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In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...

Stafleu, A.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Metabolism of a Lipid Nanoemulsion Resembling Low-Density Lipoprotein in Patients with Grade III Obesity  

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INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of pati...

Simone Alves Dantas; Elisabeth Salvatori Ficker; Vinagre, Carmen G. C.; Barbara Maria Ianni; Raul Cavalcante Maranhão; Charles Mady

2010-01-01

202

Value of 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) for Detection of Anaplastic Foci in Diffusely Infiltrating Gliomas with Non-Significant Contrast- Enhancement  

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Abstract Objective: In diffusely infiltrating gliomas (DIG), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a powerful method for detection of anaplastic foci. Recently, 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging (CSI) using choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) or choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios has emerged as new non-invasive, widely available alternative. We therefore correlated CSI with 11C-methionine (MET)-PET data in a series of DIG with non-significant contrast-...

2010-01-01

203

STAT3-mediated activation of microRNA cluster 17~92 promotes proliferation and survival of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

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Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which can be further subdivided into two distinct entities (ALK(+) and ALK(-)) based on the presence or absence of ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways triggered by ALK signaling, constitutive activation of STAT3 is strictly required for ALK-mediated transformation and survival. Here we performed genome-wide microRNA profiling and identified 48 microRNA concordantly modulated by the inducible knock-down of ALK and STAT3. To evaluate the functional role of differentially expressed miRNA, we forced their expression in ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, and monitored their influence after STAT3 depletion. We found that the expression of the microRNA-17~92 cluster partially rescues STAT3 knock-down by sustaining proliferation and survival of ALK(+) cells. Experiments in a xenograft mouse model indicated that forced expression of microRNA-17~92 interferes with STAT3 knock-down in vivo. High expression levels of the microRNA-17~92 cluster resulted in down-regulation of BIM and TGF?RII proteins, suggesting that their targeting might mediate resistance to STAT3 knock-down in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. We speculate that the microRNA-17~92 cluster is involved in lymphomagenesis of STAT3(+) ALCL and that its inhibition might represent an alternative avenue to interfere with ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas. PMID:23975180

Spaccarotella, Elisa; Pellegrino, Elisa; Ferracin, Manuela; Ferreri, Cristina; Cuccuru, Giuditta; Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed; Cantarella, Daniela; Taulli, Riccardo; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Medico, Enzo; Negrini, Massimo; Chan, Wing C; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

2014-01-01

204

Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: Results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92  

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Background and purpose: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987. After surgery, low-risk patients (R0, M0) received maintenance chemotherapy until elective RT at age of three. In high-risk patients (R+, M+) intensive induction chemotherapy was followed by maintenance chemotherapy and subsequently delayed RT. If there was, progression radiotherapy started immediately. In the HIT-SKK 92, trial MTX-based chemotherapy was applied. RT was administered in non-responders only. Results: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months). All children received chemotherapy. In 13 children, no RT was administered. Preventive RT after chemotherapy was given in nine, and salvage RT in 12 children. OS and PFS rates after 3-year were 55.9 and 27.3%, respectively. Twenty-five children relapsed. Positive impact on survival was observed in children with higher age, M0-stage, complete resection, and treatment with radiotherapy. Without RT only 3/13, children survived. Conclusion: Delaying RT jeopardizes survival even after intensive chemotherapy. Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site. RT of the neuraxis should be omitted in localized disease

205

Epstein-Barr virus-associated anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with concurrent p53 protein expression.  

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In the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of malignant lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma of B-cell phenotype is classified either as the anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or as Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 71-year-old Japanese man developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the right axillary node revealed morphology of malignant lymphoma in which large cells with abundant cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei were scattered among small lymphocytes. Immunostaining with various monoclonal antibodies revealed the large cells to be CD79+, CD20/L26+, CD45RO/UCHL-(1-), CD3-, CD10-, CD30+, NPM/ALK-, EMA-, CD15-, and bcl-(2-). Amplification of the J region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain by polymerase chain reaction revealed a single rearranged band. Therefore the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, stage IIIB, was made from the standpoint of the new WHO classification of malignant lymphoma. Biopsy led to findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma with positive in situ hybridization results for EBV small RNAs, positive results of immunostaining with EBV latent membrane 1 antibody, and negative results of immunostaining with Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2. Results of immunostaining of the mass with p53 antibody also were positive for lymphoma cells. The findings in this case may suggest a close relationship between p53 expression and latent EBV infection. PMID:12841389

Hirose, Yuko; Masaki, Yasufumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Wano, Yuji; Sugai, Susumu

2003-06-01

206

Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid Diagnosed as Anaplastic Carcinoma: Failure in Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology?  

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A case of primary squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid which had been initially diagnosed as an anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) is described: female, 73 years old, with a fast-growing cervical nodule on the left side and hoarseness for 3 months. Ultrasonography showed a 4.5?cm solid nodule. FNA was compatible with poorly differentiated carcinoma with immunoreactivity for AE1/AE3, EMA. Thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed a nonencapsulated tumor. Immunohistochemistry disclosed positivity for AE1/AE3, p53,p63, and Ki67. The diagnosis was ATC. A second opinion reported tumor consisting of squamous cells, with intense inflammatory infiltrate both in tumor and in the adjacent thyroid, with final diagnosis of SCC, associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. No other primary focus of SCC was found. Patient has shown a 48-month survival period. Clinically, primary SCCs of the thyroid and ATCs are similar. The distinction is often difficult particularly when based on the cytological analysis of FNA material. PMID:25295208

Domingues, Maria A. C.; Sobrinho-Simoes, Manuel; Castilho, Emanuel C.; Carelli, Guareide; Paes, Norberto S.; Mazeto, Glaucia M. F. S.

2014-01-01

207

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung in children: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression and clinico-pathological correlation.  

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The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplastic lesion with a high incidence in children and young people, and may arise in lungs, soft tissue, or viscera. It is recognized as a borderline tumor with the possibility to recur, undergo malignant transformation, and metastasize. IMT is composed of fascicles of bland myofibroblastic cells admixed with an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. We reviewed pulmonary IMT diagnosed at Garrahan Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 12 years and examined the clinical, laboratory, and pathological features as well as molecular genetics. Eight pediatric cases were evaluated with a male-to-female ratio of 5:3 and a median age of 6 years at diagnosis. The most common lung localization was the upper lobe. All cases underwent surgical excision and no local recurrences were found. Five out of eight patients, including two cases with metastatic/multifocal lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), are alive and disease free after a median follow-up of 30 months. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression was negative in all pulmonary samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC), however, rearrangement for ALK locus by fluorescence in situ hybridization was found in one lung and in two CNS samples. These findings may reflect higher sensitivity of the molecular biologic procedure compare to traditional IHC practice. In our pediatric experience, 25% of patients with lung IMT developed CNS lesions; therefore we consider that CNS screening in these patients should be considered, at diagnosis and later during follow up. PMID:22280150

Siminovich, Mónica; Galluzzo, Laura; López, Jessica; Lubieniecki, Fabiana; de Dávila, María Teresa G

2012-01-01

208

Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer.  

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The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%-5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. PMID:24623980

Iwama, Eiji; Okamoto, Isamu; Harada, Taishi; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

2014-01-01

209

Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer  

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Full Text Available Eiji Iwama,1,2 Isamu Okamoto,3 Taishi Harada,2 Koichi Takayama,2 Yoichi Nakanishi2,3 1Department of Comprehensive Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 2Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%–5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Keywords: ALK, rearrangement, NSCLC, ALK inhibitor, targeted therapy, diagnosis

Iwama E

2014-03-01

210

Evaluation of immunohistochemistry using two different antibodies and procedures for primary lung adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement  

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Rearrangements of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been recently identified in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Previous studies have revealed characteristic features, including adenocarcinoma histology and mucin production, in ALK-positive lung carcinoma. The present study evaluated immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ALK-positive lung carcinoma using two different antibodies, clone 5A4 and D5F3, and compared the results. On the basis of the aforementioned characteristic features, out of 359 primary lung carcinomas, the ALK status of 14 adenocarcinomas was screened using the intercalated antibody-enhanced polymer (iAEP) method with antibody 5A4, and this was compared with the ALK status obtained using rabbit monoclonal antibody D5F3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK. Eight cases were demonstrated to be ALK-positive by IHC. Seven cases exhibited ALK rearrangement, which was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The IHC for ALK obtained using D5F3 was comparable with that of the iAEP and exhibited low heterogeneity. This finding suggests that IHC for ALK could be useful in limited tissue samples, such as biopsy specimens or cytology, for the screening of ALK-positive lung carcinoma. In the present study, it was demonstrated that IHC with ALK monoclonal antibody D5F3 was useful for screening lung adenocarcinoma harboring ALK rearrangement.

AKIBA, JUN; KAWAHARA, AKIHIKO; ABE, HIDEYUKI; AZUMA, KOICHI; YAMAGUCHI, TOMOHIKO; TAIRA, TOMOKI; FUKUMITSU, CHIHIRO; TAKASE, YORIHIKO; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; UMENO, YUMI; TODOROKI, KEITA; KURITA, TAKASHI; YAMAGUCHI, RIN; KAGE, MASAYOSHI; YANO, HIROHISA

2014-01-01

211

Monoallelic mutations of the perforin gene may represent a predisposing factor to childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma.  

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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for approximately 15% of all pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It has distinct clinical features, including frequent involvement of extranodal sites and rare localization to the central nervous system. As some presenting features of ALCL are in common with the hemophagocytic syndrome, we previously analyzed a small series of patients with ALCL for PRF1 mutations and found that 27% of them carried mutations. We now expanded our preliminary study by increasing the cohort of ALCL patients to a total of 84 consecutive cases, in whom we extended mutation analysis to the genes SH2D1A, PRF1 e UNC13D, all related to familial HLH. Furthermore, perforin expression in tumor cells was investigated on paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. Mutations were observed in 23/84 patients (27.4%). Twenty-one patients (25%) carried a total of 10 different mutations of PRF1; they were monoallelic in 20 patients, biallelic in 1. No mutations were found in the gene SH2D1A. Two additional patients had missense mutations of the UNC13D gene. These data show that monoallelic germline mutations of PRF1 are frequent in patients with childhood ALCL, suggesting that partially impaired cytotoxic machinery may represent a predisposing factor for ALCL. Involvement is less frequent for UNC13D and absent for SH2D1A. PMID:24309606

Ciambotti, Benedetta; Mussolin, Lara; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Pillon, Marta; Sieni, Elena; Coniglio, Maria L; Ros, Martina D; Cetica, Valentina; Aricò, Maurizio; Rosolen, Angelo

2014-08-01

212

Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should not ignore the model species (or co-mimic in Mullerian mimicry rings) even if it is not itself endangered. Implications of mimicry for Conservation of the endangered smooth snake. PMID:25103364

Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

2014-12-01

213

Human RECQ5? helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of the human RECQ5? helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5? promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the parenta...

Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Saydam, Nurten; Garcia, Patrick L.; Zheng, Lu; Janscak, Pavel

2006-01-01

214

HyperPeer : Searching for resemblance in a P2P network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest.

Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

2004-01-01

215

A colonization of Basal cell carcinoma by malignant melanoma in situ resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

: We report a case of colonization of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) by malignant melanoma in situ (MIS) simulating a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. A biopsy of a pigmented lesion present on an 83-year-old man's scalp displayed intimate admixing of basaloid and melanocytic cells. This seemingly inseparable combination of BCC and neoplastic melanocytes has been referred to as a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. However, our case also displays an adjacent component of MIS, thus favoring colonization of BCC by MIS as the etiology. To our knowledge, this is the third case report of colonization of BCC by MIS resembling a malignant basomelanocytic tumor. PMID:24752214

Goeser, Megan; DiMaio, Dominick J

2014-11-01

216

A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human ?-amyloid protein precursor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human ?-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

217

Lymphoproliferative disorder that resembles heptosplenic lymphoma during maintenance treatment for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

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A 6-year-old male presented with a testicular mass, hepatosplenomegaly, and a pleural effusion while undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). He was subsequently diagnosed with a lymphoproliferative disorder that resembled hepatosplenic lymphoma (HSL). While the extranodal presentation and the protracted yet aggressive clinical course are consistent with HSL, the findings of monosomy 8 and polymorphic cell populations are unique and have not been previously described in this type of lymphoma. PMID:23303724

Hu, Youjun; Ahmed, Tahmeena; Zaslav, Ann-Leslie; Golightly, Marc; Spitzer, Silvia G; Raetz, Elizabeth; Chan, Edward L

2013-06-01

218

Breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a case report and discussion of possible pathogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently recognized clinical entity, with only 39 well-documented cases reported worldwide, including 3 fatalities. Because of its rarity, the clinical and pathologic features of this malignancy have yet to be fully defined. Moreover, the pathogenesis of ALCL in association with textured silicone gel breast implants is poorly understood. Here we report a case of BIA-ALCL arising in a 67-year-old woman with a mastectomy due to breast cancer followed by implantation of textured silicone gel breast prosthesis. The patient presented with breast enlargement and tenderness 8 years following reconstructive surgery. MRI revealed a fluid collection surrounding the affected breast implant. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of malignant ALCL T cells that were CD30+, CD8+, CD15+, HLA-DR+, CD25+ ALK- and p53. A diagnosis of indolent BIA-ALCL was made since tumor cells were not found outside of the capsule. Interestingly, an extensive mixed lymphocytic infiltrate and ectopic lymphoid tissue (lymphoid neogenesis) adjacent to the fibrous implant capsule were present. The patient was treated with capsulectomy and implantation of new breast prostheses. Six months later, the patient was found to have BIA-ALCL involvement of an axillary lymph node with cytogenetic evolution of the tumor. To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of aggressive BIA-ALCL. Unique features of this case include the association with lymphoid neogenesis and the in vivo cytogenetic progression of the tumor. This case provides insight into the potential role of chronic inflammation and genetic instability in the pathogenesis of BIA-ALCL. PMID:23923082

George, Eva V; Pharm, John; Houston, Courtney; Al-Quran, Semar; Brian, Grey; Dong, Huijia; Hai, Wang; Reeves, Westley; Yang, Li-Jun

2013-01-01

219

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma associated with breast implants: A unique entity within the spectrum of peri-implant effusions.  

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Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare and newly described complication associated with breast implants. Patients often present with a peri-implant effusion, which is amenable to fine-needle aspiration. The laboratory handling of peri-implant effusions for cytology and ancillary studies is as crucial as recognizing the characteristic cytology of ALCL. All cases of peri-implant effusions were retrieved from the PathWest database between January 2003 and May 2013, yielding four cases of breast implant-associated ALCL and six benign samples. The cytological features were evaluated and information from ancillary studies collated. Clinical and follow-up histology was available in all cases. All ALCL cases contained highly atypical lymphoid cells including 'hallmark' cells. In contrast, benign peri-implant effusions showed a mixture of inflammatory cells, being either neutrophil-rich (three cases) or lymphocyte-rich (three cases). A CD30 positive, ALK1 negative immunophenotype was demonstrated in all cases on cell block immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry and T-cell receptor clonality studies confirmed aberrant T-cell immunophenotype in four of four and clonally rearranged T-cell receptor antigens in three of three cases. ALCL was identified in three of four subsequent capsulectomies. Staging confirmed disease limited to the capsular tissue or peri-implant effusion in all cases. None of the six patients with benign peri-implant effusions developed lymphoma during follow-up. Cases of ALCL accounted for 40% of peri-implant effusions received over a 10-year period, indicating the rarity of these samples and the high likelihood of malignancy. Awareness of this entity and its presentation should allow for appropriate triage of these specimens and definitive diagnosis on effusion specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:929-938. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24687769

Chai, Siaw Ming; Kavangh, Simon; Ooi, Sin Sin; Sterrett, Gregory F; Cull, Gavin; Plunkett, Myfanwy; Spagnolo, Dominic; Amanuel, Benhur; Joske, David; Leslie, Connull; Barham, Tony; Frost, Felicity

2014-11-01

220

Extrinsic apoptotic pathways: a new potential "target" for more sufficient therapy in a case of cutaneous anaplastic large cd30+ alk-T-cell lymphoma.  

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The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30(+)T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30(+)/ALK(-) anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation) combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin), Vincristin (Oncovin®), Predniso(lo)n). Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30(+) cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis. PMID:21572802

Tchernev, Georgi; Georgi, Tchernev; Cardoso, José Carlos; Carlos, Cardoso José; Arseniev, Lubomir; Lubomir, Arseniev; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Hiroyuki, Okamoto

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Extrinsic apoptotic pathways: A new potential "Target" for more sufficient therapy in a case of cutaneous anaplastic large CD30+ ALK-T--cell lymphoma  

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Full Text Available The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30+ T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30 + /ALK? anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin, Vincristin (Oncovin®, Predniso(lon. Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30 + cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis.

Georgi Tchernev

2011-01-01

222

Role of autophagy in the resistance to tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.  

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Current alternative therapies for refractory thyroid cancer such as kinase inhibitors have limitations including incomplete response and toxicity. Although tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce cancer cell-specific apoptosis, various degrees of TRAIL resistance have been reported for different types of thyroid cancer cells. Here, we investigated if modulation of autophagy could improve sensitivity to TRAIL in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Human papillary thyroid cancer cells (TPC-1 cells) and human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells (FRO cells) were treated with TRAIL after transfection with ATG7 siRNA or control siRNA. Levels of autophagy and apoptosis were confirmed by Western blot of ATG7, LC3, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Viability index was determined by dimethyl-thiazole-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Fraction of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry. In TPC-1 cells, treatment with TRAIL increased the levels of autophagy. A low concentration (20 ng/ml) of TRAIL resulted in significantly decreased viability index and increased apoptosis. However, inhibition of autophagy with ATG7 siRNA desensitised the cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In FRO cells, TRAIL did not increase the levels of autophagy. In contrast to TPC-1 cells, inhibition of autophagy with ATG7 siRNA sensitised FRO cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Autophagy might contribute to the known sensitivity of papillary thyroid cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagy in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells could sensitise these cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. PMID:23821365

Jin, Sang-Man; Jang, Hye Won; Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Na Kyung; Joung, Ji Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

2014-03-01

223

Phase I / II study of brentuximab vedotin in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory CD30-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.  

