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Sample records for resembled anaplastic oligodendroglioma

  1. Treatment updates regarding anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma / Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma (AO/AOA) is a WHO Grade-III primary brain tumor. These tumors comprise about 5 - 10% of all gliomas, which make them the third most common primary brain tumors after glioblastoma multiforme and astrocytomas. For many years standard of treatment remained Maximum Safe Resection (MSR) followed by Radiotherapy (RT). These tumors have also been known to be sensitive to alkylator-based chemotherapy particularly the subset having 1p/19q co-deletion signature. There is robust data showing that these tumors are responsive to chemotherapy in recurrent or progressive setting. Recently, up front chemotherapy has been added to standard post-surgery RT. It has been found that subset of AO/AOA having 1p/19q co-deletion responded very well to the addition of chemotherapy. This substantial benefit in terms of median Overall Survival (OS) and median Progression Free Survival (PFS) have intrigued the personalized treatment of AO/AOA on the basis of molecular signature markers. (author)

  2. Paraplegia due to drop metastases from anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Jakob; Tietze, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a rare case of spinal seeding from a cerebral anaplastic oligodendroglioma presenting with signs of medullar compression. We discuss the prevalence, mechanisms and imaging findings of spinal seeding in various gliomas. A suitable clinical treatment and follow up for these patients is suggested.

  3. Synchronous anaplastic oligodendroglioma and carcinoma tongue: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45-year-old female patient who harbored two synchronous primary malignant neoplasms-an anaplastic oligodendroglioma of the right frontal lobe and a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. Both neoplasms were in advanced stage and carried a dismal prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation in the english literature of such a presentation. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to this possibility and to outline the management approach in a different manner in patients presenting with multiple primary neoplasms.

  4. Acute Hydrocephalus due to Secondary Leptomeningeal Dissemination of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus; Heinz-Herrmann Hugo; Stark, Andreas M.; Maximilian Mehdorn, H.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary leptomeningeal dissemination of oligodendroglioma is very rare. We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who presented with acute hydrocephalus. 8 months before, the patient had undergone craniotomy for right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III. By that time, there was no evidence of tumor dissemination. MRI now ruled out local tumor progression but revealed meningeal contrast enhancement along the medulla, the myelon, and the cauda equina. Repeated lumbar ...

  5. Acute Hydrocephalus due to Secondary Leptomeningeal Dissemination of an Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Andreas M; Hugo, Heinz-Herrmann; Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Secondary leptomeningeal dissemination of oligodendroglioma is very rare. We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian male who presented with acute hydrocephalus. 8 months before, the patient had undergone craniotomy for right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma, WHO grade III. By that time, there was no evidence of tumor dissemination. MRI now ruled out local tumor progression but revealed meningeal contrast enhancement along the medulla, the myelon, and the cauda equina. Repeated lumbar puncture revealed increased cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) pressure and protein content. Malignant cells were not detectable. Surgical treatment consisted in (1) placement of an ommaya reservoir for daily CSF puncture, (2) Spinal dural biopsy confirming leptomeningeal oligodendroglioma metastasis, and (3) ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement after CSF protein has decreased to 1500-2000 mg/l. PMID:20052406

  6. Long-term survival in a dog with anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with radiation therapy and CCNU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yayoshi, Naoko; Fujita, Michio

    2012-11-01

    A 9 year-old, neutered, male French Bulldog showing cluster seizures was diagnosed with a glioma in the right piriform cortex by MRI. Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) was performed using a linear accelerator. Although the lesion had involuted significantly at 2 months after RT, recurrence was observed at 4 months after RT. Chemotherapy was started using CCNU (60 mg/m(2) every 6-9 weeks) and was continued for one year. Follow-up MRI revealed involution of the lesion and the intervals of CCNU were increased to every 9-14 weeks. Two years after the first presentation, the dog suffered status epilepticus, followed by deficits of left sided postural reaction with cognitive dysfunction. The dog died on day 910, and histopathological diagnosis confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:22785244

  7. Feline anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term remission through radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Ochi, Naoko; Fujita, Michio

    2013-12-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female Abyssinian cat was presented with cluster limbic focal seizures with secondary generalisation. From magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the cat was diagnosed clinically as having a glioma in the left piriform lobe, and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) was performed using a linear accelerator. Although the tumour size had reduced significantly at 4 months after RT, recurrence was observed at 11 months after RT. Additional RT was performed and was effective; however, recurrence was observed at 11 months after the additional RT. Chemotherapy was started using nimustine (ACNU; 30 mg/m(2), every 6 weeks). Tumour regression was confirmed by follow-up MRIs from 2 to 5 months after starting chemotherapy. Four years and 2 months after the first presentation the cat died as a result of tumour lysis syndrome following treatment of a high-grade lymphoma. Histopathological diagnosis of the brain tumour confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:23651604

  8. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion have a proneural gene expression profile

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    Delattre Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In high grade gliomas, 1p19q codeletion and EGFR amplification are mutually exclusive and predictive of dramatically different outcomes. We performed a microarray gene expression study of four high grade gliomas with 1p19q codeletion and nine with EGFR amplification, identified by CGH-array. Results The two groups of gliomas exhibited very different gene expression profiles and were consistently distinguished by unsupervised clustering analysis. One of the most striking differences was the expression of normal brain genes by oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion. These gliomas harbored a gene expression profile that partially resembled the gene expression of normal brain samples, whereas gliomas with EGFR amplification expressed many genes in common with glioblastoma cancer stem cells. The differences between the two types of gliomas and the expression of neuronal genes in gliomas with 1p19q codeletion were both validated in an independent series of 16 gliomas using real-time RT-PCR with a set of 22 genes differentiating the two groups of gliomas (AKR1C3, ATOH8, BMP2, C20orf42, CCNB1, CDK2, CHI3L1, CTTNBP2, DCX, EGFR, GALNT13, GBP1, IGFBP2, IQGAP1, L1CAM, NCAM1, NOG, OLIG2, PDPN, PLAT, POSTN, RNF135. Immunohistochemical study of the most differentially expressed neuronal gene, alpha-internexin, clearly differentiated the two groups of gliomas, with 1p19q codeletion gliomas showing specific staining in tumor cells. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for neuronal differentiation in oligodendrogliomas with 1p19q codeletion and support the hypothesis that the cell of origin for gliomas with 1p19q codeletion could be a bi-potential progenitor cell, able to give rise to both neurons and oligodendrocytes.

  9. Bone marrow involvement in systemic alk+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma: morphological resemblance with hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 21 years old male presented with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma was made on lymph node biopsy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies including ALK-1. Bone marrow aspiration revealed the presence of large lymphoma cells and trephine biopsy showed interstitial involvement. In addition, there was presence of binucleate cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. All these features resulted in a strong resemblance of the morphology with Hodgkin's lymphoma. (author)

  10. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOthere were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  11. Pediatric oligodendrogliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, N; Baumgartner, J; Bruner, J

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric oligodendrogliomas are infrequently occurring brain tumors and frequently thought of as benign. The literature examining treatment and outcome in this select population is sparse. A retrospective analysis of pediatric oligodendrogliomas treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1973 and 1992 was performed. Oligodendrogliomas were histologically graded according to the method of Smith. Survival data were estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Mean follow-up was 39.7 months. Nineteen children had histologically verified oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligodendroglioma/astrocytoma (M:F = 11:8; age range 1-18 years, mean = 13.1). Presenting symptoms included seizures (n = 10), headache (n = 3), visual field defects (n = 2), weakness (n = 2), cranial nerve palsy (n = 1) and decreased school performance (n = 1). All patients underwent craniotomy: 13 subtotal resections, 5 gross total resections and 1 biopsy. Twelve children had adjuvant therapy including radiation (n = 12), chemotherapy (n = 5) or both (n = 5). The 5-year survival was 65%. Seizure frequency was reduced in 30%. Children with oligodendrogliomas do not have a benign course, but younger children (resection was not found to be a factor relating to survival. No conclusions can be drawn concerning adjuvant therapy because of selection bias. PMID:9705589

  12. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients

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    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: femidas@naver.com; Suh, Yeon-Lim (Dept. of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of infiltrative lesions. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas may be more malignant than supratentorial oligodendrogliomas

  13. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had res enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of infiltrative lesions. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas may be more malignant than supratentorial oligodendrogliomas

  14. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Levidou Georgia; Korkolopoulou Penelope; Agrogiannis George; Paidakakos Nikolaos; Bouramas Dimos; Patsouris Efstratios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histologi...

  15. Age-related differences in 1p and 19q deletions in oligodendrogliomas

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    Del Bigio Marc R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports indicate that anaplastic oligodendrogliomas frequently show allelic losses on chromosome arms 1p and 19q, and that these deletions are associated with better chemotherapeutic response and overall patient survival. Because of the diversified genetic makeup of the population and the centralized provincial referral system for brain tumor patients in Manitoba, the epidemiological features of such tumors sometimes differ from the published data acquired from non-community based settings. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of allelic deletions for chromosome arms 1p and 19q in anaplastic and in low-grade oligodendrogliomas in the Manitoba population. Methods Loss of heterozygosity (LOH analysis of brain tumors was carried out using 4 microsatellite markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D19S219 and D19S412 and a PCR based assay. The tumors were consecutively acquired during the period September 1999–March 2001 and a total of 63 tumors were assessed. Results We found that allelic loss of chromosome 1p and 19q was higher in oligodendrogliomas than in other diffuse gliomas and that for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, younger patients exhibited significantly more deletions than older patients (>60 years of age. Conclusions These studies suggest that age may be a factor in the genetic alterations of oligodendrogliomas. In addition, these studies demonstrate that this assay can easily be carried out in a cost-effective manner in a small tertiary center.

  16. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with oligodendrogliomas: clinical and pathological correlation; Tomografia computadorizada e ressonancia magnetica nos oligodendrogliomas: correlacao clinica e patologica

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    Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Simao, Gustavo Novelino [Central de Diagnostico Ribeirao Preto (CEDIRP), SP (Brazil); Santos, Antonio Carlos dos; Trad, Clovis Simao [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica (CCIFM)]. E-mail: marcelo_simao@hotmail.com

    2001-06-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are neuro epithelial neoplasms that originate from oligodendrocytes. These tumors account for 4% to 7% of all primary brain tumors and are most supratentorial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations of patients with oligodendrogliomas and correlate these findings with clinical and pathological data. Oligodendrogliomas may be pure or mixed, present astrocytic elements and vary from well differentiated to anaplastic. The most common finding observed was a lesion that appeared hypodense on CT or had low-intensity signal on T 1-weighted and high-intensity signal on T 2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Cystic elements, mild surrounding edema and calcifications (usually coarse) in 2/3 of the cases were also observed. Tumor enhancement was generally mild and was observed in 80% of the cases. (author)

  17. Post-operative radiation and chemoradiation therapy with Temozolamide in patients with grade III anaplastic gliomas of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-operative radiation (RT) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT) with Temozolamide promotes 5-year survival in 52.4% of cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma and in 39.3% of cases of anaplastic astrocytoma. CRT (vs.RT) increases 5-year survival of the patients with anaplastic astrocytoma from 28.4±9.5% to 56.2 ±15.7% (p=0.042)

  18. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with oligodendrogliomas: clinical and pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligodendrogliomas are neuro epithelial neoplasms that originate from oligodendrocytes. These tumors account for 4% to 7% of all primary brain tumors and are most supratentorial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations of patients with oligodendrogliomas and correlate these findings with clinical and pathological data. Oligodendrogliomas may be pure or mixed, present astrocytic elements and vary from well differentiated to anaplastic. The most common finding observed was a lesion that appeared hypodense on CT or had low-intensity signal on T 1-weighted and high-intensity signal on T 2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Cystic elements, mild surrounding edema and calcifications (usually coarse) in 2/3 of the cases were also observed. Tumor enhancement was generally mild and was observed in 80% of the cases. (author)

  19. Characteristic CT signs in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography offers valuable aid for improving the diagnostic capabilities for oligodendrogliomas. The authors have attempted to determine more precisely the CT characteristic signs for this type of tumor and to establish criteria for predicting malignancy grade. They can conclude that calcifications are the main signs which lead to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, as the most usual calcifying glioma. This finding was known before the CT era, but with the CT one can be more exact with regard to form, growth, number and density of the calcifications and especially the smallest of them, which are not to be seen on the conventional X-ray examination. The cyst formation is another feature of oligodendroglioma. The occurrence of contrast enhancement and cyst formation are the most characteristic signs of malignancy. (C.F.)

  20. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  1. Tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética nos oligodendrogliomas: correlação clínica e patológica Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with oligodendrogliomas: clinical and pathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Novelino Simão

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas são neoplasias do tecido neuroepitelial glial originárias de oligodendrócitos. São tumores infreqüentes, responsáveis por cerca de 4% a 7% das neoplasias primárias do cérebro, predominantemente supratentoriais. O presente trabalho consistiu na avaliação dos achados de imagem pré-operatória em tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética e correlação clínica e patológica, levando-se em consideração a presença de tumores puros ou mistos, com componente astrocitário e o seu grau de anaplasia. O aspecto mais freqüente foi o de lesão hipodensa na tomografia computadorizada ou com hipossinal em T1 e hipersinal em T2 na ressonância magnética, podendo ter componente cístico, com pouco edema ao redor, apresentando calcificações, quase sempre grosseiras, em dois terços dos casos. Reforço após contraste ocorre em 80% dos casos, na maioria discreto.Oligodendrogliomas are neuroepithelial neoplasms that originate from oligodendrocytes. These tumors account for 4% to 7% of all primary brain tumors and are most supratentorial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations of patients with oligodendrogliomas and correlate these findings with clinical and pathological data. Oligodendrogliomas may be pure or mixed, present astrocytic elements and vary from well differentiated to anaplastic. The most common finding observed was a lesion that appeared hypodense on CT or had low-intensity signal on T1-weighted and high-intensity signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Cystic elements, mild surrounding edema and calcifications (usually coarse in 2/3 of the cases were also observed. Tumor enhancement was generally mild and was observed in 80% of the cases.

  2. Oligodendroglioma in a French bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Ho

    2003-08-01

    A 5-year-old, male French bulldog with bradycardia, dyspnea, and decerebrate rigidity was necropsied. Macroscopic findings were restricted to the brain, and a single mass, 1.5 x 2.0 x 1.5 cm in size, was observed mainly at the right cingulum with prominently protruding into the dilated right lateral ventricle. The mass was grayish white in color, soft and gelatinous, but not clearly delineated. Microscopically, the mass consisted of diffuse proliferated neoplastic oligodendroglial cells characterized by small, round, and hyperchromatic nuclei with clear cytoplasm and the cells aggressively invaded into the adjacent parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the neoplastic cells were positive for S-100 protein, vimentin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), and neurofilament protein (NFP). From these findings, the mass was diagnosed as oligodendroglioma. PMID:14610376

  3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

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    Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to study some characteristics and posibility of surgery of anaplastic thyroid cancer. During five years period in Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patienst (44 female and 21 male, median age 63 years (from 37 to 88 years. Surgical treatment was peerformed in one half (32 anaplastic thyroid cancer patients, at majority of them operative biopsy or tumor reduction only. Radical syrgery was performed in about 10% patients. Posibility of surgery in anaplastic thyroid cancer are very limited. In one third patients there were longstanding goter or thyroid nodul or histological verified dediferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. This patienst should be operated formerly, before anaplastic transformation.

  4. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Derakhshanfar; A A, Mozaffari.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Followi [...] ng euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  5. Prognosis of Glioblastoma With Oligodendroglioma Component is Associated With the IDH1 Mutation and MGMT Methylation Status

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    Jae Kyung Myung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO is a newly described GBM subtype in the 2007 World Health Organization classification. However, its biological and genetic characteristics are largely unknown. We investigated the clinicopathological and molecular features of 34 GBMOs and compared the survival rate of these patients with those of patients with astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA, and conventional GBMs in our hospital. GBMO could be divided into two groups based on the presence of an IDH1 mutation. The IDH1 mutation was more frequently found in secondary GBMO, which had lower frequencies of EGFR amplification but higher MGMT methylation than the wild type IDH1 group, and patients with mutant IDH1 GBMO were on average younger than those with wild-type IDH1. Therefore, GBMO is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous subtype, largely belonging to a proneural and classical subtype of GBM. The survival rate of GBMO patients itself was worse than that of AOA patients but not significantly better than that of conventional GBM patients. GBMO survival was independent of the dominant histopathological subtype i.e., astrocyte-dominant or oligodendroglioma -dominant, but it was significantly associated with the IDH1 mutation and MGMT methylation status. Therefore, GBMO should be regarded as a separate entity from AOA and must be classified as a subtype of GBM. However, further study is needed to determine whether it is a pathologic variant or a pattern of GBM because GBMO has a similar prognosis to conventional GBMs.

  6. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma

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    Tiodorovi? Jelica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is defined by a proliferation of large pleomorphic blasts and a constant expression of the CD30 molecule on all neoplastic cells, and has been clinically subdivided into a primary form and a secondary form. We are presenting a case of 14-year-old boy with reddish-livid papules on the skin of right half of trunk that were confluent in the lower end into solid plaque with diameter 20 x 15 cm, and enlarged lymph nodes in axilla and on neck. Lesioned skin biopsy, biopsy of lymph node and bone marrow showed pleomorphic cells, strongly CD30, and ALK positive. In our patient diagnosis was reached on the basis of morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics.

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Metastasizing Oligodendroglioma : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Min; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Kulesza, Piotr; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Olivi, Alessandro; Tufaro, Anthony; Erozan, Yener; Westra, William H.; Burger, Peter C.; Berg, Karin D.

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a suspicious parotid mass in which molecular determination of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome arms 1p and 19q in combination with cytologic and immunohistochemical analysis defined the tumor to be metastatic oligodendroglioma. The patient was a 41-year-old woman who developed a World Health Organization grade II oligodendroglioma in her right frontal lobe at age 32, for which no adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy was administered. Five years following this diagno...

  8. Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma

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    Kumar Pavan; Rastogi Neeraj; Jain Manoj; Chhabra Poonam

    2007-01-01

    Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system. We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature. A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998. He had intracranial recurrence in 2004, confirmed by biopsy. He was given adjuvant chemotherapy in form of PCV. At 10 months after completion of chemotherapy, he developed ...

  9. Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by PCV chemotherapy for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a Phase II one-arm study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of accelerated fractionated radiotherapy combined with i.v. carboplatin for patients with previously untreated anaplastic gliomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 1992, 90 patients received 1.9-2.0-Gy radiation 3 times a day with 2-h infusions of 33 g/m2 carboplatin for two 5-day cycles separated by 2 weeks. After radiotherapy, patients received procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine (PCV) for 1 year or until the tumor progressed. Results: Ninety patients were evaluable for analysis. Histologically, 69 had anaplastic astrocytoma; 14, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma; and 7, anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Gross total resection was performed in 20 (22%), subtotal resection in 45 (50%), and biopsy in 25 (28%); reoperation (total or subtotal resection) was performed in 50 (56%) patients. A multivariate analysis showed that a younger age (p=0.026), Karnofsky performance score (KPS; p=0.009), and brain necrosis (p=0.0002) were predictive of a better survival. Results from analysis of extent of surgery (biopsy, subtotal resection, gross total resection) approached significance (p=0.058). Radiation dose, irradiated tumor volume, and techniques used (boost and fields) were not significant variables. The median survival (MS) of all anaplastic glioma patients was 28.1 months; for anaplastic astrocytoma patients, MS was 28.7 months and 40.8 months for the combined anapnths and 40.8 months for the combined anaplastic oligodendroglioma/oligoastrocytoma patients. Long-term survival occurred in 25% of anaplastic glioma patients who were alive 8.6 years after treatment was initiated. Treatment-induced necrosis was documented by surgery or autopsy in 19 (21%) patients; 21 (23%) had a mixed pattern of necrosis and tumor; and an additional 13 (14%) patients who did not have surgical or autopsy demonstration of predominant radiation necrosis had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of radiation necrosis. Serious clinical neurologic deterioration and/or dementia requiring full-time caregiver attention were observed in 9 (10%) patients. Conclusion: When comparable selection criteria are applied, the rate of MS in this study is inferior to results attainable with current radiation and chemotherapy approaches, although the rates of long-term survival are comparable. Theoretically, patients failing therapy and dying earlier than anticipated may be because of excessive central nervous system (CNS) toxicity resulting from the combination of accelerated fractionated irradiation, intensive carboplatin chemotherapy before each radiation fraction, and postirradiation PCV chemotherapy. On the other hand, patients with treatment-induced necrosis survived significantly longer than patients who did not demonstrate MRI or histologic evidence of necrosis (MS, 106 months vs. 18-33 months)

  10. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Mozaffari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  11. GFAP and alpha1a-AR staining and nuclear morphometry of oligodendrogliomas by confocal microscopy and image analysis: useful parameters for predicting survival in oligodendrogliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Uranga-Ocio José A; Alvira Mariano; Figols Javier; Moro-Rodríguez Ernesto; García-Poblete Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study attempts to evaluate the GFAP and alpha1a-AR staining and morphometrical nuclear features of oligodendrogliomas and their prognostic implications as compared to present histopathology classification and their survival outcome. Study design Surgical specimens from 24 patients with oligodendrogliomas during the period 1981–2000 were included. These cases were classified into two groups defined by the grade of the neoplasm: Group I: oligodendrogliomas grade II; Gr...

  12. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M

    2002-07-01

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subjects were shown faces of ostensible playing partners manipulated to resemble either themselves or an unknown person. Resemblance to the subject's own face raised the incidence of trusting a partner, but had no effect on the incidence of selfish betrayals of the partner's trust. Control subjects playing with identical pictures failed to show such an effect. In a second experiment, resemblance of the playing partner to a familiar (famous) person had no effect on either trusting or betrayals of trust. PMID:12079651

  13. Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pavan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system. We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature. A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998. He had intracranial recurrence in 2004, confirmed by biopsy. He was given adjuvant chemotherapy in form of PCV. At 10 months after completion of chemotherapy, he developed extracranial scalp metastasis and so was treated with palliative local radiation therapy to the scalp metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with oral Etoposide. Scalp metastasis completely disappeared and ataxia improved. After five cycles of chemotherapy, the patient had progression of disease in form of scalp and cervical lymph node metastasis confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology, biopsy and immunohistochemistry. He was given salvage chemotherapy (carboplatin + ifosfamide + etoposide at 3-weekly. He had partial response and was still on chemotherapy till May 2007.

  14. Facial resemblance enhances trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Debruine, Lisa M.

    2002-01-01

    Organisms are expected to be sensitive to cues of genetic relatedness when making decisions about social behaviour. Relatedness can be assessed in several ways, one of which is phenotype matching: the assessment of similarity between others' traits and either one's own traits or those of known relatives. One candidate cue of relatedness in humans is facial resemblance. Here, I report the effects of an experimental manipulation of facial resemblance in a two-person sequential trust game. Subje...

  15. Oligodendroglioma occurring after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuni Huang; Wenhysang Chiou; Ho, D.M.

    1987-12-01

    A 38 year old male dentist developed an oligodendroglioma of the left medial temporal lobe and parasellar region 12 years after radiotherapy with 6600 rads for acromegaly. The 30 cases of radiation-induced gliomas reported in the English literature are reviewed and analysed. The criteria for defining radiation-induced tumours of the central nervous system are proposed as follows: the tumour has a long quiescent ''latency period'', a location in the previously irradiated field, a verified histological difference from a primary condition, and does not arise from a primary condition associated with a genetic syndrome such as neurofibromatosis or tuberous sclerosis. The reported case fulfilled these criteria but appears to be the only reported radiation-induced oligodendroglioma.

  16. Surgical treatment for anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljevi? Vladan R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is relatively rare but extremely aggressive neoplasm. The aim of the present paper was to study the possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer. Methods: During 5-year period (from 1998 to 2002 in the Center for endocrine surgery, we found anaplastic thyroid cancer in 65 patients (44 female and 21 male patients of median age 63 years (range: 37-88 years. Diagnosis was determined on the basis of histological analysis in operated patients or on cytology findings in case of patients who were not operated. Histological analysis confirmed anaplastic transformation of papillary thyroid cancer in 18 cases. Results In 50% patients we performed only fine needle biopsy, and in 37% patients operative biopsy or tumor reduction. We performed radical surgery hemithyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy, in 13% patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thyroid goiter was present in 35% patients longer than a year before diagnosis of anaplastic cancer was made. Conclusion: Possibility of surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer is very limited. In about one third of patients there were longstanding goiter or histological verified dedifferentiation of papillary thyroid cancer. These patients should have been operated before anaplastic transformation.

  17. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Congenital oligodendroglioma: clinicopathologic and molecular assessment with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Hope; Stogner-Underwood, Kimberly; Fuller, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendroglioma is an infiltrating glial neoplasm frequently seen in adults. Pediatric oligodendrogliomas are rare, with very few cases presenting in infancy and only rare congenital examples. In contrast to adult oligodendrogliomas, pediatric cases typically lack 1p/19q codeletion. Herein we report a case of WHO grade II oligodendroglioma diagnosed in a 7-month-old male infant. The patient initially presented at 3 months of age with symptoms suspicious for seizure. Initial workup including electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiogram (EKG), and computed tomography (CT) of the head was negative. His symptoms persisted, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at age of 7 months revealed a 2?cm contrast-enhancing left temporal lobe mass. The mass was excised and the microscopic appearance was that of a classic low grade oligodendroglioma composed of cells with uniformly round nuclei, perinuclear halos, delicate branching capillaries, and an absence of high grade features. Mutant specific (R132H) isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) immunohistochemistry was negative, and the tumor lacked detectable 1p or 19q deletions by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The onset of neurological symptoms in early infancy followed by the positive MRI findings suggests that this case represents a rare example of congenital oligodendroglioma. PMID:25755903

  19. Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma with extracranial metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachella, Laura A; Kamiya-Matsuoka, Carlos; Lee, Eva Lu T; Olar, Adriana; Yung, W K Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Ependymoma is a relatively rare malignancy accounting for 2.0% of all primary central nervous system tumors in adults. Extracranial metastasis is a very uncommon complication of gliomas, especially of anaplastic ependymomas. The objective of this paper is to show that ependymomas can metastasize to soft tissue and lymph nodes as well as to share our approach to this challenge. We report a male patient with anaplastic ependymoma that recurred, metastasizing to the neck and lymph nodes. Metastatic disease was diagnosed based on clinical presentation of a palpable nodule on the right neck and diffuse cervical lymphadenopathies. A biopsy was obtained and pathology revealed anaplastic ependymoma. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed metastatic disease in the right mastoid region with diffuse uptake in the cervical lymph nodes. Clinical and radiologic response was achieved after three chemotherapy cycles of etoposide, cisplatin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. This case highlights extracranial metastasis to the soft tissue as an atypical presentation of recurrent anaplastic ependymoma. Other reported instances of extracranial metastatic ependymoma with this presentation are discussed. The possible metastatic pathways of intracranial disease are discussed. It also illustrates how extracranial disease remains stable with systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25455735

  20. Histiocytosis X resembling cherry angiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, G G; Kamei, R; Honig, P J

    1985-11-01

    Histiocytosis X is a disorder of histiocytes of the Langerhans' cell lineage. As the initial feature is often cutaneous, recognition of these skin changes is important. Several cutaneous manifestations have been described, most commonly, seborrheic dermatitis with a hemorrhagic component. We saw two patients with histiocytosis X with cutaneous manifestations resembling cherry angiomas. PMID:3877919

  1. Power: A 'family resemblance' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Haugaard, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Abstract While Lukes’ view of power as an ‘essentially contested concept’ is a move in the right direction, it does not go far enough because it falls short of arguing for a plural view of power. Power constitutes a ‘family resemblance concept’, with family members forming complex relationships within overlapping language games. Members include, among others: episodic power, dispositional power, systemic power, power to, power over, empowerment, legitimate power and domi...

  2. Modulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in human oligodendroglioma cells by Sox17 regulates proliferation and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui-ling; Chew, Li-jin; Packer, Roger J.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor (OPs), whose development is regulated by the Sonic hedgehog and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways. We investigated the contribution of these pathways in the proliferation and differentiation of human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG). Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine decreased cell survival and increased phosphorylated beta-catenin without altering myelin protein levels. Conversely, treatment of HOG with the Wnt antagonist secr...

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraporn Ratanaanekchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. It cannot uptake iodine or synthesis thyroglobulin. The incidence is low; about 2% - 5% of thyroid cancer. The peak age incidence is 60 - 70 years and it is more common in females (55% - 77% of all patients. In recent years, the incidence has declined; however, it may be higher in areas of endemic goiter. ATC may occur with a coexisting carcinoma and may represent transformation of a well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients typically present with a rapidly growing anterior neck mass and aggressive symptoms. The most reliable tool in detecting thyroid malignancies is fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Sensitivity of FNAC for thyroid malignancy ranged from 61% to 97.7%. Fine-needle aspiration can diagnose ATC by the demonstration of spindled or giant cells, bizarre neoplastic cells that may be multinucleated, or atypical cells with high mitotic activity. A syncytial pattern is the predominant cellular pattern of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other laboratory tests, including tumor markers (cytokeratin, vimentin, and carcinoembryogenic antigen are helpful in diagnosis and follow-up of the patients. Multimodality therapy (surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy is the recommended treatment and it seems to have slightly improved outcomes. The prognosis is not as bad in younger patients with smaller tumors. The most common cause of death is lung metastasis. The mean survival time is less than 6 months from the time of diagnosis. The prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential modality to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. Oncolytic HSV-1716 in Treating Younger Patients With Refractory or Recurrent High Grade Glioma That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma

  5. Varied Persistent Life Cycles of Borna Disease Virus in a Human Oligodendroglioma Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Madiha S.; Watanabe, Makiko; Palacios, J. Alejandro; Kamitani, Wataru; Komoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tomonaga, Keizo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2002-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes a persistent infection in the central nervous system of vertebrate animal species as well as in tissue cultures. In an attempt to characterize the life cycle of BDV in persistently infected cultured cells, we developed 30 clones by single-cell cloning from a human oligodendroglioma (OL) cell line after infection with BDV. According to the percentage of cells expressing the BDV major proteins, p40 (nucleoprotein) and p24 (phosphoprotein), the clones were c...

  6. Biological Role of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Osajima-hakomori, Yuko; Miyake, Izumi; Ohira, Miki; Nakagawara, Akira; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a tyrosine kinase receptor originally identified as part of the chimeric nucleophosmin-ALK protein in the t(2;5) chromosomal rearrangement associated with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We recently demonstrated that the ALK kinase is constitutively activated by gene amplification at the ALK locus in several neuroblastoma cell lines. Forming a stable complex with hyperphosphorylated ShcC, activated ALK modifies the responsiveness of the mitogen-activated pr...

  7. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry of oligodendrogliomas with special reference to prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HEEGAARD, S.; Sommer, Helle MØlgaard

    1995-01-01

    Background. The biologic behavior of oligodendrogliomas is somewhat unpredictable. A supplementary prognostic factor is, therefore, desirable. Methods. Thirty-two pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas were investigated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 immunohistochemical analyses. The correlation of PCNA and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) with prognosis were studied, and the correlation of LI with clinical data was evaluated. Results. The PCNA LI had a range of 0-17% (mean, 5.27%; standard deviation [SD] = 4.65), and the Ki-67 LI had a range of 0-29% (mean, 4.19%; SD = 5.66). In general, the PCNA LI seemed to be higher than the Ki-67 LI. The mean survival time was 4.4 years, and 5- and 10-year survival rates were 38% and 19%, respectively. Ki-67 and PCNA staining indicated that patients with a high LI (>3% and >4%, respectively) had a significantly higher mortality, with mean survival time of 23.5 months and 26.2 months, respectively. No significant correlation between LI (or survival) and tumor size, cerebral localization, radiation, resection/biopsy, sex, age, or cytologic atypia was found. Conclusions. The use of Ki-67 and PCNA LI higher than 3% and 4%, respectively, appears reliable as prognostic factors when investigating pure supratentorial oligodendrogliomas.

  8. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  9. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising in a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Hee; Lee, Ji Hae; Kim, Miri; Cho, Baik Kee; Song, Chan Hee; Ock, Sun Myeong; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is defined as the appearance of intense skin reactive lesions and systemic symptoms subsequent to mosquito bites. Most cases of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites reported thus far have been associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection or natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we describe the case of an 18-year-old Korean boy who had hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. After a mosquito bite, the patient developed a progressive cutaneous nodule on his left lower leg and regional lymphadenopathy in the left inguinal area. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings suggested anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left T4 vertebrae, left external iliac lymph nodes, left inguinal lymph nodes, and lateral subcutaneous region of the left lower leg. According to the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings, as well as the imaging data, the patient was diagnosed with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Consequently, the patient received a total of 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristine + prednisolone chemotherapy at 3-week intervals, after which the lesions regressed. PMID:25780514

  10. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Arising in a Patient with Hypersensitivity to Mosquito Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Hee; Lee, Ji Hae; Kim, Miri; Cho, Baik Kee; Song, Chan Hee; Ock, Sun Myeong

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is defined as the appearance of intense skin reactive lesions and systemic symptoms subsequent to mosquito bites. Most cases of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites reported thus far have been associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection or natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. In this study, we describe the case of an 18-year-old Korean boy who had hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. After a mosquito bite, the patient developed a progressive cutaneous nodule on his left lower leg and regional lymphadenopathy in the left inguinal area. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings suggested anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography revealed increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left T4 vertebrae, left external iliac lymph nodes, left inguinal lymph nodes, and lateral subcutaneous region of the left lower leg. According to the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings, as well as the imaging data, the patient was diagnosed with primary systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Consequently, the patient received a total of 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristine + prednisolone chemotherapy at 3-week intervals, after which the lesions regressed.

  11. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Computed Tomographic Differentiation from Other Thyroid Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy. Purpose: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses. Material and Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm. Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Results: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%). Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating ost valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses. Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma. Conclusion: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis

  12. Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in patients with oligodendroglioma: a survival study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether cerebral blood volume measurement based on pretreatment perfusion MRI is a prognostic bio-marker for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed oligo-astrocytoma. Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 54 patients (23 females and 31 males), aged 21-73 years, with oligodendroglioma (or mixed tumour) were examined prior to beginning treatment with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI during gadolinium first-pass. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) was calculated by dividing the measurement within the tumour by the measurement of the normal-appearing contralateral region. Patients were classified in two groups, grade A and grade B, according to the Saint-Anne Hospital classification and followed-up clinically and by means of MRI until their death or for a minimum of 5 years. Patients were also classified in grade II and grade III-IV, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, and were analysed with the same methods. Age, sex, treatment, tumour grade, contrast agent uptake, and rCBV were tested using survival curves with Kaplan-Meier's method, and their differences were analysed using the log-rank test. Results: In this population, median survival was 3 years. A rCBV threshold value of 2.2 was validated as a prognostic factor, for survival in these patients with oligodendrogliomas. Age, sex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV wersex, contrast uptake, and maximum rCBV were found to be prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumour grade (grade A/grade B), rCBV, age, and sex were prognostic factors independent of the other factors. The tumour grade according to the WHO classification (II versus III-IV) was also detected as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: Pretreatment rCBV measured by DSC perfusion MRI was found to be a prognostic factor for survival in patients with oligodendroglioma or mixed tumour, by using the Saint-Anne Hospital classification, which separate the IIB from the IIA. (authors)

  13. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Ravanbod; Reza Nemati; Hamid Javadi; Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was sig...

  14. Primary cutaneous multifocal CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old male presented with asymptomatic tumors all over the body. The tumors showed no signs of ulceration or regression. There were generalized, nontender, firm to hard enlarged lymph nodes without hepatosplenomegaly. Biopsy and immunophenotyping revealed CD 30+ anaplastic primary cutaneous large cell lymphoma. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is characterized by single or grouped reddish-brown tumor nodules, which frequently tend to ulcerate. Secondary involvement of lymph nodes is seen in only 25%. The lesions responded dramatically to chemotherapy, but recurred.

  15. Developments in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: targeting the anaplastic lymphoma kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Farina, Alessandra Stasia, Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy Abstract: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase protein implicated in a variety of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. ALK contributes to the development of cancers in different cell lineages through a variety of genetic mechanisms: gene fusions, activating point mutations, and possibly gene amplification. Recent developments led to significant therapeutic advances, including efficient diagnostic tests and ALK-targeting agents. This review addresses some therapeutic considerations with regard to the use of ALK inhibitors in ALK-positive lymphomas where, in spite of the advanced stage of the disease, long-lasting responses could be obtained in a substantial portion of heavily pretreated patients. Data and mechanisms for the development of resistance to ALK inhibitors will also be presented and discussed. Keywords: ALK, lymphoma, tyrosine kinase, targeted therapy, crizotinib 

  16. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biersack Hans-Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition.

  17. Primary cutaneous CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S. Devaji; Ravi, R.; Govindarajan, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a broad diagnostic group encompassing a spectrum of diseases with variable clinical presentations. Histologic and immunohistochemical confirmation is needed to establish a precise diagnosis. Primary cutaneous CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a definite variety of CTCL, presenting as a non-healing ulcer is presented here which, needed multimodality approach to heal.

  18. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuroradiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empírico para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL.

  19. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature / Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Corti; Claudio, Yampolsky; Humberto, Metta; Mario, Valerga; Gustavo, Sevlever; Andrés, Capizzano.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empíric [...] o para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL. Abstract in english In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuro [...] radiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.

  20. Resemblance Argument” and Controversies over Mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Delija

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the common interpretation of Platonic art that supports the view that it is ontologically and gnoseologically irrelevant because it is mainly defined by mimetic concept as a mere imitation of the material world, and is therefore banished from the Republic, we will offer some different interpretations. Namely, it is possible to show that mimetic principle is not the reason why Plato condemns art, and that the notion of artistic mimesis in fact stems from the metaphysical notion of mimesis as approximation or gradual resemblance to the paradigm. In this case artistic mimesis achieves higher ontological authenticity and imitates the ideal by means of the sensory. Parmenides’ “resemblance argument” may constitute a serious obstacle for the acceptance of, on the one hand, the idea of the relation of resemblance (homoiotes between Forms and particulars, that is between the paradigm and its image, and on the other hand it may question the idea of approximation in which mimetic principle has metaphysical foundation. However, when Form is seen as a synthetic unity of many things (hen epi pollon, it then represents the right standpoint for the explanation of the phenomena, and it becomes questionable when it is placed on the same level with its exemplars. If the relation of resemblance between the paradigm and its image is determined by the “dynamic”, and not by “symmetric resemblance” in which both parts are on the same level of ontological authenticity, then the view of philosophical mimesis as approximation on which relies artistic mimetic concept is legitimate.

  1. Identificación de alteraciones genéticas en oligodendrogliomas mediante amplificación dependiente de ligasa de múltiples sondas (MLPA) (multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification) / Identification of genetic alterations by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in oligodendrogliomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Franco-Hernández; V., Martínez-Glez; M., Torres-Martín; J.M. de, Campos; A., Isla; J., Vaquero; C., Casartelli; J.A., Rey.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La alteración genética más frecuente en oligodendro gliomas es la pérdida conjunta de lp/19q. Este evento ya acontece en etapas primarias del desarrollo de estos tumores. Es de gran valor clínico conocer si dichos tumores poseen esta deleción ya que se ha correlacionado con un mejor pronóstico de lo [...] s pacientes. Además de esta alteración. también se ha observado la deleción de CDKN2A y PTEN y la amplificación de EGFR; estos cambios parecen asociarse a una mayor agresividad tumoral. Mediante la técnica de MLPA en una misma reacción podemos determinar si existe pérdida de lp/19q y deleciones/amplificaciones de los genes anteriormente mencionados en el ADN procedente de muestras tumorales. En este trabajo hemos analizado 40 oligodendrogliomas y el kit MLPA P088 para determinar el estado alélico de lp/19q, así como el kit MLPA P105 para observar la amplificación/ deleción de los genes CDKN2A, PTEN, ERBB2, TP53 y EGFR. Mostraron pérdida de 1p el 45% de los tumores (18/40) y el 65% (26/40) de los oligodendrogliomas presentaron deleción de las sondas que hibridan en las regiones de 19q. Para el kit MLPA P105, mostraron duplicación/deleción de EGFR en el 7,5% (3/41) y 35% (14/40) de las muestras, respectivamente. El 60% de los casos (24/40) mostraron deleción de CDKN2 y ninguna muestra presentó duplicación de las sondas para este gen. El gen ERBB2 se presentó duplicado en el 12,5% de los tumores (5/40) y un único tumor mostró pérdidas de dicho gen. El 30% (12/40) de las muestras presentó deleción para PTEN y el 12,5% (5/40) mostró duplicación de dicho gen y, por último, 12,5% de los casos (5/40) presentaron duplicaciones de TP53. Estos resultados indican que la técnica de MLPA es idónea para la identificación de las alteraciones moleculares características de oligodendrogliomas. Estas alteraciones estarían contribuyendo a la formación del tumor, siendo la anomalía más significativa en oligodendrogliomas la pérdida de 1p/19q. Abstract in english Concurrent deletion at 1p/19q is a common signature of oligodendrogliomas, and it may be identified in low-grade tumours (grade II) suggesting it represents an early event in the development of these brain neoplasms. Additional non-random changes primarily involve CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR. Identificati [...] on of all of these genetic changes has become an additional parameter in the evaluation of the clinical patients' prognosis, including good response to conventional che motherapy. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis is a new methodology that allows an easy identification of the oligodendrogliomas' abnormalities in a single step. No need of the respective constitutional DNA from each patient is another advantage of this method. We used MLPA kits P088 and P105 to determine the molecular characteristics of a series of 40 oligodendrogliomas. Deletions at l p and 19q were identified in 45% and 65% of cases, respectively. Alterations of EGFR, CDKN2A, ERBB2, PTEN and TP53 were also identified in variable frequencies among 7% to 35% of tumours. These findings demonstrate that MLPA is a reliable technique to the detection of molecular genetic changes in oligodendrogliomas.