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Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate that selectively delivers the antimicrotubule agent monomethyl auristatin E into CD30-expressing cells. To assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in Japanese patients with refractory or relapsed CD30-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, we carried out a phase I/II study. Brentuximab vedotin was given i.v. on day 1 of each 21-day cycle up to 16 cycles. In the phase I part of a dose-escalation design, three patients per cohort were treated at doses of 1.2 and 1.8 mg/kg. In the phase II part, a dose of 1.8 mg/kg was given to 14 patients (nine with Hodgkin's lymphoma and five with systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma). The median number of treatment cycles was 16 (range, 4-16). In the phase I part, no dose-limiting toxicity event was observed. In the total population, common adverse events included lymphopenia (80%), neutropenia (65%), leukopenia (65%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (60%). Grade 3/4 adverse events in more than two patients were lymphopenia (50%) and neutropenia (15%). The pharmacokinetic profile was similar to that observed in the previous studies in the USA. In the phase II part, six patients (67%) with Hodgkin's lymphoma achieved an objective response with 56% of complete response rate, and five patients (100%) with systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma achieved an objective response with 80% of complete response rate. These results show that brentuximab vedotin has an acceptable safety profile and promising antitumor activity in the Japanese population. This trial was registered in JAPIC Clinical Trials Information (JapicCTI-111650). PMID:24814862

Ogura, Michinori; Tobinai, Kensei; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Uike, Naokuni; Uchida, Toshiki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Aoki, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Takashi; Maruyama, Dai; Yokoyama, Masahiro; Takubo, Takatoshi; Kagehara, Hideaki; Matsushima, Takafumi

2014-07-01

224

Unilateral situs inversus of optic disc associated with reduced binocularity and stereoacuity resembling monofixation syndrome  

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Full Text Available Situs inversus of the optic disc is a rare, usually bilateral, congenital embryological abnormality associated with high myopia, optic disc coloboma or tilted optic disc. It is characterized by emergence of the retinal vessels in an anomalous direction with dysversion of the optic disc. In this report we present a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with isolated, unilateral situs inversus of the optic disc associated with reduced binocularity and stereoacuity resembling a monofixation syndrome. The clinicians should be aware of this association and assess the binocularity in patients with unilateral optic disc or macular anomalies. Conversely, patients with reduced binocularity and stereoacuity should be carefully evaluated for macular or optic nerve anomalies, if not associated with strabismus, anisometropia and eccentric fixation. Typical fundus picture, optical coherence tomography and multifocal electro retinogram of the patient would be instructive to a clinician.

Kothari Mihir

2010-01-01

225

Clinical picture of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency resembles phosphomannomutase 2 deficiency.  

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We report on the seventh known patient with S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) deficiency presenting at birth with features resembling phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2-CDG Ia) deficiency. Plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels were normal at 2 months and increased only after the 8th month of age. SAHH deficiency was confirmed at 4.5 years of age by showing decreased SAHH activity (11% in both erythrocytes and fibroblasts), and compound heterozygosity for a known mutation c.145C>T (p.R49C) and a novel variant c.211G>A (p.G71S) in the AHCY gene. Retrospective analysis of clinical features revealed striking similarities between SAHH deficiency and the PMM2-CDG Ia. PMID:22959829

Honzík, Tomáš; Magner, Martin; Krijt, Jakub; Sokolová, Jitka; Vugrek, Oliver; Beluži?, Robert; Bari?, Ivo; Hansíkova, Hana; Elleder, Milan; Veselá, Kate?ina; Bauerová, Lenka; Ondrušková, Nina; Ješina, Pavel; Zeman, Ji?í; Kožich, Viktor

2012-11-01

226

Ethionamide-induced pellagroid dermatitis resembling lichen simplex chronicus: a report of two cases.  

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Pellagra is a niacin deficiency disorder characterized clinically by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. However, few drugs also cause pellagroid dermatitis. Recently, we encountered two cases of pellagroid dermatitis; both were on second line of antituberculosis drugs. Case 1 was of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient was on ethionamide since one year before developing pellagroid dermatitis. Case 2 was of central nervous system tuberculoma and was on second line of antitubercular drugs. This patient was on ethionamide and isoniazid (INH) since six months before developing pellagroid dermatitis. This patient had previously taken first line of antituberculous therapy, inclusive of INH, for 1 year without any dermatitis. The skin lesions in both patients were symmetric hyperpigmented thickened plaques with prominent skin markings resembling lichen simplex chronicus. Nicotinamide 300 mg in three divided doses healed the lesions completely within 4 weeks and 3 weeks in first and second patient, respectively. PMID:21727711

Garg, Gaurav; Khopkar, Uday

2011-01-01

227

Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?  

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Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

2010-09-01

228

American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.  

Science.gov (United States)

A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator. PMID:24815617

Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

2014-07-01

229

A lymphokine resembling transfer factor that stimulates MIF production by nonsensitive lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

High potency preparations of a new heat-labile, low m.w. (less than 5000) lymphokine (LMWL) were obtained by culturing tuberculin-sensitive guinea pig peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) with PPD in geometric conditions that promote amplified lymphokine production. This LMWL has the ability, in the presence of PPD, to stimulate nonsensitive PEC to produce a heat-stable molecule(s) resembling MIF with a m.w. in the range 50,000 to 100,000. The effects of the LMWL (less than 5000 daltons) and the MIF-like molecule(s) (50,000 to 100,000 daltons) were defined by the indirect macrophage migration assay and a macrophage deoxyglucose uptake assay. It is possible that LMWL represents a form of transfer factor with the ability to recruit unsensitized lymphocytes to produce MIF. PMID:7009741

Philp, J R; McCormack, J G; Moore, A L; Johnson, J E

1981-04-01

230

Dynamical holographic QCD model: resembling renormalization group from ultraviolet to infrared  

CERN Document Server

Resembling the renormalization group from ultraviolet to infrared, we construct a dynamical holographic model in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework, where the dilaton background field $\\Phi$ and scalar field $X$ are responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. At the UV boundary, the dilaton field is dual to the dimension-4 gluon operator, and the scalar field is dual to the dimension-3 quark-antiquark operator. The metric structure at IR is automatically deformed by the nonperturbative gluon condensation and chiral condensation in the vacuum. The produced scalar glueball spectra in the graviton-dilaton framework agree well with lattice data, and the light-flavor meson spectra generated in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework are in well agreement with experimental data. Both the chiral symmetry breaking and linear confinement are realized in this dynamical holographic QCD model. The necessary condition for the existence of linear quark potential is discussed, and the pion form fact...

Li, Danning

2013-01-01

231

Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case-control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1+S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage.RESULTS:The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0+/-5.7years and 55.2+/-10.5years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC)=0.63+/-0.02, P

Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.

2014-01-01

232

An endogene-resembling transgene is resistant to DNA methylation and systemic silencing.  

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In plants, endogenes are less prone to RNA silencing than transgenes. While both can be efficiently targeted by small RNAs for post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), generally only transgene PTGS is accompanied by transitivity, RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and systemic silencing. In order to investigate whether a transgene could mimick an endogene and thus be less susceptible to RNA silencing, we generated an intron-containing, endogene-resembling GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) transgene (GFP(endo)). Upon agroinfiltration of a hairpin GFP (hpF) construct, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants harboring GFP(endo) (Nb-GFP(endo)) were susceptible to local PTGS. Yet, in the local area, PTGS was not accompanied by RdDM of the GFP(endo) coding region. Importantly, hpF-agroinfiltrated Nb-GFP(endo) plants were resistant to systemic silencing. For reasons of comparison, transgenic N. benthamiana plants (Nb-GFP(cDNA)) carrying a GFP cDNA transgene (GFP(cDNA)) were included in the analysis. HpF-agroinfiltrated Nb-GFP(cDNA) plants exhibited local PTGS and RdDM. In addition, systemic silencing was established in Nb-GFP(cDNA) plants. In agreement with previous reports using grafted scions, in systemically silenced tissue, siRNAs mapping to the 3' of GFP were predominantly detectable by Northern blot analysis. Yet, in contrast to other reports, in systemically silenced leaves, PTGS was also accompanied by dense RdDM comprising the entire GFP(cDNA) coding region. Overall, our analysis indicated that cDNA transgenes are prone to systemic PTGS and RdDM, while endogene-resembling ones are resistant to RNA silencing. PMID:25180820

Dadami, Elena; Dalakouras, Athanasios; Zwiebel, Michele; Krczal, Gabi; Wassenegger, Michael

2014-07-01

233

Successful radiation treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the right cardiac atrium and ventricle in a pacemaker-dependent patient  

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Full Text Available Abstract Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare, aggressive malignancy, which is known to metastasize to the heart. We report a case of a patient with ATC with metastatic involvement of the pacemaker leads within the right atrium and right ventricle. The patient survived external beam radiation treatment to his heart, with a radiographic response to treatment. Cardiac metastases are usually reported on autopsy; to our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful treatment of cardiac metastases encasing the leads of a pacemaker, and of cardiac metastases from ATCs, with a review of the pertinent literature.

Roach Mack

2011-02-01

234

Additive effect by combination of Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, and PDGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin AG 1296, in suppressing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell viability and motility  

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Full Text Available Huan-yong Che, Hang-yuan Guo, Xu-wei Si, Qiao-ying You, Wei-ying Lou Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases regulate many tumorigenesis related cellular processes including cell metabolism, cell survival, cell motility, and angiogenesis. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare type of thyroid cancer with no effective systemic therapy. It has been shown that Akt activation is associated with tumor progression in ATC. Here we observed the additive effect between an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206 and a novel platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor (tyrphostin AG 1296 in ATC therapy. We found an additive effect between MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 in suppressing ATC cell viability. The combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induces additive apoptosis, additive suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, as well as additive inhibition of cell migration and invasion of ATC cells. Furthermore, the combination of MK-2206 and tyrphostin AG 1296 induced additive suppression of ATC tumor growth in vivo. In summary, our studies suggest that the combination of Akt and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be an efficient therapeutic strategy for ATC treatment, which might shed new light on ATC therapy. Keywords: anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, Akt inhibitor, PDGFR inhibitor, synergy, additive effect, viability, motility

Che HY

2014-03-01

235

Collision Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (T-Cell/Histiocyte-Rich and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A Pathologic and Clinical Evaluation  

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Full Text Available A collision tumor of T and B-cell lymphomas occur rarely. In this article we report a collision tumor of anaplastic large cell lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma in a 46 year old female. The tumor showed predominantly neoplastic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL component expressing CD30 and ALK with smaller areas of CD20+ diffuse large B cell lymphoma component. Polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor beta and IgH (VDJ gene rearrangements detected a clonal T cell and a clonal B cell population. The patient developed CSF involvement approximately 3 months after treatment. CSF analysis at this time showed only monoclonal T cells, probably due to clearing of the B cell component by the chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of a composite tumor of ALCL (lymphohistiocytic variant and DLBCL. This case raises issues related to the classification of these composite lymphomas and the treatment on initial presentation and during relapse.

Lakshmi Rajappannair

2012-12-01

236

KSHV/HHV-8 associated lymph node based lymphomas in HIV seronegative subjects. Report of two cases with anaplastic large cell morphology and plasmablastic immunophenotype  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) associated lymphomas, which often develop in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with advanced AIDS, present predominantly as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) or, less frequently, as “solid” extracavitary based lymphomas, associated with serous effusions. These last lymphomas, also called “solid PEL”, have been reported before the development of an effusion lymphoma and after resolution of PEL. Interestingly, KSHV/HHV-8 associated lymphomas that present as solid or extracavitary based lesions in HIV seropositive patients without serous effusions have been reported recently. Methods/Results: This paper provides evidence for the existence of a previously undescribed KSHV/HHV-8 associated lymphoma in HIV seronegative patients without serous effusions. These lymphomas exhibit a predilection for the lymph nodes and display anaplastic large cell morphology. These tumours were completely devoid of common cell type specific antigens, including epithelial and melanocytic cell markers. B and T cell associated antigens and other commonly used lymphoid markers were absent or weakly demonstrable in a fraction of the tumour cells. Conversely, immunohistochemical studies showed strong immunostaining with plasma cell reactive antibodies. Conclusions: Analysis of viral infection and immunohistological studies are of primary importance to define this lymph node based KSHV/HHV-8 associated lymphoma with anaplastic large cell morphology and plasmablastic immunophenotype occurring in HIV seronegative patients without serous effusions. PMID:16189148

Carbone, A; Gloghini, A; Vaccher, E; Marchetti, G; Gaidano, G; Tirelli, U

2005-01-01

237

Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York  

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Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant prove to be?and however the relationships among them and the three currently recognized other taxa of brant eventually play out?birds resembling Gray-bellied/Lawrence?s are occurring on both Atlantic and Pacific coasts and perhaps also in interior North America, so knowledge of their plumage variation should now be factored into the identification of all oddly-plumaged or out-of-range brant, but especially of putative 'nigricans' inland or on the Atlantic Coast.

Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

2002-01-01

238

Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates. [Sponges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates.

Jacob, M.H.

1984-05-01

239

Human RECQ5? helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the human RECQ5? helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5? promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the parental duplex, an effect not seen with RECQ5?. A domain within the non-conserved portion of RECQ5? is identified as being important for its ability to unwind the lagging-strand arm and to promote strand exchange on hRPA-coated forked structures. We also show that RECQ5? associates with DNA replication factories in S phase nuclei and persists at the sites of stalled replication forks after exposure of cells to UV irradiation. Moreover, RECQ5? is found to physically interact with the polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggest that RECQ5? may promote regression of stalled replication forks to facilitate the bypass of replication-blocking lesions by template-switching. Loss of such activity could explain the elevated level of mitotic crossovers observed in RECQ5?-deficient cells. PMID:17003056

Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Saydam, Nurten; Garcia, Patrick L.; Zheng, Lu; Janscak, Pavel

2006-01-01

240

An unusual clinical presentation resembling superior vena cava syndrome post heart surgery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An unusual sequence of post operative events heralded by hemodynamic deterioration followed by dyspnea and rapidly progressive dilatation of superficial neck and facial veins, resembling a superior vena cava syndrome, two days post surgical resection of filamentous aortic valve masses, closure of a patent foramen ovale, and performance of a modified Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in a patient that presented with transient neurologic findings is presented. Case Presentation Although both clinical findings and hemodynamic derangements completely resolved following tricuspid valve repair aimed to correct the new onset severe tricuspid regurgitation noted post operatively; a clear mechanism was not readily obvious and diagnostic testing data somewhat conflictive. We present a careful retrospective examination of all clinical data and review possible clinical entities that could have been implicated in this particular case and recognize that transesophageal echocardiographic findings were most useful in identifying the best course of action. Conclusion After reviewing all clinical data and despite the inconclusive nature of test results; the retrospective examination of transesophageal echocardiographic findings proved to be most useful in identifying the best course of action. We postulate that in our case, resolution of the suspected pulmonary embolism with anticoagulation and reestablishment of a normal right ventricular geometry with tricuspid valve repair worked in unison in restoring normal hemodynamics and resolving both dyspnea and venous dilatation.

Pellegrini Ronald

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pig bone marrow-derived macrophages resemble human macrophages in their response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.  

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Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) grown in M-CSF (CSF-1) have been used widely in studies of macrophage biology and the response to TLR agonists. We investigated whether similar cells could be derived from the domestic pig using human rCSF-1 and whether porcine macrophages might represent a better model of human macrophage biology. Cultivation of pig bone marrow cells for 5-7 d in presence of human rCSF-1 generated a pure population of BMDM that expressed the usual macrophage markers (CD14, CD16, and CD172a), were potent phagocytic cells, and produced TNF in response to LPS. Pig BMDM could be generated from bone marrow cells that had been stored frozen and thawed so that multiple experiments can be performed on samples from a single animal. Gene expression in pig BMDM from outbred animals responding to LPS was profiled using Affymetrix microarrays. The temporal cascade of inducible and repressible genes more closely resembled the known responses of human than mouse macrophages, sharing with humans the regulation of genes involved in tryptophan metabolism (IDO, KYN), lymphoattractant chemokines (CCL20, CXCL9, CXCL11, CXCL13), and the vitamin D3-converting enzyme, Cyp27B1. Conversely, in common with published studies of human macrophages, pig BMDM did not strongly induce genes involved in arginine metabolism, nor did they produce NO. These results establish pig BMDM as an alternative tractable model for the study of macrophage transcriptional control. PMID:22393154

Kapetanovic, Ronan; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Beraldi, Dario; Sester, David P; Archibald, Alan L; Tuggle, Christopher K; Hume, David A

2012-04-01

242

Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates ?-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes  

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Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. ?-klotho-/- (?-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of ?-kl-/- mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in ?-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of ?-kl-/- mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:25080854

Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M. Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

2014-01-01

243

Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer.

Turner, D.R.; Grist, S.A.; Janatipour, M.; Morley, A.A.

1988-05-01

244

Cortical dysplasia resembling human type 2 lissencephaly in mice lacking all three APP family members.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins, termed APLP1 and APLP2. We previously documented that APLP2-/-APLP1-/- and APLP2-/-APP-/- mice die postnatally, while APLP1-/-APP-/- mice and single mutants were viable. We now report that mice lacking all three APP/APLP family members survive through embryonic development, and die shortly after birth. In contrast to double-mutant animals with perinatal lethality, 81% of triple mutants showed cranial abnormalities. In 68% of triple mutants, we observed cortical dysplasias characterized by focal ectopic neuroblasts that had migrated through the basal lamina and pial membrane, a phenotype that resembles human type II lissencephaly. Moreover, at E18.5 triple mutants showed a partial loss of cortical Cajal Retzius (CR) cells, suggesting that APP/APLPs play a crucial role in the survival of CR cells and neuronal adhesion. Collectively, our data reveal an essential role for APP family members in normal brain development and early postnatal survival. PMID:15385965

Herms, Jochen; Anliker, Brigitte; Heber, Sabine; Ring, Sabine; Fuhrmann, Martin; Kretzschmar, Hans; Sisodia, Sangram; Müller, Ulrike

2004-10-13

245

Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer

246

Extending the honeybee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5.

Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Cardoen, Dries

2013-01-01

247

Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast. PMID:20614317

Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

2008-09-01

248

Production of neosolaniol monoacetate by an undescribedFusarium species resemblingF camptoceras.  

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Cultures of 12 South African isolates of an undescribedFusarium species resembling but distinct fromF camptoceras were analysed for the presence of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol monoacetate (NMA), and T-2 toxin, by capillary gas chromatography utilizing electron capture detection. No DAS or T-2 toxin could be detected in any of the cultures of the isolates. NMA was, however, detected in 10 of the 12 isolates at levels ranging from 310 to 2060 ng/g. The method used, was primarily developed for the determination of DAS and T-2 toxin in fungal cultures and grain samples but was found to be suitable for the coextraction of NMA at an average recovery of 80.8%, with a detection limit in the order of 100 ng/g. Supportive evidence for the presence of the NMA was obtained by capillary gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Regarded as a relatively rare trichothecene, NMA has never been reported to occur naturally and has previously been shown to be produced by only a fewFusarium strains. PMID:23605228

Sydenham, E; Thiel, P; Marasas, W; Lamprecht, S

1989-03-01

249

Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

Nitrini Ricardo

2001-01-01

250

Trebananib in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-11-20

251

Expression of human butyrylcholinesterase with an engineered glycosylation profile resembling the plasma-derived orthologue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is considered a candidate bioscavenger of nerve agents for use in pre- and post-exposure treatment. However, the presence and functional necessity of complex N-glycans (i.e. sialylated structures) is a challenging issue in respect to its recombinant expression. Here we transiently co-expressed BChE cDNA in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana with vectors carrying the genes necessary for in planta protein sialylation. Site-specific sugar profiling of secreted recombinant BChE (rBChE) collected from the intercellular fluid revealed the presence of mono- and di-sialylated N-glycans, which largely resembles to the plasma-derived orthologue. Attempts to increase that sialylation content of rBChE by the over-expression of an additional glycosylation enzyme that generates branched N-glycans (i.e. ?1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase IV), allowed the production of rBChE decorated with tri-sialylated structures (up to 70%). Sialylated and non-sialylated plant-derived rBChE exhibited functional in vitro activity comparable to that of its commercially available equine-derived counterpart. These results demonstrate the ability of plants to generate valuable proteins with designed sialylated glycosylation profiles optimized for therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, the efficient synthesis of carbohydrates present only in minute amounts on the native protein (tri-sialylated N-glycans) facilitates the generation of a product with superior efficacies and/or new therapeutic functions. PMID:24130173

Schneider, Jeannine D; Castilho, Alexandra; Neumann, Laura; Altmann, Friedrich; Loos, Andreas; Kannan, Latha; Mor, Tsafrir S; Steinkellner, Herta

2014-04-01

252

Status dystonicus resembling the intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome: a case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Status dystonicus is a rare but life-threatening disorder characterized by increasingly frequent and severe episodes of generalized dystonia that may occur in patients with primary or secondary dystonia. Painful and repetitive spasms interfere with respiration and may cause metabolic disturbances such as hyperpyrexia, dehydration, respiratory insufficiency, and acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis. Intrathecally administered baclofen, delivered by an implantable pump system, is widely used for the treatment of refractory spasticity. Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen infusion has been associated with a severe withdrawal syndrome comprised of dystonia, autonomic dysfunction, hyperthermia, end-organ failure and sometimes death. The aetiology of this syndrome is not well understood. Status dystonicus describes the episodes of acute and life-threatening generalized dystonia, which occasionally manifest themselves in patients with dystonic syndromes. Case presentation We present the case of a nine-year-old Caucasian boy who experienced a severe episode of status dystonicus with no known cause and clinical features resembling those described in intrathecal baclofen withdrawal. Our patient subsequently underwent the placement of an intrathecal baclofen pump without incident. Conclusion The similarity between the clinical features of the case we present and those reported in connection to abrupt withdrawal of intrathecal baclofen is emphasized. Several drugs, although not intrathecal baclofen withdrawal, have previously been associated with status dystonicus. The similarity between the life-threatening dystonic episode experienced by our patient, and those reported in intrathecal baclofen withdrawal, highlights the possibility that, rather than representing a true physiological withdrawal syndrome, abrupt withdrawal of intrathecal baclofen may simply precipitate an episode of status dystonicus in susceptible individuals. The clinical similarities between the intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome and status dystonicus have not previously been highlighted.

Muirhead William

2010-08-01

253

Simultaneous compression and encryption of closely resembling images: application to video sequences and polarimetric images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents and validates an optimized method of simultaneous compression and encryption designed to process images with close spectra. This approach is well adapted to the compression and encryption of images of a time-varying scene but also to static polarimetric images. We use the recently developed spectral fusion method [Opt. Lett.35, 1914-1916 (2010)] to deal with the close resemblance of the images. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. We use a root-mean-square (RMS) optimization criterion to treat compression. Image encryption is realized at different security levels. Firstly, we add a specific encryption level which is related to the different areas of the spectral plane, and then, we make use of several random phase keys. An in-depth analysis at the spectral fusion methodology is done in order to find a good trade-off between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images. Our new proposal spectral shift allows us to minimize the image overlap. We further analyze the influence of the spectral shift on the reconstructed image quality and compression rate. The performance of the multiple-image optical compression and encryption method is verified by analyzing several video sequences and polarimetric images. PMID:25321707

Aldossari, M; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C

2014-09-22

254

Alaskan Husky encephalopathy--a canine neurodegenerative disorder resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (Leigh syndrome).  

Science.gov (United States)

The gross and histopathological findings in the brain and spinal cord of five Alaskan Husky dogs with a novel incapacitating and ultimately fatal familial and presumed hereditary neurodegenerative disorder are described. Four dogs presented with neurological deficits before the age of 1 year (7-11 months) and one animal at 2.5 years old. Clinical signs in all dogs were of acute onset and included ataxia, seizures, behavioral abnormalities, blindness, facial hypalgesia and difficulties in prehension of food. In animals allowed to survive, the disease was static but with frequent recurrences. Pathological findings were limited to the central nervous system. Grossly visible bilateral and symmetrical cavitated foci were consistently present in the thalamus with variable extension into the caudal brain stem. Microscopic lesions were more widespread and included foci of bilateral and symmetrical degeneration in the basal nuclei, midbrain, pons and medulla, as well as multifocal lesions at the base of sulci in the cerebral cortex and in the gray matter of cerebellar folia in the ventral vermis. Neuronal loss with concomitant neuronal sparing, spongiosis, vascular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, gliosis, cavitation and transient mixed inflammatory infiltration were the main histopathological findings. In addition, a population of reactive gemistocytic astrocytes with prominent cytoplasmic vacuolation was noted in the thalamus. Lesions of this nature in this distribution within the neuroaxis have not been reported in dogs. The neuropathological findings resemble Leigh's disease/subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy of man. Neuronal sparing in conjunction with apparently transient astrocytic vacuolation point to the possible pathogenetic role of astrocytes in the evolution of these lesions. An inherited metabolic derangement of unknown nature is postulated as the cause of this breed-specific disorder. PMID:10912920

Brenner, O; Wakshlag, J J; Summers, B A; de Lahunta, A

2000-07-01

255

Increasing extracellular potassium results in subthalamic neuron activity resembling that seen in a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although altered extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) and sensitivity to [K+]o modulates neuronal activity, little is known about the potassium balance in the healthy and diseased STN. In vivo measurements of [K+]o using ion-selective electrodes demonstrated a twofold increase in the decay time constant of lesion-induced [K+]o transients in the STN of adult Wistar rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) median forebrain bundle lesion, employed as a model of PD, compared with nonlesioned rats. Various [K+]o concentrations (1.5-12.5 mM) were applied to in vitro slice preparations of three experimental groups of STN slices from nonlesioned control rats, ipsilateral hemispheres, and contralateral hemispheres of lesioned rats. The majority of STN neurons of nonlesioned rats and in slices contralateral to the lesion fired spontaneously, predominantly in a regular pattern, whereas those in slices ipsilateral to the lesion fired more irregularly or even in bursts. Experimentally increased [K+]o led to an increase in the number of spontaneously firing neurons and action potential firing rates in all groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of post spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and the amplitude and duration of the posttrain AHP. Lesion effects in ipsilateral neurons at physiological [K+]o resembled the effects of elevated [K+]o in nonlesioned rats. Our data suggest that changed potassium sensitivity due to conductivity alterations and delayed clearance may be critical for shaping STN activity in parkinsonian states. PMID:18385482

Strauss, Ulf; Zhou, Fu-Wen; Henning, Jeannette; Battefeld, Arne; Wree, Andreas; Köhling, Rüdiger; Haas, Stefan Jean-Pierre; Benecke, Reiner; Rolfs, Arndt; Gimsa, Ulrike

2008-06-01

256

Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade III obesity  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [³H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m²] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040, and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h-1 was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971 in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

Simone Alves Dantas

2010-01-01

257

Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

2014-10-01

258

The resemblance of an autocorrelation function to a power spectrum density for a spike train of an auditory model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we develop an analytical approach for calculation of the all-order interspike interval density (AOISID), show its connection with the autocorrelation function, and try to explain the discovered resemblance of AOISID to the power spectrum of the same spike train.

Ushakov, Y. V.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

2013-01-01

259

Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations include RMLO, RCC, LMLO, LCC views. Thus here we investigated the interrelation and combination of MTR scoring from several views. METHOD AND MATERIALS The study included mammograms of 495 women (aged 58.0±5.7 years) from the Dutch screening program of which 250 controls were without diagnosis the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step is included to reduce input space dimensionality. Weak local decision scores for pixels were fused into an overall risk score. The dataset was randomly separated into a training data set (60%) and a test data set (40%). Risk scores for combinations of views were obtained by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude that view combination may reduce some of the risk

Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

260

Differential expression between pilocytic and anaplastic astrocytomas: identification of apolipoprotein D as a marker for low-grade, non-infiltrating primary CNS neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibrillary astrocytoma, the most common primary central nervous system neoplasm, is infiltrating, rapidly proliferating, and almost invariably fatal. This contrasts with the biologically distinct pilocytic astrocytoma, which is circumscribed, often cystic, slowly proliferating, and associated with a favorable long-term outcome. Diagnostic markers for distinguishing pilocytic astrocytomas from infiltrating anaplastic astrocytomas are currently not available. To identify genes that might either serve as markers or explain these distinct biologic behaviors, cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the expression of 7,073 genes (nearly one quarter of the human genome) between these 2 types of astrocytoma. Messenger RNAs pooled from 3 pilocytic astrocytomas and from 4 infiltrating anaplastic astrocytomas were compared. Apolipoprotein D (apoD), which expressed 8.5-fold higher in pilocytic astrocytomas, showed the greatest level of differential expression and emerged as a potential marker for pilocytic tumors. By immunohistochemistry, 10 of 13 pilocytic astrocytomas stained positively for apoD, while none of 21 infiltrating astrocytomas showed similar staining. ApoD immunostaining was also seen in 9 of 14 of gangliogliomas, 4 of 5 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), and a single pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs). By in situ hybridization, pilocytic astrocytomas, in contrast with infiltrating astrocytomas, showed widespread increased apoD expression. SAGE analysis using the NCBI database showed a higher level of expression of apoD RNA in pilocytic astrocytoma than in any of the other 94 neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues in the database. ApoD is associated with decreased proliferation in some cell lines, and is the protein found in highest concentration in cyst fluid from benign cystic disease of the breast. ApoD might play a role in either decreased proliferation or cyst formation in pilocytic astrocytomas, gangliogliomas, SEGAs, and PXAs. PMID:11895042

Hunter, Stephen; Young, Andrew; Olson, Jeffrey; Brat, Daniel J; Bowers, Geoffrey; Wilcox, Josiah N; Jaye, David; Mendrinos, Savvas; Neish, Andrew

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Crizotinib: a novel and first-in-class multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearranged nonsmall cell lung cancer and beyond  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sai-Hong Ignatius OuChao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CAAbstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine inhibitors were first approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in 2003 in the US. Activating EGFR mutations were subsequently discovered in 2004, and heralded the era of molecular targeted therapy in NSCLC. The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement in NSCLC in 2007 by two independent groups not only represents the first time ALK rearrangement has been discovered in common solid tumors but also represents another important milestone in the era of molecular targeted therapy in NSCLC. Crizotinib, a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET/ALK multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor went into early Phase I clinical development in 2007. Using the knowledge that NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations benefited from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, crizotinib was rapidly and successfully developed as an inhibitor in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, based on a break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, developed by two of the crizotinib Phase I sites. It cumulated in the conditional approval of crizotinib by the US Food and Drug Administration on August 26, 2011 for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The conditional approval was based on response rates of 50% and 61% from 255 ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients enrolled in two single-arm trials. Common adverse events of crizotinib include mild transient visual disorders, mild gastrointestinal toxicities, fatigue, rare alanine transaminase elevations, and even rarer pneumonitis (1.6%. Confirmatory trials comparing crizotinib with standard chemotherapy are ongoing. It took an unprecedented four years from the discovery of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC to the approval of crizotinib, the first ever ALK inhibitor, for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC.Keywords: crizotinib, PF-02341066, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, rearrangement, non-small cell lung cancer

Ou SH

2011-11-01

262

Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study.  

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Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age group, gender, and study site. Data on 617 cases and 1260 controls were available for analyses. Using data from all 7 studies, history of allergies and/or asthma was associated with a decreased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), and history of asthma only was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). A family history of brain tumors was associated with an increased risk of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). Having had chicken pox was associated with a decreased risk of oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in the US studies. Although there is some overlap in risk factors between oligodendroglial tumors and gliomas as a group, it is likely that additional factors specific to oligodendroglial tumors have yet to be identified. Large, multi-institution international studies will be necessary to better characterize these etiological risk factors. PMID:21149253

McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken; Bondy, Melissa L; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Feychting, Maria; Il'yasova, Dora; Inskip, Peter D; Johansen, Christoffer; Melin, Beatrice S; Ruder, Avima M; Butler, Mary Ann; Scheurer, Michael E; Schüz, Joachim; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Wrensch, Margaret R; Davis, Faith G

2011-02-01

263

A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea  

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Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

Tae-Woo Kim

2013-10-01

264

ENU mutagenesis identifies mice with mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase deficiency resembling human maple syrup urine disease  

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Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. However, the BCKD genes and enz...

Wu, Jer-yuarn; Kao, Hsiao-jung; Li, Sing-chung; Stevens, Robert; Hillman, Steven; Millington, David; Chen, Yuan-tsong

2004-01-01

265

A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae) in Korea  

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The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877) is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not record...

Tae-Woo Kim

2013-01-01

266

Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States  

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Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53–0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01–1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

2014-01-01

267

Feasibility and limitations of radioiodine therapy in oncocytic (oxyphilic), medullary (C-cell) and anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinoma. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Radiojodtherapie beim onkozytaeren, medullaeren und anaplastischen Schilddruesenkarzinom  

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Oncocytic, medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers are not supposed to take up radioiodine because of their cellular differentiation. Therefore, I-131 therapy should not be feasible in these special types of thyroid carcinoma. Literature reports concerning successful I-131 treatment in patients with those cancers may be explained by the occurrence of rare 'mixed tumor types' or 'collision tumors', which consist of oncocytic, medullary or anaplastic parts as well as of sections with follicular or papillary differentiation which may take up I-131. Moreover, in the region of the thyroid gland, tumor tissue which is not able to take up radioiodine may be surrounded by normal thyrocytes taking up I-131. Radioiodine treatment therefore may be indicated in proven mixed tumor types and in collision tumors as well as in cases of residual tumor tissue in the neighbourhood of normal thyrocytes. (orig.).

Reiners, C.; Schaeffer, R. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Medizinisches Zentrum fuer Pathologie)

1991-02-01

268

Epstein-Barr virus-associated composite lymphoma composed of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of a diffuse large B-cell type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and strongly expressing p53 protein.  

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We report a case of composite lymphoma consisting of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and strong p53 expression. A 65-year-old Japanese woman developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. A biopsy of the cervical node revealed the morphology of malignant lymphoma with 2 kinds of lymphoma coexisting in 1 lymph node. One lymphoma type consisted of immunoblastic large cells with the T-cell marker phenotype CD3+, CD45RO/UCHL-1+, CD20/L26-, CD79-, CD10-, CD30-, and CD15-; the other type consisted of large cells with abundant cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei with the marker phenotype CD79+, CD20/L26+, CD45RO/UCHL-1-, CD3-, CD10-, CD30+, NPM/ALK-, and CD15-. Therefore, the diagnosis was composite lymphoma of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of DLBCL, stage IVB, because the patient had bone marrow involvement with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The biopsy led to findings of latent type II EBV-associated lymphoma in both the peripheral T-cell lymphoma and the anaplastic variant of DLBCL as the result of positive signals for EBV small RNAs by in situ hybridization, positive immunostaining results for EBV latent membrane protein 1 antibody, and negative immunostaining results for EBV nuclear antigen 2. Immunostaining of the mass with p53 antibody also yielded positive results for both types of lymphoma cells. This case suggests that the immunocompromised state of this patient with EBV-related peripheral T-cell lymphoma allowed the emergence of an EBV-related anaplastic variant of DLBCL and suggests a close relationship between p53 expression and latent EBV infection. PMID:15168595

Hirose, Yuko; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Masaki, Yasufumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Karasawa, Hiromi; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Wano, Yuji

2004-04-01

269

Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.  

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Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. ?2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the ?-galactoside-?2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, ?2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by steric hindrance. The adhesive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K) and actin cytoskeleton, and the invasive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Rho and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, galectin-1-induced cell death in H-ALCL cells was accompanied by inhibition of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. In conclusion, cell adhesion and invasion to galectin-1 appeared to be regulated by cell surface sialylation and N-glycosylation, and galectin-1 regulates cell death through inhibition of CD45 PTP activity of H-ALCL. PMID:24589677

Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

2014-05-01

270

Phase III randomized study of radiotherapy plus PCV with or without BUdR for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma: RTOG 9404 interim report  

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Purpose/Objective: This study was an open label, randomized, phase III trial in newly diagnosed patients with anaplastic astrocytoma comparing radiotherapy plus adjuvant Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) given as a 96 hour infusion each week of radiotherapy. Material/Methods: Only patients 18 years or older with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma were eligible; central pathology review was not mandated prior to registration. The study had initially opened as an Northern California Oncology Group (NCOG) trial in 1991, becoming an intergroup RTOG, SWOG and NCCTG study in July, 1994. Total accrual of 293 patients was initially planned as the sample size, using time to tumor progression and survival as the primary endpoints. The experimental arm (RT/BUdR plus PCV) was to be compared to the control arm (RT plus PCV) using an alpha = 0.05, one-tailed, with a power of 85% for detecting an increase in median survival from 160 to 240 weeks, assuming a 3 year follow-up after completion of enrollment. Results: As of Feb. 1997, 268 patients had been randomized; 53 (20%) were ineligible, primarily based upon central pathology review and 13 were canceled. In total, 30% of patients were excluded from analysis, with additional pathology review still pending for some patients. The treatment arms remained well balanced despite this rate of exclusion. The RTOG Data Monitoring Committee recommended suspension of enrollment in July, 1996 based upon a stochastic curtailment analysis which strongly suggested that the study endpoint would not be achieved in the RT/BUdR plus PCV arm. In Feb., 1997, the study was closed prior to full enrollment. At that time, the one-year survival estimates were 82% versus 68% for RT plus PCV and RT/BUdR plus PCV respectively (one sided p=0.96). The conditional power analysis indicated that even with an additional 12 months of accrual and follow-up the probability of detecting the pre specified difference was less than 0.01%. The differences seen in the two arms seems to be due to early deaths in the BUdR arm, not related to toxicity of the treatment. Conclusions: Despite encouraging phase II results with BUdR, it is unlikely a survival benefit will be seen. A final study analysis will be not be done until all patients have been followed for at least 3 years

271

Human RECQ5beta helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork  

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The role of the human RECQ5beta helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5beta promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the par...