  2. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emoto Mie; Yuki Kazue; Takahashi Akihisa; Yane Katsunari; Ota Ichiro; Ohnishi Ken; Hosoi Hiroshi; Ohnishi Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation as...

  3. Long-term Temozolomide Treatment Induces Marked Amino Metabolism Modifications and an Increase in TMZ Sensitivity in Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lamoral-Theys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions. Temozolomide (TMZ provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas. The actual benefits of TMZ during long-term treatment in oligodendroglioma patients have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we have investigated the effects of such a long-term TMZ treatment in the unique Hs683 oligodendroglioma model. We have observed increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 orthotopic tumors that were previously treated in vitro with months of progressive exposure to increasing TMZ concentrations before being xenografted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Whole-genome and proteomic analyses have revealed that this increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells previously treated for long periods with TMZ can be explained, at least partly, by a TMZ-induced p38-dependant dormancy state, which in turn resulted in changes in amino acid metabolism balance, in growth delay, and in a decrease in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell-invasive properties. Thus, long-term TMZ treatment seems beneficial in this Hs683 oligodendroglioma model, which revealed itself unable to develop resistance against TMZ.

  4. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-17

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  5. Organism resembling Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, D. S.; Ashton, F. E.; Terro, R.; Ali, A. S.

    1987-01-01

    A problem isolate resembling Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis is reported. Growth and biochemical characteristics indicated the organism to be N. meningitidis, whereas serological characteristics indicated it to be N. gonorrhoeae. This vaginal isolate may be a genetically transformed gonococcus with the ability to utilize maltose. Conversely, it may be a meningococcus which has acquired antigenic determinants of N. gonorrhoeae.

  6. Resemblances in the Wedding and Natal Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Reneta Zlateva; Zlatozhivka Zdravkova

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the natal rites and customs of the Azerbaijan and Bulgarian nations. Special attention is paid to the resemblances in the practicing and understanding of the traditions. Despite the fact that the two nations live in regions remote from each other, they have common beliefs and strive to provide prosperity for the home, family and children.

  7. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma limited to the skin: clinical, histopathological and molecular analysis of 6 pediatric cases. A report from the ALCL99 study

    OpenAIRE

    Oschlies, Ilske; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Lamant, Laurence; Nakazawa, Atsuko; D Amore, Emanuele S. G.; Hansson, Ulrika; Hebeda, Konnie; Simonitsch-klupp, Ingrid; Maldyk, Jadwiga; Mu?llauer, Leonhard; Tinguely, Marianne; Stu?cker, Markus; Ledeley, Marie-cecile; Siebert, Reiner; Reiter, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are peripheral T-cell lymphomas that are characterized by a proliferation of large anaplastic blasts expressing CD30. In children, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas often present at advanced clinical stage and harbor translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene leading to the expression of chimeric anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-fusion proteins. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is regarded as an ALK-negative varian...

  8. Gefitinib and Radiation Therapy in Treating Children With Newly Diagnosed Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma

  9. Anaplastic mandibular carcinoma in a meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadone, Liza I; Garner, Michael M; Klaphake, Eric; Johnston, Matthew S; Han, Sushan

    2014-06-01

    An 8-yr-old female slender-tailed meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with a necrotic sublingual mass and osteolysis of the mandible. After 1 mo of palliative care, the meerkat was euthanized. The mass was diagnosed histologically as an anaplastic carcinoma with extensive rostral mandibular destruction. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin and cytokeratin was validated in this nontypical species and showed that neoplastic cells expressed both mesenchymal and epithelial characteristics, suggestive of a primitive and poorly differentiated tumor. A review of 150 adult slender-tailed meerkat histopathology reports showed a 2% prevalence of orofacial neoplasia, suggesting that oral neoplasms are uncommon in meerkats. PMID:25000710

  10. Dual anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. Most ALCLs present as nodal disease, with skin, bone, soft tissue, lung, and liver as common extranodal sites. ALCL rarely occurs in the central nervous system and is even more infrequent in the dura of the brain. We report a case of dural-based ALCL secondary to systemic disease in a 17-year-old male that mimicked meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

  11. Temporal lobe epilepsy in a cat with a pyriform lobe oligodendroglioma and hippocampal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Posch, Barbara; Baker, Sam; Plessas, Ioannis N; Palmer, Anthony C; Constantino-Casas, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    A 14-year-old male domestic shorthair cat presented with an acute onset of aggressive behaviour, fear and hypersalivation. Neurological examination revealed bilateral mydriasis and left-sided facial twitching and hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate bilateral symmetrical T2-hyperintensity along the entire hippocampus and bilateral asymmetric T2-hyperintensity in the pyriform lobes. Marked bilateral contrast enhancement of the hippocampus was evident on post-contrast T1-weighted images. The partial complex seizures were refractory to medical treatment and the cat was euthanased 4 days after admission. The clinical and MRI findings were consistent with feline hippocampal necrosis (FHN). On histopathology, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis were present in the hippocampi and pyriform lobes. In addition, an oligodendroglioma was detected in the right pyriform lobe. Contrary to previous reports of FHN in which no underlying cause could be identified, we believe that in this case the seizure focus arose from a neoplastic lesion within the right pyriform lobe. This unique case report represents the so-called 'dual pathology' of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, in which an extrahippocampal lesion within the temporal lobe results in hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:22791561

  12. Magnetic resonance images resembling jugular venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juglar venous blood flow resembled venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in three cases. We present these cases together with MRI of juglar venous thrombosis and also discuss on flow signals and thrombus through the clinical cases and the experimental study. Left jugular angiography showed hemostasis in two of three cases and normal venous flow in one. In clinical cases and experimental study the blood clot appeared high intense on spin echo image (SE) and inversion recovery image (IR). Water flow appeared high intense at a certain range of velocity on SE and IR. Consequently the normal venous flow as well as hemostasis can look like thrombus on MRI. (author)

  13. Epithelioid sarcoma resembling benign fibrous histiocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael C; Graber, Emmy M; Johnson, T Shane; Clarke, Loren E

    2015-02-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare malignancy notorious for its tendency to histologically mimic granuloma annulare and other palisading granulomatous processes. We report a case of ES on the right hand of a 23-year-old man that histopathologically resembled a benign fibrous histiocytoma. Superficial portions of the tumor were well differentiated, exhibiting spindled and ovoid cells with scant cytoplasm that surrounded sclerotic collagen bundles. More obvious atypia including greater cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and mitotic activity were mostly confined to the deep-seated regions of the tumor. In addition to palisading granulomatous processes, ES can mimic benign fibrous histiocytoma, and the superficial portions of ES may appear deceptively benign. PMID:25750961

  14. Giant sublingual epidermoid cyst resembling plunging ranula

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Sandeep; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Sonkar, A. A.; Kumar, Rahul; Gupta, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. We describe a rare case of large epidermoid cyst in floor of mouth, with an oral as well as submental component resembling plunging ranula reported in the literature from India. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with complaints of a mass in sublingual region, difficulty chewing, and dysphagia for about 5 months. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed keratin flakes and proteinaceous material. Contrast-enhan...

  15. Influence of an oligodendroglial component on the survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas: a report of radiation therapy oncology group 83-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Seven percent of patients with high grade gliomas enrolled in RTOG 83-02 had mixed astrocytoma/oligodenroglial elements on central pathology review. It has often been assumed that the most aggressive histologic component of a tumor determines biologic behavior; however in this trial, the survival of patients who had mixed glioblastomas/oligodenrogliomas was significantly longer than that of patients with pure glioblastomas (GBM). We therefore evaluated the effect of an oligodendroglial component on the survival of patients who had anaplastic astrocytomas (AAF) treated in the same trial. Methods and Materials: One hundred nine patients who had AAF and 24 patients with mixed AAF/oligodendrogliomas (AAF/OL) were enrolled in a Phase I/II trial of randomized dose-escalation hyper fractioned radiotherapy plus BCNU. AAF/OL patients were older and more likely to have had more aggressive surgery than AAF patients. Other pretreatment characteristics were balanced between groups, as was assigned treatment. Results: The median survival time for AAF was 3.0 years versus 7.3 years for AAF/OL (p = 0.019). In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for extent of surgical resection and age, an oligodendroglial component was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Conclusion: The results support the concept that AAFs with an oligodendroglial component have a better prognosis than pure AAF tumors, similar to the effect seen among patients with glioblastoma multiforme tumors. ents with glioblastoma multiforme tumors. This better survival outcome should be taken into consideration in the design and stratification of future trials. Additionally, in contrast to patients with GBMs, patients who have AAF/OL have the potential for prolonged survival; therefore, late sequelae of treatment (both radiation and chemotherapy) must be weighed more heavily in the benefits to risks analysis

  16. Histone 3 Lysine 9 Trimethylation Is Differentially Associated with Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Mutations in Oligodendrogliomas and High-Grade Astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Venneti, Sriram; Felicella, Michelle Madden; Coyne, Thomas; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gorovets, Daniel; Huse, Jason T.; Kofler, Julia; Lu, Chao; Tihan, Tarik; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Santi, Mariarita; Judkins, Alexander R.; Perry, Arie; Thompson, Craig B.

    2013-01-01

    Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) is a marker of repressed transcription. Cells transfected with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) show increased methylation of histone lysine residues, including H3K9me3, due to inhibition of histone demethylases by 2-hydroxyglutarate. Here, we evaluated H3K9me3 and its association with IDH mutations in 284 gliomas. H3K9me3 was significantly associated with IDH mutations in oligodendrogliomas. Moreover, 72% of World Health Organization grade ...

  17. A Rare Case of a Synchronous Anaplastic Carcinoma Thyroid with Ductal Carcinoma Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Rao, P. B. Ananda; Sarkar, Shreyasee; Kotne, Sivasankar; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Mishra, Anindita

    2014-01-01

    Dual malignancy was first reported by Billroth in 1889. Incidence of second malignancy in cancer patients is as high as 10%, but synchronous anaplastic thyroid cancer along with breast tumor is a rare entity. We present a case of a 61-year-old female with a synchronous anaplastic carcinoma thyroid with ductal carcinoma breast. The plausible association of breast cancers with thyroid carcinomas should thus be evaluated in larger cohort studies. More importantly, this report is to highlight the unusual synchronous occurrence of anaplastic thyroid cancer with ductal breast cancer and the therapeutic challenges involved in such cases. PMID:24822141

  18. Growth stimulating activity secreted by human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Kubota, K; Sasaki, N; Takaku, F; Uchimura, H

    1991-08-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of rapid growth of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, growth stimulating activity produced by the cancer cells in culture was studied. A cell line (HTh7) established from a biopsy specimen of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was used throughout the study. Growth stimulating activity was determined as an activity to increase 3H-thymidine incorporation in rat thyroid cell line (FRTL5). Conditioned medium of HTh7 cells contained significant growth stimulating activity for FRTL5 cells. The activity was separated into two fractions with heparin agarose gel: heparin-binding and heparin-non-binding. In the medium, the heparin-non-binding activity was much greater than the heparin-binding one. The heparin-non-binding activity was acid stable. It was partially purified with gel filtration in an acidic condition followed by reverse phase HPLC. In gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200 column, the activity was eluted later than the elution volume of cytochrome c (MW 12400) as several separated peaks. In reverse phase HPLC, however, the activity in these peaks was eluted as a single peak. The retention time of the active peak was almost the same as that of recombinant IGF-I. When measured by specific RIAs, the conditioned media concentrated 20 times contained both 0.35 ng/ml of IGF-I and 5.21 ng/ml of IGF-II. As for the heparin-binding mitogenic activity, when applied to heparin affinity HPLC column and eluted with a linear gradient of NaCl, the activity came out as one major peak with approximately 1.0 M NaCl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1802682

  19. Adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Makiko; Nakagami, Taku; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented extreme weight loss and received an eating disorder diagnosis that was later identified as adrenal Cushing's syndrome. A 32-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an eating disorder was admitted to our psychiatric ward due to dehydration, malnutrition and low weight. Her height and body weight were 152.1 cm and 29.8 kg, respectively (body mass index: 12.8). Her other symptoms included a depressed mood, decreased interest, retardation and suicidal ideation. Standard medical cares were prescribed to treat the depressive symptoms and eating disorder, but the depressive episode and low body weight of the patient persisted. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed an unexpected left adrenal gland tumor. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed based on several endocrinological examinations. After an enucleation of the left adrenal gland tumor, the patient began eating, and her body weight increased gradually. Her body weight increased to 42.0-47.0 kg (body mass index: 18.2-20.3). Her mental and physical conditions had stabilized. This case suggests that adrenal Cushing's syndrome may resemble eating disorders. PMID:25085718

  20. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  1. Giant sublingual epidermoid cyst resembling plunging ranula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Sonkar, A A; Kumar, Rahul; Gupta, Rajni

    2012-07-01

    Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. We describe a rare case of large epidermoid cyst in floor of mouth, with an oral as well as submental component resembling plunging ranula reported in the literature from India. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with complaints of a mass in sublingual region, difficulty chewing, and dysphagia for about 5 months. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed keratin flakes and proteinaceous material. Contrast-enhanced CT oral cavity was done and showed 7.0 × 5 × 4.5 cm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending into the floor of the mouth. On examination, a firm swelling was noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. The patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. On histopathology, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. PMID:23833501

  2. Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganguly R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis. Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers. We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years. The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma. The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry. The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy. However, she died two months after surgery. The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers. This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.

  3. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in Association with Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aneesh Basheer; Somanath Padhi; Ramesh Nagarajan; Vinoth Boopathy; Sudhagar Mookkappan; Nayyar Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has a well known association with lymphomas, especially of T cell origin. Prognosis of lymphoma associated HLH is very poor, especially in T cell lymphomas; and, therefore, early diagnosis might alter the outcome. Though association of HLH with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is known, its occurrence in primary cutaneous ALCL (C-ALCL) is distinctly rare. We aim to describe a case of C-ALCL (anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)?) in an elde...

  4. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Recurrent Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Wuk; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Lee, Min-Cheol

    2006-05-01

    Anaplastic glioma is a highly aggressive tumor in the central nervous system. The conventional treatment for patients with anaplstic glioma consists of the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the effect of the currently available therapies is limited, and the prognosis is very poor in these patients. The purpose of this abstract is to introduce our preliminary experience of using focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) for the treatment of patients with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.

  5. Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Morita, Akio; Maruyama, Keisuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Yasushi; Shibahara, Junji; Louis, David N.; Reifenberger, Guido; Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryusuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Todo, Tomoki

    2009-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain. Some PXAs are accompanied by anaplastic features and are difficult to manage because of frequent recurrences that lead to early death. No previous reports have demonstrated consistent efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy for this disease. We report a case of PXA with anaplastic features treated with stereotactic irradiation (STI) that resulted in long-term control of repeatedly recurring nodules throu...

  6. MicroRNA 96 Is a Post-Transcriptional Suppressor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Li, Yong; Wilson, Desiree; Manshouri, Roxsan; Curry, Choladda V.; Shi, Bin; Tang, Xi Ming; Sheehan, Andrea M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) constitutes a part of the oncogenic fusion proteins nucleophosmin-ALK and echinoderm microtubule–associated protein like 4–ALK, which are aberrantly expressed in a subset of T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and non–small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The expression of mutated, constitutively active ALK also occurs in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. ALK is believed to play an important role in promoting tumor survival. Nevertheless, the mechanism...

  7. Galectin 1 Proangiogenic and Promigratory Effects in the Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Model Are Partly Mediated through the Control of BEX2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Le Mercier

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that galectin 1 (Gal-1 plays important biological roles in astroglial as well as in oligodendroglial cancer cells. As an oligodendroglioma model, we make use of the Hs683 cell line that has been previously extensively characterized at cell biology, molecular biology, and genetic levels. Galectin 1 has been shown to be involved in Hs683 oligodendroglioma chemoresistance, neoangiogenesis, and migration. Down-regulating Gal-1 expression in Hs683 cells through targeted small interfering RNA provokes a marked decrease in the expression of the brain-expressed X-linked gene: BEX2. Accordingly, the potential role of BEX2 in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell biology has been investigated. The data presented here reveal that decreasing BEX2 expression in Hs683 cells increases the survival of Hs683 orthotopic xenograft-bearing mice. Furthermore, this decrease in BEX2 expression impairs vasculogenic mimicry channel formation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo, and modulates glioma cell adhesion and invasive features through the modification of several genes previously reported to play a role in cancer cell migration, including MAP2, plexin C1, SWAP70, and integrin ?6. We thus conclude that BEX2 is implicated in oligodendroglioma biology.

  8. Spinal cord glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands with 1p/19q deletion in an adult with low-grade cerebral oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraum, Tyler J; Barak, Stephanie; Pack, Svetlana; Lonser, Russell R; Fine, Howard A; Quezado, Martha; Iwamoto, Fabio M

    2012-04-01

    Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is considered a rare variant of astrocytoma, characterized by discrete aggregates of cells expressing neuronal markers that punctuate a GFAP-positive glial background. Of the 24 published GTNI cases, only two occurred in adult spinal cords; none occurred concurrent with another CNS tumor; and none of those tested exhibited the 1p/19q deletion typical of oligodendroglioma. A 48-year-old man without significant past medical history was diagnosed with a WHO grade II oligodendroglioma by stereotactic biopsy of a lesion discovered after the patient suffered a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. By FISH analysis, this tumor exhibited the 1p/19q deletion present in up to 80% of oligodendrogliomas. The patient received 14 monthly cycles of temozolomide, and his cerebral tumor had a minor response. When the patient subsequently reported progressive paresthesias of his lower extremities, an MRI revealed an enhancing, cystic tumor of the thoracic spinal cord that was diagnosed as GTNI by histological analysis. By FISH analysis, this lesion exhibited the same 1p/19q deletion present in the concurrent cerebral oligodendroglioma. This case of a spinal cord GTNI with 1p/19q deletions constitutes the third report of a spinal cord GTNI in an adult patient; the first report of a GTNI in an individual with a separate CNS neoplasm; and the first report of a GTNI with 1p/19q deletions. This case establishes a potential genetic kinship between GTNI and oligodendroglioma that warrants further investigation. PMID:22083647

  9. ATRX loss refines the classification of anaplastic gliomas and identifies a subgroup of IDH mutant astrocytic tumors with better prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiestler, B.; Capper, D.; Holland-letz, T.; Korshunov, A.; Von Deimling, A.; Pfister, S. M.; Platten, M.; Weller, M.; Wick, W.

    2013-01-01

    Mutation/loss of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) expression has been described in anaplastic gliomas. The present study explored the role of ATRX status in the molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas and its impact on survival in the biomarker cohort of the NOA-04 anaplastic glioma trial. Patients (n = 133) of the NOA-04 trial were analyzed for ATRX expression using immunohistochemistry. ATRX status was correlated with age, histology, isocitrate dehydrog...

  10. Sarcomatoid variant of ALK- anaplastic large cell lymphoma involving multiple lymph nodes and both lungs with production of proinflammatory cytokines: report of a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Yan, Lin Li; Yang, Shou Jing

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomatoid variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is one of the rarest histologic variants of ALCL that consists of large, bizarre, often spindle-shaped, neoplastic cells resembling a soft tissue sarcoma. We report here such a case of ALCL with both pulmonary and multiple nodal involvement in a 47-year-old woman who initially presented with fever, cough, sputum, itching skin, and weight loss. The initial transbronchial lung biopsy showed discohesive pleomorphic malignant cells in a strong inflammatory milieu reminiscent of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Subsequent cervical lymph node biopsy revealed a spindle cell sarcoma predominantly composed of plump spindle and oval neoplastic cells in interweaving fascicles, with sparse inflammatory infiltrates, resembling pleomorphic-storiform type of MFH. However, these tumor cells in the lung and node lesions revealed essentially similar immunohistochemical features that were positive for CD30, EMA, TIA-1, granzyme B, and fascin, but negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and T- or B-lineage-specific marker. The spindled cells stains diffuse strong positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), along with vimentin. Further studies showed that the tumor produced large quantities of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-8, which we believe may contribute to the pathogenesis of sarcomatoid transformation of this tumor, and was associated with the patient's inflammatory symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcomatoid variant of ALK-negative ALCL with null cell phenotype and in situ production of proinflammatory cytokines presenting as multiple nodes and pulmonary involvement. PMID:25197351

  11. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  12. Genetically Modified T-cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  13. Pulmonary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma - a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Bingöl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare NHL, representing only 2-3% of all lymphomas. Pulmonary involvement is rare (5-15%. A thirty one year old female was admitted to a center with purulent fistulized lesions on the neck and axilla and enlargement of the breasts. There was no improvement with antibiotics and she had a fever. Pyogenic granulation was detected in the soft tissue biopsy of the axillary and breast. All the cultures were negative. Antituberculosis therapy was given for three months. This patient was admitted to our clinic due to clinical progression. Bilaterally painful, purulent flowing lesions on the neck and axilla, tension and sensitive breasts and high fever were found. Anemia, thrombocytosis, neutrophilic leukocytosis, low iron level and iron binding capacity and high CRP levels were detected in the laboratory tests. Anaerobic, actinomycosis, mycobacteria, nocardia and tularemia cultures were negative. Thorax CT showed a mediastinal conglomerate LN, left upper apicoposterior cavitary lesion and millimetric nodules. Abdominal CT was normal. Neck CT showed masses which erased the fat plain and submandibular LN. LN biopsy diagnosed an inflammatory variant of CD30(+ ALCL. It was considered to be stage IV due to pulmonary parenchyma, mediastinum, neck, axilla and breast involvement. After five chemotherapy sessions, there was a significant improvement in the lesions.

  14. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  15. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. 18F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 ncy before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author)

  16. Presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase in inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Fredika M; Petricoin Iii, Emanuel F; Van Laere, Steven J; Bertucci, Francois; Chu, Khoi; Fernandez, Sandra V; Mu, Zhaomei; Alpaugh, Katherine; Pei, Jianming; Circo, Rita; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Ye, Zaiming; Boley, Kimberly M; Liu, Hui; Moraes, Ricardo; Zhang, Xuejun; Demaria, Ruggero; Barsky, Sanford H; Sun, Guoxian; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is recognized as the most metastatic variant of locally advanced breast cancer, the molecular basis for the distinct clinical presentation and accelerated program of metastasis of IBC is unknown. Reverse phase protein arrays revealed activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and biochemically-linked downstream signaling molecules including JAK1/STAT3, AKT, mTor, PDK1, and AMPK? in pre-clinical models of IBC. To evaluate the clinical relevance of ALK in IBC, analysis of 25 IBC patient tumors using the FDA approved diagnostic test for ALK genetic abnormalities was performed. These studies revealed that 20/25 (80%) had either increased ALK copy number, low level ALK gene amplification, or ALK gene expression, with a prevalence of ALK alterations in basal-like IBC. One of 25 patients was identified as having an EML4-ALK translocation. The generality of gains in ALK copy number in basal-like breast tumors with IBC characteristics was demonstrated by analysis of 479 breast tumors using the TGCA data-base and our newly developed 79 IBC-like gene signature. The small molecule dual tyrosine kinase cMET/ALK inhibitor, Crizotinib (PF-02341066/Xalkori®, Pfizer Inc), induced both cytotoxicity (IC50?=?0.89 ?M) and apoptosis, with abrogation of pALK signaling in IBC tumor cells and in FC-IBC01 tumor xenograft model, a new IBC model derived from pleural effusion cells isolated from an ALK(+) IBC patient. Based on these studies, IBC patients are currently being evaluated for the presence of ALK genetic abnormalities and when eligible, are being enrolled into clinical trials evaluating ALK targeted therapeutics. PMID:24102046

  17. Combined chemotherapy and irradiation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pej?i? Ivica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a very rare and extremely aggressive cancer; patient's death usually occurs rapidly after diagnosis with a mean survival of six months in the majority of individual research series. Treatment of ATC ranges from surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these regimes. Yet, the optimal sequence of treatment modalities has not been established. Methods: From 1997 to 2002 six consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of ATC were treated with combined chemotherapy and irradiation at our Clinic for Oncology, Clinical Center Ni¹. Five of these patients were females and 1 male, aged between 28 and 71 years (mean age: 57 years. None of them had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Extrathyroidal extension was present in 3 patients with invasion into skin and hypoderm. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 60 mg/m 2 plus cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 every three weeks. Total doses ranged between 158-375 mg/m 2 for doxorubicin and 183-380 mg/m 2 for cisplatin. External beam radiation to the neck was administered, at a daily dose of 1.2 Gy, up to total doses ranging between 45-60 Gy. Results: One patient achieved a complete response (CR and one patient achieved a partial response (PR. Three patients had stable disease. One patient with CR progressed during follow-up and died 18 months from bone and brain metastases. The treatment was moderately well tolerated, although all patients experienced some mild form of toxicity; neutropenia occurred in all patients, but none of them required hospital admission. Median survival was 8 months (range: 4-18 months. Conclusion: We concluded that the present regimen produces meaningful responses for patients with localized ATC. A randomized study is needed to determine the effect on survival.

  18. ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the oral cavity showing spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah G Fitzpatrick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of T-cell lymphoma which is rarely seen in the oral cavity. This entity may be either primary cutaneous or systemic and the prognosis varies significantly by subtype. In addition, several similar entities have been reported which may mimic this lesion both clinically and histologically. We present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative, on the mucosal aspect of the upper lip of an 88 year-old female with a history of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which demonstrated spontaneous regression after biopsy. A brief review of the literature along with an overview of clinical behavior, histologic presentation, immunohistochemical analysis, genetics, and differential diagnosis of this subtype of anaplastic large cell lymphoma are presented.

  19. ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the oral cavity showing spontaneous regression

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah G.; Bowers, Leah M.; Al-quran, Samer Z.; Fox, Eric G.; Cohen, Donald M.; Indraneel Bhattacharyya

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a subset of T-cell lymphoma which is rarely seen in the oral cavity. This entity may be either primary cutaneous or systemic and the prognosis varies significantly by subtype. In addition, several similar entities have been reported which may mimic this lesion both clinically and histologically. We present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative, on the mucosal aspect of the upper lip of an 88 year-old female with a history of cutaneous T-cell ...

  20. Value of perfusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Bong Jin

    2014-09-01

    We report perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) findings of nonenhanced anaplastic astrocytoma in a 30-year-old woman. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhanced brain tumor with mild peritumoral edema on the right medial frontal lobe and right genu of corpus callosum, suggesting a low-grade glioma. However, PWI showed increased relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and permeability of nonenhanced brain tumor compared with contralateral normal brain parenchyma, suggesting a high-grade glioma. After surgery, final histopathological analysis revealed World Health Organization grade III anaplastic astrocytoma. This case demonstrates the importance of PWI for preoperative evaluation of nonenhanced brain tumors. PMID:25368772

  1. Hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma appearing 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-induced cerebellar glioma is extremely rare, and the etiology of such a tumor is unknown. We report a rare case of hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma occurring 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. We discuss the etiologies of the radiation-induced hemorrhagic cerebellar glioma as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Cytopathological Dilemma of Anaplastic Sacral Chordoma with Radiological and Histological Corroboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya BANDYOPADHYAY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a relatively rare locally invasive and potentially malignant tumor of fetal notochord origin, affecting the axial skeleton. Cytopathological diagnosis of chordoma is favored by the presence of characteristic physaliphorous cells, bearing abundant foamy cytoplasm dispersed in a myxoid matrix. Anaplastic chordoma or dedifferentiated chordoma, an even rarer variant, can cause a diagnostic confusion with chondrosarcoma from the cytopathological point of view, with similar chondromyxoid matrix and atypical cells. Hence, chordoma bearing anaplastic features needs to be identified and should be distinguished from chondrosarcoma on aspiration cytopathology. We present a case of anaplastic sacral chordoma in a man 59 years of age, causing extensive destruction of sacrum and invading the paravertebral tissues as evidenced by radiology. Fine needle aspiration cytopathology revealed few large pleomorphic hyperchromatic cells, admixed with characteristic physaliphorous cells and myxoid matrix. The cytopathological diagnosis has been confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Since anaplastic chordoma bears an unfavorable prognosis, it should be suspected on preoperative aspiration cytopathology. Clinicoradiological correlation along with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation is necessary subsequently.

  3. Cytopathological dilemma of anaplastic sacral chordoma with radiological and histological corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Goswami, Bidyut Krishna; Pramanik, Raghunath; Majumdar, Kaushik; Gangopadhyay, Mimi

    2011-05-01

    Chordoma is a relatively rare locally invasive and potentially malignant tumor of fetal notochord origin, affecting the axial skeleton. Cytopathological diagnosis of chordoma is favored by the presence of characteristic physaliphorous cells, bearing abundant foamy cytoplasm dispersed in a myxoid matrix. Anaplastic chordoma or dedifferentiated chordoma, an even rarer variant, can cause a diagnostic confusion with chondrosarcoma from the cytopathological point of view, with similar chondromyxoid matrix and atypical cells. Hence, chordoma bearing anaplastic features needs to be identified and should be distinguished from chondrosarcoma on aspiration cytopathology. We present a case of anaplastic sacral chordoma in a man 59 years of age, causing extensive destruction of sacrum and invading the paravertebral tissues as evidenced by radiology. Fine needle aspiration cytopathology revealed few large pleomorphic hyperchromatic cells, admixed with characteristic physaliphorous cells and myxoid matrix. The cytopathological diagnosis has been confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Since anaplastic chordoma bears an unfavorable prognosis, it should be suspected on preoperative aspiration cytopathology. Clinicoradiological correlation along with histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation is necessary subsequently. PMID:21630204

  4. Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Arising from Lymphomatoid Papulosis, Responding to Low Dose Methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini A; Mysore Venkatram; Sacchidanand S; Chandra Suresh

    2009-01-01

    CD301 cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) present variable clinical and histological manifestations. We report here a case of an adult male patient who progressed from lymphomatoid papulosis to anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient responded satisfactorily to a low dose of methotrexate.

  5. Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Arising from Lymphomatoid Papulosis, Responding to Low Dose Methotrexate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, AS; Mysore, Venkatram; Sacchidanand, S; Chandra, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) present variable clinical and histological manifestations. We report here a case of an adult male patient who progressed from lymphomatoid papulosis to anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient responded satisfactorily to a low dose of methotrexate. PMID:20808598

  6. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising from lymphomatoid papulosis, responding to low dose methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CD301 cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs present variable clinical and histological manifestations. We report here a case of an adult male patient who progressed from lymphomatoid papulosis to anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient responded satisfactorily to a low dose of methotrexate.

  7. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  8. Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  9. Decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in anaplastic thyroid cancer and recovory of its expression inhibits cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Onda, M.; Akaishi, J.; Asaka, S.; Okamoto, J.; Miyamoto, S.; Mizutani, K.; Yoshida, A.; Ito, K.; Emi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most fulminant and foetal diseases in human malignancies. However, the genetic alterations and carcinogenic mechanisms of ATC are still unclear. Recently, we investigated the gene expression profile of 11 anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines (ACL) and significant decreased expression of haemoglobin beta (HBB) gene in ACL. Haemoglobin beta is located at 11p15.5, where loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was reported in various kinds of cancers, including ...

  10. Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H; Brenner, Ori

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh's disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs. PMID:25565716

  11. Morphological approach of radiation induced DNA strand breakage by immuno-detection of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP): an in vitro study of human oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme encompassing two zinc finger motifs which specifically binds to radiation induced DNA strand breaks. We develop a new immuno-labelling of poly ADP-ribose which coupled together with the immuno-detection of cells in cycle with MIB1, permits to detect and quantify the DNA fragmentation induced by ? radiations (Cesium137). This method, applied to organo-typical cultures of human oligodendrogliomas, submitted to ? radiation, a dose dependant nuclear signal. This one increased significantly in the presence of a radiosensitizer like iododeoxyuridine (IUDR 5 ?g/ml). (authors)

  12. Aggressive transformation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with increased number of ALK-translocated chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Akihiro; Nomura, Keiko; Hamashima, Takeru; Isobe, Tomoya; Seki, Masafumi; Hiwatari, Mitsuteru; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Takita, Junko; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) usually has a benign clinical course. A small fraction of patients with ALCL develops an aggressive clinical course; however, its etiology remains unclear. Here we report on an ALK-positive ALCL patient, who had complex translocations with TPM3-ALK revealed by RNA sequencing, with a very aggressive clinical course. On admission, the patient had extraordinarily high white blood cell count with double ALK-translocated chromosomes, and subsequently developed a more aggressive transformation with invasion into multiple organs with triple ALK-translocated chromosomes. The aggressive clinical course may have been related to these additional chromosomal aberrations. Our report provides new insights into the clonal evolution in ALCL and suggests the importance of monitoring examinations including fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PMID:25416234

  13. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in association with primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Aneesh; Padhi, Somanath; Nagarajan, Ramesh; Boopathy, Vinoth; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Iqbal, Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has a well known association with lymphomas, especially of T cell origin. Prognosis of lymphoma associated HLH is very poor, especially in T cell lymphomas; and, therefore, early diagnosis might alter the outcome. Though association of HLH with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is known, its occurrence in primary cutaneous ALCL (C-ALCL) is distinctly rare. We aim to describe a case of C-ALCL (anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-) in an elderly male who succumbed to the complication of associated HLH, which was possibly triggered by coexistent virus infection. We briefly present the literatures on lymphoma associated HLH and discuss the histopathological differentials of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. We do suggest that HLH may pose diagnostic challenges in the evaluation of an underlying lymphoma and hence warrants proper evaluation for the underlying etiologies and/or triggering factors. PMID:25405042

  14. Effect of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent anaplastic meningioma: an autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Hiroshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Shinmura, Kazuya; Kawabata, Shinji; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman died of systemic metastasis from anaplastic meningioma and underwent autopsy. The patient underwent twice total removal of the right sphenoid ridge meningioma 2 years ago. The tumor recurred 3 times, and then stereotactic radiotherapy was employed. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed for the fourth local recurrence and an additional new lesion. Proliferative activity of the newly developed meningioma, which had been treated with BNCT only, was significantly lower than that of untreated metastatic liver tumor, as well as that of the meningioma specimen obtained at the second surgery. Our pathological findings demonstrated, for the first time, the therapeutic effect of BNCT on anaplastic meningioma at an early stage (2.5 months). PMID:24807102

  15. Kaposi Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland Resembling Epithelioid Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwait, Hassan; Meneghetti, Adam; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection are known to have increased risk of various neoplasms, including Kaposi sarcoma, which classically involves the skin and mucosal locations. The anaplastic variant of Kaposi sarcoma is rare and poorly documented in the literature. It is characterised clinically by a more aggressive behaviour and increased metastatic potential, and histologically by increased cellularity, mitotic rate, and rarely by epithelioid angiosarcoma-like morphology. We report herein a 64-year-old man with a long-standing history of human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed a right adrenal tumor with a high-grade anaplastic angiosarcoma-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry for human herpes virus-8 was strongly positive in the tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an anaplastic Kaposi sarcoma in the adrenal gland. PMID:21845069

  16. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome as an Initial Presentation of ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Merry-Jennifer Markham; Dang, Nam H.; Lourdes, Laura S.; Al-quran, Samer Z.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disease characterized by third spacing of plasma into the extravascular compartment, leading to anasarca, hemoconcentration, and hypovolemic shock. It has been rarely associated with lymphomas, and reports usually indicate that it occurs after antineoplastic treatment. We present the case of a patient with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma who presented with SCLS as the initial manifestation of her lymphoma. The SCLS resolved with tr...

  17. TWIST1 Plays a Pleiotropic Role in Determining the Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno, Paolo; Garci?a-rostan, Ginesa

    2011-01-01

    [Context]:Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human tumors; it is characterized by chemoresistance, local invasion, and distant metastases. ATC is invariably fatal. [Objective]:The aim was to study the role of TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in ATC. [Design]:Expression of TWIST1 was studied by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR in normal thyroids and well-differentiated, poorly differentiated, and ATC. The function of TWIST1 was ...

  18. Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tomoyuki; Morita, Akio; Maruyama, Keisuke; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Yasushi; Shibahara, Junji; Louis, David N.; Reifenberger, Guido; Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryusuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Todo, Tomoki

    2009-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain. Some PXAs are accompanied by anaplastic features and are difficult to manage because of frequent recurrences that lead to early death. No previous reports have demonstrated consistent efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy for this disease. We report a case of PXA with anaplastic features treated with stereotactic irradiation (STI) that resulted in long-term control of repeatedly recurring nodules throughout the neuraxis. A 47-year-old woman presented with an epileptic seizure due to a large tumor in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was resected and diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic features. Sixteen months later, a relapse at the primary site was noted and treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using Gamma Knife. Two years later, the patient developed a tumor nodule in the cervical spinal cord that histologically corresponded to a small-cell glioma with high cellularity and prominent MIB-1 (mindbomb homolog 1) labeling. In the following months, multiple nodular lesions appeared through-out the CNS, and STI was performed six times for eight intracranial lesions using Gamma Knife and twice using a linear accelerator, for three spinal cord lesions in total. All lesions treated with STI were well controlled, and the patient was free from symptomatic progression for 50 months. However, diffuse dissemination along the craniospinal axis eventually progressed, and she died 66 months after initial diagnosis. Autopsy showed that the nodules remained well demarcated from the surrounding nervous system tissue. STI may be an effective therapeutic tool for controlling nodular dissemination of PXA with anaplastic features. PMID:19164434

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Riaz; Tunio, Mutahir A.; Mushabbab AlAsiri; Asim Ali Elbagir Mohammad; Muhammad Mohsin Fareed

    2013-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case P...

  20. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    OpenAIRE

    Chen X.; La, Soma; Jr, Fromm

    2013-01-01

    Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD)30 antibodies...

  1. Expression of p63 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma but not in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Bacchi, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemical determination of p63 protein is frequently used in the pathologic diagnosis of nonhematological solid tumors. In malignant hematological disease, p63 expression has been reported in 22% of follicular lymphoma, about 35% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 23% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and in some cases of blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare disease that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma....

  2. Value of Perfusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Supratentorial Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Jahng, Geon-ho; Park, Bong Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) findings of nonenhanced anaplastic astrocytoma in a 30-year-old woman. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhanced brain tumor with mild peritumoral edema on the right medial frontal lobe and right genu of corpus callosum, suggesting a low-grade glioma. However, PWI showed increased relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and permeability of nonenhanced brain tumor compared with contralateral normal brain parenchyma, s...

  3. Identification of putative pathogenic microRNA and its downstream targets in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sargent, Rachel L; Yao, Hui; Barkoh, Bedia A; Singh, Rajesh; Patel, Keyur P

    2014-10-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are tumors of T/null-cell lineage characterized by uniform CD30 expression. The 2008 World Health Organization classification subdivided ALCLs into 2 groups: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (established entity) and ALK-negative (proposed new entity) ALCL. The genetic basis for the pathogenesis of newly categorized ALK- ALCL is poorly understood. In this study, we used microRNA microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in ALK+ and ALK- ALCL. ALK- ALCL showed significantly higher expression of miR-155 (0.888 ± 0.228) compared with ALK+ ALCL (0.0565 ± 0.009) on microarray and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ALK- ALCL compared with ALK+ ALCL (P BACH1 (r = 0.88, P = .02), RBAK (r = 0.81, P = .05), TRIM32 (r = 0.92, P = .01), E2F2 (r = 0.81, P = .05), and TP53INP1 (r = -0.31, P = .03) as genes whose expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction correlated significantly with the level of miR-155 in ALCL tumor tissue. PMID:25128227

  4. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Khalid; Tunio, Mutahir A.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab; Elbagir Mohammad, Asim Ali; Fareed, Muhammad Mohsin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30?Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients. PMID:23662243

  6. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  7. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizzi A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Gabriele Polonara,2 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Antonio Zizzi,3 Marina Scarpelli,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 3Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.Keywords: multiple primary intracranial tumors, vestibular schwannoma, oligodendroglioma, indolent low grade gliomas, incidentaloma, surgery

  8. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Wan Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are infrequent, with an estimated incidence rate of approximately 0.3%. Gastric metastases usually are derived from lobular rather than from ductal breast cancer. The most frequent type of a breast cancer metastasis as seen on endoscopy to the stomach is linitis plastica; features of a metastatic lesion that resemble early gastric cancer (EGC) are extremely rare. In this report, we present a case of a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from an infi...

  9. Subacute Combined Degeneration Resembling Radiculopathy: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi?, Murat; Terzi?, Tu?lay; Tander, Berna; Cantu?rk, Ferhan; Onar, Musa

    2008-01-01

    The neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are the result of its effects on the brain, optic nerves, peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is a complication of vitamin B12 deficiency, which is reversible if diagnosed and treated early. We present two cases of subacute combined degeneration who resemble radiculopathy. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:174-6.

  10. Subacute Combined Degeneration Resembling Radiculopathy: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TERZ?

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency are the result of its effects on the brain, optic nerves, peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is a complication of vitamin B12 deficiency, which is reversible if diagnosed and treated early. We present two cases of subacute combined degeneration who resemble radiculopathy. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:174-6.

  11. Giant lymph node hyperplasia resembling abdominal abscess on gallium scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia with systemic symptoms resembling chronic infection is described which showed intense gallium uptake and indistinguishable from uptake seen in an abscess. This rare syndrome may mimic an abdominal abscess and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients without prior history of abdominal surgery and in whom an abdominal abscess is suspected. The condition is relatively benign

  12. Viral plasmacytosis (Aleutian disease) of mink resembling human collagen disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D A; Franklin, A E; Karstad, L

    1967-05-01

    A disease in mink has been discovered that has many of the features of collagen diseases in man. Affected animals suffer from wasting with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia as well as plasma cell infiltration, hypergammaglobulinemia, glomerulonephritis, arteritis and amyloidosis. Cell-free filtrates and ultracentrifugates from diseased animals induced the disease in normal mink, and aleutian genotypes were unusually susceptible to infection. This genotype was characterized by abnormal lysosomal structures in all the granule-forming cells, resembling the Chediak-Higashi syndrome of man. Anti-gamma-globulin factors similar to human rheumatoid factors were reported, although tests for antibodies such as ANF and LE factors have been negative. Arteritis and glomerulonephritis lesions stained positively for gamma-globulin, and Coombs-type sensitized red cells have been detected in the majority of affected mink. Some mink develop a monodispersion of hypergammaglobulinemia resembling the serum protein changes in human myeloma. These studies highlight genetic, immunological and microbiological causative factors in a mink disorder resembling human collagen disease. PMID:5336835

  13. Id4 and FABP7 are preferentially expressed in cells with astrocytic features in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kelly

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligodendroglioma (ODG and oligoastrocytoma (OAC are diffusely infiltrating primary brain tumors whose pathogenesis remains unclear. We previously identified a group of genes whose expression was inversely correlated with survival in a cohort of patients with glioblastoma (GBM, and some of these genes are also reportedly expressed in ODG and OAC. We examined the expression patterns and localization of these survival-associated genes in ODG and OAC in order to analyze their possible roles in the oncogenesis of these two tumor types. Methods We used UniGene libraries derived from GBM and ODG specimens to examine the expression levels of the transcripts for each of the 50 GBM survival-associated genes. We used immunohistochemistry and cDNA microarrays to examine expression of selected survival-associated genes and Id4, a gene believed to control the timing of oligodendrocyte development. The expression of FABP7 and Id4 and the survival of patients with ODG and OAC were also analyzed. Results Transcripts of most survival-associated genes as well as Id4 were present in both GBM and ODG tumors, whereas protein expression of Id4 and one of the survival-associated genes, brain-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7, was present in cells with astrocytic features, including reactive and neoplastic astrocytes, but not in neoplastic oligodendrocytes. Id4 was co-expressed with FABP7 in microgemistocytes in ODG and in neoplastic astrocytes in OAC. Id4 and FABP7 expression, however, did not correlate with the clinical outcome of patients with ODG or OAC tumors. Conclusion Expression of Id4 and some of our previously identified GBM survival-associated genes is present in developing or mature oligodendrocytes. However, protein expression of Id4 and FABP7 in GBM, ODG, and OAC suggests that this group of functionally important genes might demonstrate two patterns of expression in these glioma subtypes: one group is universally expressed in glioma cells, and the other group of genes is expressed primarily in neoplastic astrocytes but not in neoplastic oligodendrocytes. Differential protein expression of these two groups of genes in ODG and OAC may be related to the cellular origins and the histological features of the neoplastic cells.

  14. A case of Jatropha multifida poisoning resembling organophosphate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltin, Dror; Uziel, Yosef; Schneidermann, Dina; Kotzki, Shula; Wolach, Baruch; Fainmesser, Pinchas

    2006-01-01

    Four siblings presented with vomiting, diarrhea and miosis following ingestion of the plant. This is the first report of miosis as a presenting sign of Jatropha intoxication. The combination of vomiting, diarrhea and miosis resembles the clinical presentation of organophosphate poisoning. This fact warrants the consideration of Jatropha ingestion in the differential diagnosis of organophosphate ingestion. Treatment of Jatropha intoxication is supportive with emphasis on rehydration. Measurement of plasma acetylcholinesterase activity levels, which is normal after Jatropha ingestion and decreased following organophosphate poisoning, may help differentiate between the two. PMID:16749556

  15. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic possibilities.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

  17. Diffuse decreased uptake of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) had been shown to contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid pathology and treatment planning in patients with diffusely decreased Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake. Intense MIBl activity is found more on tumour tissues than on normal tissues due to high mitochondrial activity in tumour tissues. Therefore Tc-99m MIBI has been used successfully to visualize primary, metastatic, and recurrent tumour. Methods: Tc-99m MIBI was requested on 4 euthyroid patients that were suspected of having thyroiditis, after Tc-99m pertechnetate demonstrated markedly reduced uptake. The scintigraphic data were compared with FNA, and histologic findings. Three phase pertechnetate scintigraphy was completed after a single injection of 150 Mbq. After 2 days, 400 Mbq of Tc-99m MIBI was injected, images were obtained at 20 minutes and 2 hours. In the following days, all patients underwent FNA followed by surgery. Results. No demonstration intense uptake was noted on Tc-99m MIBI scintiscans. Both Tc-99m pertechnetate and Tc-99m MIBI were matching. This pattern of uptake was not in keeping with thyroiditis, which usually shows reduced pertechnetate uptake with normal or increased Tc-99m MIBI accumulation. Cytological examination of fine needle aspiration was in support of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma which was confirmed histologically after thyroidectomy. Conclusion: These findings cautions against reported literature which discardsagainst reported literature which discards the presence of a tumour in the absence of Tc-99m MIBI. The absence of Tc-99m MIBI uptake in a tumour can be related to its poor perfusion, poor cellular content of overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) protein. Anaplastic carcinoma grows rapidly replacing normal thyroid tissue and also expresses many MDR genes, resulting in a very poor prognosis. This findings could suggest other unknown mechanisms for diffuse decreased uptake of Tc-99m MIBI in anaplastic carcinoma with markedly reduced Tc-99m pertechnetate. (author)

  18. Long-term follow-up of surgical treatment of spinal anaplastic astrocytoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinji; Hori, Yuko; Tamura, Yumiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female chinchilla feline presented with gradually progressive tetraparesis and cervical pain that had begun 1 month before the onset of a 4-day tetraplegic episode. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large elliptical intramedullary mass at the fourth cervical vertebrae. The mass was removed surgically and diagnosed as an anaplastic astrocytoma. No neurological abnormalities were observed 3 weeks postsurgery. Magnetic resonance at 3.5 year follow-up revealed neither mass regrowth nor recurrence of signs. PMID:23428584

  19. Disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor with anaplastic progression and presumed extraneural disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Brice A; Bookhout, Christine; Jaikumar, Sivakumar; Hipps, John; Lee, Yueh Z

    2015-01-01

    We report the neuroimaging and histopathologic findings of a 12-year-old female patient with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor with anaplastic progression and presumed extraneural metastatic disease. These tumors may represent distinct pathology primarily seen in pediatric patients. Neuroimaging demonstrates diffuse, progressive enhancement of the leptomeninges often with interval development of intraparenchymal lesions on follow-up. Disease is typically confined to the central nervous system, though diffuse peritoneal disease was seen in our case, possibly through metastatic seeding of the abdomen via ventriculoperitoneal shunt. PMID:25518979

  20. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  1. Clinical evaluation of 67Ga scanning in the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While 67Ga uptake has been reported to be highly variable and nonspecific in the diagnosis of malignant tumors of the thyroid, it has also been observed to depend on the histological nature of the lesion. For this reason, the behavior of 67Ga in various types of thyroid cancer was investigated in a prospective study of 86 patients with thyroid masses compatible with anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. The study demonstrated a distinct difference in uptake between well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and the more undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma

  2. Oligodendroglioma cells synthesize the differentiation-specific linker histone H1? and release it into the extracellular environment through shed vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Saladino, Patrizia; Pitti, Rosario; Savettieri, Giovanni; Proia, Patrizia; Di Liegro, Italia

    2013-12-01

    Chromatin remodelling can be involved in some of the epigenetic modifications found in tumor cells. One of the mechanisms at the basis of chromatin dynamics is likely to be synthesis and incorporation of replacement histone variants, such as the H1? linker histone. Regulation of the expression of this protein can thus be critical in tumorigenesis. In developing brain, H1? expression is mainly regulated at the post-transcriptional level and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved. In the past, attention mainly focused on the whole brain or isolated neurons and little information is available on H1? expression in other brain cells. Even less is known relating to tumor glial cells. In this study we report that, like in maturing brain and isolated neurons, H1? synthesis sharply increases in differentiating astrocytes growing in a serum-free medium, while the corresponding mRNA decreases. Unexpectedly, in tumor glial cells both H1? RNA and protein are highly expressed, in spite of the fact that H1? is considered a differentiation-specific histone variant. Persistence of H1? mRNA in oligodendroglioma cells is accompanied by high levels of H1? RNA-binding activities which seem to be present, at least in part, also in actively proliferating, but not in differentiating, astrocytes. Finally, we report that oligodendroglioma cells, but not astrocytes, release H1? protein into the culture medium by shedding extracellular vesicles. These findings suggest that deregulation of H1? histone expression can be linked to tumorigenesis. PMID:24085372

  3. High intratumoral macrophage content is an adverse prognostic feature in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin B; Danielsen, Allan V

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Macrophage infiltration has been associated with prognosis in several cancers, including lymphoma, but has not been assessed systematically in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of the study was to correlate expression of the macrophage-associated antigens CD68 and CD163 with pre-therapeutic parameters and outcome in a cohort of treatment-naive ALCL patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-therapeutic tumour specimens from 52 patients with ALCL were included in a tissue microarray. The intratumoral macrophage content was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163, and quantified using digital image analysis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive patients were significantly younger and had a favourable outcome compared with ALK-negative ALCL patients (median age: 42 versus 59 years; P = 0.008). However, ALK expression was not a significant predictor when adjusting for age. Although classical risk factors were distributed evenly between the compared groups, high intratumoral content of CD68 and/or CD163 correlated with poor outcome, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. High intratumoral CD163 content showed the strongest adverse association with both overall and progression-free survival in ALK-negative patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A high content of intratumoral CD68- and/or CD163-positive macrophages correlates with an adverse outcome in ALK-negative ALCL.

  4. Proteomic Profile Modification of Anaplastic Medulloblastoma after in-Vivo Radiotherapy: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MDB is an aggressive tumor of Central Nervous System (CNS. Radiotherapy after radical surgery has an important role in treatment of standard and high risk patients and is followed by intensive chemotherapy. To explore modifications of protein expression induced by in vivo radiotherapy proteomic analysis was performed on a case of Anaplastic MDB. 2D-gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected qualitative differences of protein expression in Anaplastic MDB at diagnosis and in relapse after radiotherapy. Relevant proteomic data were confirmed by western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis, validating the presence of Sthatmin 1 (STMN1, Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HSP27 and Disulfide Isomerase (ER60 among the six proteins present in both samples. The most relevant modification induced by radiotherapy was a drastic reduction of the total number of proteins (60.6% and the appearance of few new proteins. The modifications and the striking simplification of proteins expressed by the tumor after radiotherapy may allow to tailor subsequent chemotherapy on a rational basis. A proteomic guided chemotherapy may be of great benefit to patients.

  5. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  6. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  7. A case of cervical radiation radiculopathy resembling motor neuron disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsunaga, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Takeo; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Takeshi; Kira, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Takuro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    A 67-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscular weakness in the bilateral upper extremities (C5-7 regions) without signs of sensory deficit following the cervical radiation therapy (70.5 Gy) for right laryngeal cancer 4 years before. These clinical signs resembled those of lower motor neuron disease. MRI with gadolinium-DTPA, however, showed enhancement in the bilateral C5 and C6 anterior roots, suggesting the cervical radiculopathy due to radiotherapy. It is known that radiation to the spinal cord can lead to ``selective anterior horn cell injury``. This is the first case report of the cervical radiation radiculopathy, which, if without MRI, might be classified into selective anterior horn cell injury. Suggestion is made for the hypothesis that the spinal motoneuron loss in radiation myelopathy would be caused by retrograde degeneration due to anterior root damages. (author)

  8. A case of cervical radiation radiculopathy resembling motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 67-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscular weakness in the bilateral upper extremities (C5-7 regions) without signs of sensory deficit following the cervical radiation therapy (70.5 Gy) for right laryngeal cancer 4 years before. These clinical signs resembled those of lower motor neuron disease. MRI with gadolinium-DTPA, however, showed enhancement in the bilateral C5 and C6 anterior roots, suggesting the cervical radiculopathy due to radiotherapy. It is known that radiation to the spinal cord can lead to ''selective anterior horn cell injury''. This is the first case report of the cervical radiation radiculopathy, which, if without MRI, might be classified into selective anterior horn cell injury. Suggestion is made for the hypothesis that the spinal motoneuron loss in radiation myelopathy would be caused by retrograde degeneration due to anterior root damages. (author)

  9. Autonomously Moving Colloidal Objects that Resemble Living Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Morimune

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of autonomously moving objects that resemble living matter is an excellent research topic that may develop into various applications of functional motion. Autonomous motion can demonstrate numerous significant characteristics such as transduction of chemical potential into work without heat, chemosensitive motion, chemotactic and phototactic motions, and pulse-like motion with periodicities responding to the chemical environment. Sustainable motion can be realized with an open system that exchanges heat and matter across its interface. Hence the autonomously moving object has a colloidal scale with a large specific area. This article reviews several examples of systems with such characteristics that have been studied, focusing on chemical systems containing amphiphilic molecules.

  10. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of ?-sarcoglycan, ?-sarcoglycan and ?-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. PMID:24529507

  11. 18F-FDG PET in Patients with Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Differential Features According to Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression. Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peak SUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed. All cases were 18F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peak SUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n =16, 18.7±10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n =21, 10.0±4.9) (P =0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P=0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P =0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P =0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P =0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0%vs 20.0 %, P =0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results. On baseline PET, all cases showed 18F-FDG avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher 18F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Patients with Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Differential Features According to Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin; Park, Seol Hoon; Chae, Sunyoung; Kim, Shin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung; Ryu, Jinsook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression. Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peak SUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed. All cases were {sup 18}F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peak SUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n =16, 18.7±10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n =21, 10.0±4.9) (P =0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P=0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P =0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P =0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P =0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0%vs 20.0 %, P =0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results. On baseline PET, all cases showed {sup 18}F-FDG avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.

  13. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides de manejo quirúrgico / Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, review of six patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA, LOBOS M; DIEGO, VILLAGRÁN R; CAROLINA, OPAZO T; FELIPE, CARDEMIL M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides corresponde al 2 a 5% del total de cánceres tiroideos. Afecta a mujeres en la sexta o séptima década de la vida, presentándose como masa cervical pétrea de crecimiento rápido, adherida a planos profundos. El tratamiento incluye cirugía, quimioterapia y [...] radioterapia, siendo de elección el tratamiento multimodal. Objetivo: Conocer los resultados de una serie de casos manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de serie de casos de Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides tratados exclusivamente con cirugía entre los años 2002 y 2008. Se registraron características generales, técnica operatoria, complicaciones, uso de otras terapias y sobrevida. Resultados: Se manejaron 6 pacientes, cuatro hombres y dos mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 59 años. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días. Se realizó tiroidectomía total bilateral en 4 pacientes. Dos pacientes requirieron traqueostomía durante el postoperatorio. En ninguno de ellos se realizó radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante o adyuvante. La sobrevida promedio fue de 108 días. Discusión: Destaca en esta serie el diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, lo cual determina la imposibilidad de realizar terapia multimodal y la sobrevida observada. Por lo anterior, es de importancia la sospecha y la derivación inmediata para el manejo especializado, aumentando así la posibilidad del uso de terapia multimodal con mejores resultados en términos de sobrevida. Se observó una sobrevida menor a la reportada en la literatura. Abstract in english Background: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma corresponds 2 to 5% of all thyroid cancers. It affects mainly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life, appearing as a hard, fast growing cervical mass that is adhered to surrounding structures. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A [...] im: to report a series of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer operated between 2002 and 2008. Results: The records of six patients aged 46 to 82 years (four males), were retrieved. A bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in four patients. Two patients required tracheostomy during the postoperative period. Mean hospital stay was six days. None received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Three patients died within one month of the operation. The rest died at 115, 184 and 283 days after surgery. Conclusions: All these patients were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, a fact that can explain the dismal evolution observed.

  14. Developing retroperitoneal anaplastic carcinoma with choriocarcinoma focus after ovarian non-gestastional choriocarcinoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN. It is a rare event but also a curable malignancy. In the majority of instancies it developes after any gestational event. In some cases it developes as non-gestational extrauterine malignancy. Prognosis of choriocarcinoma is poor when invasion and metastases appear early and spread fast. This form of choriocarcinoma can lead to incurable and letal outcome. Case report. We presented a 20-year-old patient with abdominal and retroperitoneal malignancy - anaplastic carcinoma combined with choriocarcinoma metastases in. Tumor developed three months after left adnexectomy which had been done because of adnexal tumor. Choriocarcinoma was immunohistochemicaly confirmed in adnexal masses. Two courses of chemotherapy, metotrexate + folic acid (MTX+FA regimen, were administrated. The initial serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level stayed unknown as well as the last one after the treatment. The patient came from the other country and was hospitalized because of pelvic and abdominal pain and palpable abdominal masses in hypogastrium with progressive anemia. The human chorionic gonadotropin level was 38 mIU/L. Tumor biopsy was done and choriocarcinoma metastases were immunohistochemicaly confirmed with predominant anaplastic carcinoma. Five day course of MTX + cyclophosphamide regimen was administrated and the patient was prepared for operative treatment. Relaparotomy was perforemed and tumor completely exceeded. Tumor mass mostly developed retroperitonely and partialy in abdominal cavity infiltrating intestinal wall with rupture of sigmoid colon. Anaplastic carcinoma, with large fields of necrosis and bleeding, was confirmed after histological examination. Immunohistochemical examination excluded choriocarcinoma in tumor mass. After 20 blood units transfusion, one course of chemotherapy and tumor excision, the patient left hospital on the 9th postoperative day. The patient rejected chemotherapy which was recommended according to the protocol and died one month after the operation. Conclusion. Non-gestational metastatic choriocarcinoma complicated with another type of malignancy with early spread of the disease and low responsiriness to chemotherapy has poor prognosis and leads to lethal outocome. [Acknowledgment. Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41021 and 175082

  15. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides de manejo quirúrgico Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, review of six patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA LOBOS M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides corresponde al 2 a 5% del total de cánceres tiroideos. Afecta a mujeres en la sexta o séptima década de la vida, presentándose como masa cervical pétrea de crecimiento rápido, adherida a planos profundos. El tratamiento incluye cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia, siendo de elección el tratamiento multimodal. Objetivo: Conocer los resultados de una serie de casos manejados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Dr. Gustavo Fricke de Viña del Mar. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de serie de casos de Cáncer Anaplásico de Tiroides tratados exclusivamente con cirugía entre los años 2002 y 2008. Se registraron características generales, técnica operatoria, complicaciones, uso de otras terapias y sobrevida. Resultados: Se manejaron 6 pacientes, cuatro hombres y dos mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 59 años. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 6 días. Se realizó tiroidectomía total bilateral en 4 pacientes. Dos pacientes requirieron traqueostomía durante el postoperatorio. En ninguno de ellos se realizó radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante o adyuvante. La sobrevida promedio fue de 108 días. Discusión: Destaca en esta serie el diagnóstico en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, lo cual determina la imposibilidad de realizar terapia multimodal y la sobrevida observada. Por lo anterior, es de importancia la sospecha y la derivación inmediata para el manejo especializado, aumentando así la posibilidad del uso de terapia multimodal con mejores resultados en términos de sobrevida. Se observó una sobrevida menor a la reportada en la literatura.Background: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma corresponds 2 to 5% of all thyroid cancers. It affects mainly women in the sixth or seventh decade of life, appearing as a hard, fast growing cervical mass that is adhered to surrounding structures. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aim: to report a series of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer operated between 2002 and 2008. Results: The records of six patients aged 46 to 82 years (four males, were retrieved. A bilateral total thyroidectomy was performed in four patients. Two patients required tracheostomy during the postoperative period. Mean hospital stay was six days. None received neoadjuvant or adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Three patients died within one month of the operation. The rest died at 115, 184 and 283 days after surgery. Conclusions: All these patients were diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, a fact that can explain the dismal evolution observed.

  16. Islet1 deletion causes kidney agenesis and hydroureter resembling CAKUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Yusuke; Ohmori, Tomoko; Kudo, Kuniko; Fujimura, Sayoko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Evans, Sylvia M; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2013-07-01

    Islet1 (Isl1) is a transcription factor transiently expressed in a subset of heart and limb progenitors. During studies of limb development, conditional Isl1 deletion produced unexpected kidney abnormalities. Here, we studied the renal expression of Isl1 and whether it has a role in kidney development. In situ hybridization revealed Isl1 expression in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the base of the ureteric bud in mice. Conditional deletion of Isl1 caused kidney agenesis or hypoplasia and hydroureter, a phenotype resembling human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). The absence of Isl1 led to ectopic branching of the ureteric bud out from the nephric duct or to the formation of accessory buds, both of which could lead to obstruction of the ureter-bladder junction and consequent hydroureter. The abnormal elongation and poor branching of the ureteric buds were the likely causes of the kidney agenesis or hypoplasia. Furthermore, the lack of Isl1 reduced the expression of Bmp4, a gene implicated in the CAKUT-like phenotype, in the metanephric region before ureteric budding. In conclusion, Isl1 is essential for proper development of the kidney and ureter by repressing the aberrant formation of the ureteric bud. These observations call for further studies to investigate whether Isl1 may be a causative gene for human CAKUT. PMID:23641053

  17. [Crohn's disease with the onset resembling systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Nishinarita, S; Son, K; Tomita, Y; Yoshihiro; Matsukawa; Kitamura, N; Horie, T; Baba, M; Hiranuma, M

    1999-06-01

    We described a 37-year-old man with Crohn's disease (CD) resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at his disease onset. He was admitted to the municiple Akiru Hospital in October 1986 by fever, aphtous oral ulcerations, sore throat and polyarthralgia. Hematologic examination showed leukocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, positive tests for antinuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and LE cell phenomenon. He has had episodes of convulsion and conciousness loss of unknown etiology when he was 17 years old. The diagnosis of SLE was made, and oral medication of prednisolone was started. Several weeks later, most of symptoms and autoantibodies disappeared, although the oral aphtous ulcerations and leukocytopenia remained. In May 1987, he admitted to the other hospital because of bloody vomiting. Endoscopic examination showed the esophagial ulceration, and histology of biopsied-specimen was nonspecific esophagitis. The combination of prednisolone and oral cyclophosphamide or methotrexate was employed thereafter. However, the leukocytopenia, oral aphtous ulceration and esophagial ulceration continued in spite of these treatments. All the immunosuppressive treatment was stopped at March 1992. In October 1995, he admitted to our hospital because of body weight loss and continuous diarrhea with occasional bloody stool. Barium enema and endoscopic examination of the colon revealed the findings compatible with CD. The patient responded favorably to methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral sulphasalazine. This case indicated that cases with inflammatory bowel diseases like CD could show similar clinical signs and symptoms to SLE, and in some cases of CD might satisfied the classification of criteria for SLE. PMID:11126669

  18. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [3H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [3H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [3H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebratesfor other invertebrates

  19. Masked hypodiploidy in anaplastic meningiomas by duplication of the original clone found in atypical meningiomas: illustration of the evolution of genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Erin E; Guzman, Miguel A; Calvey, Laura S; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2014-08-01

    Meningiomas are common, usually benign neoplasms of the central nervous system. Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas can be aggressive, show more rapid growth, and a greater propensity to recur following resection. General consensus believes that genetic abnormalities leading to anaplastic transformation are present at initial tumor presentation; however, this has not been demonstrated by array-comparative genome hybridization. We confirm the hypothesis by showing the evolution of genetic alterations in the transformation of an atypical meningioma to an anaplastic meningioma. Additionally, we provide potential genes responsible for malignant transformation of meningiomas, which, with further research, may provide diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24612240

  20. Small cell anaplastic carcinoma of primary lung tumor in a miniature schnauzer dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-year-old male, an intact miniature Schnauzer dog with history of vomiting, abdominal distention, anorexia, and dyspnea was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Thoracic radiographs showed the well marginated solitary mass with soft density in the right caudal lung field, and abdominal radiographs showed signs of ascites, such as abdominal distention and moderate serosal detail loss. On ultrasonograph and computed tomograph, it was observed that the mass compressed the caudal vena cava (CVC) and adhered to the heart. Exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and then it was showed that mass adhered heart, CVC, and diaphragm. The mass was fully rejected although adhered part of CVC could not be completely rejected. On histopathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as small-cell anaplastic carcinoma

  1. Primary Cutaneous CD 30+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous CD 30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30 + lymphoproliferative disorders, together with lymphomatoid papulosis. Its frequency is less than 0.5 x 100 000 inhabitants per year. It accounts for a very small proportion of non-Hodgkins lymphomas. The case of an 80-year-old female patient whose diagnosis was established in 2006 because of lesions on the face and neck is presented. The lesions continued to grow in an exaggerated fashion lately leading to deformity of her face. She was admitted due to neurological manifestations unrelated to the lesions. The presentation of this case is necessary because it requires performing differential diagnosis in clinical practice. Given its rarity, it is of interest to the medical community, especially trainees.

  2. Immunologic monitoring of patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma who are treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January to October 1978 the diagnosis of small cell anaplastic carcinoma was made in 12 patients. Patients were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and were followed for 13 months. Before treatment lymphocyte stimulation (L.S.) and blood T and B lymphocytes were within normal range. Positive skin tests were observed in patients who had a large weight loss. After treatment, the number of lymphocytes dropped, but the T/B radio did not change. T lymphocyte function was impaired (decrease of LS with phytohemagglutinine) but B lymphocyte function was normal (normal LS with Pockeweed Mitogen). The skin tests became negative after radiotherapy or when patients had a loss of body weight of more than 10%. In spite of its imprecision, skin tests appear to be the best to follow immunological status. More sophisticated tests gave no supplementary information. Immunological status could not be related to prognosis

  3. A Report of a Rare Case of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G Kango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case history: Malignant lymphoma is a neoplastic proliferative process of the lymphopoietic portion of the reticuloendothelial system that involves cells of either the lymphocytic or histiocytic series in varying degrees of differentiation and occurs in an essentially homogenous population of a single cell type. The character of histologic involvement is either diffuse (uniform or nodular and the distribution of involvement may be regional or systemic (generalized, the process basically being multicentric. A case of oral cavity lymphoma was detected and after various panel of imunnohistochemical (IHC markers it was diagnosed as Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL of oral cavity. Conclusion: Lymphoma of oral regions are very rare and ALCL is rarest. It is of utmost importance to do the IHC, so that the prognosis of the lesion is known at the earliest. In this case since it was detected at a later stage the outcome was fatal.

  4. Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze a prospective protocol combining surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methods and materials: Thirty anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients (mean age, 59 years) were treated during 1990-2000. Tumor extended beyond the capsule gland in 26 patients, with tracheal extension in 8. Lymph node metastases were present in 18 patients and lung metastases in 6. Surgery was performed before RT-CT in 20 patients and afterwards in 4. Two cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and cisplatin (120 mg/m2) were delivered before RT and four cycles after RT. RT consisted of two daily fractions of 1.25 Gy, 5 days per week to a total dose of 40 Gy to the cervical lymph node areas and the superior mediastinum. Results: Acute toxicity (World Health Organization criteria) was Grade 3 or 4 pharyngoesophagitis in 10 patients; Grade 4 neutropenia in 21, with infection in 13; and Grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombopenia in 8 and 4, respectively. At the end of the treatment, a complete local response was observed in 19 patients. With a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 12-78 months), 7 patients were alive in complete remission, of whom 6 had initially received a complete tumor resection. Overall survival rate at 3 years was 27% (95% confidence interval 10-44%) and median survival 10 months. In multivariate analysis, tracheal extension and macroscopic complete tumor resection were significaic complete tumor resection were significant factors in overall survival. Death was related to local progression in 5% of patients, to distant metastases in 68%, and to both in 27%. Conclusions: Main toxicity was hematologic. High long-term survival was obtained when RT-CT was given after complete surgery. This protocol avoided local tumor progression, and death was mainly caused by distant metastases

  5. MicroRNA 96 Is a Post-Transcriptional Suppressor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Li, Yong; Wilson, Desiree; Manshouri, Roxsan; Curry, Choladda V.; Shi, Bin; Tang, Xi Ming; Sheehan, Andrea M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M.

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) constitutes a part of the oncogenic fusion proteins nucleophosmin-ALK and echinoderm microtubule–associated protein like 4–ALK, which are aberrantly expressed in a subset of T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma and non–small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The expression of mutated, constitutively active ALK also occurs in a subset of neuroblastoma tumors. ALK is believed to play an important role in promoting tumor survival. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the expression of ALK in cancer cells are not completely known. MicroRNA (miR) has been implicated in the regulation of the expression of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We tested the hypothesis that the expression of ALK could be regulated by miR. Three Internet-based algorithms identified miR-96 to potentially bind with the ALK 3?-untranslated region. Notably, miR-96 levels were markedly decreased in ALK-expressing cancer cell lines and primary human tumors compared with their normal cellular and tissue counterparts. Transfection of the cell lines with miR-96 decreased levels of the different forms of ALK protein, without significant effects on ALK mRNA. Furthermore, miR-96 decreased the phosphorylation of ALK target proteins, including Akt, STAT3, JNK, and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor, and it down-regulated JunB. These effects were associated with reduced proliferation, colony formation, and migration of ALK-expressing cancer cells. These data provide novel evidence that decreases in miR-96 could represent a mechanism underlying the aberrant expression of ALK in cancer cells. PMID:22414602

  6. Another look at chronic appendicitis resembling Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Appelman, H D

    1996-10-01

    There is an uncommon, enigmatic chronic appendicitis that shares histologic features with typical Crohn's disease (CD), but it presents as appendiceal disease. Although most reported patients remain disease free after appendectomy, a small group progresses to more generalized CD. The density of granulomas is said to separate those patients whose disease remains confined to the appendix from those patients in whom CD develops elsewhere. We reviewed 20 cases of appendicitis morphologically resembling CD and compared them with 16 transmurally inflamed appendices from patients with known CD to evaluate whether any histologic features differentiate between patients in whom recurrent CD will develop in the gut and those in whom it will not. Eleven patients with the primary disease had no granulomas. The remaining nine patients had granulomas, ranging from 0.2 to 28 per cross section. Appendices from patients known to have CD never had more than 10.5 granulomas per cross section. Follow-up in 15 patients with the primary appendiceal disease was from 5 weeks to 11.5 years (median, 30 mo). Thirteen patients remained disease free, but in two, CD developed elsewhere in the gut. One of these had no granulomas, whereas the other one had 21 per cross section. Therefore, according to the data from our study and from other studies, most cases of this Crohn's-like disease of the appendix are self-limited, but a few are not. Histologic features alone, including granuloma density, do not always predict the clinical outcome. Follow-up is necessary. PMID:8902834

  7. A new der(1;7)(q10;p10) leading to a singular 1p loss in a case of glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadji, Macoura; Crous-Tsanaclis, Ana-Maria; Mathieu, David; Mai, Sabine; Fortin, David; Drouin, Régen

    2014-04-01

    The combined 1p-/19q- deletions in oligodendrogliomas originate from translocation between both chromosomes. In the few cases of oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) where only 1p deletion was described, the origin remains unknown. We report the first case of GBMO, in which a single 1p deletion was detected and was linked to a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7. Fresh surgical specimens were collected during surgery and the samples were used for cell culture, touch preparation smear slides (TP slides) and DNA extraction. Peripheral venous blood was also collected from the patient. G-banding using Trypsin and stained with Giemsa (GTG) banding and karyotyping were performed and 1p-/19q-, TP53, PTEN and c-MYC were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Multicolor FISH (mFISH) and microsatellites analyses were also performed to complete the investigation. Three-dimensional quantitative FISH (3D-QFISH) of telomeres was performed on nuclei from TP slides and analyzed using TeloView(TM) to determine whether the 3D telomere profile as an assessment of telomere dysfunction and a characterization of genomic instability could predict the disease aggressiveness. An unbalanced chromosomal translocation was found in all metaphases and confirmed by mFISH. The karyotype of the case is: 50?99,XXX, +der(1;7)(q10;p10),inc[47] The derivative chromosome was found in all 47 analyzed cells, but the number of derivatives varied from one to four. There was neither imbalance in copy number for genes TP53 and PTEN, nor amplification of c-MYC gene. We did not find loss of heterozygosity with analysis of microsatellite markers for chromosomes 1p and 19q in tumor cells. The 3D-telomere profile predicted a very poor prognostic and short-term survival of the patient and highlights the potential clinical power of telomere signatures as a solid biomarker of GBMO. Furthermore, this translocation between chromosomes 1 and 7 led to a singular 1p deletion in this GBMO and may generate the 1p and 7q deletions. PMID:24118308

  8. Thirty-nine cases of intracranial hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma: A retrospective review of MRI features and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun-lin, E-mail: zjl601@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University (School of Medicine), Postcode: 710061, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Postcode: 730030, Lanzhou (China); Liu, Jian-li; Zhang, Jing [Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Postcode: 730030, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: lzjl601@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University (School of Medicine), Postcode: 710061, Xi' an (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To retrospectively review the imaging features of surgically and pathologically confirmed intracranial hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma. Methods: Thirty-nine cases of surgically and pathologically confirmed hemangiopericytoma and anaplastic hemangiopericytoma were analyzed retrospectively. The MRI features were compared with pathological findings in all cases. Results: Of the 39 cases, 21 were anaplastic hemangiopericytoma (WHO grade III) and the remaining cases were hemangiopericytoma (WHO grade II); all lesions were solitary. MRI of anaplastic hemangiopericytoma showed that 20 cases were lobulated, and nine grew cross-leaf. The lesions showed mixed iso-high-low signal (n = 20) or iso-signal (n = 1) on plain T1WI, and mixed high-low signal (n = 20) or iso-signal (n = 1) on plain T2WI. After contrast injection, marked heterogeneous enhancement was seen in 19 cases. Significant necrosis and cystic changes were seen in 16 cases, and the 'dural tail sign' was found in two cases. Ten cases had bony destruction, and 16 showed significant peritumoral edema. In 18 cases of hemangiopericytoma, nine were oval-shaped and three grew cross-leaf. The lesions showed mixed iso-low signal (n = 10) or iso-signal (n = 8) on plain T1WI, and mixed iso-high signal (n = 10) or iso-signal (n = 8) on plain T2WI. After contrast injection, significant uniform enhancement was seen in 10 cases. Significant necrosis and cystic changes were seen in seven cases, and 'dural tail sign' was seen in six cases. Two cases had bony destruction. No case showed significant peritumoral edema. Pathological immunohistochemical Ki67 staining showed a concentration of {approx}18.4% positive cells in anaplastic hemangiopericytoma, whereas in hemangiopericytoma it was 7.12%. Conclusion: Imaging findings of intracranial anaplastic hemangiopericytoma had more pronounced lobulation, cross-leaf growth tendency, more and easier bleeding, more necrosis, more cystic changes giving rise to heterogeneous signals, rarer frequency of the 'dural tail sign', more damage near the skull, and more significant peritumoral edema than hemangiopericytoma. These features may help differentiate these two types of malignancy.

  9. The monoclonal antibody ALK1 identifies a distinct morphological subtype of anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with 2p23/ALK rearrangements.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittaluga, S.; Wlodarska, I.; Pulford, K.; Campo, E.; Morris, S. W.; Den Berghe, H.; Wolf-peeters, C.

    1997-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a heterogeneous group of diseases by morphology, phenotype, genotype, and clinical presentation. Using a new monoclonal antibody (ALK1) that recognizes the native anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein as well as the fusion product of the t(2;5)(p23;q35), nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK, we investigated for ALK expression cases diagnosed as ALCL as well as lympho-proliferative disorders possessing overlapping features with ALCL. Thirteen cases showed cytopla...

  10. Anaplastic carcinoma associated with a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas during pregnancy: Report of a case and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Hakamada, Takuya Miura

    2008-01-01

    Oncogenesis of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is a subject of controversy, because it shows sarcomatous nature with extremely poor prognosis. We herein report an unusual case of anaplastic carcinoma occurring with a recurrent mucinous cystic neoplasm in a 38-year-old female. A 10-cm retroperitoneal cystic mass was pointed out in the first pregnancy and a probable diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasm was made in October 2000. She refused surgery first and delivered her baby uneventfully...

  11. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Regulatory roles of cell surface glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic ac...

  12. Feasibility and limitations of radioiodine therapy in oncocytic (oxyphilic), medullary (C-cell) and anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncocytic, medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers are not supposed to take up radioiodine because of their cellular differentiation. Therefore, I-131 therapy should not be feasible in these special types of thyroid carcinoma. Literature reports concerning successful I-131 treatment in patients with those cancers may be explained by the occurrence of rare 'mixed tumor types' or 'collision tumors', which consist of oncocytic, medullary or anaplastic parts as well as of sections with follicular or papillary differentiation which may take up I-131. Moreover, in the region of the thyroid gland, tumor tissue which is not able to take up radioiodine may be surrounded by normal thyrocytes taking up I-131. Radioiodine treatment therefore may be indicated in proven mixed tumor types and in collision tumors as well as in cases of residual tumor tissue in the neighbourhood of normal thyrocytes. (orig.)

  13. Composite mantle cell and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Charles; Blandino, Ivan I P; Alhejaily, Abdulmohsen; Baetz, Tara; Good, David J; Farmer, Patricia L; Squire, Jeremy A; LeBrun, David P

    2015-03-01

    We describe the first reported occurrence of a composite cutaneous lymphoma involving a mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The lesion occurred in a 76-year-old man with longstanding MCL who developed nodular skin lesions on his trunk and extremities. Biopsy revealed a CD30-positive lymphoma with pathological features characteristic of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the superficial dermis and a subjacent deposit of MCL in the deep dermis and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Immunophenotyping demonstrated T versus B lymphoid origin, respectively, for the 2 neoplasms, and fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated an 11;14 chromosomal translocation exclusively in the MCL. These results argue that the lymphomas represented clonally distinct neoplasms. Our case illustrates the extreme diversity associated with the cutaneous manifestations of lymphoid neoplasia and in particular of composite lymphomas, which present diagnostic challenges for clinicians and pathologists alike. PMID:25374307

  14. Resveratrol Induces Differentiation Markers Expression in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma via Activation of Notch1 Signaling and Suppresses Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-min; Jaskula-sztul, Renata; Ahmed, Kamal; Harrison, April D.; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Chen, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy with undifferentiated features, for which conventional treatments, including radioactive iodine ablation, are usually not effective. Recent evidence suggests that the Notch1 pathway is important in the regulation of thyroid cancer cell growth and expression of thyrocyte differentiation markers. However, drug development targeting Notch1 signaling in ATC remains largely underexplored. Previously, we have identified resver...

  15. Remission of the Lambert-Eaton Syndrome and small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient presented with the Lambert-Eaton syndrome and small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung was subsequently diagnosed. Treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in remission of both the cancer and the neuromuscular disorder. This case represents the first documented remission of the Lambert-Eaton syndrome following nonoperative treatment of the primary malignancy and emphasizes the therapeutic value of early diagnosis of this disorder

  16. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zu Youli; Wong Michael S; Bagaria Hitesh G; Zhao Nianxi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) by taking advantage o...

  17. Limited stage I disease is not necessarily indicative of an excellent prognosis in childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Attarbaschi, A.; Mann, G.; Rosolen, A.; Williams, D.; Uyttebroeck, A.; Marky, I.; Lamant, L.; Horibe, K.; Wrobel, G.; Beishuizen, A.; Wo?ssmann, W.; Reiter, A.; Mauguen, A.; Le Deley, M. -c; Brugie?res, L.

    2011-01-01

    Data on incidence, characteristics, and prognosis in stage I childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma are scarce. Of 463 patients enrolled in the international ALCL99 trial, 36 (8%) had stage I disease and were treated with a prephase chemotherapy, followed by either 3 chemotherapy courses in case of initial complete resection (6 patients) or otherwise by 6 courses of chemotherapy (30 patients). Disease localization was to the peripheral lymph nodes in 26, soft tissue mass in 8, and solitary ...