Kanagaraj, R.; Saydam, N.; Garcia, P. L.; Zheng, L.; Janscak, P.

2006-01-01

272

Generation of self-mode-locked resembling pulses in a fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a generation of self-starting mode-locked resembling (MLR) pulses in an all-fiber, gain-switched Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser operating at 2 ?m wavelength, which we believe to be the first demonstration of such an approach. The laser delivers 100% modulated MLR pulses within an envelope of ~30 ns gain-switched pulse at a repetition rate of 30 kHz. The maximum average output power is 0.4 W and the maximum peak-power of MLR pulses can be as high as 1.1 kW. The performance of the laser is described. PMID:23938890

Swiderski, Jacek; Michalska, Maria

2013-05-15

273

Digital Redesign of Undesign Interval Systems Based on Frequency-Response Resemblance via a Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a hybrid optimizer incorporating particle swarm optimization (PSO) and an enhanced NM simplex search method is proposed to derive an optimal digital controller for uncertain interval systems based on frequency-response resemblance. By combining the uncertain plant and controller, extremal systems for the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart can be obtained as the basis for comparison. The design problem is then formulated as an optimization problem of an aggregated error function in terms of deviation on frequency response between the redesigned digital system and its continuous counterpart, and subsequently optimized by the proposed optimizer to obtain an optimal set of parameters for the digital controller.

Hsu, Chen-Chien; Gao, Chun-Hwui

2008-10-01

274

Delayed development of radiation vasculopathy of the brain stem confirmed by F-18 FDG PET in a case of anaplastic astrocytoma.  

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We present the imaging findings of a 38-year-old female patient who underwent resection and radiation therapy for an anaplastic astrocytoma in her left temporal lobe 12 years ago. She was symptom-free until 1 month before admission at which time she presented with symptoms of right hemiparesis, right facial droop, and slurred speech. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a new mass lesion in the left pontine region of the brain stem. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of the lesion demonstrated an increase in choline (Ch)/N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) metabolite values which were nondiagnostic. Since viable tumor recurrence was strongly suspected, a biopsy was planned, although this posed significant risk. Therefore, an F-18 FDG brain PET scan was performed, which demonstrated no metabolic activity in the pontine lesion leading to the less common diagnosis of long-term postradiation vasculopathy. Over the next 6 months, the patient's symptoms slowly improved and a follow-up MRI scan showed a decrease in the size of the lesion, consistent with postradiation vasculopathy and infarction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the rare diagnosis of radiation-induced vasculopathy in the differential diagnosis when symptoms of recurrent brain tumor occur. PMID:17581336

Muthukrishnan, Ashok; Bajoghli, Mehran; Mountz, James M

2007-07-01

275

Gingival Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Hyperplastic Benignancy as the First Clinical Manifestation of AIDS: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

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This paper presents an unusual case of gingival ALCL, which mimicked a benign hyperplastic lesion that occurred in a 57-year-old white man representing the first clinical manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patient was referred to the Dental Clinic of PUCPR complaining of a lobulated nodule on the gingiva of his upper central incisors. The presence of advanced chronic periodontitis and dental plaque raised suspicion for a benignancy. An excisional biopsy was performed, and large pleomorphic cells with an abundant cytoplasm, sometimes containing prominent nucleoli and "Hallmark" cells, were observed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. The tumor cells showed strong CD30 expression, EMA, Ki-67, and LCA, and negative stain for p80(NPM/ALK), CKAE1/AE3, CD20, CD3, CD56, and CD15. The final diagnosis was ALCL (ALK-negative). Further laboratory tests revealed positivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, but four months after diagnosis, the patient died due to pneumonia and respiratory failure. Oral anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare disorder. Only 5 cases involving the gingiva have been reported, and to our knowledge, this is the first case reported of the ALCL, which mimicked a hyperplastic benignancy as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS. PMID:23840974

Rozza-de-Menezes, Rafaela Elvira; Jeronimo Ferreira, Stefânia; Lenzi Capella, Diogo; Schwartz, Stephan; Willrich, Ana Helena; de Noronha, Lúcia; Batista Rodrigues Johann, Aline Cristina; Couto Souza, Paulo Henrique

2013-01-01

276

Identification of C/EBP? Target Genes in ALK+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) by Gene Expression Profiling and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation  

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C/EBP? (CCAAT enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in survival and transformation of ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of this study was to identify the downstream targets of C/EBP? responsible for ALK-mediated oncogenesis. C/EBP? was knocked down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with a C/EBP?-shRNA, followed by gene expression profiling (GEP). GEP analysis revealed a reproducible signature of genes that were significantly regulated by C/EBP?. Classification into biological categories revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in the immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Transcriptional regulation by C/EBP? was found in 6 of 11 (BCL2A1, G0S2, TRIB1, S100A9, DDX21 and DDIT4) genes investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We demonstrated that BCL2A1, G0S2 and DDX21 play a crucial role in survival and proliferation of ALK+ ALCL cells. DDX21, a gene involved in rRNA biogenesis, was found differentially overexpressed in primary ALK+ ALCL cases. All three candidate genes were validated in primary ALCL cases by either immunohistochemistry or RT-qPCR. In conclusion, we identified and validated several key C/EBP?-regulated genes with major impact on survival and cell growth in ALK+ ALCL, supporting the central role of C/EBP? in ALK-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:23741337

Bonzheim, Irina; Irmler, Martin; Klier-Richter, Margit; Steinhilber, Julia; Anastasov, Natasa; Schafer, Sabine; Adam, Patrick; Beckers, Johannes; Raffeld, Mark; Fend, Falko; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia

2013-01-01

277

Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

Preisinger Rudolf

2010-01-01

278

Purified omega-conotoxin GVIA receptor of rat brain resembles a dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel  

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The {omega}-conotoxin GVIA (CTX) receptor has been purified 1,900-fold to apparent homogeneity by monitoring both reversible binding of {sup 125}I-labeled CTX ({sup 125}I-CTX) and photoincorporation of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate-{sup 125}I-CTX (HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX). Photoincorporation of HSA-{sup 125}I-CTX into a 230-kDa protein exhibits a pharmacologic and chromatographic profile indicating that the 230-kDa protein is the CTX-binding subunit of the receptor. The pharmacologic specificity of {sup 125}I-CTX binding to the purified CTX receptor closely resembles that of the native membrane-bound form with respect to sensitivity towards CTX and other peptide toxin antagonists. The purified CTX receptor comprises the 230-kDa protein ({alpha}{sub 1}) and four additional proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140 ({alpha}{sub 2}), 110, 70 ({beta}{sub 2}), and 60({beta}{sub 1}) kDa. This subunit structure closely resembles that of the 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channel.

McEnery, M.W.; Snowman, A.M.; Sharp, A.H.; Snyder, S.H. (Johns Hopkins Medical Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Adams, M.E. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

1991-12-15

279

Laparoscopic repair of a post-myomectomy spontaneous uterine perforation accompanied by a bizarre tumor resembling polypoid endometriosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among various long-term complications after previous myomectomy, increasing risk of uterine rupture or dehiscence during pregnancy, and in particular during labor, has been widely recognized. In contrast, the world literature includes no case report of spontaneous uterine perforation or rupture after myomectomy in a nonpregnant woman, and only 1 case of iatrogenic uterine perforation after uterine artery embolization has been reported. Recently, we encountered an extremely rare case of spontaneous uterine perforation after previous myomectomy accompanied by a bizarre tumor resembling polypoid endometriosis, which was successfully treated via laparoscopic surgery. The patient reported genital bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings clearly demonstrated the presence of a uterine wall defect and a multicystic tumor that had developed from the perforated portion of the uterus. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic surgery for repair of the perforated uterus and resection of the tumor. The clinicopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was tentatively confirmed as an endometriosis-like lesion resembling polypoid endometriosis. We speculate that the cause of the tumor was retrograde menstruation, as in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:24183281

Koyama, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Isobe, Masanori; Miwa, Hideaki; Shiki, Yasuhiko

2013-01-01

280

Chromosomal Copy Number Aberrations in Colorectal Metastases Resemble Their Primary Counterparts and Differences Are Typically Non-Recurrent  

Science.gov (United States)

The metastatic process is complex and remains a major obstacle in the management of colorectal cancer. To gain a better insight into the pathology of metastasis, we investigated genomic aberrations in a large cohort of matched colorectal cancer primaries and distant metastases from various sites by high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization. In total, 62 primary colorectal cancers, and 68 matched metastases (22 liver, 11 lung, 12 ovary, 12 omentum, and 11 distant lymph nodes) were analyzed. Public datasets were used for validation purposes. Metastases resemble their matched primary tumors in the majority of the patients. This validates the significant overlap in chromosomal aberrations between primary tumors and corresponding metastases observed previously. We observed 15 statistically significant different regions between the primary tumors and their matched metastases, of which only one recurrent event in metastases was observed. We conclude, based on detailed analysis and large independent datasets, that chromosomal copy number aberrations in colorectal metastases resemble their primary counterparts, and differences are typically non-recurrent. PMID:24505270

Israeli, Danielle; van Essen, Hendrik F. B.; Dijkstra, Jeroen R.; van Cleef, Patricia; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The immune response to Haemophilus ducreyi resembles a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction throughout experimental infection of human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous work in 3 subjects infected for 2 weeks indicated that experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi recruits CD4 cells to the skin at the pustular stage of disease. In order to describe the kinetics of the host response, 23 subjects were infected at 2 sites with a standardized dose of H. ducreyi. Subjects were biopsied 1 or 4 days after inoculation or when they developed a painful pustular lesion (days 7-14). Papules and pustules contained a predominant T cell infiltrate that consisted of CD45RO and CD4 cells of the alpha beta lineage. Both papules and pustules contained mixed or T helper 1 type cytokine mRNA and interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Although the subjects had no history of chancroid, their immune responses resembled delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions that occurred within 24 h of inoculation and persisted throughout the course of experimental infection. PMID:9815221

Palmer, K L; Schnizlein-Bick, C T; Orazi, A; John, K; Chen, C Y; Hood, A F; Spinola, S M

1998-12-01

282

'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E. [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

2005-07-01

283

'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

284

Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of 4 cases with evidence of malignant potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type of breast carcinoma resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has recently been described. To date, rare cases are on record. Here, 4 new cases of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma of the breast are described in women aged from 45 to 80 years old. All patients presented with palpable breast nodules and were treated with quadrantectomy. One patient presented with a long clinical history and a metastatic intramammary lymph node. The patient is alive and well 3 months after surgery. The remaining 3 patients are disease free at mean 7.5 months (range, 5 to 10 months) after surgery. These data suggest that papillary thyroid-like carcinomas of the breast show malignant potential. PMID:17172492

Tosi, Anna L; Ragazzi, Moira; Asioli, Sofia; Del Vecchio, Marina; Cavalieri, Monica; Eusebi, Leonardo H U; Foschini, Maria P

2007-01-01

285

Ex-post evaluation by bibliometric method. Institutional comparison between JAERI and 8 resembled foreign research institutes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using research papers produced both by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and by 8 resembled foreign research institutes (5 in the U.S.A., 2 in Germany and 1 in France), an institutional comparison was tried. A bibliometric method was used together with INIS (owned by IAEA) as a database and SOCIOECO as an evaluation tool. (1) A total number of papers produced in the duration of 25 years (1978-2002) was of the order of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) > JAERI > Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) > Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) > Karlsruhe > Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) > Juelich > Idaho National Laboratory (INL) > Cadarache. JAERI was in the 2nd position. Through interviews with corresponding managers in each institutes in the U.S.A., it was understood that the change of nuclear policies (e.g., retardation from the reprocessing policy in the U.S.A.), the nuclear accidents (e.g., TMI (1979) and Chernobyl (1986)), the economical dynamics (e.g., the 2nd oil shock in Japan) etc., were attributed much to the research achievements, hence papers. Number of papers in Japan increased with every 5 years while those in the resembled foreign research institutes decreased with the same time spans. This may lead a diametrical opposite conclusion at a certain time; therefore a deep attention must be paid in this kind of comparison. (2) At three specified research areas the institutional comparison was further made with time span by 25 years. They are 'actinides' related markedly to fuel reprocessing, 'electromagnetic radiation' related deeply to an application of radiation and 'neutron' related significantly to the whole nuclear. Institutional comparison with actinides led the order of ORNL > JAERI > Karlsruhe. For the latter two cases, it was JAERI > ORNL > BNL. Interviews made with corresponding personnel in the U.S.A. pointed out that ORNL and BNL data was by-passed to the magnitude of 20-30% at their registration desks, this means that comparison was made as much as minimum level. Additionally, those specific areas were not originated from the U.S.A. sides. From the viewpoint of equality, data acquisition at those resembled foreign research institutes is requested to be done more efficiently. (3) Socio-economic networking was measured and evaluated by a total number of co-authorized papers. It developed to the magnitude of 15% per 25 years in average. JAERI however could not exceed those of INL and BNL. (4) The most prominent conclusion in this study is that the institutional comparison with a specified keyword can tell you whether or not your institute is advanced in the specified research field among resembled foreign research institutes. It leads that one has a possibility to reach the champion data through wider comparison. This method is also helpful for finding out the research present status and for predicting the direction of current research trend from the view point of ex ante evaluation. (5) It is verified that INSPEC has as the same capability as observed in the INIS. (author)

286

Familial resemblance for loneliness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social isolation and loneliness in humans have been associated with physical and psychological morbidity, as well as mortality. This study aimed to assess the etiology of individual differences in feelings of loneliness. The genetic architecture of loneliness was explored in an extended twin-family design including 8,683 twins, siblings and parents from 3,911 families. In addition, 917 spouses of twins participated. The presence of assortative mating, genetic non-additivity, vertical cultural transmission, genotype-environment (GE) correlation and interaction was modeled. GE interaction was considered for several demographic characteristics. Results showed non-random mating for loneliness. We confirmed that loneliness is moderately heritable, with a significant contribution of non-additive genetic variation. There were no effects of vertical cultural transmission. With respect to demographic characteristics, results indicated that marriage, having offspring, more years of education, and a higher number of siblings are associated with lower levels of loneliness. Interestingly, these effects tended to be stronger for men than women. There was little evidence of changes in genetic architecture as a function of these characteristics. We conclude that the genetic architecture of loneliness points to non-additive genetic influences, suggesting it may be a trait that was not neutral to selection in our evolutionary past. Sociodemographic factors that influence the prevalence of loneliness do not affect its genetic architecture. PMID:20145989

Distel, Marijn A; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Derom, Catherine A; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cacioppo, John T; Boomsma, Dorret I

2010-07-01

287

B cell receptors in TCL1 transgenic mice resemble those of aggressive, treatment-resistant human chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Science.gov (United States)

B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a clonal overgrowth of CD5+ B lymphocytes. In this disease, the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is intimately linked to disease severity, because patients with BCRs, comprised of unmutated VH genes, follow a much more aggressive course. This and related observations suggest that B-CLL derives from a B cell subset comprised of restricted BCR structural diversity and that antigen-selection and drive are major factors promoting the disease. Nevertheless, the initiating event(s) that lead to the development of B-CLL are still unclear, in part because of the lack of an animal model that spontaneously evolves the molecular abnormalities that occur in the human disease. Because overexpression of the TCL1 gene in murine B cells leads to a CD5+ B cell lymphoproliferative disorder with many of the features of human B-CLL, we studied leukemias emerging in these mice to examine the extent to which their BCRs resemble those in B-CLL. Our data indicate that the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangements in TCL1 mice display minimal levels of somatic mutations and exhibit several molecular features found in the human disease. Like human B-CLL, TCL1 leukemic rearrangements from different mice can be very similar structurally and closely resemble autoantibodies and antibodies reactive with microbial antigens. Antigen-binding analyses confirm that selected TCL1 clones react with glycerophospholipid, lipoprotein, and polysaccharides that can be autoantigens and be expressed by microbes. This (auto)antigen-driven mouse model reliably captures the BCR characteristics of aggressive, treatment-resistant human B-CLL. PMID:16864779

Yan, Xiao-jie; Albesiano, Emilia; Zanesi, Nicola; Yancopoulos, Sophia; Sawyer, Alan; Romano, Egidio; Petlickovski, Aleksandar; Efremov, Dimitar G.; Croce, Carlo M.; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

2006-01-01

288

Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58±2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02±1.40 and 4.68±1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastasesnone of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

289

Wild-type p53 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radionuclide gene therapy using sodium iodide symporter in a murine anaplastic thyroid cancer model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the role of p53 in radionuclide gene therapy, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of {sup 131}I and {sup 188}Re following cotransfection of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and wild-type p53 (wt-p53) genes into cancer cells. The NIS gene was transfected to human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) expressing mutant p53 (mt-p53) using liposomes. The uptakes of {sup 125}I and {sup 188}Re were measured in the transfected (ARO-N) and wild-type cell lines (ARO). A recombinant adenovirus-5 vector containing a CMV promoter and wt-p53 cDNA, called Ad-p53, was established and transduced to ARO and ARO-N cells. After incubating cells with {sup 131}I and {sup 188}Re, the survival rate of each cell line was measured using a clonogenic assay. For radionuclide gene therapy in an animal model, Ad-p53 was injected directly into ARO and ARO-N tumours which were transplanted to nude mice. Two days later, {sup 188}Re or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the mice, and the tumours were measured using a calliper for 4 weeks. In ARO-N cells, the uptakes of {sup 125}I and {sup 188}Re were 505.16{+-}21.30 pmol/10{sup 6} cells and 13,875.20{+-}504.85 cpm/10{sup 6} cells at 30 min, respectively. There was no difference between the survival rates of ARO cells and ARO-N cells after incubation with {sup 131}I or {sup 188}Re. When Ad-p53 was transduced to ARO-N cells, the survival rate of wt-p53-expressing ARO-N cells incubated with {sup 131}I (18.5 MBq/5 ml) and {sup 188}Re (18.5 MBq/5 ml) decreased to 48.8{+-}18.4% and 32.6{+-}23.5%, respectively. In the nude mice experiment, ARO and ARO-N tumours gradually grew up to six to eight times larger than the initial volume. ARO and ARO-N tumours transduced with Ad-p53 continued to grow. However, the ARO-N tumours treated with Ad-p53 and 185 MBq of {sup 188}Re regressed to 20% of the initial volume. Growth of ARO-N tumour treated with {sup 131}I or {sup 188}Re was significantly inhibited by Ad-p53 transduction in vivo as well as in vitro. Transfection of the NIS gene into human anaplastic thyroid cancer induced the accumulation of beta-emitter radionuclides, and cotransfection with a wt-p53 gene enhanced the cytotoxic effect. (orig.)