  18. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na125I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future studies will have to concentrate on the possible expression of enzymatically active proteins or the transfer of multiple genes involved in iodide trapping. (orig.)

  19. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkom, U. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A.; Jiang, S.; Morr, I.; Mahmut, M. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na{sup 125}I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future studies will have to concentrate on the possible expression of enzymatically active proteins or the transfer of multiple genes involved in iodide trapping. (orig.)

  20. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL. Results The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7 and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+ and ALK negative (ALK- was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (?18 were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51% or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%. Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14?years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results show that ALK expression alone is not sufficient to determine the outcome of ALCL and other prognostic factors must be considered. Clinical stage is an independent prognostic factor. Ki-67 expression is a promising prognostic factor.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

  2. Trebananib in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  3. Role of radiation therapy in small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleehen, N M; Bunn, P A; Cox, J D; Dombernowsky, P; Fox, R M; Høst, H; Joss, R; White, J E; Wittes, R E

    1983-01-01

    The previously established roles of radiotherapy in the management of small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung have changed with the development of improved chemotherapy. A group of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has concluded that while there is established evidence that the addition of chemotherapy improves the results of radiation therapy, the value of the addition of loco-regional radiation therapy to chemotherapy is uncertain and more difficult to assess. No advantage in short-term (median) survival has been shown in randomized studies, but current data suggest a possible advantage in long-term control of loco-regional disease. Further results of prospective trials are needed to resolve this question. Prophylactic cranial irradiation reduces the incidence of cerebral metastases but so far has not resulted in improved survival. Pending the results of further randomized studies, its routine use in all patients is not advocated. The palliative role of radiation therapy is valuable in symptomatic treatment. Various current modifications of technique to improve the results of conventional radiation treatments with an altered fractionation schedule and use of sensitizers and large fields are not believed to show major advantages. The clear documentation of treatment details and the definition of the criteria for the assessment of results are important if further comparisons of results are to be made possible. In particular, the need for reporting long-term survival at 2 years in contrast to the more usual median survival time is stressed. PMID:6193877

  4. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  5. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK and p53 Are Potentially Useful Markers to Distinguish Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Iwamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT of the urinary bladder is a clinically and histologically uncommon benign tumor that can be easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. We sought to determine whether immunohistochemical staining would be evaluated IMT of the urinary bladder. We have also shown the literatures that imminohistochemical staining of IMT was investigated to distinguish malignant lesions using PubMed data base. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, p53, cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, myoglobin, smooth muscle myosin and S100, was carried out on serial sections from archival specimens of three patients who underwent transurethral resection and partial cystectomy. Results: Immunohistchemical staining in all patients was positive for ALK and weak positive for p53 protein. In the literatures, positive rates of ALK and p53 inthe IMT of the urinary bladder were 60.9% and 53.1%, respectively. Sarcoma and carcinosarcoma were shown in the pathological specimens with negative ALK and strongly positive p53 inthe same data base. Conclusions: Both ALK and p53 were potentially useful protein markers to distinguish between IMT and sarcoma. However, this study was small sample size. Further study was warranted an investigation of the availability of these proteins in IMT.

  6. Breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma : A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, SØren

    2013-01-01

    Background:A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. Methods:We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. Results:: During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were 0 (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. Conclusions:In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Impact:Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer-risk and breast implants.

  7. Testing for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement to target crizotinib therapy: oncology, pathology and health economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James A; Bubendorf, Lukas; Stahel, Rolf; Peters, Solange

    2013-05-01

    Crizotinib is a first-in-class oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor targeting ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer. The therapy was approved by the US FDA in August 2011 and received conditional marketing approval by the European Commission in October 2012 for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A break-apart FISH-based assay was jointly approved with crizotinib by the FDA. This assay and an immunohistochemistry assay that uses a D5F3 rabbit monoclonal primary antibody were also approved for marketing in Europe in October 2012. While ALK rearrangement has relatively low prevalence, a clinical benefit is exhibited in more than 85% of patients with median progression-free survival of 8-10 months. In this article, the authors summarize the therapy and alternative test strategies for identifying patients who are likely to respond to therapy, including key issues for effective and efficient testing. The key economic considerations regarding the joint companion diagnostic and therapy are also presented. Given the observed clinical benefit and relatively high cost of crizotinib therapy, companion diagnostics should be evaluated relative to response to therapy versus correlation alone whenever possible, and both high inter-rater reliability and external quality assessment programs are warranted. PMID:23617353

  8. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A comprehensive review of current and future therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Carlo Buonerba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is the rarest, but deadliest histologic type among thyroid malignancies, with a dismal median survival of 3-9 mo. Even though ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid tumors, it is responsible for 14%-39% of thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. ATC clinically presents as a rapidly growing mass in the neck, associated with dyspnoea, dysphagia and vocal cord paralysis. It is usually locally advanced and often metastatic at initial presentation. For operable diseases, the combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs for advanced/metastatic ATC are poorly effective. On the other hand, targeted agents might represent a viable therapeutic option. Axitinib, combretastatin A4, sorafenib and imatinib have been tested in small clinical trials of ATC, with a promising disease control rate ranging from 33% to 75%. Other clinical trials of targeted therapy for thyroid carcinoma are currently ongoing. Biological agents that are under investigation include pazopanib, gefitinib and everolimus. With the very limited therapeutic armamentarium available at the present time, targeted therapy constitutes an exciting new horizon for ATC. In future, biological agents will probably represent the standard of care for this aggressive malignancy, in the same fashion as it has recently occurred for other chemo-refractory tumors, such as kidney and hepatic cancer.

  9. Standard immunohistochemistry efficiently screens for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gahee; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Lee, Hae-Ock; Lim, Jung Ah; Won, Jae-Kyung; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Do Joon; Park, Young Joo; Park, Woong-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is frequently rearranged in various types of cancer and is highly responsive to targeted therapeutics. We developed a system to detect rearrangement of ALK in a large group of Korean thyroid cancer patients. We screened 474 malignant or benign thyroid tumor cases to identify ALK fusions. Expression and translocation of the ALK gene were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and digital multiplexed gene expression (DMGE) analysis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Four cases of rearrangement of ALK were detected by IHC, and these cases were validated with FISH on 189 samples. On the other hand, DMGE analysis using Nanostring detected three out of four IHC-positive cases. Two rearrangements of ALK were striatin (STRN)-ALK fusions, which were identified by 5' RACE analysis. Rearrangements of ALK were found exclusively in v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) WT papillary carcinomas. Given the wide availability and accuracy of IHC for detecting ectopic expression of ALK in the thyroid, we suggest that IHC-based screening can be a practical method for identifying patients with ALK rearrangements in differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25527510

  10. Current Status of Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues is 3%-5%. The first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. A randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients demonstrated durable responses and well tolerance in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802, and AP26113, and new agents shock protein 90 inhibitors. This review aims to present the current knowledge on this fusion gene, the treatment advances, and novel drug clinical trials in ALK rearranged NSCLC.

  11. ATRX and IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry with subsequent copy number analysis and IDH sequencing as a basis for an "integrated" diagnostic approach for adult astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, David E; Sahm, Felix; Schrimpf, Daniel; Wiestler, Benedikt; Capper, David; Koelsche, Christian; Schweizer, Leonille; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Hovestadt, Volker; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schittenhelm, Jens; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Platten, Michael; Weller, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse gliomas are represented in the 2007 WHO classification as astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas of grades II and III and glioblastomas WHO grade IV. Molecular data on these tumors have a major impact on prognosis and therapy of the patients. Consequently, the inclusion of molecular parameters in the WHO definition of brain tumors is being planned and has been forwarded as the "ISN-Haarlem" consensus. We, here, analyze markers of special interest including ATRX, IDH and 1p/19q codeletion in a series of 405 adult patients. Among the WHO 2007 classified tumors were 152 astrocytomas, 61 oligodendrogliomas, 63 oligoastrocytomas and 129 glioblastomas. Following the concepts of the "ISN-Haarlem", we rediagnosed the series to obtain "integrated" diagnoses with 155 tumors being astrocytomas, 100 oligodendrogliomas and 150 glioblastomas. In a subset of 100 diffuse gliomas from the NOA-04 trial with long-term follow-up data available, the "integrated" diagnosis had a significantly greater prognostic power for overall and progression-free survival compared to WHO 2007. Based on the "integrated" diagnoses, loss of ATRX expression was close to being mutually exclusive to 1p/19q codeletion, with only 2 of 167 ATRX-negative tumors exhibiting 1p/19q codeletion. All but 4 of 141 patients with loss of ATRX expression and diffuse glioma carried either IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Interestingly, the majority of glioblastoma patients with loss of ATRX expression but no IDH mutations exhibited an H3F3A mutation. Further, all patients with 1p/19 codeletion carried a mutation in IDH1 or IDH2. We present an algorithm based on stepwise analysis with initial immunohistochemistry for ATRX and IDH1-R132H followed by 1p/19q analysis followed by IDH sequencing which reduces the number of molecular analyses and which has a far better association with patient outcome than WHO 2007. PMID:25427834

  12. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  13. Survival and Compliance with the Use of Radiation Therapy for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the use of external radiation therapy (ERT) in terms of survival and compliance in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 17 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with ERT between 1993 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. ERT was administered after surgery in 14 patients and after a biopsy in three patients. Among the 14 patients who had undergone surgery, nine underwent a curative resection and five underwent a palliative resection. Six patients had associated well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 14 patients were diagnosed with a tumor size exceeding 5 cm. The radiation dose ranged from 6-70 Gy (median dose, 37.5 Gy). Eleven patients completed the planned course of ERT, whereas six patients did not. The follow-up period ranged from 1-104 months (median, 5 months; mean, 20 months). Results: Five patients started the ERT without the presence of a gross mass and all of the patients completed ERT without a re-growth of tumor. Twelve patients (four patients after a curative resection, five patients after a palliative resection and three patients after a biopsy) started ERT with a gross mass present and only six patients were able to complete the planned course of ERT. Among the six patients who completed ERT, two patients showed a marked regression of the tumor mass, whereas two patients showed slight regression and two patients showed no respongression and two patients showed no response. The median survival was five months (range, 1-104 months) and the mean survival was 21 months. The overall survival was 41% at 1-year, 24% at 2-years and 12% at 5-years. Significant prognostic factors included the number of primary tumors present, tumor size, whether surgery was performed and completion of ERT as planned. Long-term survivors showed a tendency of having smaller sized initial tumors and smaller sized pre-ERT tumors than the short-term survivors. Conclusion: This study suggests that patients with a small initial tumor (?5 cm), which was treated by surgery (curative resection or palliative resection) before ERT, and without rapid re-growth of the mass seen at the surgical site at the beginning of the ERT course, would be the best candidates for postoperative ERT. In contrast, patients with a large initial tumor (>5 cm) and did not undergo surgery before ERT or that rapid re-growth of the mass was observed at the surgical site are likely to have a short survival time, along with the interruption of ERT. In these cases, the role of ERT is very limited and the omission of ERT could be considered

  14. Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma - Treatment outcome in 75 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) treated in the Erasmus MC. Material and methods: Seventy-five ATC-patients were treated between 1972 and 2003. Mean age was 68 years. Tumor stage was IVA in 9%, IVB in 51%, and IVC in 40%. Thirty-six patients underwent up-front surgery, with 53% resulting in R0/R1 resection. Before 1988 adjuvant treatment consisted of conventional radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy (CT). As of 1988, 30 eligible patients were enrolled in a newly designed protocol. This consists of locoregional RT in 46 fractions of 1.1 Gy, given twice daily, followed by prophylactic irradiation of the lungs (PLI) in 5 daily fractions of 1.5 Gy. During radiation, low-dose Doxorubicine (15 mg/m2) is administered weekly and is followed by adjuvant Doxorubicine (50 mg/m2) 3-weekly up to a cumulative dose of 550 mg/m2. Twenty-five ineligible patients were treated conventionally. Results: Overall median survival was 3 months, 1-year OS 9%. Locoregional control was significantly higher in patients who had undergone R0/R1 resection or chemoradiation, with best results for patients who underwent both (complete remission in 89%). However, the survival benefit of patients who reached CR remained borderline (median OS 7 months, 1-year OS 32%). Three patients survived for more than 5 years; all had undergone R0/R1 surgical resection and chemoradiation. Acute toxicity in the protocomoradiation. Acute toxicity in the protocol group was significantly higher than in the nonprotocol group, with 46% versus 11% grade 3 pharyngeal and/or esophageal toxicity. Conclusion: Despite the ultimately dismal prognosis of ATC-patients, multimodality treatment significantly improved local control and improved the median survival.

  15. Influence of risk grouping on therapeutic decisions in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Li, Chao; Hu, Zedong; Li, Xiaojiang; He, Jiehua; Song, Ming; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Fenghua; Li, Qiuli

    2015-04-01

    We investigated prognostic factors in 42 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) patients from a single institution over a 30-year period and explored the use of risk grouping to guide therapeutic decisions. Univariable and multivariable differences in overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test as well as Cox proportional hazards model. Risk grouping in making therapeutic decisions for ATC patients was explored. The 1- and 3-year OS rates were 28.6 % and 18.5 %, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that 4 pre-therapeutic factors of patients were related to poorer prognoses: age ? 55 years, white blood cell count ? 10.0 × 10(9)/L, blood platelet count ? 300.0 × 10(9)/L and advanced clinical tumor-node-metastasis stage. These factors were used to calculate the risk indices. Patients with total risk index scores of no more than 1 were considered to be in the low-risk group, and patients with scores ? 2 were considered to be in the high-risk group. The patients in the low-risk group had significantly better 1- and 3-year OS rates (90.9 % and 63.6 %, respectively) than those in the high-risk group (6.5 % and 3.2 %, respectively). Risk group and therapeutic regimen were the 2 factors that independently influenced survival according to multivariable analysis. Surgery that was combined with postoperative radiotherapy significantly benefited the patients in the low-risk group rather than the patients in the high-risk group. Risk grouping was a helpful tool of evaluating the prognoses and guiding the treatment of ATC patients. PMID:24718913

  16. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HART) for Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Toxicity and Survival Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the current protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy was initiated to improve survival while limiting toxicities. Methods and Materials: All patients with ATC from 1991 to 2002 were accrued and received megavoltage radiotherapy from the mastoid processes to the carina up to 60 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.8 and 2 Gy, 6 hours apart. Results: Thirty-one patients were accrued with a median age of 69 years, and 55% were women. Debulking was performed in 26%, and total thyroidectomy, in 6%, whereas 68% received radical radiotherapy alone. Local control data were available for 27 patients: 22% had a complete response, 26% had a partial response, 15% showed progressive disease, and 37% showed static disease. Median overall survival for all 31 patients was 70 days (95% confidence interval, 40-99). There was no significant difference in median survival between patients younger (70 days) and older than 70 years (42 days), between men (70 days) and women (49days), and between patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy (77 days) and radical radiotherapy alone (35 days). Grade III or higher skin erythema was seen in 56% patients; desquamation in 21%; dysphagia in 74%; and esophagitis in 79%. Conclusion: The current protocol failed to offer a significant survival benefit, was associated with severe toxicities, and thus was discontinued. There is a suggestion that younger patid. There is a suggestion that younger patients with operable disease have longer survival, but this would require a larger study to confirm it.

  17. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD30+ Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (CALCL) is a relatively rare and indolent variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). This report examines the response of localized disease to radiation alone. Methods: The Yale Cancer Center records were examined, and all patients with CTCL from January 1, 2001, to September 1, 2006, evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology were identified. Only those patients with localized or single CALCL lesions, no clinical evidence or history of lymphomatoid papulosis, no history of other CTCLs, no history of other skin disorders, lack of lymph node involvement, unambiguous pathology reports, and treatment with radiation alone were included. Results: Eight patients were identified. Median age was 67 years, and gender was split evenly. Patients received radiation ranging from 34 to 44 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Most patients (5 of 8) received 40 Gy, using 6 to 9 MeV electrons with 0.5 to 2 cm of bolus. All patients had a complete response. All patients were without evidence of disease at the most recent follow-up (median follow-up, 12 months). Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and the only recorded toxicity was Grade I to II dermatitis. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone for localized CALCL is very well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. A dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions seems to be well tolerated and effective in inducing a complete response. Lower doses may be effective in achieving the sadoses may be effective in achieving the same result, but data are not available. Longer follow-up is necessary before conclusions regarding durable disease-free survival can be made

  18. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene alteration in signet ring cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Olatunji B.; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Sica, Gabriel; Zhang, Guojing; Alexis, Dianne; La Rosa, Francisco G.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Chen, Zhengjia; Rossi, Michael R.; Adsay, Nazim V.; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: ALK-EML4 translocation is an established driver aberration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with reported predilection for cases with signet ring histology. We assessed the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in signet ring cancers arising in the stomach and colon. Methods: Histologically confirmed cases of signet ring adenocarcinoma of the stomach or the colon were identified. The presence of the classic ALK and EML4 fusion gene was initially determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed using two previously validated antibodies, ALK1 clone (1:100; DAKO) and 5A4 (Novocastra, Leica Biosystems) along with positive controls of ALK-translocated lung cancer. Results: We employed 42 cases of signet ring carcinoma diagnosed between 2001 and 2011; 25 gastric and 17 colon cancer. Median age 63.3 years; male/female 17/25; race, black 47.5%, white 47.5%, others, 5%; stage I, 21.4%; stage II, 31%; stage III, 26.2%; stage IV, 21.4%. One of 42 cases (2.3%) was positive for ALK translocation by FISH using the standard criteria of at least 15% positive cells for the break-apart signal (50–70 cells enumerated per case). Using a less restrictive cut-off of 10% positive cells, 7 cases (16%) were considered possibly positive. None of the ‘possibly positive’ cases was found to harbor ALK translocation by another molecular testing approach (IHC). IHC with two previously validated monoclonal antibodies showed 0 of 42 (0%) cases positive. Conclusions: ALK gene rearrangement is very rare in gastrointestinal cancers and enrichment strategy focusing on signet ring cell histology did not significantly improve the detection rate. PMID:25755678

  19. Clinical study of 10 cases of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten cases (5 males and 5 females) of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid treated at Hyogo Cancer Center between February 1994 and October 2006 were reviewed. Patient ages ranged from 47 to 84 years with a median of 65.5 years. Only one case is alive after 12 years and 8 months; 8 cases died of the disease and one died of a different disease. The 8 cases who died from the carcinoma consisted of 4 cases of suffocation by primary tumor invasion and 4 cases of distant metastasis. All 9 cases died within one year after their treatment. The 6 cases were treated by surgery with postoperative radiotherapy and the 2 cases of them underwent chemotherapy. The local tumor was resected radically in the 3 cases and was not resected radically but debulked in the 3 cases. Only 1 long-time survivor whose preoperative pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma was treated by induction chemotherapy, radical operation with pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy, and postoperative radiotherapy. Half of the 6 surgical cases died of suffocation. The 4 non-surgical cases were treated by combination therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The 3 cases of the 4 non-surgical cases died of distant metastasis. The rate of life at home during survival time was higher in the cases treated surgically than in the non-surgery cases. The possibility is suggested that the rate of life at home during survival time was higher with surgical treatment even the debulking operation and the improvement of qualking operation and the improvement of quality of life (QOL) was achieved. But the debulking operation was not more effective for the improvement of the survival time and the local control, compared with the cases treated without surgery. (author)

  20. Cooperative Cross-Talk between Neuroblastoma Subtypes Confers Resistance to Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaocai; Kennedy, Colin R; Tilkens, Sarah B; Wiedemeier, Olena; Guan, Hong; Park, Jong-In; Chan, Andrew M

    2011-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor that can be stratified into stroma-rich and stroma-poor histological subgroups. The stromal compartment of neuroblastoma is composed mostly of Schwann cells, and they play critical roles in the differentiation, survival, and angiogenic responses of tumor cells. In certain neuroblastoma cell lines, the coexistence of neuroblastic N-type and substrate-adherent S-type is frequently observed. One such cell line, SK-N-SH, harbors a F1174L oncogenic mutation in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Treatment of SK-N-SH with an ALK chemical inhibitor, TAE684, resulted in the outgrowth of S-type cells that expressed the Schwann cell marker, S100?6. Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these TAE684-resistant (TR) sublines revealed the presence of the ALK F1174L mutation, suggesting their tumor origin, although ALK protein was not detected. Consistent with these findings, TR cells displayed approximately 9-fold higher IC(50) values than N-type cells. Also, unlike N-type cells, TR cells have readily detectable phosphorylated STAT3 but weaker phosphorylated AKT. Under coculture conditions, TR cells conferred survival to N-type cells against the apoptotic effect of TAE684. Cocultivation also greatly enhanced the overall phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcriptional activity in N-type cells. Finally, conditioned medium from TR clones enhanced cell viability of N-type cells, and this effect was phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of tumor-derived S-type cells in protecting N-type cells against the apoptotic effect of an ALK kinase inhibitor through upregulating prosurvival signaling. PMID:21901167

  1. Characterization of the mutational landscape of anaplastic thyroid cancer via whole-exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, John W; Juhlin, C Christofer; Goh, Gerald; Brown, Taylor C; Stenman, Adam; Healy, James M; Rubinstein, Jill C; Choi, Murim; Kiss, Nimrod; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Mane, Shrikant; Rimm, David L; Prasad, Manju L; Höög, Anders; Zedenius, Jan; Larsson, Catharina; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P; Carling, Tobias

    2015-04-15

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a frequently lethal malignancy that is often unresponsive to available therapeutic strategies. The tumorigenesis of ATC and its relationship to the widely prevalent well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are unclear. We have analyzed 22 cases of ATC as well as 4 established ATC cell lines using whole-exome sequencing. A total of 2674 somatic mutations (121/sample) were detected. Ontology analysis revealed that the majority of variants aggregated in the MAPK, ErbB and RAS signaling pathways. Mutations in genes related to malignancy not previously associated with thyroid tumorigenesis were observed, including mTOR, NF1, NF2, MLH1, MLH3, MSH5, MSH6, ERBB2, EIF1AX and USH2A; some of which were recurrent and were investigated in 24 additional ATC cases and 8 ATC cell lines. Somatic mutations in established thyroid cancer genes were detected in 14 of 22 (64%) tumors and included recurrent mutations in BRAF, TP53 and RAS-family genes (6 cases each), as well as PIK3CA (2 cases) and single cases of CDKN1B, CDKN2C, CTNNB1 and RET mutations. BRAF V600E and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive; all ATC cell lines exhibited a combination of mutations in either BRAF and TP53 or NRAS and TP53. A hypermutator phenotype in two cases with >8 times higher mutational burden than the remaining mean was identified; both cases harbored unique somatic mutations in MLH mismatch-repair genes. This first comprehensive exome-wide analysis of the mutational landscape of ATC identifies novel genes potentially associated with ATC tumorigenesis, some of which may be targets for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:25576899

  2. Effects of selective inhibitors of Aurora kinases on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, Enke; Tuccilli, Chiara; Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Gnessi, Lucio; Morrone, Stefania; Moretti, Costanzo; Bononi, Marco; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; D'Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases that play an essential role in cell division. Their aberrant expression and/or function induce severe mitotic abnormalities, resulting in either cell death or aneuploidy. Overexpression of Aurora kinases is often found in several malignancies, among which is anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). We have previously demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitors in restraining cell growth and survival of different ATC cell lines. In this study, we sought to establish which Aurora might represent the preferential drug target for ATC. To this end, the effects of two selective inhibitors of Aurora-A (MLN8237) and Aurora-B (AZD1152) on four human ATC cell lines (CAL-62, BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C) were analysed. Both inhibitors reduced cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with IC50 ranges of 44.3-134.2?nM for MLN8237 and of 9.2-461.3?nM for AZD1152. Immunofluorescence experiments and time-lapse videomicroscopy yielded evidence that each inhibitor induced distinct mitotic phenotypes, but both of them prevented the completion of cytokinesis. As a result, poliploidy increased in all AZD1152-treated cells, and in two out of four cell lines treated with MLN8237. Apoptosis was induced in all the cells by MLN8237, and in BHT-101, 8305C, and 8505C by AZD1152, while CAL-62 exposed to AZD1152 died through necrosis after multiple rounds of endoreplication. Both inhibitors were capable of blocking anchorage-independent cell growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated that either Aurora-A or Aurora-B might represent therapeutic targets for the ATC treatment, but inhibition of Aurora-A appears more effective for suppressing ATC cell proliferation and for inducing the apoptotic pathway. PMID:25074669

  3. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - case report / Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células anaplásicas - relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Silveira Rabello de, Oliveira; Madeleyne Palhano, Nobrega; Maira Gomes, Monteiro; Wagner Leite de, Almeida.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T anaplásicas faz parte do espectro de processos linfoproliferativos cutâneos CD30+ e caracteriza-se por nódulos únicos ou multifocais, ulcerados, autorregressivos e recidivantes. Pode haver disseminação extracutânea, principalmente para linfonodos regiona [...] is. O histológico mostra infiltrado difuso, não-epidermotrópico, grandes células linfóides anaplásicas de imunohistoquímica CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- e TIA1-/+. O prognóstico é bom e independe da invasão ganglionar. Radioterapia, retirada da lesão e/ou metotrexato em baixas doses são os tratamentos de escolha. Este estudo relata o caso de uma mulher, 57 anos, com Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T com lesões multifocais e que, após 7 anos, evoluiu com acometimento pulmonar. Apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com metotrexato em baixas doses semanais. Abstract in english Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histol [...] ogy shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly.

  4. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) with Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome, Cardiac Tamponade and Pleural Effusion: An Unusual Clinical Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Hemant Kumar; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Jain, Shyama; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and cardiac tamponade are potentially life-threatening conditions that are not uncommon in the oncological setting but their occurrence together in a patient is infrequent. Herein, we present a case of 50-year-old male who presented with SVC syndrome and pleural effusion; developed recurrent cardiac tamponade in the hospital. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of left supraclavicular lymph node which appeared during hospital stay revealed high grade carcinoma and diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was established by FNAC of thyroid nodule. Despite rarity, clinicians must be aware of such presentation of thyroid malignancy.

  5. Correlative study of squash smear cytology with histopathology in a rare case of anaplastic giant cell ependymoma of the pineal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marzia; Butorano, Marie Aimée Gloria Munezero; Cerase, Alfonso; Miracco, Clelia

    2014-08-01

    Anaplastic giant cell ependymoma (AGCE) is a very rare neoplasm. Its cytological features, helpful for the intraoperative diagnosis, have been reported only once. AGCE is characterized by giant cells with intranuclear inclusions, besides other findings, observable in ependymal neoplasms, such as intracytoplasmic vacuoles, epithelial and glial features of the tumor cells and ependymal pseudorosettes. These findings can be detected also in intraoperative squash smear. Herein we describe a pineal AGCE, highlighting the cytological and histological correlations and underlining some useful diagnostic clues of this unusual entity. PMID:24570332

  6. Combining a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, and a taxane improves survival in an anaplastic thyroid cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Miaorong; Jim Yeung, Sai-Ching

    2006-07-18

    We previously showed that the in vivo anticancer effects of a combination of manumycin (a farnesyltransferase inhibitor) and paclitaxel (a microtubule inhibitor) against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) were partially due to inhibition of angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding minocycline (a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor) to manumycin and paclitaxel against human ATC cells xenografted in nude mice. The triple-drug combination resulted in the lowest average tumor growth rate, and it conferred significantly better survival than manumycin alone, paclitaxel alone, or manumycin plus paclitaxel. In conclusion, this novel combination deserves further investigation in the treatment of ATC. PMID:16154259

  7. Structural resemblance to emotional expressions predicts evaluation of emotionally neutral faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Sebe, Nicu; Todorov, Alexander

    2009-04-01

    People make trait inferences based on facial appearance despite little evidence that these inferences accurately reflect personality. The authors tested the hypothesis that these inferences are driven in part by structural resemblance to emotional expressions. The authors first had participants judge emotionally neutral faces on a set of trait dimensions. The authors then submitted the face images to a Bayesian network classifier trained to detect emotional expressions. By using a classifier, the authors can show that neutral faces perceived to possess various personality traits contain objective resemblance to emotional expression. In general, neutral faces that are perceived to have positive valence resemble happiness, faces that are perceived to have negative valence resemble disgust and fear, and faces that are perceived to be threatening resemble anger. These results support the idea that trait inferences are in part the result of an overgeneralization of emotion recognition systems. Under this hypothesis, emotion recognition systems, which typically extract accurate information about a person's emotional state, are engaged during the perception of neutral faces that bear subtle resemblance to emotional expressions. These emotions could then be misattributed as traits. PMID:19348537

  8. 18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  9. Redox control of manumycin A-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells: involvement of the xenobiotic apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Miaorong; Yang, Huiling; Sun, Lily; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim

    2006-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that manumycin A, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, induced apoptosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediated DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the mechanism of apoptosis induced by manumycin in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells fits the general pattern of the "xenobiotic apoptosis pathway," the hallmarks of which are induction of oxidative stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and cytochrome c release, which activates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. We found that manumycin reduced intracellular glutathione and generated ROS: nitric oxide and superoxide anions. Manumycin-induced apoptosis correlated with increase in ROS. Quenching of ROS with N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented cytochrome c release by manumycin. Manumycin induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was blocked by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. p38 MAPK may be an important signaling mediator in the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by manumycin because the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 inhibited cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 by manumycin. In conclusion, manumycin activated the intrinsic apoptosis pathway via activation of p38 MAPK by oxidative stress. The mechanism of apoptosis induced by manumycin fits the emerging general pattern for apoptosis induced by xenobiotics. PMID:16410725

  10. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII like 4 (TCEAL4 in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Shizuyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII-like 4 (TCEAL4, encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required.

  11. Bevacizumab and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumor, Lymphoma, Intracranial Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma or Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  12. Prevalence of a hobnail pattern in papillary, poorly differentiated, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a possible manifestation of high-grade transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, Anne Marie; Goyal, Bella; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2015-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid carcinoma and has a generally favorable prognosis. There are several well-characterized variants, some of which are associated with more aggressive clinical behavior. Hobnail is a recently described rare variant that appears to behave more aggressively. Initial reports characterizing this variant focused on primary tumors and excluded other recognized variants, as well as poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, from analysis. Here, we evaluate the frequency of hobnail features in both primary and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas, including in association with other known variants, and also in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Primary and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas from a 5-year period (2007 to 2011) and all available anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas from a 22-year period (1989 to 2011) were retrieved from the files. Tumors from 478 papillary, 26 anaplastic, and 18 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas were reviewed for hobnail features present in >10% of each tumor. Hobnail features were most commonly observed in association with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (4 of 18 cases, 22%) and were seen in only 1.3% of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients (6 of 478). One of 26 anaplastic carcinomas had hobnail features (3.8%). Among the papillary thyroid carcinomas, hobnail features were often associated with other histologic variants that are known to be more clinically aggressive, had increased mitotic activity, and/or necrosis and lymph node metastases at presentation. These findings suggest that hobnail features may be a manifestation of higher-grade transformation. PMID:25321328

  13. Familial neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Asperen, C. J.; Overweg-plandsoen, W. C.; Cnossen, M. H.; Tijn, D. A.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of familial neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome was observed in two related cases (a mother and her son). NF1 was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis showing a large deletion at 17q11.2, encompassing the entire NF1 gene. The other symptoms in the two cases were similar to the features reported in Weaver syndrome. Although the combination of NF1 and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome in this family ...

  14. A nanocomplex that is both tumor cell-selective and cancer gene-specific for anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Youli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many in vitro studies have demonstrated that silencing of cancerous genes by siRNAs is a potential therapeutic approach for blocking tumor growth. However, siRNAs are not cell type-selective, cannot specifically target tumor cells, and therefore have limited in vivo application for siRNA-mediated gene therapy. Results In this study, we tested a functional RNA nanocomplex which exclusively targets and affects human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL by taking advantage of the abnormal expression of CD30, a unique surface biomarker, and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene in lymphoma cells. The nanocomplexes were formulated by incorporating both ALK siRNA and a RNA-based CD30 aptamer probe onto nano-sized polyethyleneimine-citrate carriers. To minimize potential cytotoxicity, the individual components of the nanocomplexes were used at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Dynamic light scattering showed that formed nanocomplexes were ~140 nm in diameter and remained stable for more than 24 hours in culture medium. Cell binding assays revealed that CD30 aptamer probes selectively targeted nanocomplexes to ALCL cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed intracellular delivery of the nanocomplex. Cell transfection analysis showed that nanocomplexes silenced genes in an ALCL cell type-selective fashion. Moreover, exposure of ALCL cells to nanocomplexes carrying both ALK siRNAs and CD30 RNA aptamers specifically silenced ALK gene expression, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Conclusions Taken together, our findings indicate that this functional RNA nanocomplex is both tumor cell type-selective and cancer gene-specific for ALCL cells.

  15. 18F-DOPA-PET in Planning Surgery in Patients With Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-17

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Medulloepithelioma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  16. LINGAM AS A SACRED OBJECT AND THE HEAD-DRESS OF SUFI RESEMBLING IT

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdihassan, S.

    1990-01-01

    This study scans into past of ancient man and discusses meticulously how the reproductive organ Lingam became sacred object to Hindus and why a sufi wore a phallus shaped head-dress resembling to it. In this manner the author demystifies here the procreation, the law of nature.

  17. Familial neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, C J; Overweg-Plandsoen, W C; Cnossen, M H; van Tijn, D A; Hennekam, R C

    1998-04-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of familial neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome was observed in two related cases (a mother and her son). NF1 was confirmed by molecular genetic analysis showing a large deletion at 17q11.2, encompassing the entire NF1 gene. The other symptoms in the two cases were similar to the features reported in Weaver syndrome. Although the combination of NF1 and an overgrowth syndrome resembling Weaver syndrome in this family may be fortuitous, we favour the hypothesis that the deletion of the entire gene has caused this combined phenotype. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. The observation suggests a relation between NF1 with an extraordinarily large gene deletion and a Weaver(-like) syndrome. This warrants investigation for deletions in the 17q11.2 region in Weaver(-like) syndrome patients. PMID:9598729

  18. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    OpenAIRE

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...

  19. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico; Lillholm, Martin; Karsdal, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study with...

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  1. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex12

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Rocco; Magistroni, Vera; Mogavero, Angela; Andreoni, Federica; Ambrogio, Chiara; Chiarle, Roberto; Mologni, Luca; Bachmann, Petra S.; Lock, Richard B.; Collini, Paola; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Gambacorti-passerini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs throu...

  2. Marked tumor response to crizotinib after 4 years of maintenance pemetrexed in a patient with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Meijuan; Lu, You

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed is well tolerated and achieves prolonged progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a recently identified fusion oncogene that exists in ~5% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). It was demonstrated that ALK-positive NSCLCs exhibit a high response rate to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. This is the case report of a patie...

  3. Molecular and Functional Characterizations of the Association and Interactions between Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Bin; Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Granda, J. Gabrielle; Whitton, Thomas; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is aberrantly expressed in a subset of T cell lymphoma that commonly affects children and young adults. NPM-ALK possesses significant oncogenic potential that was previously documented using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The exact mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its effects are poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that NPM-ALK is physically associated with type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR). A posi...

  4. Value of 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) for Detection of Anaplastic Foci in Diffusely Infiltrating Gliomas with Non-Significant Contrast- Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Widhalm, Georg; Krssak, Martin; Minchev, Georgi; Woehrer, Adelheid; Traub-weidinger, Tatjana; Czech, Thomas; Asenbaum, Susanne; Marosi, Christine; Knosp, Engelbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Prayer, Daniela; Wolfsberger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In diffusely infiltrating gliomas (DIG), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a powerful method for detection of anaplastic foci. Recently, 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy chemical shift imaging (CSI) using choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) or choline/N-acetylaspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios has emerged as new non-invasive, widely available alternative. We therefore correlated CSI with 11C-methionine (MET)-PET data in a series of DIG with non-significant contrast-...

  5. Gene expression after x-ray irradiation and/or glycerol in human anaplastic carcinoma cells harboring mutated p53 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that most patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma die within a year after diagnosis. Thus, it is important to improve the therapeutic effects to restore radio- and chemo-sensitivity to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. We have reported that wild type p53 cells were radiosensitive and thermo sensitive, because the cells showed a high incidence of apoptosis after radiotherapy and hyperthermia compared with mutant p53 cancer cells. Mutation in p53 is closely related to the poor prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in part. We have reported a new strategy using glycerol as a chemical chaperone for cancer therapy against mutant p53 cultured cancer cells. This strategy is based on a conformational change in mutant p53 molecules restoring the normal function of p53. We used the human anaplastic carcinoma strain 8305c. We analyzed the radio-sensitivity by colony formation assay, frequency of apoptosis by Hoechst staining and the expression of apoptosis-related genes by DNA array. The expressions of apoptosis-inductive genes, such as Apaf-1, PTEN were increased by the combined treatment with X-ray and glycerol. In addition, apoptosis-suppressive genes such as Survivin, IAP-1 and IAP-2 were increased with the combined them. These results suggest that X-ray sensitivity and induction of apoptosis might be controlled by the balance of apoptosis inductive and suppressive genes, when 8305c cells were treated with glycerol and then irradiated with X-raith glycerol and then irradiated with X-ray

  6. Detailed Molecular Fingerprinting of Four New Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines and Their Use for Verification of RhoB as a Molecular Therapeutic Target

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Laura A.; D Innocenzi, Jaclyn; Zhang, Yilin; Rohl, Stephen D.; Cooper, Simon J.; Sebo, Thomas; Grant, Clive; Mciver, Bryan; Kasperbauer, Jan L.; Wadsworth, J. Trad; Casler, John D.; Kennedy, Pamela W.; Highsmith, W. Edward; Clark, Orlo; Milosevic, Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive carcinoma in need of therapeutic options. One critical component of drug discovery is the availability of well-characterized cell lines for identification of molecular mechanisms related to tumor biology and drug responsiveness. Up to 42% of human thyroid cancer cell lines are redundant or not of correct tissue origin, and a comprehensive analysis is currently nonexistent. Mechanistically, RhoB has been identified as a novel m...

  7. The ALK inhibitor ASP3026 eradicates NPM-ALK+ T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in vitro and in a systemic xenograft lymphoma model

    OpenAIRE

    George, Suraj Konnath; Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Manshouri, Roxsan; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M.

    2014-01-01

    NPM-ALK+ T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive type of cancer. Standard treatment of NPM-ALK+ ALCL is CHOP polychemotherapy. Although patients initially respond favorably to CHOP, resistance, relapse, and death frequently occur. Recently, selective targeting of ALK has emerged as an alternative therapeutic strategy. ASP3026 is a second-generation ALK inhibitor that can overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer, and is currently being evaluated in cli...

  8. VLDL-resembling phospholipid-submicron emulsion for cholesterol-based drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Mohannad; Greenspan, Phillip; ØIe, Svein; Lu, D Robert

    2002-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop and evaluate VLDL-resembling phospholipid-submicron emulsion (PSME) as a carrier system for new cholesterol-based compounds for targeted delivery to cancer cells. BCH, a boronated cholesterol compound, was originally developed in our laboratory to mimic the cholesterol esters present in the LDL and to follow a similar pathway of cholesterol transport into the rapidly dividing cancer cells. The VLDL-resembling system was then designed to solubilize BCH, facilitate the interaction with LDL, and thus assist the BCH delivery to cancer cells. BCH-containing PSME was prepared by sonication. Chemical compositions and particle sizes of different PSME fractions were determined. The lipid structure of PSME and location of BCH in the formulation were assessed based on experimental results. Density gradient ultracentrifugation fractionated the emulsion into three particle-size populations with structures and compositions resembling native VLDL. In vitro interaction between PSME and LDL was evident by agarose electrophoresis, as both formed a single band with an intermediate mobility. The transfer of BCH from PSME to LDL was also observed in the presence of other serum components including serum proteins. Cell culture data showed sufficient uptake of BCH in rat 9L glioma cells (> 50 microg boron/g cells). In conclusion, this system has the capability to incorporate the cholesterol-based compound, interact with native LDL, and assist the delivery of this compound into cancer cells in vitro. PMID:12115840

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-associated anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with concurrent p53 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yuko; Masaki, Yasufumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Wano, Yuji; Sugai, Susumu

    2003-06-01

    In the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of malignant lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma of B-cell phenotype is classified either as the anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or as Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 71-year-old Japanese man developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the right axillary node revealed morphology of malignant lymphoma in which large cells with abundant cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei were scattered among small lymphocytes. Immunostaining with various monoclonal antibodies revealed the large cells to be CD79+, CD20/L26+, CD45RO/UCHL-(1-), CD3-, CD10-, CD30+, NPM/ALK-, EMA-, CD15-, and bcl-(2-). Amplification of the J region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain by polymerase chain reaction revealed a single rearranged band. Therefore the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, stage IIIB, was made from the standpoint of the new WHO classification of malignant lymphoma. Biopsy led to findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma with positive in situ hybridization results for EBV small RNAs, positive results of immunostaining with EBV latent membrane 1 antibody, and negative results of immunostaining with Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2. Results of immunostaining of the mass with p53 antibody also were positive for lymphoma cells. The findings in this case may suggest a close relationship between p53 expression and latent EBV infection. PMID:12841389

  10. Identifying the Association of Contrast Enhancement with Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor Expression in Anaplastic Gliomas: A Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongming; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Lei; Dai, Jianping; Jiang, Tao; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Contrast enhancement is a crucial radiologic feature of malignant brain tumors, which are associated with genetic changes of the tumor. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential relationship among tumor contrast enhancement with MR imaging, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and survival outcome in anaplastic gliomas. MR images from 240 patients with histologically confirmed anaplastic gliomas were retrospectively analyzed. The volumes of T2 hyperintense, contrast enhanced regions and necrotic regions on postcontrast T1-weighted images were measured. The ratio of the enhanced volume to necrotic volume was compared between patients with high versus low levels of VEGF expression and was further used in the survival analysis. The volumetric ratio of enhancement to necrosis was significantly higher in patients with low VEGF expression than in those with high VEGF expression (Mann-Whitney, p = 0.009). In addition, the enhancement/necrosis ratio was identified as a significant predictor of progression-free survival (Cox regression model, p = 0.004) and overall survival (Cox regression model, p = 0.006) in the multivariate analysis. These results suggest that the volumetric ratio of enhancement to necrosis could serve as a noninvasive radiographic marker associated with VEGF expression and that this ratio is an independent predictor for progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with anaplastic gliomas. PMID:25823012

  11. Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: Results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987. After surgery, low-risk patients (R0, M0) received maintenance chemotherapy until elective RT at age of three. In high-risk patients (R+, M+) intensive induction chemotherapy was followed by maintenance chemotherapy and subsequently delayed RT. If there was, progression radiotherapy started immediately. In the HIT-SKK 92, trial MTX-based chemotherapy was applied. RT was administered in non-responders only. Results: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months). All children received chemotherapy. In 13 children, no RT was administered. Preventive RT after chemotherapy was given in nine, and salvage RT in 12 children. OS and PFS rates after 3-year were 55.9 and 27.3%, respectively. Twenty-five children relapsed. Positive impact on survival was observed in children with higher age, M0-stage, complete resection, and treatment with radiotherapy. Without RT only 3/13, children survived. Conclusion: Delaying RT jeopardizes survival even after intensive chemotherapy. Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site. RT of the neuraxis should be omitted in localized disease

  12. Radiation therapy and bromodeoxyuridine chemotherapy followed by procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a Phase II study to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with intravenous bromodeoxyuridine for patients with anaplastic glioma tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1987, study patients received 1.7-1.8 Gy radiation once a day, Monday through Friday, to a total dose of 60 Gy. On the Thursday prior to beginning radiotherapy and for the next 5 weeks (6 weeks total), patients received a continuous 96 h intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine at 0.8 g/m2/24 h; following radiotherapy, patients received procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine (PCV) for 1 year or until tumor progressed. Results: One-hundred thirty eight patients (median age, 43 years) were evaluable for analysis. Estimated 4-year survival for the anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) stratum (n 116) is 46%. For the astrocytoma (ASTRO) stratum (n = 22), the 6-year survival is estimated at 79%. Estimated 4-year progression-free survival for AAs is 42%, and for ASTROs, 68%. Whole brain irradiation was used in 23% and limited-field irradiation in 77%; patients receiving limited-field irradiation had a better survival rate (p = 0.07). Total tumor resection was performed in 15%, partial resection in 53%, and biopsy only in 32%. For the 81 patients with tumor recurrence, 34 (42%) are known to have received additional treatment(s). For AA, fits of the Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that covariates individually predictive of sut covariates individually predictive of survival were younger age (p < 0.001), Karnofsky performance score (p = 0.04), and extent of surgery (p = 0.04); limited-field irradiation was not significant (p = 0.10). Major toxicities were rash during Weeks 1 through 6 requiring dose modification in 14%, Grade ?III leukopenia in 18%, and Grade ?III thrombocytopeni in 9%. Conclusion: The study suggests that the bromodeoxyuridine-radiotherapy-PCV, compared with other published therapies, can improve progression-free survival, and aggressive treatment of ASTRO patients can lead to substantial increases in survival compared to published survival data

  13. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a study of children and adolescents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Reiji; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Fujita, Naoto; Iwasaki, Fuminori; Suzumiya, Junji; Chin, Motoaki; Goto, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Hara, Junichi; Park, Yong-Dong; Inoue, Masami; Koga, Yuhki; Inagaki, Jiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Adachi, Souichi; Kawa, Keisei; Kato, Koji; Suzuki, Ritsuro

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children and adolescents, we reviewed the records of 47 patients who were ?18 years, had relapsed or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and received HSCT between 1990 and 2010. At HSCT, complete remission (CR) was less common in allogeneic HSCT recipients (n = 24) than in autologous HSCT recipients (n = 23) (P = 0·01). The autologous and allogeneic HSCT groups differed in terms of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (38% vs. 50%, P = 0·63), cumulative incidence of progress or relapse (49% vs. 28%, P = 0·25), and treatment-related mortality (12% vs. 25%, P = 0·40). However, these differences were not significant. Patients with non-CR at autologous HSCT had a significantly lower EFS rate (14% vs. 48%, P = 0·03). Conversely, although those with non-CR at allogeneic HSCT had a lower EFS rate, this was not significant (44% vs. 63%, P = 0·26). Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens were used for three of the 16 allogeneic HSCTs received by patients with non-CR. These three patients achieved CR, surviving 32-65 months after HSCT. These results demonstrated that allogeneic HSCT might be a treatment option for patients who do not achieve CR through conventional chemotherapy. PMID:25312752

  14. Survivin in relation to Bcl-2, Bax and in situ apoptotic cell death in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šelemetjev Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a rare but highly aggressive human malignancy. It is known that disturbances in apoptotic pathways have a great impact on tumor progression and aggressiveness. In this study the apoptosisrelated molecules Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic, Bax (proapoptotic and survivin (an inhibitor of apoptosis were analyzed immunohistochemically in thirty archival cases of ATC. In situ apoptotic cell death was analyzed by the TUNEL method. Mean Bcl-2 staining score (calculated from individual scores from 0-3 was low compared to those for Bax and survivin (p<0.05. High expression of survivin was associated with high Bax expression, and was significantly segregated from high Bcl-2 expressing cases (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas. In addition, the mean apoptotic index in high survivin expressing carcinomas was significantly lower than in low survivin expressing carcinomas (p<0.05. It could be concluded that down-regulation of Bcl-2 is counterbalanced by up-regulation of survivin, which may overcome the effects of high Bax expression, and, at least partly, explain the low apoptosis rate and high biological aggressiveness of ATC.

  15. Immediate disappearance of hemifacial spasm after partial removal of ponto-medullary junction anaplastic astrocytoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Melina; Broggi, Morgan; Cordella, Roberto; Acerbi, Francesco; Ferroli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is generally caused by a neurovascular conflict (NC) at the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve at the brainstem. Although a direct compression to the seventh cranial nerve (CN) by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is generally the most frequent cause, secondary HFS may be related to other pathological conditions. HFS due to an intracranial mass lesion is exceptionally rare and it has been reported in very few cases. The online database was searched for English-language articles reporting cases of HFS due to brainstem mass lesions and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its genesis. A 47-year-old man affected by an anaplastic astrocytoma of the brainstem at the level of the ponto-medullary junction developed right HFS. He underwent a subtotal surgical removal of the tumor with complete resolution of the HFS. This is the ninth reported case of HFS caused by an intrinsic brainstem tumor. The exceptional rarity of the relationship between intra-axial tumors and peripheral HFS was analyzed. PMID:25382264

  16. Expression of cancer stem cell markers and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related factors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Won; Han, Kang Hee; Seol, Hyesil; Park, Sunhoo; Koh, Jae Soo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Kim, Min Joo; Choi, Ik Joon; Myung, Jae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an undifferentiated tumor of the thyroid that has poor prognosis owing to its aggressive behavior and resistance to current treatments. We hypothesized that the stem cell properties induced by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was one of reasons for the dismal outcome of ATC. Materials and methods: Paraffin blocks and slides of 17 ATC cases were retrieved. We also collected 60 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) for comparison. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of multiple markers of cancer stem cells and EMT-activating transcriptional factors. Results: Majority of ATC cases showed loss of epithelial (E)-cadherin expression (15/17); however, all PTC cases (60/60) retained E-cadherin expression. EMT-activating transcription factors, such as snail and slug, were more frequently expressed in ATC than PTC cases (35.3% versus 6.7%, 76.5% versus 5%, respectively). Cancer stem cell markers such as CD133 and nestin were more highly expressed in ATC than PTC (52.9% versus 5%, 52.9% versus 0%, respectively). Conclusion: We found that the expression of EMT-related factors and stem cell markers was higher in ATC than PTC. We therefore conclude that stemness induced by EMT plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ATC. PMID:25755746

  17. Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Eiji; Okamoto, Isamu; Harada, Taishi; Takayama, Koichi; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%–5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. PMID:24623980

  18. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should not ignore the model species (or co-mimic in Mullerian mimicry rings) even if it is not itself endangered. PMID:25103364

  19. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  20. Monitoring of Heat-Induced Proteolysis in Milk and Milk-Resembling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Navas, Francisco Jose?; Jime?nez Pe?rez, Salvio

    1998-01-01

    Peptide mapping from the soluble fractions of skimmed milk and a milk-resembling system, obtained either by treatment with trichloroacetic acid (TCA, 40 and 120 g/L) or by adjusting the pH to 4.6, were analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV (205, 214, and 280 nm) and fluorescent detection (excitation at 280 and 270 nm and emission at 340 and 310 nm). Two peptides (p21 and p25), both soluble in 120 g/L TCA, were chosen for following the extent of the heat-induced proteolysis in milk and milkr...

  1. HyperPeer : Searching for resemblance in a P2P network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest.

  2. Vaccinia Virus N1l Protein Resembles a B Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Family Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, M.; Zhai, D.; Jin, C.; Aleshin, A.E.; Stec, B.; Reed, J.C.; Liddington, R.C.; /Burnham Inst.

    2007-07-03

    Poxviruses encode immuno-modulatory proteins capable of subverting host defenses. The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence. We report the crystal structure of N1L, which reveals an unexpected but striking resemblance to host apoptotic regulators of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family. Although N1L lacks detectable Bcl-2 homology (BH) motifs at the sequence level, we show that N1L binds with high affinity to the BH3 peptides of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in vitro, consistent with a role for N1L in modulating host antiviral defenses.

  3. Spectral transformation of the unusual variable star MWC560 to resemble a nova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Stephen P.; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Sonneborn, George

    1991-01-01

    A dramatic change has occurred in the ultraviolet spectrum of the emission-line star MWC560, so that it now closely resembles the spectrum of a nova shortly after outburst. This event may signal a major mass-ejection episode such as presumably occurred in past centuries in the symbiotic star R Aquarii to produce the well-known bipolar nebula, and it may herald the emergence of a standard symbiotic-star emission-line spectrum in MWC560, corresponding to a change in evolutionary state.

  4. Charge on luminous bodies resembling natural ball lightning produced via electrical arcs through lump silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christina L.; Miley, Galen P.; Griffiths, David J.; Sánchez, Erik

    2014-12-01

    A phenomenon resembling natural ball lightning can be produced via electrical arcing through silicon. We use lump silicon instead of silicon wafers to achieve higher production rates and larger, longer-lived luminous balls than previously reported. The luminous balls consist of a silicon core surrounded by a porous network of loosely bound silicon dioxide nanoparticles. We find that the balls carry a small net charge on the order of 10-12 C and propose that the nanoparticles are electrostatically bound to the core due to this charge.

  5. Ribosome profiling reveals resemblance between long non-coding RNAs and 5? leaders of coding RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Guo-liang; Pauli, Andrea; Rinn, John L.; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F.; Valen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics and computational approaches have identified thousands of putative long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). It has been controversial, however, as to what fraction of these RNAs is truly non-coding. Here, we combine ribosome profiling with a machine-learning approach to validate lncRNAs during zebrafish development in a high throughput manner. We find that dozens of proposed lncRNAs are protein-coding contaminants and that many lncRNAs have ribosome profiles that resemble the 5?...

  6. Transplantable malignant melanoma in LT.B6 congenic mice resembling pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Soheil S; Silva, Kathleen A.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models have been generated to recapitulate major signaling pathways deregulated in melanoma. Although these models are invaluable to delineate the relationship between gene mutations and targeted therapeutics, no spontaneously occurring melanomas are available in laboratory mice, which might be used to discover novel disrupted pathways, other than the widely studied MAPK, PI3-AKT and CDK4-INK4A-RB1. We report multiple spontaneously occurring melanomas on the tail of LT.B6 congenic strain, commonly used to study spontaneous ovarian teratomas. We present the evidence of spontaneous mouse melanoma and successful transplantation into 2 out of 2 mice, thereby enabling a complete histopathologic and clinical characterization. The histopathology of LT.B6 melanomas remarkably resembled a human melanoma subtype, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM); and their clinical behavior was similar in indolent growth, metastasis to local lymph nodes and lack of liver metastasis. Lung metastasis was unique in the mice. Using qRT-PCR, we detected the expression of two melanocyte specific genes, Tyrp1 and Mitf, in the transplanted primary tumors and nodal metastases but not liver, confirming the histopathology. This mouse model closely resembled a low-grade variant of human melanoma and could provide the opportunity to globally investigate the genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with metastasis. PMID:24476622

  7. The impact of concurrent temozolomide with adjuvant radiation and IDH mutation status among patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilbash, Sani H; Giannini, Caterina; Voss, Jesse S; Decker, Paul A; Jenkins, Robert B; Hardie, John; Laack, Nadia N; Parney, Ian F; Uhm, Joon H; Buckner, Jan C

    2014-10-01

    This study assesses the controversial role of temozolomide (TMZ) concurrent with adjuvant radiation (RT) in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). The impact of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status on therapy and outcomes is also examined. All adult patients diagnosed with AA from 2001 to 2011 and treated with standard doses of adjuvant RT were identified retrospectively for clinical data extraction. IDH status was determined by IDH1-R132H immunostain and sequencing for other mutations in IDH1/IDH2. Cumulative survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit for univariable/multivariable analyses. 136 patients had received concurrent TMZ while 29 had not. Of these, IDH status was determined on 114 and 27 patients, respectively. On univariable analysis, improved five-year survival was independently associated with concurrent TMZ (46.2 vs. 29.3%, p = 0.02) and IDH mutation (78.9 vs. 22.0%, p < 0.001). IDH mutation was additionally associated with a greater likelihood of extensive resection possibly secondary to a more favorable tumor location. Gross total/subtotal resections also led to improved survival when compared to biopsy alone on univariable analysis. On multivariable analysis, the association with five-year survival persisted for both concurrent TMZ and IDH mutation, but not with extent of surgery. Both IDH mutation and concurrent TMZ are associated with improved five-year survival in patients with AA who are receiving adjuvant RT. Secondarily, the association between five-year survival and extent of resection is lost on multivariable analysis. This suggests a possible association between IDH mutation, tumor location and consequent resectability. PMID:24993250

  8. Intralymphatic cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma/lymphomatoid papulosis: expanding the spectrum of CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samols, Mark A; Su, Albert; Ra, Seong; Cappel, Mark A; Louissant, Abner; Knudson, Ryan A; Ketterling, Rhett P; Said, Jonathan; Binder, Scott; Harris, Nancy Lee; Feldman, Andrew L; Kim, Jinah; Kim, Youn H; Gratzinger, Dita

    2014-09-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphomas and EBV NK/T-cell lymphomas commonly follow an aggressive clinical course. We recently reported an entirely intravascular anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the skin with a surprisingly indolent clinical course; interestingly, this lymphoma involved the lymphatic rather than the blood vasculature. We hypothesized that intravascular skin-limited ALCL is distinct from aggressive systemic intravascular lymphomas in its intralymphatic localization and clinical course. We now describe 18 cases of cutaneous intravascular large cell lymphoproliferations from 4 institutions. All 12 intravascular large T-cell lesions were intralymphatic; the majority (9) were CD30 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (TLPDs), 5 further classified as intravascular ALK ALCL. One ALK ALCL and 2 benign microscopic intravascular T-cell proliferations were also intralymphatic. A single case of otherwise typical cutaneous follicle center lymphoma contained intralymphatic centroblasts. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of the CD30 TLPDs were similar to those of their extravascular counterparts, including extralymphatic dermal involvement in a subset, DUSP22-IRF4 translocations in half of tested ALK ALCLs, and associated mycosis fungoides in 1; most were skin-limited at baseline and remained so at relapse. All 5 cases of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma involved the blood vasculature and behaved in a clinically aggressive manner; the ALK ALCL, although intralymphatic, was systemic and clinically aggressive. We propose that cutaneous ALK ALCL and related CD30 ALK TLPDs involving the lymphatics are part of an expanding spectrum of CD30 TLPDs. The identification of intralymphatic as distinct from blood vascular localization may provide critical prognostic and therapeutic information. PMID:24805854

  9. Lobatin B inhibits NPM/ALK and NF-?B attenuating anaplastic-large-cell-lymphomagenesis and lymphendothelial tumour intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Izabella; Unger, Christine; Huu, Chi Nguyen; Atanasov, Atanas Georgiev; Kramer, Nina; Chatruphonprasert, Waranya; Brenner, Stefan; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Peschel, Andrea; Vasas, Andrea; Lajter, Ildiko; Kain, Renate; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Kenner, Lukas; Hassler, Melanie R; Diaz, Rene; Frisch, Richard; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; de Martin, Rainer; Bochkov, Valery N; Passreiter, Claus M; Peter-Vörösmarty, Barbara; Mader, Robert M; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Kopp, Brigitte; Zupko, Istvan; Hohmann, Judit; Krupitza, Georg

    2015-01-28

    An apolar extract of the traditional medicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibited the expression of the NPM/ALK chimera, which is causal for the majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs). Therefore, an active principle of the extract, the furanoheliangolide sesquiterpene lactone lobatin B, was isolated and tested regarding the inhibition of ALCL expansion and tumour cell intravasation through the lymphendothelium. ALCL cell lines, HL-60 cells and PBMCs were treated with plant compounds and the ALK inhibitor TAE-684 to measure mitochondrial activity, proliferation and cell cycle progression and to correlate the results with protein- and mRNA-expression of selected gene products. Several endpoints indicative for cell death were analysed after lobatin B treatment. Tumour cell intravasation through lymphendothelial monolayers was measured and potential causal mechanisms were investigated analysing NF-?B- and cytochrome P450 activity, and 12(S)-HETE production. Lobatin B inhibited the expression of NPM/ALK, JunB and PDGF-R?, and attenuated proliferation of ALCL cells by arresting them in late M phase. Mitochondrial activity remained largely unaffected upon lobatin B treatment. Nevertheless, caspase 3 became activated in ALCL cells. Also HL-60 cell proliferation was attenuated whereas PBMCs of healthy donors were not affected by lobatin B. Additionally, tumour cell intravasation, which partly depends on NF-?B, was significantly suppressed by lobatin B most likely due to its NF-?B-inhibitory property. Lobatin B, which was isolated from a plant used in ethnomedicine, targets malignant cells by at least two properties: I) inhibition of NPM/ALK, thereby providing high specificity in combating this most prevalent fusion protein occurring in ALCL; II) inhibition of NF-?B, thereby not affecting normal cells with low constitutive NF-?B activity. This property also inhibits tumour cell intravasation into the lymphatic system and may provide an option to manage this early step of metastatic progression. PMID:25444930

  10. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein expression, genetic abnormalities, and phosphorylation in soft tissue tumors: Phosphorylation is associated with recurrent metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yukinao; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Arakawa, Fumiko; Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Shinji; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Shoda, Takanori; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto; Nagata, Kensei; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Gene and protein abnormalities of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) play an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers and serve as important therapeutic targets. We investigated ALK protein expression, phosphorylation, and genetic aberrations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 81 soft tissue tumor samples: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, n=1; alveolar soft part sarcoma, n=2; leiomyosarcoma, n=10; well-differentiated liposarcoma, n=7; pleomorphic liposarcoma, n=2; extraskeletal osteosarcoma, n=1; epithelioid sarcoma, n=1; synovial sarcoma, n=4; malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, n=4; undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, n=19; rhabdomyosarcoma, n=6; myxofibrosarcoma, n=8; myxoid liposarcoma, n=11; fibrosarcoma, n=4; and desmoid-type fibromatosis, n=1. ALK protein expression, gene signal gain (without translocation), and phosphorylation were observed in 33/81 (40.7%), 55/81 (67.9%), and 30/81 (37.0%) tumor samples, respectively. ALK protein expression was statistically associated with phosphorylation, but not with gene signal gain. ALK phosphorylation-positive cases showed a statistically worse metastasis-free survival compared with phosphorylation-negative cases (P=0.0215). Particularly, metastasis of myxoid liposarcoma was associated with ALK phosphorylation (P=0.0019), but not with ALK protein expression or gene signal gain. However, the prognosis had no association with ALK protein expression, gene signal gain, or phosphorylation. ALK protein expression and phosphorylation play an important role in tumor biology and provide potential therapeutic targets for soft tissue tumors. Future research should focus on the oncogenic role and the efficacy of potential inhibitors of ALK. PMID:25683346

  11. Extrinsic apoptotic pathways: A new potential "Target" for more sufficient therapy in a case of cutaneous anaplastic large CD30+ ALK-T--cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL represent a clonal T-lymphocyte proliferation infiltrating the skin. CD30+ T-cell lymphomas present clinically as nodules with a diameter between 1 and 15 cm, mostly in elderly patients. The role of the CD30 molecule in patients suffering from T-cell lymphomas is not completely clear yet. The signal transduction pathway which includes CD30 seems to play a key role in tumor progression. In certain forms of T-cellular lymphomas, the interaction between CD30/CD30-ligand is able to provoke apoptosis of the "tumor lymphocytes". The modern conceptions of the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas include disorders in the pathways involved in programmed cellular death and disregulation in the expression of certain of its regulatory molecules. We are presenting an unusual case of a female patient with a primary cutaneous form of CD30 + /ALK? anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. Upon the introduction of systemic PUVA, (psoralen plus ultraviolet light radiation combined with beam therapy, a complete remission could be noticed. Eight months later, we observed a local recurrence, which was overcome by CHOP chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin (Doxorubicin, Vincristin (Oncovin®, Predniso(lon. Six months later, new cutaneous lesions had been noticed again. A new therapeutic hope for the patients with anaplastic large CTCL is actually based on the influence of the activity of the different apoptotic pathways. Death ligands, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, CD95L/FasL, and TRAIL, mediate also some important safeguard mechanisms against tumor growth in patients with CD30 + cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphomas and critically contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis.

  12. A novel chemo-radiotherapy with low-dose daily cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has a dismal prognosis, some patients show favorable survival following multimodal treatment with surgery, external irradiation and chemotherapy. However, no regimen has yet been established. We reviewed outcomes for patients who underwent a unique chemoradiotherapy regimen between 1998 and 2007. The regimen consists of external irradiation (40 Gy at 2 Gy/day) combined with concurrent low-dose cisplatin at 5 mg/m2 on Days 1-5, 8-12, 15-19 and 22-26, 5-fluorouracil at 200 mg/m2 on Days 1-26 and doxorubicin at 20 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 15. This regimen was performed on 21 patients (13 men, 8 women) with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Median age at the time of treatment was 66 years (range, 54-81 years). The treatment regimen was completed in 19 patients (90%) and was interrupted in 2 (10%) due to progressive distant metastases. After excluding 10 patients who underwent complete resection before chemoradiotherapy, 1 patient (11%) showed partial response, 7 (78%) showed stable disease and 1 (11%) had progressive disease on the basis of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Overall, 6-month survival rate for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy was 57%. With this novel chemoradiotherapy, death from loco-regional disease was seen in only two patients (11%). Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 12 patients (63%), but no treatment-related deaths were encountered. Our new chemoradiotherapy is effecttered. Our new chemoradiotherapy is effective for loco-regional control of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, particularly when combined with radical surgery. This regimen could not prevent distant metastases, but offers acceptable toxicity while maintaining patient quality of life. (author)

  13. A case of Scabies with Lesions Resembling Perforating Folliculitis and Uremic Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Akgün

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei and characterised by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, pustules, crusts and excoriations. Several pruritic diseases may be confused with scabies. Herein, we present a case of scabies with lesions resembling perforating folliculitis diagnosed on the basis of both clinical and histopathological view. A 72-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and receiving hemodialysis for ten years due to end-stage renal disease was admitted to our dermatology department with a 6-month history of severe pruritus. Based on the results of skin biopsy revealing Sarcoptes scabiei in the epidermis, the patient was diagnosed as scabies and was successfully treated with 5% permethrin. This case is presented to emphasize that scabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of chronic pruritus.

  14. Focal defect resembling a subchondral bone cyst of the ulnar trochlear notch in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makielski, Kelly; Muir, Peter; Bleedorn, Jason

    2015-01-01

    A 13 mo old spayed female golden retriever/standard poodle mixed-breed dog was presented for intermittent right forelimb lameness. Physical examination revealed marked effusion and decreased flexion in the right elbow joint, radiography showed mild osteophytosis of the right elbow joint, and computed tomography showed a focal defect in the subchondral bone in the trochlear notch of the ulna resembling a subchondral bone cyst. Arthroscopy of the affected elbow revealed a focal defect in the articular cartilage on the trochlear notch with vascular ingrowth covering a defect in the subchondral bone plate. The synovium surrounding the defect was inflamed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of a subchondral bone cyst in the ulna of a dog. PMID:25415218

  15. Sclerosing muc-4-positive sarcoma with glandular differentiation resembling sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebib, Ivan; Desphande, Vikram; Nielsen, G Petur

    2015-04-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that is composed of epithelioid fibroblasts embedded in an abundant extracellular collagenous matrix. They have been shown to be weakly epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positive by immunohistochemistry and may contain intercellular junctions ultrastructurally. We present a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a sclerosing Muc-4-positive sarcoma with glandular differentiation of the sciatic nerve, resembling sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma. The glandular component showed strong expression of keratin and EMA and ultrastructurally showed numerous intercellular junctions and intraluminal microvilli, supportive of true glandular differentiation. The patient received preoperative radiotherapy (50 Gray) and subsequent resection of the mass with negative margins. She is currently disease free at 20-month follow-up. This case report describes an unusual sclerosing Muc-4-positive sarcoma with glandular differentiation, distinctive expression of epithelial immunohistochemical markers, and glandular differentiation by electron microscopy. PMID:25411219

  16. Multi-system progressive angiomatosis in a dog resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, K; Uchida, N; Iyori, K; Mochizuki, T; Fukushima, R; Iwasaki, T; Nishifuji, K

    2013-04-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female golden retriever was presented with generalised, dark purple to black cutaneous nodules and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Histopathologically, all cutaneous nodules were diagnosed as benign cavernous haemangiomas. Endoscopic analysis revealed similar nodules in the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. At laparotomy, similar nodules were seen on the visceral peritoneal lining of abdominal organs. Metastatic haemangiosarcoma was ruled out based on histological features and lack of primary tumour in spleen, liver or heart ultrasonographically. Blood loss associated with gastrointestinal haemorrhage was managed with blood transfusion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first canine case of multi-system progressive angiomatosis resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans. PMID:23496103

  17. Discovery of crystalline inclusions in Bacillus licheniformis that resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Roehrl, Michael H; Wang, Julia Y

    2007-09-01

    Crystalline inclusions were discovered in stationary and sporulating cells of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945a. As detected by electron microscopy, dying or sporulating bacterial cells contain a single crystal of strikingly large size. The crystals in sporulating cells are located next to nascent spores and can be several times larger than the spores. Morphologically, most crystals are rhomboid with uniformly spaced grids. These newly discovered crystalline inclusions of B. licheniformis closely resemble parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis that are formed by insecticidal toxin proteins and used widely as biopesticides. The taxonomic identity of this strain was verified by its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its fatty acid profile. The finding of crystal proteins in B. licheniformis may lead to the discovery of new protein toxins and may expand our pool of biopesticides. PMID:18026233

  18. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator. PMID:24815617

  19. Exophytic Colon Cancer: Resemblance to a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon is very rare with only a few reports to date. To the best of our knowledge, the CT appearance of colon cancer, which simulated the classic appearance of a GIST has only been reported once in the world's literature. We recently evaluated a patient with a large lobulated mass involving the stomach, pancreas and colon. The CT appearance of the case was consistent with the diagnosis of an exophytic gastric GIST. However, at surgery, the patient was found to have a large ulcerated carcinoma of the colon near the splenic flexure that had invaded the stomach and pancreas. We report a case of an exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon that resembled the classic appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach

  20. [Physiological and genetic analysis of lesion resembling disease mutants (lrd) of Oryza sativa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Lin-You; Zhang, Li-Hua; Xue, Qing-Zhong; He, Zu-Hua

    2004-06-01

    Ten indica rice and eight japonica rice mutants with lesion resembling disease (lrd27-44) were obtained by gamma-ray mutagenesis of the whole genomes. These mutants exhibited diverse lesion mimic phenotypes under different growth environments, could be accordingly classified two types, sensitive and insensitive to environments. Basing on difference in development of lesion mimics, they can be divided into three categories: whole life lesion mimics (WLLM), vegetative initiation lesion mimics (VILM), and reproductive initiation lesion mimics (RILM). Lesion mimics resulted from the programmed cell death and were triggered by light, but not by wounding. The genetic analysis showed that four mutants, lrd32, lrd39, lrd40 and lrd42, were controlled by one or two recessive loci. Among the 18 lrd mutants, lrd37 and lrd40 conferred non-race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Gene mapping and cloning of Lrd32 and Lrd40 are under way. PMID:15599031

  1. Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: a paradigm shift that impacts current therapeutic strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, Laura A.; Von Roemeling, Christina A.; Cooper, Simon J.; Zhang, Yilin; Rohl, Stephen D.; Arora, Shilpi; Gonzales, Irma M.; Azorsa, David O.; Reddi, Honey V.; Tun, Han W.; Do?ppler, Heike R.; Storz, Peter; Smallridge, Robert C.; Copland, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The Forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a, is a known suppressor of primary tumor growth through transcriptional regulation of key genes regulating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In many types of cancer, in response to growth factor signaling, FoxO3a is phosphorylated by Akt, resulting in its exclusion from the nucleus. Here we show that FoxO3a remains nuclear in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). This correlates with lack of Akt phosphorylation at serine473 in ATC cell lines and tissues o...

  2. PARP inhibitor olaparib increases the oncolytic activity of dl922-947 in in vitro and in vivo model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Carmela; Volpe, Massimiliano; Botta, Ginevra; Scamardella, Eloise; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Gillespie, David; Libertini, Silvana; Portella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors are mostly effective as anticancer drugs in association with DNA damaging agents. We have previously shown that the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 induces extensive DNA damage, therefore we hypothesized a synergistic antitumoral effect of the PARP inhibitor olaparib in association with dl922-947. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was chosen as model since it is a particularly aggressive tumor and, because of its localized growth, it is suitable for intratumoral treatment with oncolytic viruses. Here, we show that dl922-947 infection induces PARP activation, and we confirm in vitro and in vivo that PARP inhibition increases dl922-947 replication and oncolytic activity. In vitro, the combination with olaparib exacerbates the appearance of cell death markers, such as Annexin V positivity, caspase 3 cleavage, cytochrome C release and propidium iodide permeability. In vivo, we also observed a better viral distribution upon PARP inhibition. Changes in CD31 levels suggest a direct effect of olaparib on tumor vascularization and on the viral distribution within the tumor mass. The observation that PARP inhibition enhances the effects of dl922-947 is highly promising not only for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but, in general, for the treatment of other tumors that could benefit from the use of oncolytic viruses. PMID:25139258

  3. Immunocytochemical analysis of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT-1) in typical, brain invasive, atypical and anaplastic meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Nes, Johannes A P; Griewank, Klaus G; Schmid, Kurt-Werner; Grabellus, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) is one of the major isoforms of the family of glucose transporter proteins that facilitates the import of glucose in human cells to fuel anaerobic metabolism. The present study was meant to determine the extent of the anaerobic/hypoxic state of the intratumoral microenvironment by staining for GLUT-1 in intracranial non-embolized typical (WHO grade I; n?=?40), brain invasive and atypical (each WHO grade II; n?=?38) and anaplastic meningiomas (WHO grade III, n?=?6). In addition, GLUT-1 staining levels were compared with the various histological criteria used for diagnosing WHO grade II and III meningiomas, namely, brain invasion, increased mitotic activity and atypical cytoarchitectural change, defined by the presence of at least three out of hypercellularity, sheet-like growth, prominent nucleoli, small cell change and "spontaneous" necrosis. The level of tumor hypoxia was assessed by converting the extent and intensity of the stainings by multiplication in an immunoreactive score (IRS) and statistically evaluated. The results were as follows. (1) While GLUT-1 expression was found to be mainly weak in WHO grade I meningiomas (IRS?=?1-4) and to be consistently strong in WHO grade III meningiomas (IRS?=?6-12), in WHO grade II meningiomas GLUT-1 expression was variable (IRS?=?1-9). (2) Histologically typical, but brain invasive meningiomas (WHO grade II) showed no or similarly low levels of GLUT-1 expression as observed in WHO grade I meningiomas (IRS?=?0-4). (3) GLUT-1 expression was observed in the form of a patchy, multifocal staining reaction in 76% of stained WHO grade I-III meningiomas, while diffuse staining (in 11%) and combined multifocal and areas of diffuse staining (in 13%) were only detected in WHO grades II and III meningiomas, except for uniform staining in angiomatous WHO grade I meningioma. (4) "Spontaneous" necrosis and small cell change typically occurred away from the intratumoral capillary network embedded within the pattern of GLUT-1 staining. Taken together, GLUT-1 staining cannot be applied as a substitute for histologic grading in order to predict tumor behavior. However, assessment of tumor hypoxia in association with "spontaneous" necrosis and foci of small cell change may substantially contribute to the neuropathologic diagnosis of WHO grades II and III meningioma. PMID:25168354

  4. The rat mitochondrial Ori L encodes a novel small RNA resembling an ancestral tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Hong; Liao, Jian-You; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-08-01

    The RNA minihelix, a proposed tRNA precursor, exhibits tRNA-like properties. Sequence-specific RNA minihelices can inhibit cell growth probably due to their binding to the cognate tRNA and naturally occurring non-tRNA substrates for aminoacylation may serve a similar purpose. Thus far, no natural RNA minihelices have been found. In the present study, we found a novel small RNA of 32 nucleotides, which is expressed abundantly in all rat tissues tested. Distinct from all of known endogenous small RNAs, this small RNA (temporarily named as tpl-sRNA) can form an RNA minihelix containing a stem-loop domain followed by ACCA. tpl-sRNA is encoded by the light-strand replication origin (Ori L) of the rat mitochondrial genome, and the 3'-terminal CCA of tpl-sRNA is post-transcriptionally added. Moreover, tpl-sRNA is chargeable in vivo. Our study demonstrates for the first time an endogenous small RNA that resembles an ancestral tRNA and exhibits some tRNA-like properties in mammals. PMID:18514058

  5. Mammalian telomeres resemble fragile sites and require TRF1 for efficient replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Agnel; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong T; Hockemeyer, Dirk; MacRae, Sheila L; Karlseder, Jan; Schildkraut, Carl L; de Lange, Titia

    2009-07-10

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends through the interaction of telomeric repeats with shelterin, a protein complex that represses DNA damage signaling and DNA repair reactions. The telomeric repeats are maintained by telomerase, which solves the end replication problem. We report that the TTAGGG repeat arrays of mammalian telomeres pose a challenge to the DNA replication machinery, giving rise to replication-dependent defects that resemble those of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites. Gene deletion experiments showed that efficient duplication of telomeres requires the shelterin component TRF1. Without TRF1, telomeres activate the ATR kinase in S phase and show a fragile-site phenotype in metaphase. Single-molecule analysis of replicating telomeres showed that TRF1 promotes efficient replication of TTAGGG repeats and prevents fork stalling. Two helicases implicated in the removal of G4 DNA structures, BLM and RTEL1, were required to repress the fragile-telomere phenotype. These results identify a second telomere replication problem that is solved by the shelterin component TRF1. PMID:19596237

  6. Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer

  7. Mutations in human lymphocytes commonly involve gene duplication and resemble those seen in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.R.; Grist, S.A.; Janatipour, M.; Morley, A.A.

    1988-05-01

    Mutations in human lymphocytes are commonly due to gene deletion. To investigate the mechanism of deletion for autosomal genes, the authors immunoselected lymphocytes mutated at the HLA-A locus and clones them for molecular analysis. Of 36 mutant clones that showed deletion of the selected HLA-A allele, 8 had resulted from a simple gene deletion, whereas 28 had resulted from a more complex mutational event involving reduplication of the nonselected HLA-A allele as indicated by hybridization intensity on Southern blots. In 3 of the 28 clones, retention of heterozygosity at the HLA-B locus indicated that the reduplication was due to recombination between the two chromosomes 6; but in the remaining 25 clones, distinction could not be made between recombination and chromosome reduplication. The results indicate that mutations in normal somatic cells frequently result in hemizygosity or homozygosity at gene loci and, thereby, resemble the mutations thought to be important in the etiology of various forms of cancer.

  8. Microvascular MRI and unsupervised clustering yields histology-resembling images in two rat models of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquery, Nicolas; Francois, Olivier; Lemasson, Benjamin; Debacker, Clément; Farion, Régine; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc

    2014-08-01

    Imaging heterogeneous cancer lesions is a real challenge. For diagnosis, histology often remains the reference, but it is widely acknowledged that biopsies are not reliable. There is thus a strong interest in establishing a link between clinical in vivo imaging and the biologic properties of tissues. In this study, we propose to construct histology-resembling images based on tissue microvascularization, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accessible source of contrast. To integrate the large amount of information collected with microvascular MRI, we combined a manual delineation of a spatial region of interest with an unsupervised, model-based cluster analysis (Mclust). This approach was applied to two rat models of glioma (C6 and F98). Six MRI parameters were mapped: apparent diffusion coefficient, vessel wall permeability, cerebral blood volume fraction, cerebral blood flow, tissular oxygen saturation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Five clusters, defined by their MRI features, were found to correspond to specific histologic features, and revealed intratumoral spatial structures. These results suggest that the presence of a cluster within a tumor can be used to assess the presence of a tissue type. In addition, the cluster composition, i.e., a signature of the intratumoral structure, could be used to characterize tumor models as histology does. PMID:24849664

  9. Non-resonant damped transitions resembling continuous resonance scattering in coupled oscillators with essential nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Mane, Mercedes; Hubbard, Sean; Remick, Kevin; Wang, Xingyuan; Vakakis, Alexander; Bergman, Lawrence

    2012-05-01

    We study a peculiar damped nonlinear transition of a system of two coupled oscillators into a state of sustained nonlinear resonance scattering. This system consists of a grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator attached to a light, weakly damped oscillator with essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity of the third degree, and linear or nonlinear damping. We find that under specific forcing conditions the damped response of this system locks into a damped, non-resonant transition resembling continuous resonance scattering, whereby the transient damped dynamics closely follows an impulsive orbit manifold of the dynamics in the frequency-energy plane. This manifold is formed by a countable infinity of periodic orbits and an uncountable infinity of quasi-periodic orbits of the underlying Hamiltonian system, with each of these orbits representing the response of the Hamiltonian system being initially at rest and forced by an impulse applied to the linear oscillator. Hence, the damped transitions reported here appear to lock in sustained resonance scattering from a countable infinity of periodic orbits along the impulsive orbit manifold. Such transitions represent an anti-resonance state, where the dynamics is farthest away from resonance. We conjecture that such transitions are only made possible by the essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity of the nonlinear attachment and cannot be realized in linearizable nonlinear dynamics where resonance captures prevent sustained resonance scattering. Our findings are supported by numerical, analytical and experimental results.

  10. Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in WHO grade III glioma patients treated with radiotherapy or radiotherapy plus chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Dong; Paek Sun; Kim Dong-Wan; Kim Chae-Yong; Han Jung; Lee Se-Hoon; Park Chul-Kee; Heo Dae; Kim Il; Jung Hee-Won

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background We evaluated the hierarchical risk groups for the estimated survival of WHO grade III glioma patients using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the results of RPA specifically for WHO grade III gliomas. Methods A total of 133 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, n = 56), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO, n = 67), or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA, n = 10) were included in the study. These patients were treated ...