Lee, Yong Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Molecular Imaging Research Center, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Molecular Imaging Research Center, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea)

2010-02-15

290

Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the published data for future treatment decision-making remains difficult when the histologic diagnosis has not been based on the new improved classification system.

Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz-Ertner, Daniela [Radiologisches Institut, Markuskrankenhaus Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Deimling, Andreas von; Hartmann, Christian [Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Pathology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuropathology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-12-01

291

Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important role in the development of radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer. (authors)

Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

2012-07-01

292

Exploratory evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of FDG PET quantification in pediatric anaplastic astrocytoma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rationale of this study was to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) methods to analyze {sup 18}F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) uptake in children with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a multi-institutional trial, to compare 3D and two-dimensional (2D) methods and explore data associations with progression-free survival (PFS). 3D tumor volumes from pretreatment MR images (fluid attenuation inversion recovery and postgadolinium) of children with recurrent AA on a phase I trial of imatinib mesylate were coregistered to FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images. PET data were normalized. Four metrics were defined: the maximum ratio (maximum pixel value within the 3D tumor volume, normalized), the total ratio (cumulative pixel values within the tumor volume, normalized) and tumor mean ratio (total pixel value divided by volume, normalized). 2D analysis methods were compared. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between these methods and PFS. Strongest correlations between 2D and 3D methods were with analyses using postcontrast T1 images for volume of interest (VOI). The analyses suggest 3D maximum tumor and mean tumor ratios, whether normalized by gray matter or white matter, were associated with PFS. This study of a series of pretreatment AA patients suggests that 3D PET methods using VOIs based on postcontrast T1 correlate with 2D methods and are related to PFS. These methods yield an estimate of metabolically active tumor burden and may add prognostic information after tumor grade is determined. Future rigorous multi-institutional protocols with larger numbers of patients will be required for validation. (orig.)

Williams, Gethin; Treves, S. Ted [Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Fahey, Frederic H. [Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Kocak, Mehmet; Boyett, James M.; Kun, Larry E. [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Children' s Hospital Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Young Poussaint, Tina [Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-09-15

293

Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on sodium/iodide symporter expression, radioiodine uptake and gene expression profiles in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasma membrane glycoprotein sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is crucial for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and mediates the iodide uptake of thyrocytes. It has been shown that retinoic acid (RA) alters NIS gene expression in thyroid carcinoma lines and stimulates their iodide uptake. Here, we generated an ARO human thyroidal cancer cell line that expresses the NIS gene (ARO-NIS) and found that its baseline 125I uptake was threefold higher than that of its parental ARO cells. However, a 1-?M all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) treatment significantly increased this 125I uptake up to approximately ?6.5-fold on Day 3. tRA also elevated NIS mRNA expression in ARO-NIS cells, with peaks of expression being observed on Day 3. To investigate the underlying genomic mechanisms involved in these tRA-induced phenotypic changes, we subjected tRA-treated and untreated ARO-NIS cells to cDNA microarray analysis. Of 1152, genes spotted onto the microarray membrane, 18 were up-regulated (z ratio>2.0) and 33 were down-regulated (z ratio<-2.0) in ARO-NIS cells after 3 days of tRA treatment. More specifically, tRA increased the expression of BCL3, CSRP3, v-fos, and CDK5 genes and decreased the expression of the FGF12 and IGFBP6 genes. Thus, tRA treatment of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells stably expressing the NIS gene significantly elevates their NIS-mediated radioiodine uptake and alters the expression of many genes involved in cell growth and cellular differlved in cell growth and cellular differentiation. Therefore, tRA treatment and NIS gene transfection are potential tools for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer

294

Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of se (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important role in the development of radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer. (authors)

295

Neoadjuvant cisplatin plus temozolomide versus standard treatment in patients with unresectable glioblastoma or anaplastic astrocytoma: a differential effect of MGMT methylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with unresectable glioblastoma or anaplastic astrocytoma have a dismal prognosis. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to irradiation in these patients has been studied primarily in non-randomized studies. We have compared the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy versus concomitant radiotherapy plus temozolomide in a retrospective analysis of two consecutive series of patients in whom surgery consisted of biopsy only. From 2003 to 2005, 23 patients received two cycles of temozolomide plus cisplatin followed by radiotherapy (Cohort 1), and from 2006 to 2010, 23 additional patients received concomitant radiotherapy and temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide (Cohort 2). In Cohort 1, 91.3 % of patients received all planned chemotherapy cycles. Progression-free and overall survival were 3.3 and 8.5 months, respectively. In Cohort 2, progression-free and overall survival were 5.1 and 11.2 months, respectively. No differences between the two groups were observed in rate of completion of radiotherapy, progression-free or overall survival. MGMT methylation was assessed in 91.3 % of patients. In Cohort 1, patients without MGMT methylation showed a trend towards shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.09), while in Cohort 2, patients without MGMT methylation had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.04). In the overall patient population, neoadjuvant temozolomide plus cisplatin had neither a positive nor negative influence on outcome. However, our findings indicate that patients with methylated MGMT may derive greater benefit from neoadjuvant temozolomide than those with unmethylated MGMT. PMID:24395350

Capdevila, Laia; Cros, Sara; Ramirez, Jose-Luis; Sanz, Carolina; Carrato, Cristina; Romeo, Margarita; Etxaniz, Olatz; Hostalot, Cristina; Massuet, Ana; Cuadra, Jose Luis; Villà, Salvador; Balañà, Carmen

2014-03-01

296

Correlation of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Overexpression and the EML4-ALK Fusion Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Immunohistochemical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Recently the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene with transforming activity was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In addition, NSCLC patients with the EML4-ALK fusion gene had a dramatic response and longer progression free survival after ALK inhibitor treatment than those without this fusion gene. However, the incidence and clinical and molecular characteristics of the EML4-ALK fusion gene in NSCLC patients of Taiwan are still unclear.Methods:Sixty-four fresh frozen tumor specimens were obtained from the tissue bank of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for RNA extraction and EML4-ALK fusion gene detection. Paraffin sections of lung tumors from all of these patients were available and were analyzed for ALK protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC study. The results were correlated with clinical and molecular biomarkers.Results: Three of the 64 tumors (4.7% had the EML4-ALK fusion gene. Two were adenocarcinomas, and one was adenosquamous carcinoma. Twenty patients with non-squamous cell carcinomas had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations, so the EML4-ALK fusion gene was found in 14.3% of EGFR wild type non-squamous cell carcinomas. Two tumors were variant 3 (3a+3b with 3b predominant and had strong staining (3+ for ALK by IHC stains. One tumor was variant 1 and had moderate staining (2+ for ALK. None of the ALK wild type tumors had strong staining for ALK. When compared with other clinical and molecular features, only the IHC stain for ALK was significantly correlated with the EML4-ALK fusion gene (p = 0.0002.Conclusions: ALK overexpression detected by IHC study could be a promising detection method for the EML4-ALK fusion gene and is worth further confirmation with more samples.

Shiu-Feng Huang

2012-08-01

297

No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two European populations are believed to be related to the ancient Germanic tribe Cimbri: one living in Northern Italy, the other living in Jutland, Denmark. The people called Cimbri are documented in the ancient Roman historical record. Arriving from the far north their movements can be tracked from successive battles with the Romans. The Cimbri finally entered Italy from the northeast and were defeated at Vercellae (present day Vercelli) in 101 BC by Gaius Marius and his professional legions. Classical sources from the first centuries AD relate the homeland of the Cimbri to the coasts around the Elb estuary (northern Germany) or specifically towards the north (Himmerland in northern Jutland). In the alpine parts of Veneto, northeast of the historical battlefield, local traditions dating back to late medieval time, identify a local population as Cimbri living in Terra dei Cimbri. They are considered the descendents of the Germanic combatants that fled the battlefield at Vercelli. As the defeated Cimbri that possibly fled to the mountains of Northern Italy most likely would have been male (warriors), the present study investigated the possible Y chromosomal diversity of the two present populations using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms. While Cimbri from Himmerland resembled their geographical neighbors from Denmark for the Y-chromosome markers, Cimbri from Italy were significantly differentiated both from Cimbri from Himmerland and from Danes. Therefore, we were not able to show any biological relationship for uniparentally transmitted markers. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

BØrglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano

2007-01-01

298

Human RECQ5beta helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the human RECQ5beta helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5beta promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the parental duplex, an effect not seen with RECQ5beta. A domain within the non-conserved portion of RECQ5beta is identified as being important for its ability to unwind the lagging-strand arm and to promote strand exchange on hRPA-coated forked structures. We also show that RECQ5beta associates with DNA replication factories in S phase nuclei and persists at the sites of stalled replication forks after exposure of cells to UV irradiation. Moreover, RECQ5beta is found to physically interact with the polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggest that RECQ5beta may promote regression of stalled replication forks to facilitate the bypass of replication-blocking lesions by template-switching. Loss of such activity could explain the elevated level of mitotic crossovers observed in RECQ5beta-deficient cells. PMID:17003056

Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Saydam, Nurten; Garcia, Patrick L; Zheng, Lu; Janscak, Pavel

2006-01-01

299

Predictors of mother-daughter resemblance in dietary intake. The role of eating styles, mothers' consumption, and closeness.  

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The present study examined the resemblance between daughters' and mothers' intake of energy-dense food (EDF) and vegetables as perceived by daughters and the potential moderating influence of relationship closeness. One-hundred and twelve female first-year psychology students (aged 17-25 years) completed an online measure incorporating questions on demographic information, food frequency, eating style, and mother-daughter closeness. The EDF and vegetable consumption of daughters and their perception of their mothers' consumption were significantly related. Daughters who ate more EDF perceived that their mothers consumed more EDF and vegetables overall and had lower levels of restrained eating. Both mothers' consumption of vegetables (as perceived by daughters) and the number of meals consumed within the family home had a strong influence on daughters' vegetable intake. Closeness of the mother-daughter relationship did not moderate the relationship between the EDF or vegetable intake of mothers and daughters. Overall, these findings are consistent with the contention that mothers may have a significant influence on the EDF consumption and vegetable intake of their young adult daughters. The mechanism of this influence requires further investigation. PMID:22056488

Prichard, Ivanka; Hodder, Kellie; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

2012-02-01

300

2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling A Giant Exoplanet  

CERN Document Server

We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and WISE photometry for the low surface gravity L5gamma dwarf 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2MASSJ1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and MKO J,H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3-12 microns indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2MASSJ1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW ...

Faherty, Jacqueline K; Cruz, Kelle L; Mamajek, Eric E; Núñez, Alejandro

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N2-O2 plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N2-O2 mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N2 and O2, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N2 and O2. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O2 molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. ?5% NO and ?95% N2 and O2, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

302

Test of 134Cs, 85,89Sr leaching rate in a resemble vitrifiable cement waste form  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel material--resemble vitrifiable cement for conditioning low and mediate level radioactive waste has been developed. Waste form has been characterized for their physical and chemical performance, phase composition. The cement formulation has been patented. In this experiment the cement is mixed with simulated wastes spiked with 134Cs and 85,89Sr by 5 min at least. The Ratio of the waste to the cement is 0.45-0.55. The mixture is packed into cylindrical molds which has the same dimension of diameter and height . The grouts are cured for a period of 28 d in a room temperature curing chamber at an atmospheric pressure. The cured waste form is then completely immersed into deionized water. According to standard GB7023-86, leaching rate of 134Cs and 85,89Sr are measured. The result shows that the leaching rate of the species 134Cs and 85,89Sr is to be on the order 10-4 and 10-5 on the 42 d immersion, respectively and is better than that of commercial cement

303

Melanoma ex blue nevus: two cases resembling large plaque-type blue nevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.  

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Large plaque-type blue nevi with subcutaneous cellular nodules are rare tumors occurring on the trunk with deep extension into underlying soft tissues. The histopathologic appearance consists of deep nodules resembling cellular blue nevi with interspersed foci of common blue nevus. Conservative management has been recommended, and metastases have not been observed. This report discusses two cases with microscopic features of large plaque-type blue nevi with subcutaneous cellular nodules in which comparative genomic hybridization showed chromosomal aberrations typical of melanoma. In both cases, the nodules showed gains involving chromosome 6p and losses involving chromosome 6q, which are among the most commonly found aberrations in melanoma. These copy number changes were not present in the less cellular surrounding areas that appeared characteristic of blue nevus. These cases illustrate that large blue nevi with a deep, multi-nodular configuration should be interpreted with caution, and that superficial biopsies of such lesions can be misleading. Molecular techniques can provide valuable insights in these types of difficult melanocytic neoplasms. PMID:23145498

North, Jeffrey P; Yeh, Iwei; McCalmont, Timothy H; LeBoit, Philip E

2012-12-01

304

Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)

305

Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare Policies : Is the 'black' American experience resembled in Britian, Sweden and Denmark?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The link between ethnic heterogeneity and support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by a large American research effort. Historically the race issue have blocked a number of US welfare schemes, across USA ethnic heterogene-ous states have less generous benefits, and citizens having negative attitudes towards blacks oppose welfare. The question is to what extend increased ethnic heterogeneity in European countries will establish the same mechanisms. Three theoretical positions are discussed; the position that the ‘black’ American experience is unique, the position that it is general, and a middle position of it being contingent on institutional settings. The latter position predicts that the ‘black’ American experience especially can be avoided in social democratic welfare regimes where the political elites have not played the race card. Em-pirically the article is based on survey data from UK, Sweden and Denmark, where a num-ber of American GSS items have been directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare regime effects the findings support the position that the American in-group out-group mechanisms are resembled in Europe.

Larsen, Christian Albrekt

2010-01-01

306

18F-DOPA-PET in Planning Surgery in Patients With Gliomas  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

2014-09-12

307

Survival improvement in anaplastic astrocytoma, combining external radiation with halogenated pyrimidines: final report of RTOG 86-12, phase I-II study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and tumor efficacy of the halopyrimidine IUdR as a chemical modifier of radiation response in patients with malignant glioma. The preliminary results published in 1993 demonstrated no real advantage in the group of patients with glioblastoma. However, a benefit appeared to be evolving in the group of patients with Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA). We are now presenting the results on the long-term follow-up of patients with AA. Methods and Materials: Between August 1987 and October 1991, 79 patients were entered in a prospective study with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Twenty-one of 79 were AA. The study was designed to have a fixed dose of radiation consisting of 60.16 Gy in 32 fractions in 6.5 weeks but varying the dose schedule of IUdR, delivered in a continuous intravenous infusion of long (96 h) or short (48 and 24 h) duration, every week for the 6.5 weeks of radiation treatment. Results: The last AA patient was entered in March 1991. Ninety-five percent of the AA patients were under 59 years of age and 86% had a Karnofsky score 80. Thirty-eight percent had a tumor diameter of less than 5 cm and 52% had a tumor diameter between 5-10 cm. Seventy-six percent had partial or total tumor resection. The toxicity of this treatment was acceptable and has already been published elsewhere. At the time of this report, 14 out of 21 patients with AA are dead. The median survival, calculated from the Kaplan-Meier, is 3.2 years. Thirty-om the Kaplan-Meier, is 3.2 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients have survived 5 years. These results compare favorably with the best results reported in the literature with postoperative external radiation plus chemotherapy, median survival time (MST) of 3 years, and previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience with radiation alone, MST of 2 years. Conclusions: Our findings in patients with AA corroborate the improved therapeutic results published recently when combining external radiation with 'long' infusion of i.v. BUdR and indicate the need to proceed with randomized Phase III studies utilizing halogenated pyrimidines and radiation. One such study has already been activated, RTOG no. 94-04

308

A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). Patients were ? 15 years of age, had a histologic diagnosis of malignant glioma, and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 60%. Methods and Materials: In Randomization 1, patients were assigned to receive either ERT alone (61.2 Gy) or ERT plus mitomycin C (Mito, IV 12.5 mg/m2) during the first and fourth week of ERT. After this treatment, patients went on to Randomization 2, where they were assigned to receive either BCNU (i.v. 200 mg/m2) given at 6-week intervals or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, 750 mg/m2 IV daily for 3 days every 6 weeks), with BCNU given on the third day of the 6-MP treatment. Three hundred twenty-seven patients underwent Randomization 1. One hundred sixty-four received ERT alone, and 163 received ERT + Mito [average age 52.7 years; 63% male; 69% glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 66% had a resection; 56% KPS ? 90%]. Step-wise analysis of survival from Randomization 1 or 2 indicates that survival was significantly diminished by: (a) age ? 45 years (b) KPS < 90%; (c) GBM/Gliosarcoma histology; (d) stereotactic biopsy as opposed to open biopsy or resection. Median survival from Randomization 1 in both arms (ERT + Mito) was 10.8 months. Median survival from Randomization 2 was 9.3 months for BCNU/6MP vs. 11.4 months for the BCNU group (p = 0.35)nths for the BCNU group (p = 0.35). Carmustine/6-MP showed a possible survival benefit for histologies other than GBM/GS. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent Randomization 2. The proportion of patients in the ERT group who terminated study prior to Randomization 2 was significantly less in the ERT group than in the ERT + Mito group (20 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: (a) The addition of Mito to ERT had no impact on survival; (b) patients treated with ERT + Mito were at greater risk of terminating therapy prior to Randomization 2; (c) there was not a significant survival benefit to the addition of 6-MP to BCNU