  11. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  12. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case–control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5 years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1?+?S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage. Results The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0?±?5.7 years and 55.2?±?10.5 years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC)?=?0.63?±?0.02, P <0.001), which persisted after adjustment for PD. S2 showed an AUC of 0.63, 0.61, and 0.60 based on PD, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1, respectively. When adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed an association with breast cancer for the highest quartile alone: OR in quartiles of controls as reference; 1.04 (0.59 to 1.81); 0.95 (0.52 to 1.74); 1.84 (1.10 to 3.07) respectively. The combined continuous model with both PD and MTR scores based on S1 had an AUC of 0.66?±?0.03. Conclusions The local texture patterns associated with breast cancer risk in S1 were also an independent risk factor in S2. Additional textures identified in S2 did not significantly improve risk segregation. Hence, the textural patterns that indicated elevated risk persisted under differences in X-ray technology, population demographics, follow-up time and geography. PMID:24713478

  13. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, a clinicopathologic study of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula-Zalewska, Elwira; Danska-Bidzinska, Anna; Kowalewska, Magdalena; Piascik, Agata; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bidzinski, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) cause difficulties, both with respect to diagnosis as well as to the nomenclature. They belong to the group of low-grade malignant neoplasms, and their clinical course likely depends on the percentage of the sex cord-like component. Morphologically, they can be divided into type I and type II with less or more than 50% of sex cord-like areas, respectively. Six patients with an age range of 24 to 63 years underwent the treatment for primary UTROSCT at the Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw, Poland, between 2000 and 2011. In addition to the surgery, 4 patients were treated with gestagens. Biopsies or excisions from the tumors were examined microscopically and immunohistochemically. Two cases were classified as type I, and 4 cases, as type II tumors. The tumor size ranged from 3 to 24 cm. The sex cord component varied from 25% to 70%. By immunohistochemical examination, the sex cord-like component was calretinin positive, whereas the stromal component was positive for CD10 and negative for h-caldesmon in all the cases studied. In addition, progesterone receptor positivity was found in all the cases, and 4 tumors were positive for smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin AE1/3, and inhibin. No recurrences were noted in any of the 6 patients over 3 to 14.5 years of follow-up period. A correct subclassification of sarcomas of UTROSCT type is of crucial importance because most patients with this rare neoplasm respond well to gestagen therapy and have a good prognosis, compared with other uterine stromal sarcomas. PMID:25257516

  14. Distinctive features and resemblances between VVER and PWR fuels tested in the Halden Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PWR types of fuel have been tested in the Halden reactor (HBWR) since 1970’s when the first Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) was loaded. Since that time hundreds of PWR fuel rods have been tested under different conditions towards high fuel burnup. The VVER types of fuel have been tested in HBWR since 1995 when first VVER and PWR fuels have been loaded in IFA-503. Since that time a few fuel assemblies with several VVER fuel rods have been tested. In this paper general characterization of VVER and PWR fuels as well as VVER and PWR fuel and material investigations in the Halden reactor (comparison of in-pile performances - differences and resemblances) are presented. Conclusions: 1) Fuel temperatures of VVER hollow fuel pellets and PWR solid pellets can be compared for different diameter rods (also for the same as VVER design) to analyse effect of hollow. 2) The conductivity degradation (and reference functions used for modeling) are very similar for both fuels up to a burnup of 60 MWd/kg U. 3) Original VVER fuel densification was larger than PWR fuel but modified fuel exhibited improved dimensional behaviour, which is dependent on initial fuel microstructure. Analysis shows similar correlations of in-pile densification against re-sintering test, garin size and fission density at BOL. 4) The higher internal gas pressure at power was in the rods with hollow pellets (with the same outer diameter rods), whereas the temperature FGR threshold is identical to the PWR fuel. 5) The fuel and cladding mechanical behaviour was not enough investigated to make some conclusions (cladding creep test is going on, PCMI was done at different conditions, lift- off test was done at low coolant temperature (VVER-440), fuel creep test was not performed). 6) Corrosion behaviour of modern VVER and PWR claddings is under investigation. 7) The VVER fuel rods behaviour under LOCA conditions vs. PWR fuel is going to be analysed

  15. Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade III obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Alves, Dantas; Elisabeth Salvatori, Ficker; Carmen G. C., Vinagre; Barbara Maria, Ianni; Raul Cavalcante, Maranhão; Charles, Mady.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein meta [...] bolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion) binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [³H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m²] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040), and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h-1) was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971) in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

  16. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of lymphocytes that can develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). ... a skin condition with similar features to primary cutaneous ALCL. While LyP is classifed as a lymphoma, the skin lesions always go away by themselves, ...

  17. Pontine capillary telangiectasia as visualized on MR imaging causing a clinical picture resembling basilar-type migraine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Beukers, R. J.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.

    2009-01-01

    A case of presumed pontine capillary telangiectasia in an 18-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of basilar-type migraine is reported. Since both are very rare diagnoses, this case provides some evidence to suggest that pontine capillary telangiectasia might cause a clinical picture resembling basilar-type migraine.

  18. Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations include RMLO, RCC, LMLO, LCC views. Thus here we investigated the interrelation and combination of MTR scoring from several views. METHOD AND MATERIALS The study included mammograms of 495 women (aged 58.0±5.7 years) from the Dutch screening program of which 250 controls were without diagnosis the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step is included to reduce input space dimensionality. Weak local decision scores for pixels were fused into an overall risk score. The dataset was randomly separated into a training data set (60%) and a test data set (40%). Risk scores for combinations of views were obtained by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude that view combination may reduce some of the risk

  19. Energy and protein intake and nutritional status in non-surgically treated patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous food intake and nutritional status was assessed in 23 patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung before and two times during a treatment period of 6 weeks. Radiation therapy was given for 2 weeks followed by a course of chemotherapy and another 2 weeks of radiation therapy. The energy intake decreased during the treatment from 146 to 130 per cent of basal metabolic rate (p>0.10). The protein intake remained unchanged (mean 0.9 g/kg body weight).There were insignificant and small losses of weight, body fat, free body mass and arm muscle circumference, and no changes were seen in serum albumin and serum transferrin. However, 6 patients suffered a weight loss of 5 per cent or more. No correlation existed between the nutritional parameters measured before treatment and the changes during treatment. Patients who suffered a loss of body weight could therefore not be singled out before the treatment. (orig.)

  20. Long-Term Remission in a Case of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Local Irradiation and High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kato

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a tumor with bad prognosis and long-term survival is very low. However, appropriate combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radition have been reported to potentially improve the treatment results for ATC. We describe a case of refractory ATC successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT. There has not been any evidence of recurrence for 10 years after auto-PBSCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ATC that has been followed up for a longterm period after HDC with auto-PBSCT. This case suggests that intensive therapeutic approach such as HDC with auto- PBSCT may be useful.

  1. Combined postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymomas in childhood: results of the German prospective trials hit 88/89 and hit 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in children with anaplastic ependymomas after surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy; and to identify prognostic factors for survival. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five children (n = 27 girls, 28 boys; median age at diagnosis, 6.2 years) with newly diagnosed anaplastic ependymomas were treated in the multicenter, prospective trials HIT 88/89 and HIT 91. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 28 patients; 27 patients underwent incomplete resection. All patients received chemotherapy before (n = 40) or after irradiation (n = 15). The irradiation volume encompassed either the neuraxis followed by a boost to the primary tumor site (n = 40) or the tumor region only (n = 13). No radiotherapy was administered in two patients. Results: Median follow-up was 38 months. The overall survival rate at 3 years after surgery was 75.6%. Disease progression occurred in 25 children with local progression occurring in 20. The median time to disease progression was 45 months. The only significant prognostic factor was the extent of resection (estimated progression-free survival [EPFS] after 3 years was 83.3% after complete resection and 38.5% after incomplete resection) and the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis (0% vs. 65.8% 3-year EPFS in localized tumors). Age, sex, tumor site, mode of chemotherapy, and irradiation volume did not influence survival. Conclusions: Treatment centers should be meticulous about surgery and diagnostic woreticulous about surgery and diagnostic workup. Because the primary tumor region is the predominant site of failure it is important to intensify local treatment. Dose escalation by hyperfractionation or stereotactic radiotherapy might be a promising approach in macroscopically residual disease. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy requires further study

  2. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

  3. Metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and diffuse hyperplastic gastritis resembling human Menétrier's disease in a camel (Camelus ferus bactrianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, N; Gröne, A; Pagan, O; Bacciarini, L N

    2003-09-01

    A captive 16-year-old male camel (Camelus ferus bactrianus) was euthanized after a prolonged period of inappetence leading to cachexia. At necropsy, there was a 7 cm large, tan, firm, well-demarcated nodule in the tunica muscularis and serosa of the distal region of C3. Histologically, a gastric adenocarcinoma was diagnosed. Numerous metastases were found in the liver and the hepatic lymph nodes, in the wall of the portal vein and the aorta, in the lung, heart, and pleura parietalis. Osseous metaplasia was found within the pleural and aortic metastases. In the mucosa of the glandular region of the C3 compartment a diffuse marked hypertrophy of rugae resembling cerebral convolutions was observed. The lesion was characterized by glandular hyperplasia and stromal inflammation and oedema. These changes closely resembled Menétrier's disease described in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concomitant metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric hyperplasia in a camel. PMID:14633229

  4. Synovial histopathology of psoriatic arthritis, both oligo- and polyarticular, resembles spondyloarthropathy more than it does rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kruithof, Elli; Baeten, Dominique; Rycke, Leen; Vandooren, Bernard; Foell, Dirk; Roth, Johannes; Can?ete, Juan D.; Boots, Annemieke M.; Veys, Eric M.; Keyser, Filip

    2005-01-01

    At present only few biological data are available to indicate whether psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is part of the spondyloarthropathy (SpA) concept, whether it is a separate disease entity or a heterogeneous disease group with oligoarticular/axial forms belonging to SpA and polyarticular forms resembling rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To address this issue with regard to peripheral synovitis, we compared the synovial characteristics of PsA with those of ankylosing spondylitis (AS)/undifferentiated S...

  5. ENU mutagenesis identifies mice with mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase deficiency resembling human maple syrup urine disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jer-yuarn; Kao, Hsiao-jung; Li, Sing-chung; Stevens, Robert; Hillman, Steven; Millington, David; Chen, Yuan-tsong

    2004-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. However, the BCKD genes and enz...

  6. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877) is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not record...

  7. Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Saloni; Revell, Matthew; Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infi...

  8. Socioeconomic and demographic factors for spousal resemblance in obesity status and habitual physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  9. Clinical Benefit From Pemetrexed Before and After Crizotinib Exposure and From Crizotinib Before and After Pemetrexed Exposure in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Eamon M.; Lu, Xian; Maxson, Delee; Baro?n, Anna E.; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Solomon, Benjamin J.; Doebele, Robert C.; Varella-garcia, Maria; Camidge, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analyses suggest enhanced sensitivity to pemetrexed in crizotinib-naive anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of a retrospective analysis of ALK+ patients exposed to crizotinib and pemetrexed to determine if any clinical cross-resistance exists. Progression-free survival (PFS) results for ALK+ patients administered pemetrexed followed by crizotinib (PEM-CRIZ) and ALK+ patients first treated with crizotinib and then...

  10. Epstein-Barr virus-associated composite lymphoma composed of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of a diffuse large B-cell type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and strongly expressing p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yuko; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Masaki, Yasufumi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Karasawa, Hiromi; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Wano, Yuji

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of composite lymphoma consisting of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and strong p53 expression. A 65-year-old Japanese woman developed fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. A biopsy of the cervical node revealed the morphology of malignant lymphoma with 2 kinds of lymphoma coexisting in 1 lymph node. One lymphoma type consisted of immunoblastic large cells with the T-cell marker phenotype CD3+, CD45RO/UCHL-1+, CD20/L26-, CD79-, CD10-, CD30-, and CD15-; the other type consisted of large cells with abundant cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei with the marker phenotype CD79+, CD20/L26+, CD45RO/UCHL-1-, CD3-, CD10-, CD30+, NPM/ALK-, and CD15-. Therefore, the diagnosis was composite lymphoma of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and an anaplastic variant of DLBCL, stage IVB, because the patient had bone marrow involvement with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The biopsy led to findings of latent type II EBV-associated lymphoma in both the peripheral T-cell lymphoma and the anaplastic variant of DLBCL as the result of positive signals for EBV small RNAs by in situ hybridization, positive immunostaining results for EBV latent membrane protein 1 antibody, and negative immunostaining results for EBV nuclear antigen 2. Immunostaining of the mass with p53 antibody also yielded positive results for both types of lymphoma cells. This case suggests that the immunocompromised state of this patient with EBV-related peripheral T-cell lymphoma allowed the emergence of an EBV-related anaplastic variant of DLBCL and suggests a close relationship between p53 expression and latent EBV infection. PMID:15168595

  11. Phase II trial of carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide chemotherapy before radiotherapy for grade 3 astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytoma): Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial 98-72-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of preradiotherapy (RT) chemotherapy with carmustine, cisplatin, and oral etoposide combined with RT in the treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods and materials: Therapy consisted of carmustine (40 mg/m2/d) on Days 1-3, oral etoposide (50 mg/d) on Days 1-21 and 29-49, and cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d i.v.) on Days 1-3 and 29-31. The regimen was repeated every 8 weeks for three cycles, with conventionally fractionated RT (5000 cGy with a 1000-cGy boost) delivered concurrently with the third cycle. Results: A total of 29 patients were enrolled between December 1999 and March 2001. For varying reasons (e.g., progression, refusal, death, or toxicity), only 48% completed the chemotherapy regimen and 76% completed RT. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 14 patients (48%). The primary study endpoint was the 23-month (700-day) survival, the median survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma in a previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial. To be considered an active treatment, a maximum of 9 patient deaths (of the first 25) were allowed before 700 days. However, 14 patients had died by 700 days after therapy. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that pre-RT chemotherapy with this regimen is insufficiently active in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma

  12. Mapping of genomic t(2;5)(p23;q35) break points in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma by sequencing long-range PCR products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, R; Pugh, W C; Waasdorp, M; Morris, W; Cabanillas, F; Chan, P K; Sarris, A H

    1998-01-01

    The t(2;5) (p23;q35) that is frequently detected in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) fuses the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene on chromosome 5 to a novel tyrosine kinase gene designated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) on chromosome 2. The fusion of NPM and ALK genes results in the production of chimeric transcripts containing NPM amino-terminal sequences fused to the ALK carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. Because fusion transcripts and proteins in almost all t(2;5)-positive cell lines and tumors are identical, it is likely that the chromosomal breaks involve the same introns of NPM and ALK genes. We have previously developed a long-range genomic DNA-PCR assay to amplify the genomic NPM-ALK break points. Using high-molecular-weight DNA extracted from 2 ALCL cell lines and from 9 primary ALCLs known to be t(2;5)-positive, we have demonstrated that all 11 amplicons were of different sizes, suggesting that the t(2;5) break points were unique and involved the same introns on both chromosomes. We decided to confirm this and map the t(2;5) break points by genomic DNA sequencing. Using the same long-range DNA-PCR technique, primers from the ALK locus, and normal genomic DNA, we sequenced the ALK intron involved in t(2;5). We subsequently sequenced all 11 amplicons from t(2;5)-positive ALCL cell lines and tumors. Comparison of the sequences derived from ALCL amplicons with the published sequences of intron 4 from the NPM locus (910 bp) and with the newly sequenced intron from the ALK locus (1935 bp) accurately mapped all break points and demonstrated that their nucleotide sequences were unique. We conclude that the genomic t(2;5) break points can be easily mapped by sequencing the amplicons generated from genomic DNA with long-range PCR and that they are unique for each patient. The sequences of the break points and of the newly identified ALK intron may be useful in the construction of patient-specific primers for monitoring and determination of the clinical relevance of minimal residual disease. PMID:9844824

  13. Galectin-1-mediated cell adhesion, invasion and cell death in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma: regulatory roles of cell surface glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Galectin-1 is known to be one of the extracellular matrix proteins. To elucidate the biological roles of galectin-1 in cell adhesion and invasion of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma, we performed cell adhesion and invasion assays using the anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line H-ALCL, which was previously established in our laboratory. From the cell surface lectin array, treatment with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens which cleaves all linkage types of cell surface sialic acid enhanced Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Helix pomatia (HPA) and Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin binding reactivity to cell surface of lymphoma cells suggesting that neuraminidase removes cell surface sialic acid. In cell adhesion and invasion assays treatment with neuraminidase markedly enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1 and decreased cell invasive capacity through galectin-1. ?2,6-linked sialic acid may be involved in masking the effect of the interaction between galectin-1 and cell surface glycans. H-ALCL cells expressed the ?-galactoside-?2,6-sialyltransferase ST6Gal1. On resialylation assay by recombinant ST6Gal1 with CMP-Neu5Ac, ?2,6-resialylation of L-PHA reactive oligosaccharide by ST6Gal1 resulted in inhibition of H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-1 compared to the desialylated H-ALCL cells. On knockdown experiments, knockdown of ST6Gal1 dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to galectin-1. N-glycosylation inhibitor swainsonine treatment resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-1. In glycomic analysis using the lectin blocking assay treatment with PNA, Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Vicia villosa (VVA), Ulex europaeus (UEA-1), Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA), Phaseolus vulgaris-E4 (E-PHA), Datura stramonium (DSA) lectins resulted in modulation of lymphoma cell to galectin-1 suggesting that several types of glycans may regulate cell adhesion to galectin-1 by steric hindrance. The adhesive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K) and actin cytoskeleton, and the invasive capacity of H-ALCL cells is regulated by PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Rho and actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, galectin-1-induced cell death in H-ALCL cells was accompanied by inhibition of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. In conclusion, cell adhesion and invasion to galectin-1 appeared to be regulated by cell surface sialylation and N-glycosylation, and galectin-1 regulates cell death through inhibition of CD45 PTP activity of H-ALCL. PMID:24589677

  14. Phase III randomized study of radiotherapy plus PCV with or without BUdR for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma: RTOG 9404 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This study was an open label, randomized, phase III trial in newly diagnosed patients with anaplastic astrocytoma comparing radiotherapy plus adjuvant Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) given as a 96 hour infusion each week of radiotherapy. Material/Methods: Only patients 18 years or older with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma were eligible; central pathology review was not mandated prior to registration. The study had initially opened as an Northern California Oncology Group (NCOG) trial in 1991, becoming an intergroup RTOG, SWOG and NCCTG study in July, 1994. Total accrual of 293 patients was initially planned as the sample size, using time to tumor progression and survival as the primary endpoints. The experimental arm (RT/BUdR plus PCV) was to be compared to the control arm (RT plus PCV) using an alpha = 0.05, one-tailed, with a power of 85% for detecting an increase in median survival from 160 to 240 weeks, assuming a 3 year follow-up after completion of enrollment. Results: As of Feb. 1997, 268 patients had been randomized; 53 (20%) were ineligible, primarily based upon central pathology review and 13 were canceled. In total, 30% of patients were excluded from analysis, with additional pathology review still pending for some patients. The treatment arms remained well balanced despite this rate of exclusion. The RTOG Data Monitoring Committee recommended suspension of enrollment in July, 199nded suspension of enrollment in July, 1996 based upon a stochastic curtailment analysis which strongly suggested that the study endpoint would not be achieved in the RT/BUdR plus PCV arm. In Feb., 1997, the study was closed prior to full enrollment. At that time, the one-year survival estimates were 82% versus 68% for RT plus PCV and RT/BUdR plus PCV respectively (one sided p=0.96). The conditional power analysis indicated that even with an additional 12 months of accrual and follow-up the probability of detecting the pre specified difference was less than 0.01%. The differences seen in the two arms seems to be due to early deaths in the BUdR arm, not related to toxicity of the treatment. Conclusions: Despite encouraging phase II results with BUdR, it is unlikely a survival benefit will be seen. A final study analysis will be not be done until all patients have been followed for at least 3 years

  15. Human RECQ5beta helicase promotes strand exchange on synthetic DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagaraj, R.; Saydam, N.; Garcia, P. L.; Zheng, L.; Janscak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the human RECQ5beta helicase in the maintenance of genomic stability remains elusive. Here we show that RECQ5beta promotes strand exchange between arms of synthetic forked DNA structures resembling a stalled replication fork in a reaction dependent on ATP hydrolysis. BLM and WRN can also promote strand exchange on these structures. However, in the presence of human replication protein A (hRPA), the action of these RecQ-type helicases is strongly biased towards unwinding of the par...

  16. Generation of self-mode-locked resembling pulses in a fast gain-switched thulium-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Jacek; Michalska, Maria

    2013-05-15

    We report on a generation of self-starting mode-locked resembling (MLR) pulses in an all-fiber, gain-switched Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser operating at 2 ?m wavelength, which we believe to be the first demonstration of such an approach. The laser delivers 100% modulated MLR pulses within an envelope of ~30 ns gain-switched pulse at a repetition rate of 30 kHz. The maximum average output power is 0.4 W and the maximum peak-power of MLR pulses can be as high as 1.1 kW. The performance of the laser is described. PMID:23938890

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancio, Walter; Carina, Valeria; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Laura; Pitrone, Maria; Baiamonte, Concetta; Amato, Marco Calogero; Giordano, Carla

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. PMID:25705224

  18. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Piazza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs through recruitment of MeCP2 and the SIN3a/histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2 corepressor complex. This event requires BIM CpG methylation/demethylation with 5-azacytidine that leads to detachment of the MeCP2 corepressor complex and reacetylation of the histone tails. Treatment with the ALK inhibitor PF2341066 or with an inducible shRNA targeting NPM/ALK does not restore BIM locus reacetylation; however, enforced expression of NPM/ALK in an NPM/ALK-negative cell line significantly increases the methylation at the BIM locus. This study demonstrates that BIM is epigenetically silenced in NPM/ALK-positive cells through recruitment of the SIN3a/HDAC1/2 corepressor complex and that NPM/ALK is dispensable to maintain BIM epigenetic silencing but is able to act as an inducer of BIM methylation.

  19. The dichloromethane extract of the ethnomedicinal plant Neurolaena lobata inhibits NPM/ALK expression which is causal for anaplastic large cell lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Christine; Popescu, Ruxandra; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Laimer, Daniela; Heider, Susanne; Seelinger, Mareike; Diaz, Rene; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Egger, Gerda; Hassler, Melanie; Knöfler, Martin; Saleh, Leila; Sahin, Emine; Grusch, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Dolznig, Helmut; Frisch, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates extracts of Neuolaena lobata, an anti-protozoan ethnomedicinal plant of the Maya, regarding its anti-neoplastic properties. Firstly, extracts of increasing polarity were tested in HL-60 cells analyzing inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction. Secondly, the most active extract was further tested in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines of human and mouse origin. The dichloromethane extract inhibited proliferation of HL-60, human and mouse ALCL cells with an IC50 of ~2.5, 3.7 and 2.4 µg/ml, respectively and arrested cells in the G2/M phase. The extract induced the checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 and perturbed the orchestrated expression of the Cdc25 family of cell cycle phosphatases which was paralleled by the activation of p53, p21 and downregulation of c-Myc. Importantly, the expression of NPM/ALK and its effector JunB were drastically decreased, which correlated with the activation of caspase 3. Subsequently also platelet derived growth factor receptor ? was downregulated, which was recently shown to be transcriptionally controlled by JunB synergizing with ALK in ALCL development. We show that a traditional healing plant extract downregulates various oncogenes, induces tumor suppressors, inhibits cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis of malignant cells. The discovery of the 'Active Principle(s)' is warranted. PMID:23135783

  20. Health utilities in relation to treatment response and adverse events in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Paul; Shingler, Sarah; Acaster, Sarah; Lloyd, Andrew; Bonthapally, Vijayveer

    2014-11-01

    New therapies for relapsing/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (R/R HL) and R/R systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (sALCL) have emerged. This study captured utility values for R/R HL and sALCL to support economic evaluation. Health state "vignettes" were developed describing states associated with R/R HL and sALCL: treatment response (complete or partial response), stable and progressive disease and treatment-related adverse events (B-symptoms, acute/chronic graft-versus-host disease [GVHD] and peripheral neuropathy). Vignettes were evaluated by members of the public in the UK, Australia, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Brazil and Mexico using the time trade-off method. Mean utilities varied substantially. Complete response utility scores were UK: 0.906, Australia: 0.889, Taiwan: 0.597, Thailand: 0.728, South Korea: 0.827, Brazil: 0.764, Mexico: 0.728. Adverse events were associated with disutility: acute GVHD, lowest mean utility value: Thailand 0.124; highest value: Mexico 0.467. Societal evaluation of health states for R/R HL and sALCL revealed a marked perceived benefit of a treatment response. PMID:25284490

  1. Identification of a novel crosstalk between casein kinase 2? and NPM-ALK in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanious, Hanan; Gelebart, Pascal; Anand, Mona; Lai, Raymond

    2013-02-01

    It was previously reported that ?-catenin contributes to the tumorigenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(+)ALCL), and the oncogenic effects of ?-catenin in these tumors are promoted by NPM-ALK, an abnormal fusion protein characteristic of ALK(+)ALCL. In this study, we hypothesized that NPM-ALK promotes the oncogenic activity of ?-catenin via its functional interactions with the Wnt canonical pathway (WCP). To test this hypothesis, we examined if NPM-ALK modulates the gene expression of various members in the WCP. Using a Wnt pathway-specific oligonucleotide array and Western blots, we found that the expression of casein kinase 2? (CK2?) was substantially downregulated in ALK(+)ALCL cells in response to siRNA knockdown of NPM-ALK. CK2? is biologically important in ALK(+)ALCL, as its inhibition using 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole or siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth and a substantial decrease in the ?-catenin protein level. Furthermore, CK2? co-immunoprecipitated with NPM-ALK and regulated its level of serine phosphorylation, a feature previously shown to correlate with the oncogenic potential of this fusion protein. To conclude, this study has revealed a novel crosstalk between NPM-ALK and CK2?, and our data supports the model that these two molecules work synergistically to promote the tumorigenicity of these lymphomas. PMID:23153582

  2. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  3. Recent radiation within Y-chromosomal haplogroup R-M269 resulted in high Y-STR haplotype resemblance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; van Oven, Mannis; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-03-01

    Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are often used in addition to Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) to detect subtle patterns in a population genetic structure. There are, however, indications for Y-STR haplotype resemblance across different subhaplogroups within haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) which may lead to erosion in the observation of the population genetic pattern. Hence the question arises whether Y-STR haplotypes are still informative beyond high-resolution Y-SNP genotyping for population genetic studies. To address this question, we genotyped the Y chromosomes of more than 1000 males originating from the West-European regions of Flanders (Belgium), North-Brabant and Limburg (the Netherlands) at the highest resolution of the current Y-SNP tree together with 38 commonly used Y-STRs. We observed high resemblance of Y-STR haplotypes between males belonging to different subhaplogroups of haplogroup R-M269. Several subhaplogroups within R-M269 could not be distinguished from each other based on differences in Y-STR haplotype variation. The most likely hypothesis to explain this similarity of Y-STR haplotypes within the population of R-M269 members is a recent radiation where various subhaplogroups originated within a relatively short time period. We conclude that high-resolution Y-SNP typing rather than Y-STR typing might be more useful to study population genetic patterns in (Western) Europe. PMID:24571229

  4. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed typical histological images of dissolution of the connective tissue matrix around eosinophils. Conclusion The present study shows that a timely regulated influx of infiltrating leukocytes is associated with an extensive collagen remodeling process that allows the pubic separation for a normal delivery in guinea-pig. Thus, the findings in this study support the hypothesis that the guinea-pig pubic symphyseal relaxation at parturition resembles an inflammatory process.

  5. Nonparenchymal cells cultivated from explants of fibrotic liver resemble endothelial and smooth muscle cells from blood vessel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue specimens from human fibrotic liver obtained by needle biopsy were cultured. Two cell types emerged from the tissue explants. From their morphology and biosynthetic products they resembled smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from blood vessel walls. In the endothelial cells, factor VIII-associated protein was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Synthesis of collagen types I and III, basement membrane collagen types IV and V, and fibronectin by both cell types was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle cells were observed in subcultures. After incubation with [14C]glycine, collagen was isolated and characterized by CM cellulose chromatography, and consisted mainly of types I and III. These data suggest involvement of mesenchymal cells in hepatic fibrosis; they presumably originate from blood vessel or sinusoidal walls

  6. A skeletal disorder in a dog resembling the Klippel-Feil Syndrome with?Sprengel's Deformity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2015-03-01

    A five-year-old intact male golden retriever dog was evaluated for cervical pain and right hemiparesis. Clinical and computed tomography features suggested a caudal cervical instability and myelopathy due to a cervicoscapular malformation resembling the human Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity, a rare complex congenital disorder. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of MEOX1, PAX1 and FGFR3 genes were performed in this dog to investigate a possible underlying genetic predisposition, but no mutations were detected in the coding regions of the three target genes evaluated. Other genes can be involved in this condition in dogs and require further investigation. This report describes a cervical vertebral fusion and complex scapular anomaly in a dog. The presence of an omovertebral bone should be considered in the setting of signs characteristic of myelopathy in dogs with or without obvious skeletal deformity. PMID:25196886

  7. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E. [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  8. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  9. Molecular and Functional Characterizations of the Association and Interactions between Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK is aberrantly expressed in a subset of T cell lymphoma that commonly affects children and young adults. NPM-ALK possesses significant oncogenic potential that was previously documented using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The exact mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its effects are poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that NPM-ALK is physically associated with type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR. A positive feedback loop appears to exist between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through which these two kinases interact to potentiate their effects. We have also found that a single mutation of the Tyr644 or Tyr664 residue of the C terminus of NPM-ALK to phenylalanine decreases significantly, but does not completely abolish, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dual mutation of Tyr644 and Tyr664 abrogates the association and interactions between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. We also examined the impact of this dual mutation on the oncogenic potential of NPM-ALK. Our results show that NPM-ALKY644,664F completely lacks association with IGF-IR. Importantly, we found that the dual mutation of Tyr644 and Tyr664 diminishes the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK, including its ability to induce anchorage-independent colony formation and to sustain cellular transformation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through Tyr644 and Tyr664 appears to contribute to maintaining the stability of NPM-ALK protein. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its oncogenic effects through interactions with IGF-IR in this aggressive lymphoma.

  10. Foxo3a drives proliferation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma through transcriptional regulation of cyclin A1: a paradigm shift that impacts current therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A; von Roemeling, Christina A; Cooper, Simon J; Zhang, Yilin; Rohl, Stephen D; Arora, Shilpi; Gonzales, Irma M; Azorsa, David O; Reddi, Honey V; Tun, Han W; Döppler, Heike R; Storz, Peter; Smallridge, Robert C; Copland, John A

    2012-09-15

    The Forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a, is a known suppressor of primary tumor growth through transcriptional regulation of key genes regulating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In many types of cancer, in response to growth factor signaling, FoxO3a is phosphorylated by Akt, resulting in its exclusion from the nucleus. Here we show that FoxO3a remains nuclear in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). This correlates with lack of Akt phosphorylation at serine473 in ATC cell lines and tissues of ATC patients, providing a potential explanation for nuclear FoxO3a. Mechanistically, nuclear FoxO3a promotes cell cycle progression by transcriptional upregulation of cyclin A1, promoting proliferation of human ATC cells. Silencing FoxO3a with a reverse genetics approach leads to downregulation of CCNA1 mRNA and protein. These combined data suggest an entirely novel function for FoxO3a in ATC promotion by enhancing cell cycle progression and tumor growth through transcriptional upregulation of cyclin A1. This is clinically relevant since we detected highly elevated CCNA1 mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues of ATC patients. Our data indicate therapeutic inactivation of FoxO3a may lead to attenuation of tumor expansion in ATC. This new paradigm also suggests caution in relation to current dogma focused upon reactivation of FoxO3a as a therapeutic strategy against cancers harboring active PI3-K and Akt signaling pathways. PMID:22718346

  11. The miR-200 family regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by EGF/EGFR in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Ze-Bing; Ren, Wei-Min; Ye, Xuan-Guang; Zhang, You-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The miR-200 family was recently identified as a suppressor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The loss or gain of miR-200 family members is associated with cancer invasion. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in the majority of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATCs). The activation of EGFR by its ligand, epidermal growth factor (EGF), activates a signaling cascade that results in the enhanced migration and invasiveness of thyroid cancer cells. However, little is known about the potential interrelationships between EGF/EGFR, miR-200s and the induction of EMT or mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) processes. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of miR-200s in EMT modulation by EGF/EGFR. Using transfection, real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis, we found that the EGF treatment of Nthy-ori 3-1 thyroid follicular cells resulted in the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of vimentin. By contrast, EGFR silencing in SW1736 human thyroid carcinoma cells led to the upregulation of E-cadherin and the downregulation of vimentin. In addition, EGF signaling correlated with the reduced expression of miR-200s and the re-expression of miR-200s abrogated the effects of EGF treatment and restored an epithelial phenotype to EGF-induced Nthy-ori 3-1 cells. Conversely, the silencing of miR-200s in SW1736 cells overcame siEGFR-induced changes in gene expression and phenotype. In addition, we demonstrate that miR-200s play a key role in in vitro EGF/EGFR-mediated thyroid cell invasion and in EMT in vivo. We, therefore, provide a mechanistic link between the miR-200 family and EGF/EGFR, which suggests that miR-200 upregulation may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for highly invasive thyroid cancers. PMID:22797360

  12. Molecular and Functional Characterizations of the Association and Interactions between Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Granda, J Gabrielle; Whitton, Thomas; Shi, Ping; Amin, Hesham M

    2013-01-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is aberrantly expressed in a subset of T cell lymphoma that commonly affects children and young adults. NPM-ALK possesses significant oncogenic potential that was previously documented using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The exact mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its effects are poorly understood. We have recently demonstrated that NPM-ALK is physically associated with type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR). A positive feedback loop appears to exist between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through which these two kinases interact to potentiate their effects. We have also found that a single mutation of the Tyr644 or Tyr664 residue of the C terminus of NPM-ALK to phenylalanine decreases significantly, but does not completely abolish, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dual mutation of Tyr644 and Tyr664 abrogates the association and interactions between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR. We also examined the impact of this dual mutation on the oncogenic potential of NPM-ALK. Our results show that NPM-ALKY644,664F completely lacks association with IGF-IR. Importantly, we found that the dual mutation of Tyr644 and Tyr664 diminishes the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK, including its ability to induce anchorage-independent colony formation and to sustain cellular transformation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, the association between NPM-ALK and IGF-IR through Tyr644 and Tyr664 appears to contribute to maintaining the stability of NPM-ALK protein. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which NPM-ALK induces its oncogenic effects through interactions with IGF-IR in this aggressive lymphoma. PMID:23730215

  13. An Investigation into the Mechanics of Windblown Dust Entrainment from Nickel Slag Surfaces Resembling Armoured Desert Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robert Steven

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the dynamics of PM 10 emission from a nickel slag stockpile that closely resembles a desert pavement in physical characteristics. In the field, it was observed that slag surfaces develop by natural processes into a well-armoured surface over some period of time. The surface then consists of two distinct layers; a surficial armour layer containing only non-erodible gravel and cobble-sized clasts, and an underlying dust-laden layer, which contains a wide size range of slag particles, from clay-sized to cobble-sized. This surficial armour layer protects the underlying fines from wind entrainment, at least under typical wind conditions; however, particle emissions still do occur under high wind speeds. The dynamics of particle entrainment from within these surfaces are investigated herein. It is shown that the dynamics of the boundary layer flow over these lag surfaces are influenced by the inherent roughness and permeability of the surficial armour layer, such that the flow resembles those observed over and within vegetation canopies, and those associated with permeable gravel-bed river channels. Restriction of air flow within the permeable surface produces a high-pressure zone within the pore spaces, resulting in a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability, which triggers coherent motions in the form of repeating burst-sweep cycles. Using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), it is demonstrated that the lower boundary layer is characterized by both Q4 sweeping motions and Q2 bursting motions, while the upper boundary layer is dominated by Q2 bursts. Pore air motions within the slag material were measured using buried pressure ports. It is shown that the mean pressure gradient which forms within the slag material results in net upward displacement of air, or wind pumping. However, this net upward motion is a result of rapid oscillatory motions which are directly driven by coherent boundary layer motions. It is also demonstrated that these coherent motions are able to penetrate at least 4 cm through the surficial armour layer, thereby transporting turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) downward to the dust-laden sub-surface layer. This represents a mechanism of momentum transfer that is able to reach the erodible material, while the wind pumping effect represents a mechanism for particle exhaustion.

  14. No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØrglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    Two European populations are believed to be related to the ancient Germanic tribe Cimbri: one living in Northern Italy, the other living in Jutland, Denmark. The people called Cimbri are documented in the ancient Roman historical record. Arriving from the far north their movements can be tracked from successive battles with the Romans. The Cimbri finally entered Italy from the northeast and were defeated at Vercellae (present day Vercelli) in 101 BC by Gaius Marius and his professional legions. Classical sources from the first centuries AD relate the homeland of the Cimbri to the coasts around the Elb estuary (northern Germany) or specifically towards the north (Himmerland in northern Jutland). In the alpine parts of Veneto, northeast of the historical battlefield, local traditions dating back to late medieval time, identify a local population as Cimbri living in Terra dei Cimbri. They are considered the descendents of the Germanic combatants that fled the battlefield at Vercelli. As the defeated Cimbri that possibly fled to the mountains of Northern Italy most likely would have been male (warriors), the present study investigated the possible Y chromosomal diversity of the two present populations using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms. While Cimbri from Himmerland resembled their geographical neighbors from Denmark for the Y-chromosome markers, Cimbri from Italy were significantly differentiated both from Cimbri from Himmerland and from Danes. Therefore, we were not able to show any biological relationship for uniparentally transmitted markers. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Feb

  15. Estrogen-producing endometrioid adenocarcinoma resembling sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary: a review of four postmenopausal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Tomomi; Yasuda, Masanori; Hasegawa, Kosei; Kozawa, Eito; Maniwa, Jun-ichi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    The 4 present cases with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMA) of the ovary were characterized by estrogen overproduction and resemblance to sex cord-stromal tumor (SCST). The patients were all postmenopausal, at ages ranging from 60 to 79 years (av. 67.5), who complained of abdominal discomfort or distention and also atypical genital bleeding. Cytologically, maturation of the cervicovaginal squamous epithelium and active endometrial proliferation were detected. The serum estrogen (estradiol, E2) value was preoperatively found to be elevated, ranging from 48.7 to 83.0 pg/mL (av. 58.4). In contrast, follicle stimulating hormone was suppressed to below the normal value. MR imaging diagnoses included SCSTs such as granulosa cell tumor or thecoma for 3 cases because of predominantly solid growth, and epithelial malignancy for one case because of cystic and solid structure. Grossly, the solid part of 3 cases was homogeneously yellow in color. Histologically, varying amounts of tumor components were arranged in solid nests, hollow tubules, cord-like strands and cribriform-like nests in addition to the conventional EMA histology. In summary, postmenopausal ovarian solid tumors with the estrogenic manifestations tend to be preoperatively diagnosed as SCST. Due to this, in the histological diagnosis, this variant of ovarian EMA may be challenging and misdiagnosed as SCST because of its wide range in morphology. PMID:23190574

  16. ?-Galactosidase A Knockout Mice: Progressive Organ Pathology Resembles the Type 2 Later-Onset Phenotype of Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangari, Dinesh S; Ashe, Karen M; Desnick, Robert J; Maloney, Colleen; Lydon, John; Piepenhagen, Peter; Budman, Eva; Leonard, John P; Cheng, Seng H; Marshall, John; Thurberg, Beth L

    2015-03-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of ?-galactosidase A and the resultant systemic accumulation of globotrioasylceramide (GL-3) and related glycolipids. ?-Galactosidase A gene knockout (Gla KO) mice have no ?-galactosidase A activity and progressively accumulate GL-3 in tissues and fluids, similarly to FD patients. The nature and temporal effects of the progressive substrate accumulation on tissue histology in these mice have not previously been characterized. Here, we report the pathology of young to old (3 to 17 months old) Gla KO mice and compare these changes with those in strain-matched control animals. Gla KO mice accumulated GL-3 in various tissues and fluids with age. Lysosomal GL-3 inclusions increased with age in multiple cell types, including renal epithelial, intestinal, and vascular smooth muscle cells, and neurons in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, as detected by light and electron microscopy. However, unlike the case for male FD patients with the type 1 classic phenotype, GL-3 inclusions were not detected in vascular endothelial cells or cardiomyocytes. The histological changes in Gla KO mice better resemble the type 2 later-onset phenotype observed in patients with residual ?-galactosidase A activity. GL-3 accumulation in the small intestine and sensory ganglia of Gla KO mice provides a model for study of enteropathy and neuropathy in Fabry disease. PMID:25553976

  17. 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling A Giant Exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Cruz, Kelle L; Mamajek, Eric E; Núñez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and WISE photometry for the low surface gravity L5gamma dwarf 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2MASSJ1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and MKO J,H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3-12 microns indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2MASSJ1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW ...

  18. Combined exposure to bacteria and cigarette smoke resembles characteristic phenotypes of human COPD in a murine disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Christian; Han, Gang; Li, Dong; Tschernig, Thomas; Dinh, Quoc Thai; Beißwenger, Christoph; Bals, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Abundant microbial colonization is a hallmark of COPD and smoke exposure likely increases the susceptibility to colonization and infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pulmonary changes of a combined exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and microbial challenge in a preclinical murine COPD model. Animals were exposed to CS for 2 weeks, 3, and 6 months. Low and high doses of heat inactivated nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) were administered by inhalation during the whole exposure time. Pulmonary changes were analyzed by stereology, pulmonary function tests, measurements of inflammatory cells and mediators, and histopathology. Exposure of smoke in a relatively low concentration caused COPD-like changes of pulmonary function and only little inflammation. The coadministration of low dose NTHi (ld-NTHi) augmented a macrophage dominated inflammatory profile, while high dose NTHi (hd-NTHi) induced a neutrophilic inflammatory pattern. IL-17A secretion was solely dependent on the exposure to NTHi. Also goblet cell metaplasia and the formation of lymphoid aggregates depended on exposure to bacteria. In conclusion, the combination of exposure to smoke and bacterial compounds resulted in a mouse model that resembles several aspects of human disease. Exposure to microbial structural components appears necessary to model important pathologic features of the disease and the quantity of the exposure with microorganisms has a strong effect on the phenotype. PMID:25601416

  19. Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare Policies : Is the 'black' American experience resembled in Britian, Sweden and Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2010-01-01

    The link between ethnic heterogeneity and support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by a large American research effort. Historically the race issue have blocked a number of US welfare schemes, across USA ethnic heterogene-ous states have less generous benefits, and citizens having negative attitudes towards blacks oppose welfare. The question is to what extend increased ethnic heterogeneity in European countries will establish the same mechanisms. Three theoretical positions are discussed; the position that the ‘black’ American experience is unique, the position that it is general, and a middle position of it being contingent on institutional settings. The latter position predicts that the ‘black’ American experience especially can be avoided in social democratic welfare regimes where the political elites have not played the race card. Em-pirically the article is based on survey data from UK, Sweden and Denmark, where a num-ber of American GSS items have been directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare regime effects the findings support the position that the American in-group out-group mechanisms are resembled in Europe.

  20. Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)

  1. Resemblance of Quikscat radar backscatter and differential emissivity of land surface derived using TRMM TMI through radiative transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Agarwal, Vijay K.

    2006-12-01

    Interpretation of microwave radiometric measurements over land for atmospheric studies requires representative information about surface emissivity. A simulation study has been performed to derive some of the meteorological parameters like atmospheric water vapour content over land using TRMM TMI data through assumed land surface emissivity satisfying the radiative transfer model. The process of minimization of simulated and observed radiation at TMI frequencies using a large number of simulated atmospheric and surface conditions simultaneously yields many atmospheric and surface parameters over land. Preliminary analysis of TRMM TMI data over India and adjoining land region for few days during different season has been carried out. The derived surface emissivity difference of vertical and horizontal polarization is found highly resembling with Quikscat radar backscatter of land surface over the same area corroborating the estimation of land surface emissivity parameters. The study has importance in synergic use of microwave radiometer and scatterometer for studying the surface features as well as retrieval of geophysical parameters over land in view of forthcoming Megha-Tropiques and Oceansat-2 satellites. Typical examples of TRMM-TMI and Quikscat scatterometer are presented here.

  2. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5? dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ?10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 ?m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  3. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L; Houston, Douglas W; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  4. Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Helden, J H; Zijlmans, R A B; Schram, D C; Engeln, R [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: r.engeln@tue.nl

    2009-05-01

    We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O{sub 2} molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. {approx}5% NO and {approx}95% N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

  5. Resemblance in gas composition of Ar-N2-O2 plasmas and Ar-NO plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the steady-state gas composition of plasmas produced from Ar-N2-O2 mixtures and Ar-NO mixtures with quantitative mass spectrometry. In the former, mainly N2 and O2, but also a significant amount of nitric oxide (NO) was formed, i.e. up to 5% of the background gas was NO. In the inverse experiment, in which NO was admixed to an argon plasma, up to 92% of the NO was converted into N2 and O2. The observed molecules are mostly generated in wall association processes but also by gas phase reactions between N atoms and O2 molecules leading to NO. The two types of plasmas show a strong mutual resemblance in the steady-state gas composition if substantial dissociation can be reached in the residence time of the gases in the plasma, i.e. ?5% NO and ?95% N2 and O2, although the starting conditions are completely different. It seems that in first order the system prefers to produce the most thermodynamically stable molecules.

  6. Sialylation by ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUZUKI, OSAMU; ABE, MASAFUMI; HASHIMOTO, YUKO

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM-mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin-8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H-ALCL) which was established in our laboratory. The knockdown of ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1) by siRNA showed inhibition of ST6Gal1 expression in the cytoplasm of H-ALCL cells on immunohistochemical findings, and showed dramatic enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-8. On the other hand, ?-2,3-specific neuraminidase treatment resulted in moderate enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin-8. We performed chemically artificial modification of cell surface O-glycans by treatment of benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-D-galactopyranoside (Bz-?-GalNAc) in H-ALCL. Cell adhesion to galectin-8 was enhanced by treatment of Bz-?-GalNAc suggesting that inhibition of elongation of O-glycans may enhance cell adhesion to galectin-8 in H-ALCL cells. On the other hand inhibition of elongation of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin (TM) resulted in inhibition of Phaseolus vulgaris-L (L-PHA) lectin-binding activity and inhibited cell adhesion to galectin-8,laminin and fibronectin. Neuraminidase treatment enhanced cell adhesion to laminin, and knockdown of ST6Gal1 resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to laminin, but not to fibronectin, collagen type 1 and 4. Galectin-8 pre-treatment dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to laminin and neuraminidase treatment also enhanced cell adhesion to laminin in combination with galectin-8. Rho inhibitor, C3-transferase pre-treatment resulted in inhibition of cell invasion to galectin-8. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin inhibits the cell invasive capacity to galectin-8. Neuraminidase treatment induces growth inhibition of lymphoma cells by galectin-8. PMID:25573487

  7. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the hion-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the published data for future treatment decision-making remains difficult when the histologic diagnosis has not been based on the new improved classification system.

  8. A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). Patients were ? 15 years of age, had a histologic diagnosis of malignant glioma, and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 60%. Methods and Materials: In Randomization 1, patients were assigned to receive either ERT alone (61.2 Gy) or ERT plus mitomycin C (Mito, IV 12.5 mg/m2) during the first and fourth week of ERT. After this treatment, patients went on to Randomization 2, where they were assigned to receive either BCNU (i.v. 200 mg/m2) given at 6-week intervals or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, 750 mg/m2 IV daily for 3 days every 6 weeks), with BCNU given on the third day of the 6-MP treatment. Three hundred twenty-seven patients underwent Randomization 1. One hundred sixty-four received ERT alone, and 163 received ERT + Mito [average age 52.7 years; 63% male; 69% glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 66% had a resection; 56% KPS ? 90%]. Step-wise analysis of survival from Randomization 1 or 2 indicates that survival was significantly diminished by: (a) age ? 45 years (b) KPS < 90%; (c) GBM/Gliosarcoma histology; (d) stereotactic biopsy as opposed to open biopsy or resection. Median survival from Randomization 1 in both arms (ERT + Mito) was 10.8 months. Median survival from Randomization 2 was 9.3 months for BCNU/6MP vs. 11.4 months for the BCNU group (p = 0.35)nths for the BCNU group (p = 0.35). Carmustine/6-MP showed a possible survival benefit for histologies other than GBM/GS. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent Randomization 2. The proportion of patients in the ERT group who terminated study prior to Randomization 2 was significantly less in the ERT group than in the ERT + Mito group (20 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: (a) The addition of Mito to ERT had no impact on survival; (b) patients treated with ERT + Mito were at greater risk of terminating therapy prior to Randomization 2; (c) there was not a significant survival benefit to the addition of 6-MP to BCNU

  9. Sialylation by ?-galactoside ?-2,6-sialyltransferase and N-glycans regulate cell adhesion and invasion in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between cell surface glycans and extracellular matrix (ECM) including galectins is known to be closely associated with tumor cell adhesion, invasion and metastasis. We analyzed the roles of cell surface sialylation or glycosylation in galectin or ECM?mediated cell adhesion and invasion of human malignant lymphoma cells. Neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens (AU) treatment resulted in reduction of cell adhesion to galectin?8 in human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (H?ALCL) which was established in our laboratory. The knockdown of ??galactoside ??2,6?sialyltrans-ferase (ST6Gal1) by siRNA showed inhibition of ST6Gal1 expression in the cytoplasm of H?ALCL cells on immunohistochemical findings, and showed dramatic enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin?8. On the other hand, ??2,3?specific neuraminidase treatment resulted in moderate enhancement of cell adhesion to galectin?8. We performed chemically artificial modification of cell surface O?glycans by treatment of benzyl 2?acetamido?2?deoxy???D?galactopyranoside (Bz???GalNAc) in H?ALCL. Cell adhesion to galectin?8 was enhanced by treatment of Bz???GalNAc suggesting that inhibition of elongation of O?glycans may enhance cell adhesion to galectin?8 in H?ALCL cells. On the other hand inhibition of elongation of N?glycosylation by tunicamycin (TM) resulted in inhibition of Phaseolus vulgaris?L (L?PHA) lectin?binding activity and inhibited cell adhesion to galectin?8, laminin and fibronectin. Neuraminidase treatment enhanced cell adhesion to laminin, and knockdown of ST6Gal1 resulted in enhancement of cell adhesion to laminin, but not to fibronectin, collagen type 1 and 4. Galectin?8 pre?treatment dramatically enhanced cell adhesion to laminin and neuraminidase treatment also enhanced cell adhesion to laminin in combination with galectin?8. Rho inhibitor, C3?transferase pre?treatment resulted in inhibition of cell invasion to galectin?8. Phosphatidylinositol 3?phosphate kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin inhibits the cell invasive capacity to galectin?8. Neuraminidase treatment induces growth inhibition of lymphoma cells by galectin?8. PMID:25573487

  10. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT): a systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Erin A; Sheridan, Todd B; Wang, Karen L; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Michiko; Sawada, Kenjiro; Matsuo, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT) is an extremely rare type of uterine tumor, and its clinical characteristics are not fully understood. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE using the keywords, "uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors", limited to case reports. Clinico-pathological characteristics and survival data were abstracted and evaluated for the analysis. Among 43 cases reporting UTROSCT, Type I (endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, ESTSCLE) and Type II (classic UTROSCT) were reported in 5 (11.6%) and 17 (39.5%), respectively, and nearly half of reported UTROSCT did not subcategorize the histology pattern into Type I or II (unspecified, n=21, 48.8%). Mean age was 52.2. The two most common symptoms were postmenopausal vaginal bleeding (44.2%) and abnormal menstruation (39.5%). The majority underwent total hysterectomy with adnexectomy (65.1%) followed by hysterectomy alone (18.6%) and tumor resection alone (14.0%). Mean tumor size was 6.2cm, and extra-uterine spread was seen in 7.0%. By immunohistochemistry, calretinin expression was significantly correlated with CAM5.2, inhibin, and progesterone receptor expression (all, p<0.05). In survival analysis, disease-free survival (DFS) rates for all 43 cases at 1, 2, and 5 years for all cases were 97.0%, 92.7%, and 69.7%, respectively. Among recurrent cases, median time to recur was 24 months (range 9-48). Decreased DFS was significantly associated with pelvic pain (2-year rate, 81.8% versus 94.7%, p=0.006), histology subcategory (Type I versus II, 23.8% versus 100%, p=0.006), tumor size ?10cm (75.0% versus 100%, p=0.046), cervical/extra-uterine metastasis (46.7% versus 100%, p=0.024), and lymphovascular space involvement (50% versus 100%, p=0.002). Treatment patterns were not statistically associated with DFS (hysterectomy, p=0.28; and adnexectomy, p=0.38). When histology patterns were examined, Type II disease was associated with less aggressive tumor behavior when compared to Type I disease: extra-uterine spread (Type I versus II, 40% versus 5.9%, p=0.007) and lymphovascular space invasion (50% versus 6.7%, p=0.012). Among 17 cases of Type II disease, disease recurrence was reported in 1 (5.9%) case at 3 years after the initial treatment. In conclusion, our study showed that UTROSCT was often not subcategorized. Because classic UTROSCT has a distinct clinical outcome and characteristic histological patterns when compared to ESTSCLE, distinguishing UTROSCT from ESTSCLE is an integral component of the diagnosis. While classic UTROSCT typically has a favorable prognosis, it has been known to develop a late recurrence. If risk factors for recurrence are absent, both hysterectomy and mass resection alone are possible options for management. PMID:25150955

  11. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) LESION MIMIC RESEMBLING, which encodes an AAA-type ATPase, is implicated in defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih, Rym; Tamiru, Muluneh; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Abe, Akira; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kanzaki, Eiko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Undan, Jerwin R; Undan, Jesusa; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2014-11-01

    Lesion mimic mutants (LMMs) provide a useful tool to study defense-related programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. Although a number of LMMs have been identified in multiple species, most of the candidate genes are yet to be isolated. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) lesion mimic resembling (lmr) mutant, and cloning of the corresponding LMR gene. The LMR locus was initially delineated to 1.2 Mb region on chromosome 6, which was further narrowed down to 155-kb using insertions/deletions (INDELs) and cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence markers developed in this study. We sequenced the open reading frames predicted within the candidate genomic region, and identified a G-A base substitution causing a premature translation termination in a gene that encodes an ATPase associated with various cellular activities type (AAA-type) protein. RNA interference transgenic lines with reduced LMR transcripts exhibited the lesion mimic phenotype similar to that of lmr plants. Furthermore, expression of the wild-type LMR in the mutant background complemented the lesion phenotype, confirming that the mutation identified in LMR is responsible for the mutant phenotype. The pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PBZ1 and PR1 were induced in lmr, which also showed enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae), suggesting LMR is a negative regulator of cell death in rice. The identification of lmr and cloning of the corresponding LMR gene provide an additional resource for the study of PCD in plants. PMID:25367283

  12. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106 subject respectively) were C: 2.4(1.4-4.2), R: 2.4(1.4-4.1), P: 2.5(1.5-4.2), E: non-significant, H: 4.2(2.4-7.2), andA: 5.6(3.2-9.8). The AUC analysis showed a similarly increasing pattern (C: 0.58±0.02, R: 0.57±0.03, P: 0.60±0.03, H: 0.63±0.02, A: 0.66±0.02). The AUC of the aggregate marker (A) surpasses others significantly except H. HRT-MTR (E) did not significantly identify future cancers or correlate with any other marker. Conclusions: Breast cancer risk MTR marker was independent of density scores and more predictive of risk. The hormone replacement treatment MTR marker did not identify patients at risk.

  13. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens. Thus, the cause of ATM and their relationship (if any) to AHPND should be determined. PMID:24911022

  14. Hybrid copolymer-phospholipid vesicles: phase separation resembling mixed phospholipid lamellae, but with mechanical stability and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria M

    2015-03-18

    Vesicles whose bilayer membranes contain phospholipids mixed with co-polymers or surfactants comprise new hybrid materials having potential applications in drug delivery, sensors, and biomaterials. Here we describe a model polymer-phospholipid hybrid membrane system exhibiting strong similarities to binary phospholipid mixtures, but with more robust membrane mechanics. A lamella-forming graft copolymer, PDMS-co-PEO (polydimethylsiloxane-co-polyethylene oxide) was blended with a high melting temperature phospholipid, DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), over a broad compositional range. The resulting giant hybrid unilamellar vesicles were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to analogous mixed phospholipid membranes in which a low melting temperature phospholipid, DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), was blended with DPPC. The mechanical properties of the hybrid vesicles, even when phase separated, were robust with high lysis stresses and strains approaching those of the pure copolymer vesicles. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the hybrid vesicles closely resembled that of the mixed phospholipids; with only slightly greater nonidealities in the hybrid compared with DOPC/DPPC mixed membranes. In both systems, it was demonstrated that tension could be used to manipulate DPPC solidification into domains of patchy or striped morphologies that exhibited different tracer incorporation. The patch and stripe-shaped domains are thought to be different solid DPPC polymorphys: ripple and tilt (or gel). This work demonstrates that in mixed-phospholipid bilayers where a high-melting phospholipid solidifies on cooling, the lower-melting phospholipid may be substituted by an appropriate copolymer to improve mechanical properties while retaining the underlying membrane physics. PMID:25687473

  15. Resembling breast milk: influence of polyamine-supplemented formula on neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mouse microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Collado, M Carmen; Pérez, Gaspar; Ilo, Toni; Jaakkola, Ulla-Marjut; Bernal, María J; Periago, María J; Frias, Rafael; Ros, Gaspar; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-03-28

    Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula). In addition to its nutritional value, breast milk contains bioactive substances that drive microbial colonisation and support immune system development, which are usually not present in infant formulas. Among these substances, polyamines have been described to be essential for intestinal and immune functions in newborns. However, their effect on the establishment of microbiota remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an infant formula supplemented with polyamines has an impact on microbial colonisation by modifying it to resemble that in breast-fed neonatal BALB/c mice. In a 4 d intervention, a total of sixty pups (14 d old) were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) breast-fed group; (2) non-enriched infant formula-fed group; (3) three different groups fed an infant formula enriched with increasing concentrations of polyamines (mixture of putrescine, spermidine and spermine), following the proportions found in human milk. Microbial composition in the contents of the oral cavity, stomach and small and large intestines was analysed by quantitative PCR targeted at fourteen bacterial genera and species. Significantly different (P< 0·05) microbial colonisation patterns were observed in the entire gastrointestinal tract of the breast-fed and formula-fed mice. In addition, our findings demonstrate that supplementation of polyamines regulates the amounts of total bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium groups to levels found in the breast-fed group. Such an effect requires further investigation in human infants, as supplementation of an infant formula with polyamines might contribute to healthy gastrointestinal tract development. PMID:24229796

  16. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  17. {sup 131}I radioconjugated antibodies for the locoregional radioimmunotherapy of high-grade malignant glioma. Phase I and II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Casi, M.; Gentile, R. [`M.Bufalini` Hospital, Cesena (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Frattarelli, M.; Guiducci, G.; Cremonini, A.M.; Giuliani, G. [`M.Bufalini` Hospital, Cesena (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Riva, N. [`Pierantoni` Hospital, Forli (Italy). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Jekunen, A.A.; Kairemo, J.A. [Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Oncology

    1999-11-01

    Locoregional radioimmunotherapy (LR-RIT) was administered to 111 patients (20 were recruited in a phase I and 91 in a phase II study) with malignant gliomas: 1 patient with oligodendroglioma, 7 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2 with grade II astrocytoma, 10 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 with glioblastoma, amounting to 58 newly diagnosed and 53 recurrent tumours. The {sup 131}I-labelled monoclonal antibodies BC-2 and BC-4 were used in order to recognize stromal and intracellular glycoprotein tenascin, and antigen present particularly in glioblastoma. The patients were enrolled between February 1990 and December 1997 after conventional therapy. The radiopharmaceutical was injected directly into the tumour site. Sequential scintigraphies demonstrated a high and enduring uptake in the tumour. The mean irradiation dose in the tumour was 300 Gy per cycle. In the group of 74 phase II glioblastoma patients the clinical responses were as follows: 10 patients with stable disease (SD), 9 with partial responses (PR), 23 with no evidence of disease (NED) and 1 patient with complete response (CR). The median survival was 19 months. The response rate (CR+PR+NED) was 17.8% for those patients with bulky lesions, with a median survival of 17 months, but 66.6% for patients with small lesions, with a median survival of 25 months. Better outcomes were recorded in cases with less aggressive diseases: oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. We conclude that fractionated LR-RIT can be safely performed, with promising results especially in patients with minimal disease. (orig.)

  18. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible cytotoxicity, effective transfection, “smart” cancer targeting, and therefore is a promising siRNA nanocarrier. Keywords: small interfering RNA, dendrimer, gene silencing, human ether-à-go-go-related gene, anaplastic thyroid cancer

  19. 18F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by 18F-FDOPA PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. 18F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-18F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after 18F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an 18F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. 18F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. 18F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake than low-grade gliomas. Therefore, in spite of its limitations, 18F-FDG PET-CT is used for imaging of high-grade glioma. Amino acid PET radiotracers including 18F-FDOPA display superior contrast to 18F-FDG because of low uptake of amino acids in normal brain tissue. They have particularly special value in the detection of low-grade gliomas. However, 18F-FDOPA tumour uptake cannot provide reasonable predictions about tumour grade and proliferation in recurrent tumours that have undergone treatments. Also, their difficult synthesis or need for an on-site cyclotron limits their widespread use. The present case shows the utility of 18F-FDOPA PET-CT in detection of a recurrent high-grade AA that was missed by 18F-FDG PET-CT. It highlights that 18F-FDG PET-CT can be falsely negative, even in high-grade recurrent gliomas and, therefore, in cases with strong clinical suspicion 18F-FDOPA PET-CT can be an alternative imaging modality to rule out recurrence even when 18F-FDG PET-CT is negative

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-12-15

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-{sup 18}F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an {sup 18}F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake than low-grade gliomas. Therefore, in spite of its limitations, {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is used for imaging of high-grade glioma. Amino acid PET radiotracers including {sup 18}F-FDOPA display superior contrast to {sup 18}F-FDG because of low uptake of amino acids in normal brain tissue. They have particularly special value in the detection of low-grade gliomas. However, {sup 18}F-FDOPA tumour uptake cannot provide reasonable predictions about tumour grade and proliferation in recurrent tumours that have undergone treatments. Also, their difficult synthesis or need for an on-site cyclotron limits their widespread use. The present case shows the utility of {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT in detection of a recurrent high-grade AA that was missed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. It highlights that {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT can be falsely negative, even in high-grade recurrent gliomas and, therefore, in cases with strong clinical suspicion {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT can be an alternative imaging modality to rule out recurrence even when {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is negative.

  1. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  2. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for "smart" small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanhua; Hu, Zuojun; Yin, Henghui; Zhang, Yunjian; Huang, Xueling; Wang, Shenming; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD), was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio) was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible cytotoxicity, effective transfection, "smart" cancer targeting, and therefore is a promising siRNA nanocarrier. PMID:23569377

  3. 131I radioconjugated antibodies for the locoregional radioimmunotherapy of high-grade malignant glioma. Phase I and II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locoregional radioimmunotherapy (LR-RIT) was administered to 111 patients (20 were recruited in a phase I and 91 in a phase II study) with malignant gliomas: 1 patient with oligodendroglioma, 7 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2 with grade II astrocytoma, 10 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 with glioblastoma, amounting to 58 newly diagnosed and 53 recurrent tumours. The 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies BC-2 and BC-4 were used in order to recognize stromal and intracellular glycoprotein tenascin, and antigen present particularly in glioblastoma. The patients were enrolled between February 1990 and December 1997 after conventional therapy. The radiopharmaceutical was injected directly into the tumour site. Sequential scintigraphies demonstrated a high and enduring uptake in the tumour. The mean irradiation dose in the tumour was 300 Gy per cycle. In the group of 74 phase II glioblastoma patients the clinical responses were as follows: 10 patients with stable disease (SD), 9 with partial responses (PR), 23 with no evidence of disease (NED) and 1 patient with complete response (CR). The median survival was 19 months. The response rate (CR+PR+NED) was 17.8% for those patients with bulky lesions, with a median survival of 17 months, but 66.6% for patients with small lesions, with a median survival of 25 months. Better outcomes were recorded in cases with less aggressive diseases: oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrotic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. We conclude that fractionated LR-RIT can be safely performed, with promising results especially in patients with minimal disease. (orig.)

  4. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, F. L. C.; Alves, L. C.; Maia, F. C. L.; Albuquerque, A. R.; Ortiz, J. P. D.; Laus, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasit...

  5. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    OpenAIRE

    York Denis; Alpers Charles E; Hudkins Kelly L; Metzger Michael J; Wootton Sarah K; DeMartini James C; Dusty, Miller A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus...

  6. Matrix comparison, Part 2 : Measuring the resemblance between proximity measures or ordination results by use of the mantel and procrustes statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case of the Mantel test, the degree of resemblance between two measures forecast their potentially different affect upon ordination and clustering results. In principle, two proximity measures with a very strong resemblance most likely produce identical results, thus, choice of measure between the two becomes less important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical solution provided by the superimposition plot and the resulting decomposition of variance components. Accordingly, the Procrustes analysis provides not only a measure of general fit between configurations, but also values for individual objects enabling more elaborate validations. As such, the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures.

  7. A phase 3 randomized study of radiotherapy plus procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) with or without BUdR for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma: a preliminary report of RTOG 9404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was an open label, randomized Phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed patients with anaplastic glioma comparing radiotherapy plus adjuvant procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) given as a 96-hour infusion each week of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Only patients 18 years or older with newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma were eligible; central pathology review was accomplished, but was not mandated prior to registration. The study had initially opened as a Northern California Oncology Group (NCOG) trial in 1991, becoming an Intergroup RTOG, SWOG, and NCCTG study in July 1994. Total accrual of 293 patients was planned as the sample size, using survival and time to tumor progression as the primary endpoints. The experiment arm (RT/BUdR plus PCV) was to be compared to the control arm (RT plus PCV) using an alpha = 0.05, one-tailed, with a power of 85% for detecting an increase in median survival from 160 to 240 weeks, assuming a 3-year follow-up after completion of enrollment. Results: As of July 1996, 281 patients had been randomized; 53 (20%) were ineligible, primarily based upon central pathology review, and another 39 cases were canceled. In total, 30% of cases were excluded from analysis. The treatment arms were well balanced despite this rate of exclusion. The RTOG Data Monitoring Committee recommended suspension of enrollment in July 1996 based upon a stochastic curtailment analysis which sta stochastic curtailment analysis which strongly suggested that the addition of BUdR would not be associated with increased survival. In February 1997, the study was closed prior to full enrollment. At that time, the 1-year survival estimates were 82% versus 68% for RT plus PCV and RT/BUdR plus PCV respectively (one-sided, p = 0.96). The conditional power analysis indicated that even with an additional 12 months of additional accrual and follow-up the probability of detecting the prespecified difference was less than 0.01%. The differences in the two arms seem to be due to early deaths in the BUdR arm, not related to toxicity of the treatment. Conclusions: Despite encouraging Phase 2 results with BUdR, it is unlikely that a survival benefit will be seen. A final study analysis will not be done for at least 3 more years

  8. Synthetic nanoemulsion resembling a protein-free model of 7-ketocholesterol containing low density lipoprotein: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani M Favero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol, commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL. Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. For instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior. This would provide a suitable artificial particle resembling LDL to study 7-KC metabolism. We were able to incorpórate 7-KC in several amounts into LDE. The incorporation was evaluated and confirmed by several methods, including gel filtration chromatography, using radiolabeled lipids. The incorporation did not change the main lipid composition characteristics of the new nanoparticle. Particle sizes were also evaluated and did not differ from LDE. In vivo studies were performed by injecting the nanoemulsion into mice. The plasma kinetics and the targeted organs were the same as described for LDE. Therefore, 7-KC-LDE maintains composition, size and some functional characteristics of LDE and could be used in experiments dealing with 7-ketocholesterol metabolism in lipoproteins.

  9. Afasia de conducción como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico parieto-temporo-occipital izquierdo: estudio de caso / Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    OSCAR MAURICIO, AGUILAR MEJÍA; BEATRIZ, RAMÍREZ BERBERJO; JUAN CARLOS, ACEVEDO GONZÁLEZ; MIGUEL ENRIQUE, BERBEO CALDERÓN.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La afasia de conducción es un trastorno caracterizado por un lenguaje espontáneo relativamente fluido, buena comprensión, pero dificultades en la repetición asociadas con parafasias fonológicas. Se ha atribuido a lesiones del fascículo arqueado por desconexión entre el lóbulo temporal posterior y el [...] frontal; sin embargo, se ha debatido esta postura, planteando que la integridad y funcionamiento del fascículo arqueado no es indispensable en la repetición verbal. Se presenta un caso de un sujeto varón de 23 años que, como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico recidivante que abarca áreas parietales y temporo-occipitales, presenta una afasia de conducción. Se plantea una reconceptualización de esta afasia, analizándola en términos clínicos, neuropsicológicos y en las redes neuronales existentes entre áreas cerebrales posteriores ipsilaterales y contralaterales. Abstract in english Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection betwe [...] en posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas.

  10. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report / Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.L.C., Brito; L.C., Alves; F.C.L., Maia; A.R., Albuquerque; J.P.D., Ortiz; J.L., Laus.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológico e sorológico por meio de exame do material da medula óssea e por imunofluorescência indireta, respectivamente. À citologia da úlcera corneana, visi [...] bilizaram-se formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. Abstract in english One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembli [...] ng Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.

  11. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  12. Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudahar, H., E-mail: h.sudahar@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Mahadev, P. [Department of Radiotherapy, Apollo Speciality Hospital, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, J. [Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D{sub 5%} of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D{sub 98%}, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V{sub 100%} of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V{sub 100%} of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D{sub 98%} to D{sub 80%}) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D{sub 10%} and D{sub 5%}. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife.

  13. Description of Wautersiella falsenii gen. nov., sp. nov., to accommodate clinical isolates phenotypically resembling members of the genera Chryseobacterium and Empedobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Avesani, Véronique; Janssens, Michèle; Charlier, Jacqueline; De Baere, Thierry; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2006-10-01

    A total of 26 isolates of non-fermenting, Gram-negative rods, obtained between 1980 and 2004 by various clinical laboratories in Belgium, with phenotypic characteristics resembling those of members of the genera Chryseobacterium and Empedobacter (indole-positive) and a biochemical profile resembling that of CDC group II-h, but urease-positive, were collected at the Université Catholique de Louvain Microbiology Laboratory, Belgium. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined for most of the isolates and showed 94-95 % similarity with the type strain of Empedobacter brevis as the closest relative, indicating that these isolates might belong to a separate genus. Furthermore, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates were similar, but two clusters (genomovars) could be distinguished. The sequence similarities were 99.5-100 % for the 14 isolates of genomovar 1 and 99.4-100 % for the 12 isolates of genomovar 2. The similarity between the two clusters was 98.3-99.5 %. The presence of two clearly different groups was corroborated by using tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis, which also enabled differentiation of the novel species from all other species studied thus far using this technique. DNA-DNA hybridization results excluded a close relatedness to Empedobacter brevis. The DNA G+C contents of the reference strains of genomovars 1 and 2 were 33.8+/-0.4 and 34.4+/-0.2 mol%, respectively. The name Wautersiella falsenii gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for this group, comprising two closely related genomovars. The type strain of the species and reference strain for genomovar 1 is NF 993(T) (=CCUG 51536(T)=CIP 108861(T)), which was isolated from a surgical wound. The reference strain for genomovar 2 is NF 770 (=CCUG 51537=CIP 108860), which was isolated from blood. PMID:17012555

  14. Effects of feeding Spodoptera littoralis on lima bean leaves. II. Continuous mechanical wounding resembling insect feeding is sufficient to elicit herbivory-related volatile emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithöfer, Axel; Wanner, Gerhard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-03-01

    Herbivore feeding elicits defense responses in infested plants, including the emission of volatile organic compounds that can serve as indirect defense signals. Until now, the contribution of plant tissue wounding during the feeding process in the elicitation of defense responses has not been clear. For example, in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), the composition of the volatiles induced by both the insect caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis and the snail Cepaea hortensis is very similar. Thus, a mechanical caterpillar, MecWorm, has been designed and used in this study, which very closely resembles the herbivore-caused tissue damage in terms of similar physical appearance and long-lasting wounding period on defined leaf areas. This mode of treatment was sufficient to induce the emission of a volatile organic compound blend qualitatively similar to that as known from real herbivore feeding, although there were significant quantitative differences for a number of compounds. Moreover, both the duration and the area that has been mechanically damaged contribute to the induction of the whole volatile response. Based on those two parameters, time and area, which can replace each other to some extent, a damage level can be defined. That damage level exhibits a close linear relationship with the accumulation of fatty acid-derived volatiles and monoterpenes, while other terpenoid volatiles and methyl salicylate respond in a nonlinear manner. The results strongly suggest that the impact of mechanical wounding on the induction of defense responses during herbivore feeding was until now underestimated. Controlled and reproducible mechanical damage that strongly resembles the insect's feeding process represents a valuable tool for analyzing the role of the various signals involved in the induction of plant defense reactions against herbivory. PMID:15728342

  15. Radiotherapy of astrocytomas and encephalic oligodendrogliomas in the adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are moderately radiosensitive. The main prognostic factors are the anatomic-pathological type and grade of glioma, the performance status, age of the patient and the extent of the surgery. According to data from the literature, high-grade gliomas should be given 60 Gy in five weekly fractions of 1.7 to 2 Gy in a volume including tumor or tumor bed, edema and a 2- to 3-cm margin. A dose of 45 Gy would be sufficient for low-grade gliomas, according to the results of a recent randomized EORTC trial. Brachytherapy and radiosurgery techniques may be indicated in selected cases. (authors)

  16. p53 protein alterations in adult astrocytic tumors and oligodendrogliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak Anupma; Ralte Angela; Sharma Mehar; Singh Varinder; Mahapatra Ashok; Mehta Veer; Sarkar Chitra

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the genesis of a variety of malignancies including brain tumors. Overexpression of the p53 protein is often used as a surrogate indicator of alterations in the p53 gene. AIMS: In this study, data is presented on p53 protein expression in adult cases (>15 years of age) of astrocytic (n=152) and oligodendroglial (n=28) tumors of all grades. Of the astrocytic tumors, 86% were supratentorial in location while remaining 14% wer...

  17. Aberrant CCND1 copies and cyclin D1 mRNA expression do not result in the production of functional cyclin D1 protein in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobos, Mattheos; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Kaloutsi, Vassiliki; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Constantine S; Kostopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-08-01

    Scattered reports in the literature have shown that Cyclin D1 mRNA and protein may be expressed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). ALCLs are characterized by the presence of ALK translocations. Aberrant Cyclin D1 expression seems to promote proliferation in other types of lymphoma, while a growth promoting CCND1/TACSD1(TROP2) fusion product has also been described in tumors. Herein, we investigated 44 ALCL cases for chromosome 11 and CCND1 status (by FISH), cyclin D1 mRNA expression (by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR) and Cyclin D1 protein (by immunohistochemistry with two different monoclonal antibodies), as well as for the expression of Trop-2/GA733-1 (by immunohistochemistry). Polysomy of CCND1 (11q13) and chromosome 11 was found in 15/38 evaluated cases (39.5%). This change was specific for CD30+ neoplastic cells, as shown by double fluorescent staining. Neoplastic cells in the majority of ALCL expressed cyclin D1 mRNA (29/41 [70.7%]), in association with the presence of ALK translocations (p=0.024) and systemic, rather than cutaneous disease (p=0.021). Remarkably, however, Cyclin D1 protein was not detected in neoplastic cells (0/44 cases), neither were these found positive for Trop-2. In conclusion, aberrant copies of CCND1 / chromosome 11 may be observed in ALCL, probably as a consequence of the reported ploidy changes in these tumors. ALCL may often express cyclin D1 mRNA, which, however, does not result in the production of functional Cyclin D1 protein or Trop-2, suggesting that these proteins do not play a role in the pathogenesis of ALCL. PMID:19554511

  18. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  19. Characterisation of a Rrhodobacter sphaeroides gene that encodes a product resembling Eescherichia coli cytochrome b(561) and R. sphaeroides cytochrome b(562).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, P S; Parker, S D; Phillips-Jones, M K

    2000-08-15

    Analysis of the photoactive yellow protein (pyp) gene region of Rhodobacter sphaeroides has revealed the presence of an additional open reading frame, orfD, that had not previously been identified. Here we report the location of this new gene and the predicted amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. The translation product resembles a group of small cytochrome b-like proteins, including Escherichia coli cytochrome b(561), R. sphaeroides cytochrome b(562), and two new cytochrome b(561)-like proteins identified using the E. coli genome sequence, for which functions have not yet been established. To determine OrfD function in R. sphaeroides, an orfD mutant was constructed. The OrfD mutant exhibited growth rates and yields very similar to those of the wild-type strain when grown under a variety of growth conditions. Respiration rates, reduced-minus-oxidised spectra and levels of photosynthetic complexes were also very similar in the two strains. Although the role of OrfD was therefore not determined here, we demonstrate that the orfD gene is expressed in R. sphaeroides under aerobic, semi-aerobic and photosynthetic growth conditions. PMID:10930745

  20. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H K; Lo, S T

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (AE1/3, CAM 5.2 and PKK-1) and polyclonal antisera against the cytokeratin proteins were reacted with a range of astrocytic tumours, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Seven of 12 cases (58%) of glioblastoma multiforme, five of eight (63%) anaplastic astrocytomas and two of five (40%) well-differentiated astrocytomas were immunoreactive with AE1/3 but not with the other anti-cytokeratin antibodies. In oligodendrogliomas, AE1/3 stained isolated astrocyte-like cells as well as scattered neoplastic oligodendrocytes in four of eight cases (50%) cases. Four ependymomas were negative for all cytokeratin markers examined. The immunostaining of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas with AE1/3 might represent co-expression of cytokeratin with glial fibrillary acidic protein by gliomas and calls for caution in the use of these antibodies in the differential diagnosis between gliomas and carcinomas. PMID:2472343

  1. Lower urogenital tract anatomical and functional phenotype in lysyl oxidase like-1 knockout mice resembles female pelvic floor dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Una J; Gustilo-Ashby, A Marcus; Daneshgari, Firouz; Kuang, Mei; Vurbic, Drina; Lin, Dan Li; Flask, Chris A; Li, Tiansen; Damaser, Margot S

    2008-08-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction (FPFD) is a complex group of conditions that include urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). In humans, elastin homeostasis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of FPFD. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 knockout (LOXL1-KO) mice demonstrate abnormal elastic fiber homeostasis and develop FPFD after parturition. We compared the lower urogenital tract (LUT) anatomy and function in LOXL1-KO mice with and without POP. LUT anatomy was assessed in LOXL1-KO mice over 28 wk. Pelvic visceral anatomy in LOXL1-KO was evaluated with a 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. LUT function was assessed using conscious cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP) testing. Quantitative histological analysis of elastic fibers was performed on external urethral sphincter (EUS) cross sections. By 25 wk of age, 50% of parous LOXL1-KO mice developed POP. LOXL1-KO mice with POP had greater variability in the size and location of the bladder on MRI compared with mice without POP. Parity and POP were associated with lower LPP. Elastin clusters were significantly increased in the EUS of LOXL1-KO mice with POP. Because parity triggers POP in LOXL1-KO mice, LOXL1-KO mice with POP have variable internal pelvic anatomy, and both parity and POP are associated with a decrease in LPP, we conclude that LOXL1 LUT anatomical and functional phenotype resembles FPFD in humans. The increase in elastin clusters in the urethra of LOXL1-KO mice with POP suggests that elastin disorganization may lead to functional abnormalities. We conclude that LOXL1 warrants further investigation in the pathphysiology of FPFD. PMID:18495804

  2. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ? 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ? Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ? Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP. ? The release of AIF and Endo G contributes importantly to cell death. ? Alterations of SOD1 or SOD2 levels alter menadione-induced neuronal cytotoxicity.

  3. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting, E-mail: BTZhu@kumc.edu

    2012-07-15

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ? 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ? Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ? Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP. ? The release of AIF and Endo G contributes importantly to cell death. ? Alterations of SOD1 or SOD2 levels alter menadione-induced neuronal cytotoxicity.

  4. Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años / Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Gallego-Pinazo; E., España Gregori; J., Aviñó Martínez; L., Salom Alonso; A., Tormo Micó; R., Villanueva Martí; M., Díaz-Llopis.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Caso clínico: Mujer de 40 años remitida a nuestro servicio por persistencia durante meses de un cuadro de blefaritis anterior de aspecto indolente con aparición de un nódulo indurado en el párpado superior derecho filiado como chalazion refractario al tratamiento convencional, asociado a adenopatía [...] preauricular ipsilateral. La biopsia extemporánea se informó como carcinoma sebáceo. Procedimos a la exéresis completa de dicho párpado y a su reconstrucción con injerto de mucosa palatina y colgajo glabelar. Posteriormente se practicó un vaciamiento cervical radical por la presencia de adenopatías de aspecto necrótico en diversos territorios linfáticos. Se biopsió el párpado inferior que resultó positivo para infiltración carcinomatosa que se trató mediante braquiterapia. Discusión: La precocidad en el diagnóstico de los carcinomas sebáceos palpebrales es el principal factor pronóstico. La reconstrucción en casos de necesidad de exéresis completa del párpado es factible mediante un injerto de mucosa de paladar. En nuestro caso, el carácter anaplásico y la alta agresividad de la neoplasia han supuesto un reto terapéutico. Abstract in english Case report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an apparent indolent anterior blepharitis with an indurated node in her right upper eyelid, which had persisted for months. It was believed to be a chalazion associated with an ipsilateral swollen pre-aurical lymph node, which ha [...] d not responded to conventional treatment. The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma. Complete exeresis was performed on that eyelid and it was reconstructed with a palate mucosa graft and a glabelar flap. A radical neck dissection was performed later, in order to remove the lymph nodes that appeared necrotic in several lymphatic areas. A biopsy was also performed on the lower eyelid, which was reported as positive for carcinomatous infiltration, and therefore it was treated with Curie-therapy. Discussion: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor. The reconstruction in cases with need of complete eyelid exeresis is feasible by means of a palate mucosa graft. In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

  5. Sub-megabase resolution tiling (SMRT array-based comparative genomic hybridization profiling reveals novel gains and losses of chromosomal regions in Hodgkin Lymphoma and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Wan L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL, are forms of malignant lymphoma defined by unique morphologic, immunophenotypic, genotypic, and clinical characteristics, but both overexpress CD30. We used sub-megabase resolution tiling (SMRT array-based comparative genomic hybridization to screen HL-derived cell lines (KMH2 and L428 and ALCL cell lines (DEL and SR-786 in order to identify disease-associated gene copy number gains and losses. Results Significant copy number gains and losses were observed on several chromosomes in all four cell lines. Assessment of copy number alterations with 26,819 DNA segments identified an average of 20 genetic alterations. Of the recurrent minimally altered regions identified, 11 (55% were within previously published regions of chromosomal alterations in HL and ALCL cell lines while 9 (45% were novel alterations not previously reported. HL cell lines L428 and KMH2 shared gains in chromosome cytobands 2q23.1-q24.2, 7q32.2-q36.3, 9p21.3-p13.3, 12q13.13-q14.1, and losses in 13q12.13-q12.3, and 18q21.32-q23. ALCL cell lines SR-786 and DEL, showed gains in cytobands 5p15.32-p14.3, 20p12.3-q13.11, and 20q13.2-q13.32. Both pairs of HL and ALCL cell lines showed losses in 18q21.32-18q23. Conclusion This study is considered to be the first one describing HL and ALCL cell line genomes at sub-megabase resolution. This high-resolution analysis allowed us to propose novel candidate target genes that could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of HL and ALCL. FISH was used to confirm the amplification of all three isoforms of the trypsin gene (PRSS1/PRSS2/PRSS3 in KMH2 and L428 (HL and DEL (ALCL cell lines. These are novel findings that have not been previously reported in the lymphoma literature, and opens up an entirely new area of research that has not been previously associated with lymphoma biology. The findings raise interesting possibilities about the role of signaling pathways triggered by membrane associated serine proteases in HL and aggressive NHL, similar to those described in epithelial tumors.