309

Mechanistic understanding of translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in nonclinical tumor models: a case study of orally available novel inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The orally available novel small molecules PF06463922 [(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile] and PF06471402 [(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(azeno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile] are second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors targeted to both naïve and resistant patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib. The objectives of the present study were to characterize and compare the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationships of PF06463922 and PF06471402 for target modulation in tumor and antitumor efficacy in athymic mice implanted with H3122 NSCLC cells expressing a crizotinib-resistant echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK mutation, EML4-ALK(L1196M). Furthermore, the PKPD relationships for these ALK inhibitors were evaluated and compared between oral administration and subcutaneous constant infusion (i.e., between different pharmacokinetic [PK] profiles). Oral and subcutaneous PK profiles of these ALK inhibitors were adequately described by a one-compartment PK model. An indirect response model extended with a modulator fit the time courses of PF06463922- and PF06471402-mediated target modulation (i.e., ALK phosphorylation) with an estimated unbound EC50,in vivo of 36 and 20 nM, respectively, for oral administration, and 100 and 69 nM, respectively, for subcutaneous infusion. A drug-disease model based on the turnover concept fit tumor growth curves inhibited by PF06463922 and PF06471402 with estimated unbound tumor stasis concentrations of 51 and 27 nM, respectively, for oral administration, and 116 and 70 nM, respectively, for subcutaneous infusion. Thus, the EC50,in vivo to EC60,in vivo estimates for ALK inhibition corresponded to the concentrations required tumor stasis in all cases, suggesting that the pharmacodynamic relationships of target modulation to antitumor efficacy were consistent among the ALK inhibitors, even when the PK profiles with different administration routes were considerably different. PMID:25349124

Yamazaki, Shinji; Lam, Justine L; Zou, Helen Y; Wang, Hui; Smeal, Tod; Vicini, Paolo

2015-01-01

310

Survival improvement in anaplastic astrocytoma, combining external radiation with halogenated pyrimidines. Final report of RTOG 86-12, phase I-II study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and tumor efficacy of the halopyrimidine IUdR as a chemical modifier of radiation response in patients with malignant glioma. The preliminary results published in 1993 demonstrated no real advantage in the group of patients with glioblastoma. However, a benefit appeared to be evolving in the group of patients with Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AAF). We are now presenting the results on the long-term follow-up of patients with AAF. Methods and Materials: Between August 1987 and October 1991, 79 patients were entered in a prospective study with newly diagnosed AAF and glioblastoma. (21(79)) were AAF. The study was designed to have a fixed dose of radiation (60.16 Gy in 32 fractions in 6.5 weeks) but varying the dose schedule of IUdR, delivered in a continuous intravenous infusion of long (96 hours) or short (48 and 24 hours) duration, every week for the 6.5 weeks of radiation treatment. Results: The last patient with AAF was entered in March 1991. 95% of the AAF patients were ? 59 years of age, 86% had a Karnofsky score ? 80, 38% had a tumor diameter of less than 5 cm and 52% between 5-10 cm. 76% had partial or total tumor resection. The toxicity of this treatment is acceptable and has already been published elsewhere. At the time of this report, 14 out of 21 patients with AAF are dead. The median survival calculated from the Kaplan-Meier plot is 3 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients have survived 5 years. These results compare favorably with the best results reported in the literature with post-op external radiation plus chemotherapy, median survival of 3 years and previous RTOG experience with radiation alone, median survival of 2 years. As was the case with glioblastoma patients, there is a trend for a better survival experience in the patients who received the long 96-hour course schedule of IUdR (Median survival not yet reached after 6 years). Conclusion: Our findings in patients with AAF corroborate the improved therapeutic results published recently when combining external radiation with IV BUdR and indicate the need to proceed with randomized phase III studies utilizing halogenated pyrimidines and radiation. One such study has already been activated, RTOG no. 94-04

311

Molecular organization of the non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements that induce an autoimmune disease resembling human lupus in mice.  

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Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that can form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate form of the tubular hexagonal phase II (H(II)), such as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, are present in a bilayer of lipids. The drugs chlorpromazine and procainamide, which trigger a lupus-like disease in humans, can induce the formation of non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements, and we have previously shown that liposomes with non-bilayer arrangements induced by these drugs cause an autoimmune disease resembling human lupus in mice. Here we show that liposomes with non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements induced by Mn²? cause a similar disease in mice. We extensively characterize the physical properties and immunological reactivity of liposomes made of the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine and a H(II)-preferring lipid, in the absence or presence of Mn²?, chlorpromazine or procainamide. We use an hapten inhibition assay to define the epitope recognized by sera of mice with the disease, and by a monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements, and we report that phosphorylcholine and glycerolphosphorylcholine, which form part of the polar region of phosphatidylcholine, are the only haptens that block the binding of the tested antibodies to non-bilayer arrangements. We propose a model in which the negatively charged H(II)-preferring lipids form an inverted micelle by electrostatic interactions with the positive charge of Mn²?, chlorpromazine or procainamide; the inverted micelle is inserted into the bilayer of phosphatidylcholine, whose polar regions are exposed and become targets for antibody production. This model may be relevant in the pathogenesis of human lupus. PMID:22416965

Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Reséndiz, Albany; Tescucano, Alonso; Bustos, Israel; Ibáñez, Miguel; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

2012-03-01

312

Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?  

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This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

2013-04-01

313

Resembling breast milk: influence of polyamine-supplemented formula on neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mouse microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula). In addition to its nutritional value, breast milk contains bioactive substances that drive microbial colonisation and support immune system development, which are usually not present in infant formulas. Among these substances, polyamines have been described to be essential for intestinal and immune functions in newborns. However, their effect on the establishment of microbiota remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an infant formula supplemented with polyamines has an impact on microbial colonisation by modifying it to resemble that in breast-fed neonatal BALB/c mice. In a 4 d intervention, a total of sixty pups (14 d old) were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) breast-fed group; (2) non-enriched infant formula-fed group; (3) three different groups fed an infant formula enriched with increasing concentrations of polyamines (mixture of putrescine, spermidine and spermine), following the proportions found in human milk. Microbial composition in the contents of the oral cavity, stomach and small and large intestines was analysed by quantitative PCR targeted at fourteen bacterial genera and species. Significantly different (Pformula-fed mice. In addition, our findings demonstrate that supplementation of polyamines regulates the amounts of total bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium groups to levels found in the breast-fed group. Such an effect requires further investigation in human infants, as supplementation of an infant formula with polyamines might contribute to healthy gastrointestinal tract development. PMID:24229796

Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Collado, M Carmen; Pérez, Gaspar; Ilo, Toni; Jaakkola, Ulla-Marjut; Bernal, María J; Periago, María J; Frias, Rafael; Ros, Gaspar; Salminen, Seppo

2014-03-28

314

Mesenchymal stem cells in mammary adipose tissue stimulate progression of breast cancer resembling the basal-type.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data are accumulating to support a role for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in breast cancer progression; however, to date most studies have relied on adipose MSCs from non-breast sources. There is a particular need to investigate the role of adipose MSCs in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer, which develops at a disproportionate rate in pre-menopausal African-American women with a gain in adiposity. The aim of this study was to better understand how breast adipose MSCs (bMSCs) contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by relying on isogenic HMT-3255 S3 (pre-invasive) and T4-2 (invasive) human cells that upon transplantation into nude mice resemble this tumor subtype. In vitro results suggested that bMSCs may contribute to breast cancer progression in multiple ways. bMSCs readily penetrate extracellular matrix components in part through their expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, promote the invasion of T4-2 cells and efficiently chemoattract endothelial cells via a bFGF-independent, VEGF-A-dependent manner. As mixed xenografts, bMSCs stimulated the growth, invasion and desmoplasia of T4-2 tumors, yet these resident stem cells showed no observable effect on the progression of pre-invasive S3 cells. While bMSCs form vessel-like structures within Matrigel both in vitro and in vivo and chemoattract endothelial cells, there appeared to be no difference between T4-2/bMSC mixed xenografts and T4-2 xenografts with regard to intra- or peri-tumoral vascularity. Collectively, our data suggest that bMSCs may contribute to the progression of basal-like breast cancers by stimulating growth and invasion but not vasculogenesis or angiogenesis. PMID:22669576

Zhao, Min; Sachs, Patrick C; Wang, Xu; Dumur, Catherine I; Idowu, Michael O; Robila, Valentina; Francis, Michael P; Ware, Joy; Beckman, Matthew; Rizki, Aylin; Holt, Shawn E; Elmore, Lynne W

2012-07-01

315

White feces syndrome of shrimp arises from transformation, sloughing and aggregation of hepatopancreatic microvilli into vermiform bodies superficially resembling gregarines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens. Thus, the cause of ATM and their relationship (if any) to AHPND should be determined. PMID:24911022

Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W

2014-01-01

316

Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a case of report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endometrioid carcinoma is a common tumor of the female genital tract, mainly affecting the uterus corpus and ovary. In the fallopian tube, endometrioid carcinoma is relatively uncommon. The female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin (FATWO), although occasionally seen elsewhere, is most typically encountered in the broad ligament. Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO is a rare type of endometrioid carcinoma, and only 20 cases have been reported to date. Here, we report a case of endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO and review the literature. A 67-year-old woman presented with a history of prolapse for about one month outside the vulva. Physical examination and pelvic ultrasonography of the patient revealed a streak mass covering the left ovary. A total hysterectomy and a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. The tumor was confined to the tube and strongly resembled FATWO. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for AE1/AE3, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and p16, but negative for CD10, inhibin-alpha, calretinin, vimentin, myogenin, and desmin, CD99,CgA, and Syn. We review the previously published cases of endometrioid carcinomas of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO, and discuss the principal differential diagnosis of the tumor in the fallopian tube. PMID:19457622

Huang, Wenbin; Zhao, Youcai; Zhao, Jianhua; Huang, Yue; Wang, Jinsong; Zhang, Qi

2010-03-15

317

Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

2014-07-16

318

Anaplastic transformation of an atypical intraventricular meningioma with metastases to the liver: case report / Transformación anaplásica de un meningioma atípico intraventricular con metástasis hepáticas: caso clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares son muy infrecuentes. En la bibliografía existente sólo se han descrito once casos hasta ahora. Siete de ellos desarrollaron metástasis a través del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR). Presentamos el primer caso de un meningioma maligno intraventricu [...] lar con metástasis extraneurales. Caso clínico. Paciente varón de 44 años de edad con una clínica de cefalea progresiva y desorientación. La resonancia magnética mostraba un proceso expansivo intracraneal en el trígono derecho con captación de contraste de forma homogénea. Intervención. Se practicó una resección total de la lesión a través de un acceso transcortical. El análisis histológico mostró un meningioma atípico. A pesar de la resección total, el tumor recidivó otras dos veces. Después de la primera recidiva, el tumor fue extirpado nuevamente y el paciente recibió radioterapia externa. En la segunda recidiva, el tumor se comportó de forma más agresiva, invadiendo el parénquima cerebral. El análisis histológico mostraba un meningioma anaplásico. El paciente fue ingresado nuevamente por fiebre y dolor en el hipocondrio derecho. Una ecografía abdominal mostró múltiples lesiones hipoecogénicas hepáticas. La biopsia de dichas lesiones fue compatible con metástasis del meningioma maligno. El paciente falleció debido a una insuficiencia hepática aguda siete meses después del diagnóstico inicial. Conclusiones. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares tienden a recurrir y producir metástasis, principalmente a través del LCR. Sin embargo, nuestro caso muestra que los meningioma malignos intraventriculares también pueden metastatizar fuera del sistema nervioso central, siendo el primer caso descrito. Por lo tanto, cuando un deterioro sistémico ocurra en un paciente con un meningioma maligno intraventricular debería descartarse la posibilidad de metástasis extraneurales como sucedió en este caso. Abstract in english Objective. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are very rare. To the best of our knowledge, only eleven cases have been reported thus far. Seven of them developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metastases. We present herein the first case of a malignant intraventricular meningioma with extraneural met [...] astases. Clinical presentation. We report a 44 year-old-man with a history of progressive headache and disorientation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 5-cm homogeneously-enhancing mass in the right trigone. Intervention. The lesion was totally resected via a parietooccipital transcortical approach. Histological examination demonstrated an atypical meningioma. Thereafter, the tumor recurred twice. At first recurrence, the tumor was completely removed again and external radiotherapy was administered. At surgery at second recurrence, the tumor was more aggressive, invading the brain parenchyma. Histological examination showed anaplastic meningioma. The patient was readmitted to hospital with fever and pain in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound examination disclosed multiple hypoechoic liver lesions. Biopsy was consistent with liver metastases of a malignant meningioma. The patient died of acute liver failure seven months after initial diagnosis. Conclusion. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are prone to recur and develop metastases, mainly through the CSF. Nevertheless, our case shows that extraneural metastases are also possible. Therefore, when systemic deterioration occurs in a patient with a malignant intraventricular meningioma, metastases to extraneural organs such as the liver must be ruled out.

M., García-Conde; H., Roldan-Delgado; D., Martel-Barth-Hansen; C., Manzano-Sanz.

2009-12-01

319

A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible cytotoxicity, effective transfection, “smart” cancer targeting, and therefore is a promising siRNA nanocarrier. Keywords: small interfering RNA, dendrimer, gene silencing, human ether-à-go-go-related gene, anaplastic thyroid cancer

Li G

2013-03-01

320

Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosomal translocations involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are the driving mutations for a range of cancers and ALK is thus considered an attractive therapeutic target. We synthesized a series of functionalized benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines by an aza-Graebe-Ullman reaction, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. A sequential regioselective cross-coupling route is reported for the synthesis of unsymmetrically disubstituted benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines. The inhibition of ALK was evaluated and compound 19 in particular showed good activity against both the wild type and crizotinib-resistant L1196M mutant in vitro and in ALK-transfected BaF3 cells. PMID:24468632

Tardy, Sébastien; Orsato, Alexandre; Mologni, Luca; Bisson, William H; Donadoni, Carla; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Scapozza, Leonardo; Gueyrard, David; Goekjian, Peter G

2014-02-15

 
 
 
 
321

RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

2014-11-21

322

Matrix comparison, Part 2 : Measuring the resemblance between proximity measures or ordination results by use of the mantel and procrustes statistics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case of the Mantel test, the degree of resemblance between two measures forecast their potentially different affect upon ordination and clustering results. In principle, two proximity measures with a very strong resemblance most likely produce identical results, thus, choice of measure between the two becomes less important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical solution provided by the superimposition plot and the resulting decomposition of variance components. Accordingly, the Procrustes analysis provides not only a measure of general fit between configurations, but also values for individual objects enabling more elaborate validations. As such, the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures.

Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

2007-01-01

323

A phase 3 randomized study of radiotherapy plus procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) with or without BUdR for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma: a preliminary report of RTOG 9404  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was an open label, randomized Phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed patients with anaplastic glioma comparing radiotherapy plus adjuvant procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) given as a 96-hour infusion each week of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Only patients 18 years or older with newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma were eligible; central pathology review was accomplished, but was not mandated prior to registration. The study had initially opened as a Northern California Oncology Group (NCOG) trial in 1991, becoming an Intergroup RTOG, SWOG, and NCCTG study in July 1994. Total accrual of 293 patients was planned as the sample size, using survival and time to tumor progression as the primary endpoints. The experiment arm (RT/BUdR plus PCV) was to be compared to the control arm (RT plus PCV) using an alpha = 0.05, one-tailed, with a power of 85% for detecting an increase in median survival from 160 to 240 weeks, assuming a 3-year follow-up after completion of enrollment. Results: As of July 1996, 281 patients had been randomized; 53 (20%) were ineligible, primarily based upon central pathology review, and another 39 cases were canceled. In total, 30% of cases were excluded from analysis. The treatment arms were well balanced despite this rate of exclusion. The RTOG Data Monitoring Committee recommended suspension of enrollment in July 1996 based upon a stochastic curtailment analysis which strongly suggested that the addition of BUdR would not be associated with increased survival. In February 1997, the study was closed prior to full enrollment. At that time, the 1-year survival estimates were 82% versus 68% for RT plus PCV and RT/BUdR plus PCV respectively (one-sided, p = 0.96). The conditional power analysis indicated that even with an additional 12 months of additional accrual and follow-up the probability of detecting the prespecified difference was less than 0.01%. The differences in the two arms seem to be due to early deaths in the BUdR arm, not related to toxicity of the treatment. Conclusions: Despite encouraging Phase 2 results with BUdR, it is unlikely that a survival benefit will be seen. A final study analysis will not be done for at least 3 more years

324

Synthetic nanoemulsion resembling a protein-free model of 7-ketocholesterol containing low density lipoprotein: In vitro and in vivo studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol, commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL. Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. For instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior. This would provide a suitable artificial particle resembling LDL to study 7-KC metabolism. We were able to incorpórate 7-KC in several amounts into LDE. The incorporation was evaluated and confirmed by several methods, including gel filtration chromatography, using radiolabeled lipids. The incorporation did not change the main lipid composition characteristics of the new nanoparticle. Particle sizes were also evaluated and did not differ from LDE. In vivo studies were performed by injecting the nanoemulsion into mice. The plasma kinetics and the targeted organs were the same as described for LDE. Therefore, 7-KC-LDE maintains composition, size and some functional characteristics of LDE and could be used in experiments dealing with 7-ketocholesterol metabolism in lipoproteins.

Giovani M Favero

2010-01-01

325

Synthetic nanoemulsion resembling a protein-free model of 7-ketocholesterol containing low density lipoprotein: In vitro and in vivo studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol), commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Fo [...] r instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior. This would provide a suitable artificial particle resembling LDL to study 7-KC metabolism. We were able to incorpórate 7-KC in several amounts into LDE. The incorporation was evaluated and confirmed by several methods, including gel filtration chromatography, using radiolabeled lipids. The incorporation did not change the main lipid composition characteristics of the new nanoparticle. Particle sizes were also evaluated and did not differ from LDE. In vivo studies were performed by injecting the nanoemulsion into mice. The plasma kinetics and the targeted organs were the same as described for LDE. Therefore, 7-KC-LDE maintains composition, size and some functional characteristics of LDE and could be used in experiments dealing with 7-ketocholesterol metabolism in lipoproteins.

Giovani M, Favero; Raul C, Maranhão; Durvanei A, Maria; Débora, Levy; Sérgio P, Bydlowski.

326

Telomerase expression in gliomas including the nonastrocytic tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that consists of a RNA component for synthesizing telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome ends, so that telomere length can be maintained; telomerase activation in general signifies immortalization of cells. Because the telomerase activity of only a few cases of nonastrocytic gliomas and low-grade astrocytic gliomas have been examined before, telomerase activity from a broad spectrum of astrocytic and nonastrocytic gliomas were examined in this study. A total of 119 brain tumor samples, including 16 pilocytic astrocytomas, one dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), two pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA), 15 ependymomas, 21 oligodendrogliomas, 13 grade II astrocytomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 38 glioblastoma multiforme tumors (GBM), were studied, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. All pilocytic astrocytomas, DNT, PXA, and myxopapillary ependymomas were telomerase negative. Three of 13 (15.4%) classical ependymomas, 2 of 14 (14.3%) grade II oligodendrogliomas, and three of seven (42.9%) anaplastic oligodendrogliomas had detectable telomerase activity. The frequency of telomerase expression in ependymomas and oligodendrogliomas was lower than those observed in astrocytic tumors: fibrillary astrocytoma, 23.1%; anaplastic astrocytoma, 23.1%; and GBM, 26.3%. The mean age of telomerase-positive GBM patients (61.7 years) was significantly higher than that of telomerase-negative GBM patients (47.8 years, P=.002). These results suggest that telomerase activation may occur early in glial tumorigenesis, and astrocytomas may have mechanisms of immortalization other than telomerase activation. PMID:9635680

Chong, E Y; Lam, P Y; Poon, W S; Ng, H K

1998-06-01

327

Review of the Article by Orlando Lourenco:Piaget and Vygotsky: Many resemblances, and a crucial difference(NewIdeasinPsychology 30 (2012 P. 281-295  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article sets a goal to introduce readers to the article of Orlando Lourenco, professor of Lisbon University, who suggests totally new (and from his point of view unreasonably ignored for a long period of time parameters of assessing resemblances and differences in approaches of two influential developmental psychologists (Piaget and Vygotsky to several fundamental problems of psychology: 1the origins of knowledge and motor of development; 2 influence of equal vs. those based on authorities relations on child development and learning; 3 the more appropriate method for studying developmental changes; 4the importance of the distinction between true vs. necessary knowledge;5 the role of transformation vs. transmission in the development and learning phenomena.

Alexeyeva G.V.

2013-06-01

328

[Arteriovenous malformation resembling galenic aneurysm].  

Science.gov (United States)

A girl who had just turned one year old was transported to our hospital because of an episode of general convulsive seizure. Neurological examinations demonstrated a comatose consciousness level, moderate right hemiparesis and conjugate deviation to the right. CT scan on admission revealed an intracerebral hematoma in the left medial temporal lobe associated with intraventricular hemorrhage in the lateral and third ventricles. MRI also showed the hematoma with evidence of a dilated venous system. Angiography demonstrated a huge venous sac fed by the left posterior choroidal artery and left anterior choroidal artery drained ultimately into the remnant of the tentorial sinus. Firstly, two courses of transfemoral embolization using platinum micro-coils were performed. Initially, the posterior choroidal artery and a branch of the anterior choroidal artery were occluded successfully. Then, two branches from the posterior cerebral artery were occluded one week after the initial procedure. She underwent the operation via the left subtemporal approach. After the CSF removal through the Sylvian fissure, the gentle elevation of the left temporal lobe allowed the visualization of the feeders and the pulsating venous sac. After the complete obliteration of the feeding arteries and removal of the nidus, the interruption was verified by using doppler sonography and intraoperative angiography. Postoperative course was uneventful. The infant was discharged without deficit on the 30th postoperative day. The authors discussed the embryological implications of this type of AVM and the role of endovascular surgery. PMID:8361571

Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T; Torigoe, R; Utsunomiya, H; Ogasawara, T; Goto, K

1993-08-01

329

Spinal myoclonus resembling belly dance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 63-year-old man presented with an 11-month history of progressive myoclonus in the right abdominal wall. Administration of clonazepam reduced the frequency and amplitude. When the therapy was discontinued, the frequency and amplitude of the myoclonus increased, and synchronous and weak myoclonus also was observed in the left abdomen. The trunk was twisted just after the appearance of the abdominal myoclonus associated with myoclonic jerks spreading from the rostral to caudal paraspinal muscles. Later in the clinical course, the myoclonus became stimulus sensitive and was induced by tendon tap given anywhere on the body, with the latency ranging from 50 to 150 ms irrespective of the sites of tapping. Myoclonus seen in the abdominal wall was segmental and considered to be of spinal origin. The reflex myoclonus had a 150-ms refractory period. It can be postulated that increased excitability of anterior horn cells at a certain segment might make a spino-bulbo-spinal reflex manifest at the corresponding segment. This myoclonus is considered to be a new form of spinal reflex myoclonus, because the abdominal myoclonic jerk seems to trigger another myoclonic jerk involving the paraspinal muscles. PMID:8041373

Kono, I; Ueda, Y; Araki, K; Nakajima, K; Shibasaki, H

1994-05-01

330

Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D{sub 5%} of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D{sub 98%}, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V{sub 100%} of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V{sub 100%} of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D{sub 98%} to D{sub 80%}) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D{sub 10%} and D{sub 5%}. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

Sudahar, H., E-mail: h.sudahar@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Mahadev, P. [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2013-01-01

331

Afasia de conducción como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico parieto-temporo-occipital izquierdo: estudio de caso / Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La afasia de conducción es un trastorno caracterizado por un lenguaje espontáneo relativamente fluido, buena comprensión, pero dificultades en la repetición asociadas con parafasias fonológicas. Se ha atribuido a lesiones del fascículo arqueado por desconexión entre el lóbulo temporal posterior y el [...] frontal; sin embargo, se ha debatido esta postura, planteando que la integridad y funcionamiento del fascículo arqueado no es indispensable en la repetición verbal. Se presenta un caso de un sujeto varón de 23 años que, como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico recidivante que abarca áreas parietales y temporo-occipitales, presenta una afasia de conducción. Se plantea una reconceptualización de esta afasia, analizándola en términos clínicos, neuropsicológicos y en las redes neuronales existentes entre áreas cerebrales posteriores ipsilaterales y contralaterales. Abstract in english Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection betwe [...] en posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas.

OSCAR MAURICIO, AGUILAR MEJÍA; BEATRIZ, RAMÍREZ BERBERJO; JUAN CARLOS, ACEVEDO GONZÁLEZ; MIGUEL ENRIQUE, BERBEO CALDERÓN.

332

Afasia de conducción como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico parieto-temporo-occipital izquierdo: estudio de caso / Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La afasia de conducción es un trastorno caracterizado por un lenguaje espontáneo relativamente fluido, buena comprensión, pero dificultades en la repetición asociadas con parafasias fonológicas. Se ha atribuido a lesiones del fascículo arqueado por desconexión entre el lóbulo temporal posterior y el [...] frontal; sin embargo, se ha debatido esta postura, planteando que la integridad y funcionamiento del fascículo arqueado no es indispensable en la repetición verbal. Se presenta un caso de un sujeto varón de 23 años que, como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico recidivante que abarca áreas parietales y temporo-occipitales, presenta una afasia de conducción. Se plantea una reconceptualización de esta afasia, analizándola en términos clínicos, neuropsicológicos y en las redes neuronales existentes entre áreas cerebrales posteriores ipsilaterales y contralaterales. Abstract in english Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection betwe [...] en posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas.

OSCAR MAURICIO, AGUILAR MEJÍA; BEATRIZ, RAMÍREZ BERBERJO; JUAN CARLOS, ACEVEDO GONZÁLEZ; MIGUEL ENRIQUE, BERBEO CALDERÓN.

2011-01-01

333

A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

334

Auditory and behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to impulsive sounds resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure masked underwater hearing thresholds in two bottlenose dolphins and one beluga whale before and after exposure to impulsive underwater sounds with waveforms resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions. An array of piezoelectric transducers was used to generate impulsive sounds with waveforms approximating those predicted from 5 or 500 kg HBX-1 charges at ranges from 1.5 to 55.6 km. At the conclusion of the study, no temporary shifts in masked-hearing thresholds (MTTSs), defined as a 6-dB or larger increase in threshold over pre-exposure levels, had been observed at the highest impulse level generated (500 kg at 1.7 km, peak pressure 70 kPa); however, disruptions of the animals' trained behaviors began to occur at exposures corresponding to 5 kg at 9.3 km and 5 kg at 1.5 km for the dolphins and 500 kg at 1.9 km for the beluga whale. These data are the first direct information regarding the effects of distant underwater explosion signatures on the hearing abilities of odontocetes. PMID:10923904

Finneran, J J; Schlundt, C E; Carder, D A; Clark, J A; Young, J A; Gaspin, J B; Ridgway, S H

2000-07-01

335

Keratin 6a marks mammary bipotential progenitor cells that can give rise to a unique tumor model resembling human normal-like breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progenitor cells are considered an important cell of origin of human malignancies. However, there has not been any single gene that can define mammary bipotential progenitor cells, and as such it has not been possible to use genetic methods to introduce oncogenic alterations into these cells in vivo to study tumorigenesis from them. Keratin 6a is expressed in a subset of mammary luminal epithelial cells and body cells of terminal end buds. By generating transgenic mice using the Keratin 6a (K6a) gene promoter to express tumor virus A (tva), which encodes the receptor for avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV/A), we provide direct evidence that K6a(+) cells are bipotential progenitor cells, and the first demonstration of a non-basal location for some biopotential progenitor cells. These K6a(+) cells were readily induced to form mammary tumors by intraductal injection of RCAS (an ALV/A-derived vector) carrying the gene encoding the polyoma middle T antigen. Tumors in this K6a-tva line were papillary and resembled the normal breast-like subtype of human breast cancer. This is the first model of this subtype of human tumors and thus may be useful for preclinical testing of targeted therapy for patients with normal-like breast cancer. These observations also provide direct in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the cell of origin affects mammary tumor phenotypes. PMID:21532625

Bu, W; Chen, J; Morrison, G D; Huang, S; Creighton, C J; Huang, J; Chamness, G C; Hilsenbeck, S G; Roop, D R; Leavitt, A D; Li, Y

2011-10-27

336

Effect of a cholesterol-rich diet on the metabolism of the free and esterified cholesterol components of a nanoemulsion that resembles LDL in rabbits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have shown that the free cholesterol (FC and the cholesteryl ester (CE moieties of a nanoemulsion with lipidic structure resembling low-density lipoproteins show distinct metabolic fate in subjects and that this may be related to the presence of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The question was raised whether induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits would affect the metabolic behavior of the two cholesterol forms. Male New Zealand rabbits aged 4-5 months were allocated to a control group (N = 17 fed regular chow and to a 1% cholesterol-fed group (N = 13 during a 2-month period. Subsequently, the nanoemulsion labeled with ³H-FC and 14C-CE was injected intravenously for the determination of plasma kinetics and tissue uptake of the radioactive labels. In controls, FC and CE had similar plasma kinetics (fractional clearance rate, FCR = 0.234 ± 0.056 and 0.170 ± 0.038 h-1, respectively; P = 0.065. In cholesterol-fed rabbits, the clearance of both labels was delayed and, as a remarkable feature, FC-FCR (0.089 ± 0.033 h-1 was considerably greater than CE-FCR (0.046 ± 0.010 h-1; P = 0.026. In the liver, the major nanoemulsion uptake site, uptake of the labels was similar in control animals (FC = 0.2256 ± 0.1475 and CE = 0.2135 ± 0.1580%/g but in cholesterol-fed animals FC uptake (0.0890 ± 0.0319%/g was greater than CE uptake (0.0595 ± 0.0207%/g; P < 0.05. Therefore, whereas in controls, FC and CE have similar metabolism, the induction of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis resulted in dissociation of the two forms of cholesterol.

A.F. Padoveze

2009-02-01

337

Lipid dependence of diadinoxanthin solubilization and de-epoxidation in artificial membrane systems resembling the lipid composition of the natural thylakoid membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the solubility and enzymatic de-epoxidation of diadinoxanthin (Ddx) was investigated in three different artificial membrane systems: (1) Unilamellar liposomes composed of different concentrations of the bilayer forming lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and the inverted hexagonal phase (H(II) phase) forming lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), (2) liposomes composed of PC and the H(II) phase forming lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and (3) an artificial membrane system composed of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and MGDG, which resembles the lipid composition of the natural thylakoid membrane. Our results show that Ddx de-epoxidation strongly depends on the concentration of the inverted hexagonal phase forming lipids MGDG or PE in the liposomes composed of PC or DGDG, thus indicating that the presence of inverted hexagonal structures is essential for Ddx de-epoxidation. The difference observed for the solubilization of Ddx in H(II) phase forming lipids compared with bilayer forming lipids indicates that Ddx is not equally distributed in the liposomes composed of different concentrations of bilayer versus non-bilayer lipids. In artificial membranes with a high percentage of bilayer lipids, a large part of Ddx is located in the membrane bilayer. In membranes composed of equal proportions of bilayer and H(II) phase forming lipids, the majority of the Ddx molecules is located in the inverted hexagonal structures. The significance of the pigment distribution and the three-dimensional structure of the H(II) phase for the de-epoxidation reaction is discussed, and a possible scenario for the lipid dependence of Ddx (and violaxanthin) de-epoxidation in the native thylakoid membrane is proposed. PMID:16843433

Goss, Reimund; Latowski, Dariusz; Grzyb, Joanna; Vieler, Astrid; Lohr, Martin; Wilhelm, Christian; Strzalka, Kazimierz

2007-01-01

338

Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ? 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ? Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ? Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP. ? The release of AIF and Endo G contributes importantly to cell death. ? Alterations of SOD1 or SOD2 levels alter menadione-induced neuronal cytotoxicity.

339

Some phorbol esters might partially resemble bryostatin 1 in their actions on LNCaP prostate cancer cells and U937 leukemia cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and bryostatin 1 are both potent protein kinase C (PKC) activators. In LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, PMA induces tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) secretion and inhibits proliferation; bryostatin 1 does not, and indeed blocks the response to PMA. This difference has been attributed to bryostatin 1 not localizing PKC? to the plasma membrane. Since phorbol ester lipophilicity influences PKC? localization, we have examined in LNCaP cells a series of phorbol esters and related derivatives spanning some eight logs in lipophilicity (logP) to see if any behave like bryostatin 1. The compounds showed marked differences in their effects on proliferation and TNF? secretion. For example, maximal responses for TNF? secretion relative to PMA ranged from 97?% for octyl-indolactam V to 24?% for phorbol 12,13-dibenzoate. Dose-response curves ranged from monophasic for indolactam V to markedly biphasic for sapintoxin D. The divergent patterns of response, however, correlated neither to lipophilicity, to plasma membrane translocation of PKC?, nor to the ability to interact with model membranes. In U937 human leukemia cells, a second system in which PMA and bryostatin 1 have divergent effects, viz. PMA but not bryostatin 1 inhibits proliferation and induces attachment, all the compounds acted like PMA for proliferation, but several induced a reduced level or a biphasic dose-response curve for attachment. We conclude that active phorbol esters are not all equivalent. Depending on the system, some might partially resemble bryostatin 1 in their behavior; this encourages the concept that bryostatin-like behavior may be obtained from other structural templates. PMID:21542090

Kedei, Noemi; Lubart, Emanuel; Lewin, Nancy E; Telek, Andrea; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H; Kraft, Matthew B; Keck, Gary E; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Jelinek, Raz; Blumberg, Peter M

2011-05-16

340

Human XCR1+ dendritic cells derived in vitro from CD34+ progenitors closely resemble blood dendritic cells, including their adjuvant responsiveness, contrary to monocyte-derived dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) have been used in the clinic with moderately encouraging results. Mouse XCR1(+) DC excel at cross-presentation, can be targeted in vivo to induce protective immunity, and share characteristics with XCR1(+) human DC. Assessment of the immunoactivation potential of XCR1(+) human DC is hindered by their paucity in vivo and by their lack of a well-defined in vitro counterpart. We report in this study a protocol generating both XCR1(+) and XCR1(-) human DC in CD34(+) progenitor cultures (CD34-DC). Gene expression profiling, phenotypic characterization, and functional studies demonstrated that XCR1(-) CD34-DC are similar to canonical MoDC, whereas XCR1(+) CD34-DC resemble XCR1(+) blood DC (bDC). XCR1(+) DC were strongly activated by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid but not LPS, and conversely for MoDC. XCR1(+) DC and MoDC expressed strikingly different patterns of molecules involved in inflammation and in cross-talk with NK or T cells. XCR1(+) CD34-DC but not MoDC efficiently cross-presented a cell-associated Ag upon stimulation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or R848, likewise to what was reported for XCR1(+) bDC. Hence, it is feasible to generate high numbers of bona fide XCR1(+) human DC in vitro as a model to decipher the functions of XCR1(+) bDC and as a potential source of XCR1(+) DC for clinical use. PMID:25009205

Balan, Sreekumar; Ollion, Vincent; Colletti, Nicholas; Chelbi, Rabie; Montanana-Sanchis, Frédéric; Liu, Hong; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Sanchez, Cindy; Savoret, Juliette; Perrot, Ivan; Doffin, Anne-Claire; Fossum, Even; Bechlian, Didier; Chabannon, Christian; Bogen, Bjarne; Asselin-Paturel, Carine; Shaw, Michael; Soos, Timothy; Caux, Christophe; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny; Dalod, Marc

2014-08-15

 
 
 
 
341

Human CD4+ T Cell Responses to the Dog Major Allergen Can f 1 and Its Human Homologue Tear Lipocalin Resemble Each Other  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipocalin allergens form a notable group of proteins, as they contain most of the significant respiratory allergens from mammals. The basis for the allergenic capacity of allergens in the lipocalin family, that is, the development of T-helper type 2 immunity against them, is still unresolved. As immunogenicity has been proposed to be a decisive feature of allergens, the purpose of this work was to examine human CD4+ T cell responses to the major dog allergen Can f 1 and to compare them with those to its human homologue, tear lipocalin (TL). For this, specific T cell lines were induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Can f 1-allergic and healthy dog dust-exposed subjects with peptides containing the immunodominant T cell epitopes of Can f 1 and the corresponding TL peptides. We found that the frequency of Can f 1 and TL-specific T cells in both subject groups was low and close to each other, the difference being about two-fold. Importantly, we found that the proliferative responses of both Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines from allergic subjects were stronger than those from healthy subjects, but that the strength of the responses within the subject groups did not differ between these two antigens. Moreover, the phenotype of the Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines, determined by cytokine production and expression of cell surface markers, resembled each other. The HLA system appeared to have a minimal role in explaining the allergenicity of Can f 1, as the allergic and healthy subjects' HLA background did not differ, and HLA binding was very similar between Can f 1 and TL peptides. Along with existing data on lipocalin allergens, we conclude that strong antigenicity is not decisive for the allergenicity of Can f 1. PMID:24875388

Liukko, Aino L. K.; Kinnunen, Tuure T.; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja A.; Kailaanmäki, Anssi H. T.; Randell, Jukka T.; Maillère, Bernard; Virtanen, Tuomas I.

2014-01-01

342

Acute oropharyngeal palsy with localized sensory impairment resembling symptom distribution of acute pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the case of a 40-year-old woman who experienced dysarthria and, numbness in her upper extremities and posterior region of her neck. Upon admission to our hospital, neurological examination revealed rhinolalia aperta and an incomplete palatoplegia; however, muscle strength in the neck and limbs was satisfactorily preserved, tendon reflexes were normal, and pathological reflexes were not observed. Cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiological test results were also normal. On day 3 of hospitalization, a slight backflow of fluid into the nasal cavity was observed upon deglutition, and vibration perception was also impaired in the bilateral arms. Her serum tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against such gangliosides as GT1a, GQ1b, GT1b, and GD1a. Despite normal tendon reflexes, she was diagnosed with a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Subsequently, her symptoms improved. Due to the combination of oropharyngeal palsy and sensory impairment, it was more likely the GBS subtype in this patient was acute oropharyngeal palsy (AOP) rather than pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant; though interestingly, the patient's sensory disturbance was limited to the posterior neck and upper extremities, which resembles the distribution of motor symptoms in PCB variant. The present case was a rare and important phenotype, demonstrating diversities of GBS variants. We also believe that GBS subtypes may represent a continuum of pathological conditions and not just one static condition. However, further studies involving serological characteristics of anti-ganglioside antibodies and clinical features for GBS are needed to clarify this possibility. PMID:23965855

Nakajima, Nobuhito; Ueda, Masayuki; Nomura, Koichi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Katayama, Yasuo

2013-01-01

343

Human CD4+ T cell responses to the dog major allergen Can f 1 and its human homologue tear lipocalin resemble each other.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipocalin allergens form a notable group of proteins, as they contain most of the significant respiratory allergens from mammals. The basis for the allergenic capacity of allergens in the lipocalin family, that is, the development of T-helper type 2 immunity against them, is still unresolved. As immunogenicity has been proposed to be a decisive feature of allergens, the purpose of this work was to examine human CD4+ T cell responses to the major dog allergen Can f 1 and to compare them with those to its human homologue, tear lipocalin (TL). For this, specific T cell lines were induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Can f 1-allergic and healthy dog dust-exposed subjects with peptides containing the immunodominant T cell epitopes of Can f 1 and the corresponding TL peptides. We found that the frequency of Can f 1 and TL-specific T cells in both subject groups was low and close to each other, the difference being about two-fold. Importantly, we found that the proliferative responses of both Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines from allergic subjects were stronger than those from healthy subjects, but that the strength of the responses within the subject groups did not differ between these two antigens. Moreover, the phenotype of the Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines, determined by cytokine production and expression of cell surface markers, resembled each other. The HLA system appeared to have a minimal role in explaining the allergenicity of Can f 1, as the allergic and healthy subjects' HLA background did not differ, and HLA binding was very similar between Can f 1 and TL peptides. Along with existing data on lipocalin allergens, we conclude that strong antigenicity is not decisive for the allergenicity of Can f 1. PMID:24875388

Liukko, Aino L K; Kinnunen, Tuure T; Rytkönen-Nissinen, Marja A; Kailaanmäki, Anssi H T; Randell, Jukka T; Maillère, Bernard; Virtanen, Tuomas I

2014-01-01

344

Interleukin 32 (IL-32) contains a typical ?-helix bundle structure that resembles focal adhesion targeting region of focal adhesion kinase-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

IL-32 can be expressed in several isoforms. The amino acid sequences of the major IL-32 isoforms were used to predict the secondary and tertiary protein structure by I-TASSER software. The secondary protein structure revealed coils and ?-helixes, but no ? sheets. Furthermore, IL-32 contains an RGD motif, which potentially activates procaspase-3 intracellular and or binds to integrins. Mutation of the RGD motif did not result in inhibition of the IL-32?- or IL-32?-induced cytotoxicity mediated through caspase-3. Although IL-32? interacted with the extracellular part of ?V?3 and ?V?6 integrins, only the ?V?3 binding was inhibited by small RGD peptides. Additionally, IL-32? was able to bind to ?V?3 integrins, whereas this binding was not inhibited by small RGD peptides. In addition to the IL-32/integrin interactions, we observed that IL-32 is also able to interact with intracellular proteins that are involved in integrin and focal adhesion signaling. Modeling of IL-32 revealed a distinct ?-helix protein resembling the focal adhesion targeting region of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK resulted in modulation of the IL-32?- or IL-32?-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, IL-32? binds to paxillin without the RGD motif being involved. Finally, FAK inhibited IL-32?/paxillin binding, whereas FAK also could interact with IL-32?, demonstrating that IL-32 is a member of the focal adhesion protein complex. This study demonstrates for the first time that IL-32 binds to the extracellular domain of integrins and to intracellular proteins like paxillin and FAK, suggesting a dual role for IL-32 in integrin signaling. PMID:22203669

Heinhuis, Bas; Koenders, Marije I; van den Berg, Wim B; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

2012-02-17

345

Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs. PMID:24704673

Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

2014-08-01

346

Familial resemblance for free androgens and androgen glucuronides in sedentary black and white individuals: the HERITAGE Family Study. Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familial correlation analyses were used to evaluate the familial aggregation of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides (testosterone (TESTO), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol glucuronide (3 alpha-DIOL-G), and androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G)) in 505 members of 99 white families and 296 members of 111 black families participating in the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study. Each of these four measures was determined by RIA after separation of conjugated and unconjugated steroid using C18 column chromatography. All participants were sedentary prior to being including in this study. Significant spouse correlations, as well as parent-offspring and sibling correlations, were found for TESTO, DHT, 3 alpha-DIOL-G, and ADT-G in the white sample, suggesting that common familial environments and genes contribute to the familial resemblance. In the black sample, significant sibling and parent-offspring correlations were found for all four phenotypes, while the spouse correlation was marginally significant for 3 alpha-DIOL-G and not significant for TESTO, DHT, and ADT-G. The non-significance of spouse correlations in the black individuals may be due to the small number of spouse pairs. The maximal heritability estimates of TESTO, DHT, 3 alpha-DIOL-G, and ADT-G were 69%, 87%, 74%, and 56% for white individuals and 70%, 73%, 62%, and 48% for black individuals respectively. Sex differences in heritability estimates were found in the white individuals, but they were less dramatic in the black individuals. In conclusion, plasma levels of androgens and androgen glucuronides are highly heritable in both white individuals and black individuals. There are notable sex differences in the white individuals. PMID:11479145

Hong, Y; Gagnon, J; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

2001-08-01

347

Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años / Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Caso clínico: Mujer de 40 años remitida a nuestro servicio por persistencia durante meses de un cuadro de blefaritis anterior de aspecto indolente con aparición de un nódulo indurado en el párpado superior derecho filiado como chalazion refractario al tratamiento convencional, asociado a adenopatía [...] preauricular ipsilateral. La biopsia extemporánea se informó como carcinoma sebáceo. Procedimos a la exéresis completa de dicho párpado y a su reconstrucción con injerto de mucosa palatina y colgajo glabelar. Posteriormente se practicó un vaciamiento cervical radical por la presencia de adenopatías de aspecto necrótico en diversos territorios linfáticos. Se biopsió el párpado inferior que resultó positivo para infiltración carcinomatosa que se trató mediante braquiterapia. Discusión: La precocidad en el diagnóstico de los carcinomas sebáceos palpebrales es el principal factor pronóstico. La reconstrucción en casos de necesidad de exéresis completa del párpado es factible mediante un injerto de mucosa de paladar. En nuestro caso, el carácter anaplásico y la alta agresividad de la neoplasia han supuesto un reto terapéutico. Abstract in english Case report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an apparent indolent anterior blepharitis with an indurated node in her right upper eyelid, which had persisted for months. It was believed to be a chalazion associated with an ipsilateral swollen pre-aurical lymph node, which ha [...] d not responded to conventional treatment. The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma. Complete exeresis was performed on that eyelid and it was reconstructed with a palate mucosa graft and a glabelar flap. A radical neck dissection was performed later, in order to remove the lymph nodes that appeared necrotic in several lymphatic areas. A biopsy was also performed on the lower eyelid, which was reported as positive for carcinomatous infiltration, and therefore it was treated with Curie-therapy. Discussion: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor. The reconstruction in cases with need of complete eyelid exeresis is feasible by means of a palate mucosa graft. In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

R., Gallego-Pinazo; E., España Gregori; J., Aviñó Martínez; L., Salom Alonso; A., Tormo Micó; R., Villanueva Martí; M., Díaz-Llopis.

348

Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman  

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Full Text Available Caso clínico: Mujer de 40 años remitida a nuestro servicio por persistencia durante meses de un cuadro de blefaritis anterior de aspecto indolente con aparición de un nódulo indurado en el párpado superior derecho filiado como chalazion refractario al tratamiento convencional, asociado a adenopatía preauricular ipsilateral. La biopsia extemporánea se informó como carcinoma sebáceo. Procedimos a la exéresis completa de dicho párpado y a su reconstrucción con injerto de mucosa palatina y colgajo glabelar. Posteriormente se practicó un vaciamiento cervical radical por la presencia de adenopatías de aspecto necrótico en diversos territorios linfáticos. Se biopsió el párpado inferior que resultó positivo para infiltración carcinomatosa que se trató mediante braquiterapia. Discusión: La precocidad en el diagnóstico de los carcinomas sebáceos palpebrales es el principal factor pronóstico. La reconstrucción en casos de necesidad de exéresis completa del párpado es factible mediante un injerto de mucosa de paladar. En nuestro caso, el carácter anaplásico y la alta agresividad de la neoplasia han supuesto un reto terapéutico.Case report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an apparent indolent anterior blepharitis with an indurated node in her right upper eyelid, which had persisted for months. It was believed to be a chalazion associated with an ipsilateral swollen pre-aurical lymph node, which had not responded to conventional treatment. The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma. Complete exeresis was performed on that eyelid and it was reconstructed with a palate mucosa graft and a glabelar flap. A radical neck dissection was performed later, in order to remove the lymph nodes that appeared necrotic in several lymphatic areas. A biopsy was also performed on the lower eyelid, which was reported as positive for carcinomatous infiltration, and therefore it was treated with Curie-therapy. Discussion: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor. The reconstruction in cases with need of complete eyelid exeresis is feasible by means of a palate mucosa graft. In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

R. Gallego-Pinazo

2010-02-01

349

Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años / Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Caso clínico: Mujer de 40 años remitida a nuestro servicio por persistencia durante meses de un cuadro de blefaritis anterior de aspecto indolente con aparición de un nódulo indurado en el párpado superior derecho filiado como chalazion refractario al tratamiento convencional, asociado a adenopatía [...] preauricular ipsilateral. La biopsia extemporánea se informó como carcinoma sebáceo. Procedimos a la exéresis completa de dicho párpado y a su reconstrucción con injerto de mucosa palatina y colgajo glabelar. Posteriormente se practicó un vaciamiento cervical radical por la presencia de adenopatías de aspecto necrótico en diversos territorios linfáticos. Se biopsió el párpado inferior que resultó positivo para infiltración carcinomatosa que se trató mediante braquiterapia. Discusión: La precocidad en el diagnóstico de los carcinomas sebáceos palpebrales es el principal factor pronóstico. La reconstrucción en casos de necesidad de exéresis completa del párpado es factible mediante un injerto de mucosa de paladar. En nuestro caso, el carácter anaplásico y la alta agresividad de la neoplasia han supuesto un reto terapéutico. Abstract in english Case report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an apparent indolent anterior blepharitis with an indurated node in her right upper eyelid, which had persisted for months. It was believed to be a chalazion associated with an ipsilateral swollen pre-aurical lymph node, which ha [...] d not responded to conventional treatment. The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma. Complete exeresis was performed on that eyelid and it was reconstructed with a palate mucosa graft and a glabelar flap. A radical neck dissection was performed later, in order to remove the lymph nodes that appeared necrotic in several lymphatic areas. A biopsy was also performed on the lower eyelid, which was reported as positive for carcinomatous infiltration, and therefore it was treated with Curie-therapy. Discussion: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor. The reconstruction in cases with need of complete eyelid exeresis is feasible by means of a palate mucosa graft. In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

R., Gallego-Pinazo; E., España Gregori; J., Aviñó Martínez; L., Salom Alonso; A., Tormo Micó; R., Villanueva Martí; M., Díaz-Llopis.

2010-02-01

350

Central Nervous System Cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN.org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J.; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R.; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S.; Maor, Moshe H.; Moots, Paul L.; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Sills, Allen K.; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

2014-01-01

351

German-Austrian Glioma Study Phase III Randomized Multicenter Trial of Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy with BCNU or BCNU and VM26 in Malignant Supratentorial Glioma of Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients and methods: Malignant supratentorial glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma incl. gliosarcoma), age 16-70y, KPS 50-100. Postoperative randomization to chemotherapy with either BCNU (B) (80 mg/m2 x 3 every 6 weeks) alone or additional VM 26 (V) (50 mg/m2 x 3 every 6 weeks) starting concomitant with radiotherapy. Central histopathological review was required. Primary endpoints were survival time (ST) and progression free surviv...

Mu?ller, Bettina

2010-01-01

352

Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológicos como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva.Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects, as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

Rosilene C. Soares

2005-04-01

353

Stable expression of constitutively-activated STAT3 in benign prostatic epithelial cells changes their phenotype to that resembling malignant cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs are involved in growth regulation of cells. They are usually activated by phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues. In neoplastic cells, constitutive activation of STATs accompanies growth dysregulation and resistance to apoptosis through changes in gene expression, such as enhanced anti-apoptotic gene expression or reduced pro-apoptotic gene expression. Activated STAT3 is thought to play an important role in prostate cancer (PCA progression. Because we are interested in how persistently-activated STAT3 changes the cellular phenotype to a malignant one in prostate cancer, we used expression vectors containing a gene for constitutively-activated STAT3, called S3c, into NRP-152 rat and BPH-1 human benign prostatic epithelial cells. Results We observed that prostatic cell lines stably expressing S3c required STAT3 expression for survival, because they became sensitive to antisense oligonucleotide for STAT3. However, S3c-transfected cells were not sensitive to the effects of JAK inhibitors, meaning that STAT3 was constitutively-activated in these transfected cell lines. NRP-152 prostatic epithelial cells lost the requirement for exogenous growth factors. Furthermore, we observed that NRP-152 expressing S3c had enhanced mRNA levels of retinoic acid receptor (RAR-?, reduced mRNA levels of RAR-? and -?, while BPH-1 cells transfected with S3c became insensitive to the effects of androgen, and also to the effects of a testosterone antagonist. Both S3c-transfected cell lines grew in soft agar after stable transfection with S3c, however neither S3c-transfected cell line was tumorigenic in severe-combined immunodeficient mice. Conclusions We conclude, based on our findings, that persistently-activated STAT3 is an important molecular marker of prostate cancer, which develops in formerly benign prostate cells and changes their phenotype to one more closely resembling transformed prostate cells. That the S3c-transfected cell lines require the continued expression of S3c demonstrates that a significant phenotypic change occurred in the cells. These conclusions are based on our data with respect to loss of growth factor requirement, loss of androgen response, gain of growth in soft agar, and changes in RAR subunit expression, all of which are consistent with a malignant phenotype in prostate cancer. However, an additional genetic change may be required for S3c-transfected prostate cells to become tumorigenic.

Barton Arnold B

2005-01-01

354

A Practical Model of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Induces Performance and Metabolic Adaptations That Resemble 'All-Out' Sprint Interval Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ? 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ? 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key points Given the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations. The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol. PMID:24150635

Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

2011-01-01

355

Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer : 5th International Workshop on Breast Densitometry and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment, San Francisco, United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were ascertained in S2. Finally S2 was MTR scored based on textures from S1 and S2 in a leave-two-out fashion. Scores on S2 were related to future breast cancer incidence by AUC and analyses of quartiles adjusted for BMI, menopause status, and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use. A combined density and MTR model was also evaluated. RESULTS The MTR scores on S1 showed in a cross validation fashion significant capability to separate cancers from controls (AUC=0.63±0.02, p<0.001). This persisted after adjustment for mammographic density. Age of S1 was 58.0±5.7 years while age in S2 was younger with higher variation: 55.2±10.5 years. No significant difference in BMI, menopause status, or PMH was found between cases and matched controls in S2. S2 showed an AUC of 0.633, 0.613, and 0.600 based on respectively percentage density, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1 respectively. Adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed OR in quartiles of ref; 1.10 (0.64-1.89); 0.93 (0.52-1.68); 1.96 (1.19-3.23) respectively and a combined AUC of 0.654. CONCLUSION The heterogeneities that are recorded to characterize breast cancer risk in S1 were also a density independent risk factor in S2. Hence the textural patterns that indicated elevated risk persisted under differences in x-ray technology, population demographics, follow up time, and geography.

Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G

356

Duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor resembling a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis type I (von Recklinghausen's disease: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most frequent nonepithelial tumor found in the gastrointestinal tract. One important clinical problem is that gastrointestinal stromal tumors, especially the extramural growth type, can be difficult to distinguish from other organ tumors. The case of a patient with an extramural gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum that mimicked a pancreatic head tumor has previously been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient with a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth that mimicked a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. In this case, the gastrointestinal stromal tumor was also associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (also known as von Recklinghausen's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the case of a patient with a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with neurofibromatosis type 1 in which the radiological findings resembled those of a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese woman with a history of neurofibromatosis type 1 was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a tumor of her pancreas. She had no symptoms, but an abdominal ultrasonography screening examination had revealed a hypoechoic mass in the head of her pancreas. Laboratory data, including tumor markers, were within the normal ranges, and her insulin and glucagon levels were also within the normal ranges. However, her plasma gastrin level was elevated at 580 pg/mL (30 to 150 pg/mL. A computed tomography examination revealed a hypervascular tumor measuring 14 mm in diameter in the head of her pancreas. We diagnosed the patient as having a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and performed a tumor resection with a duodenal wedge resection. Microscopic analysis revealed spindle cell tumors in a trabecular pattern. The patient was finally diagnosed as having a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the uncommitted type. Conclusion Extramural growth-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be difficult to distinguish from other organ tumors. In our case, a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was difficult to distinguish from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor based on radiological findings. When patients are identified as having hypervascular lesions that have adhered to the gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of an extramural growth-type gastrointestinal stromal tumor as a differential diagnosis should be considered in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

Ohtake Shinji

2010-09-01

357

Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso / Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológico [...] s como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva. Abstract in english Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects [...] , as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

Rosilene C., Soares; Andréa F., Soares; Lélia B., Souza; Aldo L. V. dos, Santos; Leão P., Pinto.

2005-04-01