  6. Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso / Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilene C., Soares; Andréa F., Soares; Lélia B., Souza; Aldo L. V. dos, Santos; Leão P., Pinto.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológico [...] s como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva. Abstract in english Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects [...] , as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

  7. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A)+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosas, Itzel; Orozco, Esther; Marchat, Laurence A; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Guillen, Nancy; Weber, Christian; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Hernández de la Cruz, Olga; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; López-Camarillo, César

    2012-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies). In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i) EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A)(+) RNA and (ii) during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P-body-like structures in E. histolytica. Our findings should open up opportunities for deciphering the mechanisms of mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing in this deep-branching eukaryote. PMID:23029343

  8. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer : 5th International Workshop on Breast Densitometry and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment, San Francisco, United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were ascertained in S2. Finally S2 was MTR scored based on textures from S1 and S2 in a leave-two-out fashion. Scores on S2 were related to future breast cancer incidence by AUC and analyses of quartiles adjusted for BMI, menopause status, and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use. A combined density and MTR model was also evaluated. RESULTS The MTR scores on S1 showed in a cross validation fashion significant capability to separate cancers from controls (AUC=0.63±0.02, p<0.001). This persisted after adjustment for mammographic density. Age of S1 was 58.0±5.7 years while age in S2 was younger with higher variation: 55.2±10.5 years. No significant difference in BMI, menopause status, or PMH was found between cases and matched controls in S2. S2 showed an AUC of 0.633, 0.613, and 0.600 based on respectively percentage density, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1 respectively. Adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed OR in quartiles of ref; 1.10 (0.64-1.89); 0.93 (0.52-1.68); 1.96 (1.19-3.23) respectively and a combined AUC of 0.654. CONCLUSION The heterogeneities that are recorded to characterize breast cancer risk in S1 were also a density independent risk factor in S2. Hence the textural patterns that indicated elevated risk persisted under differences in x-ray technology, population demographics, follow up time, and geography.

  9. Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene C. Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológicos como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva.Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects, as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

  10. Three patients resembling Teebi-Shaltout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Ozgur; Ozen, Samim; Erdem, Sevcan; Kiraz, Aslihan; Akarsu, Nurten; Alanay, Yasemin

    2013-10-01

    Teebi-Shaltout syndrome (TSS) was first reported by Teebi and Shaltout in 1989. This entity is proposed to be inherited in autosomal recessive manner. The clinical features include characteristic facial features, ectodermal dysplasia, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage. Only one additional paper reporting four additional cases has been published since the first description. Clinical features common to all previously affected individuals diagnosed with TSS are craniofacial, orodental-ectodermal, and skeletal. This report summarizes and discusses the findings of three additional patients from two unrelated families with findings similar to TSS. These findings may be present in a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of disorders similar to TSS. Presence of consanguinity and similarly affected siblings of both genders suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:23918592

  11. Case Review of Sarcoidosis Resembling Sjogren's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Yuhanisa; Shahril, Nur Shuhaila; Hussein, Heselynn; Said, Mohd Shahrir Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We would like to report a case of a 29-year-old male patient who presented with multiple lymphadenopathy and vague symptoms of low grade fever, cough, weight loss, rashes, vomiting, dry eyes and dry mouth. Physical examination revealed submandibular lymphadenopathy, vasculitic rashes over both lower limbs, and parotid gland enlargement. Blood investigations showed mild anemia with leukocytosis, predominantly eosinophilia and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Computed...

  12. Ser e parecer en el mundo carcelario-evangélico: sobre las condiciones sociales de definición de la realidad / Being or resembling in christian's cell-blocks: on the social conditions of the definition of reality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquín, Algranti.

    Full Text Available Proponho-me neste artigo a explorar as formas de habitar as prisões nos pavilhões cristãos do Sistema Penitenciário Bonaerense. O objetivo do trabalho consiste em compreender e explicar a morfologia genérica desses pavilhões, isto é, as formas de organização interna e os espaços de pertença que mold [...] am distintos perfis de fiéis. Aqui o problema do "ser e parecer" emerge nos pavilhões cristãos, na luta pela definição legítima na construção da figura do fiel autêntico. O artigo se baseia em um corpus de entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com membros desses pavilhões, ex-presidiários, diretores, capelões. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english I propose in this article exploring the different ways of inhabiting Christian prisons in Buenos Aires Penitentiary System. This paper aims at understanding and explaining evangelical cell-blocks' general morphology; ie internal organizational forms and community spaces that shape different believer [...] s' profiles. "Being or resembling" araises as a problem in Christian's cell-blocks in the struggle for legitimate definitions in the construction of the true believers. The article is based on a corpus of in-depth interviews with inmates of evangelical´s cell-blocks, ex-convicts, directors, chaplains and pastors related to the prison.

  13. AZD2171 in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Primary CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  14. Yunushan? Köyünün (Alt?nözü-Hatay Kuzey Ve Kuzeybat?s?ndaki Peribacas? Görünümlü Sivri Doruklu Lapya Kompleksleri Pinnacle Lapiaz Complexes That Resemble Fairy Chimneys In The North And Northwest Of Yunushan? Village (Alt?nözü-Hatay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ÖZ?AH?N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study explains the characteristics of interesting pinnaclelapiaz complexes developed in the north and northwest of Yunushan?village located in the borders of Alt?nözü district, Hatay province. Theseformations resemble fairy chimneys with their columnar shapes.Providing information about the scientific content of theseformations called fairy chimneys although they are not fairy chimneys isimportant to provide insight as to how and where they can be evaluatedsince no previous study exists about these formations in the study field.Also, pinnacle lapiaz complexes are noteworthy formations that can givevaluable information about the geomorphologic development of thestudy field.The study is mostly based on field work. 1/25.000 scaledANTAKYA P36-d3 topography map and geology maps of various scalesobtained through related literature were used in the study as materials.Thematic maps were generated with the help on GeographicalInformation Sysems (GIS method and techniques. Interviews with thelocal public were held as well.It was identified that pinnacle lapiaz complexes were formed as aresult of common impact of the lithological, climactic andgeomorphologic characteristics of the field. These formations whichwere developed under the impact of both fluvial and karstic elementsand processes are not fairy chimneys. The fact that it is not possible toobserve these formations everywhere makes them even more valuable.This rare formation and similarly unique formations are highlysignificant in terms of eco tourism and geomorphotourism. Therefore,providing the area where these formations are situated with the statusof protected areas such as geoparks or geomorphosites will be beneficialboth in the conservation of these formations and in the provision ofsustainable tourism activities. Bu çal??mada Hatay ilinin, Alt?nözü ilçe s?n?rlar? içerisinde yer alan Yunushan? köyünün kuzey ve kuzeybat?s?nda geli?mi? ilginç sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin özellikleri aç?klanm??t?r. Sütunsu görünüme sahip bu ?ekiller peribacas?na benzemektedirler.Bu çal??mada, peribacas? olmamas?na ra?men bu ?ekilde isimlendirilen bu olu?umlar?n, bilimsel anlamda ne oldu?unun ortaya konulmas?, inceleme alan? dahilinde bu ?ekiller hakk?nda daha önceden herhangi bir çal??ma yap?lmamas?, bu ?ekillerin nas?l ve ne ?ekilde de?erlendirilebilece?inin ortaya ç?kar?lmas? bak?m?ndan önemlidir. Ayr?ca sivri doruklu lapya kompleksleri sahan?n jeomorfolojik geli?imi hakk?nda önemli ipuçlar? vermesi yönüyle de dikkate de?er olu?umlard?r.Çal??ma yöntem olarak daha çok arazi çal??malar?na dayanmaktad?r. Materyal olarak ise 1/25.000 ölçekli ANTAKYA P36-d3 topografya haritas? ve ilgili literatürden elde edilen çe?itli ölçeklerdeki jeoloji haritalar? kullan?lm??t?r. Bütün bu materyallerden istifade ederek konuyu daha anla??l?r bir ?ekilde sunmak amac?yla da CBS (Co?rafi Bilgi Sistemleri yard?m?yla yeni haritalar olu?turulmu?tur. Ayr?ca yerel halkla görü?meler yap?lm??t?r.Sivri doruklu lapya komplekslerinin sahan?n litolojik, klimatik ve jeomorfolojik özelliklerinin ortak etkisinin sonucunda meydana geldi?i tespit edilmi?tir. Bu ?ekiller peribacas? de?ildir. Bütünüyle hem flüvyal, hem de karstik etmen ve süreçlerin denetiminde olu?mu? ?ekillerdir. Bu ?ekillere her yerde rastlan?lmamas? onlar? daha da de?erli yapmaktad?r. Ender rastlanan bu ve benzeri ?ekillerin eko turizm veya jeomorfoturizm bak?m?ndan önemi büyüktür. Bu nedenle ?ekillerin bulundu?u alan?n jeopark veya jeomorfosit gibi koruma statülerinden birine dahil edilmesi hem ?ekillerin korunmas?, hem de sürdürülebilir turizm faaliyetleri bak?m?ndan yararl? olacakt?r.

  15. Post transplant anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferation that ranges from polyclonal hyperplasia to monoclonal malignant lymphoma. We report a 13-year-old boy who was diagnosed with PTLD in February 2007 after 3 1/2 years of deceased renal transplantation. We treated him with an adapted ACVBP (doxorubicin, cyclo-phosphamide, vincristine, bleomycin and prednisone) regimen. He responded well to the chemotherapy without deterioration of graft function. (author)

  16. Pathologic diversity of glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands: a histological and immunohistochemical study with a special reference to isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Keisuke; Hirose, Takanori; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nobusawa, Sumihito; Homma, Taku; Komori, Takashi; Sasaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is featured by "neuropil-like islands (NIs)" within dominating astroglial components. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, particularly IDH1 R132H (G395A), are found in WHO Grade II and III diffuse gliomas as well as secondary, but not primary, glioblastomas. We reviewed 5 cases of GTNI, and assessed histology and immunohistochemistry with various antibodies, including those for IDH1 R132H, as well as direct DNA sequencing for IDH1 G395A. NIs were variable in morphology, and constantly synaptophysin-positive and glial fibrillary acidic protein-negative. The glioma components were primary glioblastoma in 2 cases, anaplastic astrocytoma in 1 and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in 2. The IDH1 R132H was expressed in the 2 cases with oligoastrocytoma: In 1, NIs and the astrocytoma-like area as well as the oligodendroglioma-like area were positive. In the other, only the oligodendrogliomalike area was positive. The mutation analysis performed on the latter case with DNA separately sampled from the oligodendroglioma- like area and the astrocytoma-like area detected IDH1 G395A in both areas. We have shown diverse pathologic aspects of GTNI. Also, we have shown that the expression of IDH1 R132H in GTNI is largely concordant with that in diffuse gliomas, and that it can be dependent on each histologic component although the mutant IDH1 gene is ubiquitously present within the tumor. PMID:22385787

  17. Intraoperative direct electrical stimulations of central nervous system during surgery of gliomas near eloquent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report our experiences of direct cortical stimulation in surgery of gliomas located in eloquent areas. Methods Clinical data of 157 patients with gliomas underwent awake craniotomy with the direct electrical stimulation for functional mapping of the eloquent areas were analysed retrospectively. Results Negative cortical stimulation was found in 4 patients, and positive cortical stimulation was achieved in 153 patients (97.45% . Four hundred and ninty -six cortical sites in 139 patients were detected for motor response by direct electrical stimulation, 70 sites in 21 patients for sensory, 112 sites in 91 patients for language (such as counting and naming. The positive areas of counting disturbance were mainly seen at the lower part of left precentral gyri operculum of left inferior frontal gyri, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyri, posterior part of left middle frontal gyri, and posterior part of left superior frontal gyri. Postoperative MRI showed 92 patients (58.60% achieved total resection, 55 cases (35.03% subtotal and 10 cases (6.37% partial. One hundred and ten patients (70.06% were diagnosed as having low grade glimas, including 71 cases of astrocytoma, 26 cases of oligodendroglioma, and 13 cases of mixed astro ? oligodendroglioma, 47 patients (29.94% were high grade gliomas, including 19 cases of glioblastoma, 15 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, and 13 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. After operation 53 patients (33.76% occurred transient postoperative paralysis, 39 patients (24.84% transient language disturbance and 4 patients (2.55% permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation is a reliable, precise and safety method for functional mapping of the eloquent areas. This technique allows us to achieve 'maximal safety resection' in glioma surgery?

  18. Gliomas cerebrales de bajo grado en el adulto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Suárez; S, Zunino; Juan Carlos, Viano; Enrique, Herrera; R, Theaux; A, Surur; G, Jarchum; M, Lavarda; B, Sonzini Astudillo; M, Arneodo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Bajo esta denominación se incluyen a los astrocitomas fibrilares y protoplasmáticos, a los oligodendrogliomas, y a los oligoastrocitomas o tumores mixtos, que corresponden a los grados II de la nueva clasificación de la OMS . Los astrocitomas de bajo grado representan el 15% de los gliomas [...] hemisféricos cerebrales en el adulto. Los oligodendrogliomas tienen una incidencia del 4% (2,4). Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro grupo de trabajo con este tipo de tumores entre enero de 1972 y diciembre de 2006. Material y método. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 25 pacientes adultos que presentaron esta variedad de tumor, de los cuales 15 eran mujeres y 10 varones, que representan el 15,6% de los gliomas cerebrales en este grupo etario. Resultados. Quince eran astrocitomas fibrilares, ocho oligodendrogliomas y dos oligoastrocitomas. El principal estudio de imagen fue la resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia. El tratamiento dependió de la ubicación y del volumen tumoral, siendo la cirugía y la radioterapia las modalidades terapéuticas mas empleadas. El tumor recidivó en 16 enfermos, con una media de 37 ± 21 meses después del diagnóstico, cuyas histopatologías mostraron ser: astrocitomas anaplásicos en 7 y glioblastomas multiformes en 9. Han fallecido 16 enfermos, 14 por el tumor cerebral, uno por cáncer de lengua y otro por embolia pulmonar producida a los 10 días de la cirugía, con una mediana de sobrevida de 44 meses (10 días a 120 meses). De los 9 pacientes que viven, 7 tienen oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocitomas, y uno tiene un oligoastrocitoma; 7 requieren medicación antiepilética, ninguno tiene secuelas neurológicas, con una mediana de sobrevida de 36 meses (6 a 120 meses); dos han tenido recidiva, correspondientes a un oligodendroglioma y a un oligoastrocitoma, a los 22 y 60 meses respectivamente del diagnóstico, en los dos casos el tumor pasó de ser un grado II a grado III. Conclusión. La frecuencia relativa del 15,6% de todos los gliomas del adulto en nuestra serie coincide con cifras internacionales. Edad menor de 40 años, convulsiones como síntoma de presentación y extensión de la resección quirúrgica son factores pronósticos favorables de importancia, junto con un bajo índice del Ki 67 en los astrocitomas y la presencia de alteraciones en los cromosomas 1p y 19q en los oligodendrogliomas. La IRM en sus variedades estándar, con gadolinio, espectroscopia y funcional es el estudio más útil durante las diferentes alternativas del proceso diagnóstico y los estudios inmunohistoquímicos juntos con los de biología molecular son los mas importantes para el pronóstico de estos tumores. Abstract in english Objective. Gliomas reviewed in this article are grade II tumors according to the World Health Organization (WHO), that include: fibrillary and protoplasmic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas or mix tumors (1,2,3).Low grade astrocytomas constitute 15% of brain tumors in adults, wh [...] ile low grade oligodendrogliomas represent 4% (2,4). We present our experience with this type of tumor operated on between January 1972 and December 2006. Material and Method. The clinical reports of 25 patients with this type of tumor were analyzed, 15 women and 10 men, which represent 15,6% of hemispheric brain gliomas in adults in our series. Results. Fifteen were fibrillary astrocytomas, 8 oligodendrogliomas and 2 oligoastrocytomas. Treatment depended on tumor localization and size. Surgery and radiotherapy were the therapeutic modalities most frequently used. Tumor recurrence was observed in 16 patients, with a media of 37+/- 21 months after diagnosis: 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 9 glioblastomas multiforme. In this series, 16 patients died with a median of 44 months (10 days to 120 months) after diagnosis. Cause of death were: tumor itself, in 14 cases, tongue cancer in 1, and pulmonary embolism after surgery in another. From the 9 surviving patients, 6 have oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas and 1 an oligoastrocytoma. Seven pa

  19. Irradiation of Pediatric High-Grade Spinal Cord Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the outcome using radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric patients with high-grade spinal cord tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted that included 17 children with high-grade spinal cord tumors treated with RT at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1981 and 2007. Three patients had gross total resection, 11 had subtotal resection, and 3 underwent biopsy. The tumor diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (n = 7), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 2). Seven patients received craniospinal irradiation (34.2-48.6 Gy). The median dose to the primary site was 52.2 Gy (range, 38-66 Gy). Results: The median progression-free and overall survivals were 10.8 and 13.8 months, respectively. Local tumor progression at 12 months (79% vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and median survival (13.1 vs. 27.2 months, p = 0.09) were worse for patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. The median overall survival was shorter for patients when failure included neuraxis dissemination (n = 8) compared with local failure alone (n = 5), 9.6 vs. 13.8 months, p = 0.08. Three long-term survivors with World Health Organization Grade III tumors were alive with follow-up, ranging from 88-239 months. Conclusions: High-grade spinal cord primary tumors in children have a poor prognosis. The propensity for neuraxis metastases as a component of progression after RT suggests theonent of progression after RT suggests the need for more aggressive therapy.

  20. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Solid Neoplasm; Male Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  1. Dural prostate metastasis resembling a chronic subdural haematoma

    OpenAIRE

    O’meara, C.; Mahasneh, T.; Wilson, P.; I’ons, B.; Alkhawaja, D.

    2012-01-01

    Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common neurosurgical pathology, characteristically recognised on plain CT and can be treated with simple and effective surgical intervention. In contrast, dural metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate with SDH and malignant extension into the subdural membranes is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 62-year old Caucasian male, provide a brief review of the literature, and explore the potential role of neoangiogenesis and disseminated intravascular coagulop...

  2. Dural prostate metastasis resembling a chronic subdural haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, C; Mahasneh, T; Wilson, P; I'Ons, B; Alkhawaja, D

    2012-01-01

    Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common neurosurgical pathology, characteristically recognised on plain CT and can be treated with simple and effective surgical intervention. In contrast, dural metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate with SDH and malignant extension into the subdural membranes is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 62-year old Caucasian male, provide a brief review of the literature, and explore the potential role of neoangiogenesis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in SDH development. PMID:24960135

  3. Islet1 Deletion Causes Kidney Agenesis and Hydroureter Resembling CAKUT

    OpenAIRE

    Kaku, Yusuke; Ohmori, Tomoko; Kudo, Kuniko; Fujimura, Sayoko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Evans, Sylvia M.; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Islet1 (Isl1) is a transcription factor transiently expressed in a subset of heart and limb progenitors. During studies of limb development, conditional Isl1 deletion produced unexpected kidney abnormalities. Here, we studied the renal expression of Isl1 and whether it has a role in kidney development. In situ hybridization revealed Isl1 expression in the mesenchymal cells surrounding the base of the ureteric bud in mice. Conditional deletion of Isl1 caused kidney agenesis or hypoplasia and h...

  4. Mice with chronic norepinephrine deficiency resemble amphetamine-sensitized animals

    OpenAIRE

    Weinshenker, David; Miller, Nicole S.; Blizinsky, Katherine; Laughlin, Marc L.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2002-01-01

    Acute pharmacological blockade of ?1 adrenoreceptors (ARs) attenuates the locomotor response to amphetamine (LRA). We took a genetic approach to study how norepinephrine (NE) signaling modulates psychostimulant responses by testing LRA in dopamine ?-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh?/?) mice that lack NE. Surprisingly, Dbh?/? animals were hypersensitive to the behavioral effects of amphetamine. Amphetamine (2 mg/kg) elicited greater locomotor activity in Dbh?/? mice compared to controls...

  5. A sacral lesion resembling osteochondrosis in the German Shepherd dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30% (21 of 65) of German Shepherd dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression had radiographic and pathologic abnormalities compatible with osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate. Most of these dogs had a defect in the dorsal part of the sacral endplate and a detached bone fragment in the vertebral canal. Similar lesions were also found in growing and young adult dogs without clinical signs. The dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression also had severe degenerative disc disease with protrusion of the lumbosacral disc and compression of the cauda equina, suggesting that the signs of cauda equina compression more likely were related to the secondary degenerative changes (disc protrusions) rather than the primary disease. Clinically normal German Shepherds with sacral osteochondrosis usually were younger than 18 months, the dogs with cauda equina compression and sacral osteochondrosis older than 18 months (mean age 4.8 years). On the average, these dogs were two years younger as compared to dogs with cauda equina compression without sacral osteochondrosis. Male dogs are more often affected than females (5:1). There is a breed predisposition: in dogs other than German Shepherds, osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate seems to be extremely rare

  6. A case of idiopathic bursal synovial chondromatosis resembling rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiritsi, O.; Tsitas, K.; Grollios, G.

    2009-01-01

    Primary synovial osteochondromatosis is an unusual condition, which generally involves otherwise normal joints. Joints commonly affected in descending order of frequency are knee, hip, glenohumeral joint, elbow and ankle, though any articulation may be involved. Synovial osteochondromatosis has been also encountered in tendon sheaths and periarticular bursa. We report a case with the clinical findings, radiographic features, surgical and histological data of primary subacromial-subdeltoid bur...

  7. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma. PMID:25657396

  8. Actinobacillus suis septicemia in mature swine: two outbreaks resembling erysipelas

    OpenAIRE

    Miniats, O. Paul; Spinato, Maria T.; Sanford, S. Ernest

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1987/88 a previously unrecognized septicemic disease syndrome — actinobacillosis in mature sows and gilts — was diagnosed in two minimal-disease swine herds in southwestern Ontario. In herd 1, 34 sows, 2 boars, 13 feeder pigs, and 30 suckling pigs were affected; 11 sows, 2 feeders, and 18 suckling pigs died. In herd 2, 13 sows and 1 feeder pig were affected; 1 sow and 1 feeder pig died. The disease was manifested by moderate fever (39-40.5°C), round or rhomboid erythemat...

  9. Pemphigus vulgaris macroscopically and cytologically resembling oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Ito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical, macroscopic, cytological, histopathological, immunohistochemical, serodiagnostic and aspects of pemphigus vulgaris (PV in the oral gingiva that clinically mimicked oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in a 57-year-old Japanese man. He developed slight haphalgesia of the buccal gingiva around teeth numbers 18 and 19 2 years ago. A dentist diagnosed intractable ulcer, but the patient ignored the condition for about 2 years until a sharp pain in the gingiva worsened. He consulted an otolaryngologist, who referred the patient to our hospital under a cytological diagnosis of OSCC. An oral examination revealed several extensive painful erosions/ ulcers from the buccal and lingual gingiva around teeth numbers 18 to 21 to the distal alveolar mucosa of no. 18 and the buccal and lingual gingiva around tooth number 31. A presumptive diagnosis of PV with dysplastic changes was determined from cytological smears. The cytological Nikolsky test was positive. The diagnosis of PV was confirmed from clinical and histopathological findings of a biopsy specimen obtained from the perilesional site. Although the definitive diagnosis of PV required only 2 weeks after this patient presented at our hospital, 2 years had elapsed since the onset of oral lesions.

  10. A new lysosomal storage disorder resembling Morquio syndrome in sibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Laurence; Fenneteau, Odile; Ilharreborde, Brice; Capri, Yline; Gérard, Marion; Quoc, Emmanuel Bui; Passemard, Sandrine; Ghoumid, Jamal; Caillaud, Catherine; Froissart, Roseline; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Lebon, Sophie; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Mazda, Keyvan; Verloes, Alain

    2012-03-01

    We report two male sibs, born from unrelated French Caribbean parents, presenting with an unclassifiable storage disorder. Pregnancy and delivery were uneventful. Stunted growth was noted during the first year of life. Both children have short stature (below - 4SD) with short trunk, barrel chest, micromelia with rhizomelic shortening, severe kyphoscoliosis, pectus carinatum, short hands and feet with metatarsus adductus, and excessive joint laxity of the small joints. Learning difficulties with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ) were noted in one of them. They had no hepatomegaly, no splenomegaly, and no dysmorphism. Skeletal X-rays survey demonstrated generalized platyspondyly with tongue-like deformity of the anterior part of the vertebral bodies, hypoplasia of the odontoid process, generalized epiphyseal dysplasia and abnormally shaped metaphyses. The acetabular roofs had a trident aspect. Ophthalmologic and cardiac examinations were normal. Spine deformity required surgical correction in one of the patient at age 4 years. Lysosomal enzymes assays including N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase and ?-galactosidase were normal, excluding mucopolysaccharidoses type IV A and IV B (Morquio syndrome), respectively. Qualitative analysis found traces of dermatan and chondroitin-sulfates in urine, but quantitative glycosaminoglycan excretion fell within normal limits. They were no vacuolated lymphocytes. Abnormal coarse inclusions were present in eosinophils. Mild Alder anomaly was observed in polymorphonuclears. Granulations were discretely metachromatic with toluidine blue. Those morphological anomalies are in favor of a lysosomal storage disease. No inclusions were found in skin fibroblasts. We hypothesize that these two boys have a distinct autosomal recessive or X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of unknown origin that shares clinical and radiological features with Morquio disease. PMID:22330346

  11. Generalized granuloma annulare presenting with lesions resembling eruptive xanthoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuardchantuk, Rujee; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2013-01-01

    Generalized granuloma annulare (GGA) and eruptive xanthoma are dermatological diseases that occasionally share some clinical and histological similarities. Associated underlying medical conditions and clinical course are essential guides to the proper diagnosis. The authors reported a case ofdisseminatedyellowish-redpapules in a 24-year-old female with high levels of serum fasting blood sugar triglycerides, and cholesterol. The provisional diagnosis was eruptive xanthoma but histopathology and immunoperoxidase study revealed granuloma annulare. The remission of the skin lesions soon after control of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus is not typical for the usual GGA, which has a chronic relapsing course and a poor response to treatment. Further studies are required to differentiate these two entities when they come into the clinicopathological mimicry. PMID:23720988

  12. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte L

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands by affinity chromatography. Subsequent sequencing identified the protein as TC. Further characterization in terms of glycosylation status and binding specificity to the Cbl-analogue cobinamide revealed that mouse TC does not bind Concanavalin A sepharose (like human TC), but is capable of binding cobinamide (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary glandand in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present in the mouse. Mouse TC is observed in tissues where humans express TC and/or HC. Mouse TC has features in common with both human TC and HC. Our results suggest that the Cbl-binding proteins present in the circulation and exocrine glands may vary amongst species.

  13. Central retinal artery occlusion resembling Purtscher-like retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Etomi T; Kanbara Y; Oku H; Okamoto N; Kurimoto T; Tonari M; Ikeda T

    2011-01-01

    Takuji Kurimoto1, Norio Okamoto2, Hidehiro Oku1, Yuko Kanbara1, Tomohiko Etomi1, Masahiro Tonari1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan; 2Okamoto Eye Clinic, Suita, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This paper reports three cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) with Purtscher-like retinopathy and good recovery of visual function. The three cases of CRAO had similar fundus changes, ie, cotton wool patches surrounding the optic disc and whitening ...

  14. Benign epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumour resembling schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, T; Niveditha, S R

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNST) with epithelial appearing cells compromise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that are rare and diagnostically challenging. Of these, malignant PNSTs with epithelioid features (epithelioid MPNST) are commonly described in literature. However benign epithelioid PNSTs are rare and till date about 38 cases have been described in the literature. We report a benign epithelioid PNST with light microscopical and immunohistochemical features suggestive of schwannoma, presenting as a thigh mass in a 23-year-old female. The tumour was encapsulated, showed epithelioid cells in aggregates, and expressed vimentin and S-100 positivity. There was no expression of CD34, CK, EMA, CD99, p63 and HMB 45. Typical Antoni A and Antoni B areas were absent. At 18 months follow-up, the patient was well. PMID:25500523

  15. Herpesvirus infection resembling Pacheco's disease in Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, C J; Dagless, M D; Jones, H G; Macdonald, J W; Smith, W

    1979-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection was diagnosed in two parrots that died suddenly in a pet shop. Gross lesions were confined to reddening of the small intestinal mucosa. Histological examination of tissues from one specimen revealed a hepatitis and splenitis accompanied by intranuclear inclusions. Cowdry type A inclusions were observed in tissue culture and within the nuclei of chick embryo hepatocytes. Virus particles with a morphological similarity to herpesviruses were identified in electron microscope studies. The condition was considered to represent a case of Pacheco's parrot disease. PMID:18770448

  16. Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Sutak, J.; Lazic, D.; Cullimore, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas account for 0.25% of all uterine malignancies. These tumours were originally divided into low grade and high grade stromal sarcomas, but the recent World Health Organisation classification (2003) recognises low grade stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. Low grade sarcomas may exhibit other forms of differentiation, including smooth muscle and sex cord differentiation. In the latter form, the tumour contains epithelial-like or sex cord-like ele...

  17. Compact suffix trees resemble PATRICIA tries : limiting distribution of depth

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquet, Philippe; Rais, B.; Szpankowski, Wojciec

    1993-01-01

    Suffix trees are the most frequently used data structure in algorithms on words. Despite this, little is known about their behavior in a probabilistic framework. In this paper, we consider the depth of a compact suffix tree, also known as the PAT tree, under some simple probabilistic assumptions. In fact, for the case of an asymmetric alphabet, we prove that the limiting distribution for the depth in a PAT tree is the same as the limiting distribution for the depth in a PATRICIA trie, even th...

  18. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  19. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  20. MRI reveals reversible lesions resembling posterior reversible encephalopathy in porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 20-year-old woman who had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria with seizures, hallucinations, autonomic and somatic neuropathy. T2-weighted MRI revealed multiple lesions which were no longer visible 3 months later. We suggest a similar mechanism to posterior reversible encephalopathy underlying cerebral symptoms in porphyria. (orig.)

  1. MRI reveals reversible lesions resembling posterior reversible encephalopathy in porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, M. [Huesrev Gerede c, 128/4 Tesvikiye, 80690 Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Neurology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey); Forta, H.; Babacan, G. [Department of Neurology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey); Dalkilic, Tuerker [Department of Neurosurgery, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a 20-year-old woman who had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria with seizures, hallucinations, autonomic and somatic neuropathy. T2-weighted MRI revealed multiple lesions which were no longer visible 3 months later. We suggest a similar mechanism to posterior reversible encephalopathy underlying cerebral symptoms in porphyria. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. A prospective pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiation between brain tumor recurrence and post-irradiation injury remains an imaging challenge. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot always distinguish between the two. Although glioma cell line studies substantiated a plausible imaging superiority of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) over other radiopharmaceuticals, little has been reported on its in vivo imaging properties. We assessed 99mTc-TF single-photon emission CT (SPECT) in cases where morphologic brain imaging was inconclusive between recurrence and radionecrosis. A total of 11 patients (7 men, 4 women) were evaluated. The initial diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (4), anaplastic astrocytoma (1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (3), grade-II astrocytoma (2), and low-grade oligodendroglioma (1). All patients had been operated on and then received adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy. After a mean follow-up period of 25 months, there was clinical suspicion of recurrence, for which 99mTc-TF SPECT was performed. In 8/11 cases, an abnormally increased tracer uptake appeared in the region that CT and/or MRI indicated as suspicious; in half of these cases, recurrence was confirmed histologically after surgery and in the other four by growth of the lesion over a 6-month follow-up period, and clinical deterioration. The remaining 3/11 patients had faint tracer uptake in the suspicious region, compatible with radiation injury; these lecompatible with radiation injury; these lesions remained morphologically unaltered in a mean 12-month follow-up period, with no clinical deterioration in the patient's condition, a course strongly favoring the diagnosis of radiation injury. Metabolic brain imaging by 99mTc-TF could offer useful information in the workup of treated brain tumors, where radiomorphologic findings between recurrence and radionecrosis are inconclusive. (author)

  3. Radiation-induced brain injury: retrospective analysis of twelve pathologically proven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to determine the influencing factors and clinical course of pathologically proven cases of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI). The pathologic records of twelve patients were reviewed; these patients underwent surgery following radiotherapy due to disease progression found by follow-up imaging. However, they were finally diagnosed with RIBI. All patients had been treated with 3-dimensional conventional fractionated radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery for primary or metastatic brain tumors with or without chemotherapy. The histological distribution was as follows: two falx meningioma, six glioblastoma multiform (GBM), two anaplastic oligodendroglioma, one low grade oligodendroglioma, and one small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Radiation necrosis was noted in eight patients and the remaining four were diagnosed with radiation change. Gender (p 0.061) and biologically equivalent dose (BED)3 (p = 0.084) were the only marginally influencing factors of radiation necrosis. Median time to RIBI was 7.3 months (range, 0.5 to 61 months). Three prolonged survivors with GBM were observed. In the subgroup analysis of high grade gliomas, RIBI that developed <6 months after radiotherapy was associated with inferior overall survival rates compared to cases of RIBI that occurred ?6 months (p = 0.085). Our study demonstrated that RIBI could occur in early periods after conventional fractionated brain radiotherapy within normal tolerable doseadiotherapy within normal tolerable dose ranges. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to identify the strong influencing factors for RIBI development

  4. Reduction of Nup107 attenuates the growth factor signaling in the senescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Decreased expression of Nup107 in aged cells and organs. ? Depletion of Nup107 results in impaired nuclear translocation of p-ERK. ? Depletion of Nup107 affects downstream effectors of ERK signaling. ? Depletion of Nup107 inhibits cell proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells. -- Abstract: Hypo-responsiveness to growth factors is a fundamental feature of cellular senescence. In this study, we found markedly decreased level of Nup107, a key scaffold protein in nuclear pore complex assembly, in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as well as in organs of aged mice. Depletion of Nup107 by specific siRNA in young human diploid fibroblasts prevented the effective nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, and decreased the expression of c-Fos in consequence. The disturbances in ERK signaling in Nup107 depleted cells closely mirror the similar changes in senescent cells. Knockdown of Nup107 in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells caused cell death, rather than growth retardation, indicating a greater sensitivity to Nup107 depletion in cancer cells than in normal cells. These findings support the notion that Nup107 may contribute significantly to the regulation of cell fate in aged and transformed cells by modulating nuclear trafficking of signal molecules.

  5. Isla de Pascua e Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: semejanzas y diferencias en los vínculos de las compañías explotadoras y los "indígenas" / Easter Island and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: resemblances and differences in the links of the exploitative societies and the "indigenous people"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROLF, FOERSTER.

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que las diferencias y semejanzas acaecidas a Rapanui y Selk’nam en sus relaciones con las "compañías o sociedades explotadoras" y el Estado de Chile, en el contexto de los fujos de personas y de capitales en los procesos de colonización en el contexto del imperialismo, permite [...] n una mejor comprensión de los factores detonantes de sus destinos como pueblos. La hipótesis central es que la doble convergencia -de colonos y de capital- en Tierra del Fuego hace superfuo a los Selk’nam (de allí la discrepancia y la controversia sobre su destino), mientras que en Pascua sólo el capital fuyó con lo cual la población autóctona debió ser transformada en funcional, en "colonos" y en "mano de obra". Se explora entonces las respuestas de las sociedades originarias a esta realidad. Abstract in english This article supports the idea that the differences and resemblances between Rapanui and Selk’nam in its relations with the "companies or exploitative societies" and the State of Chile, in the context of the flow of persons and of capitals in the colonization process in the context of imperialism, a [...] llow a better comprehension of the detonator factors of its destinations as peoples. The central hypothesis is that the double convergence -of colonists and capital- in Tierra del Fuego does superfuously to the Selk’nam (there is the discrepancy and the controversy on its destination), while in Easter Island only the capital few with which the indigenous population must be transformed in functional, in "colonists" and in "manpower". We explore then the answers of the native societies to this reality.

  6. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafay Ahmed,1 Matthew J Oborski,2 Misun Hwang,1 Frank S Lieberman,3 James M Mountz11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3Department of Neurology and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies, and importantly, for facilitating patient management, sparing patients from weeks or months of toxicity and ineffective treatment. This review will present an overview of epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis and current advances in diagnoses, and management of malignant gliomas.Keywords: glioblastoma multiforme, malignant gliomas, MRI, PET, FLT, early therapy response assessment, quantitative molecular imaging

  7. 201Tl/99mTc-MIBI SPECT to evaluate therapy effect of BNCT with BSH and BPA for malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    201Tl/99mTc-MIBI SPECT are imaging modalities to evaluate the malignancy and viability of brain tumor. We reviewed these SPECT findings before and after BNCT, and evaluated the usefulness of SPECT. The study includes total 11 patients admitted in our hospital between 1999 and 2005, 8 with glioblastoma, 2 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 2 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma. SPECT was taken with multidetector SPECT at 15 minutes and 3 hours after intravenous injection of Tl 74 MBq or MIBI 740 MBq. Region of interests were set on tumor and contralateral white matter and radioactivity ratios were calculated as Tl, MIBI indexes. For patients with no residual tumor in MRI, Tl/MIBI indexes were low. For patients with large residual tumor the indexes were high. For the patients with recurrent tumor the indexes were very high. Tl/MIBI indexes before BNCT correlated with survival and progression-free period after BNCT. SPECT indexes decreased after BNCT. For 8 patients with recurrent tumor, the indexes increased. Tl and MIBI SPECT are valuable to evaluate malignancy, viability, survival and recurrence of malignant glioma in BNCT. (author)

  8. Correlation of MIB-1 staining index and 201Tl-SPECT retention index in preoperative evaluation of malignancy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MIB-1 staining provides a useful index of the malignancy of brain tumors. However, because of the difficulty of evaluating malignancy based on the preoperative imaging findings, we investigated the correlation between the 201Tl-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) retention index (RI) and MIB-1 staining index (MIB-1 SI) to determine the usefulness of RI for preoperative evaluation of the malignancy of brain tumors. The subjects of this study were 47 patients who underwent tumor removal surgery at our hospital in 2006 and 2007. The tumors consisted of 16 intraaxial tumors (all gliomas: 9 glioblastomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 1 oligodendroglioma, and 2 ependymomas), 8 other malignant brain tumors, and 23 extraaxial tumors (10 meningiomas, 7 pituitary adenomas, and 6 schwannomas). The mean RI and mean MIB-1 SI of the intraaxial tumors were 0.628% and 32.0%, respectively, and after MIB-1 SI was converted to the natural logarithm (log MIB-1 SI), Pearson's coefficient for the correlation between them was significant (r=0.752, P201Tl-SPECT RI values wand the 201Tl-SPECT RI values were useful as an index of malignancy. RI values may also be useful for evaluating apparently benign extraaxial tumors for possible malignancy. (author)

  9. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana, Sinning; René, Letelier; Carlos, Rosas; Marcela, Fuenzalida; David, Lemus.

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors. Neo-angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and resistance to therapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample could be a useful way to obtain pro-angiogenic predictive or prognostic markers at different stages of the disease. As a first step we lo [...] oked for pro-angiogenic activity in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas. We performed the chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay to study the angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), obtained either by lumbar puncture (LP) or craniotomy from six patients with high-grade brain tumors (three glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III), two anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO grade III)), and four healthy controls. Significantly increased neo-angiogenesis was observed on the surface of the growing CAM in the 6 patients with high-grade gliomas compared to controls (3.69 ± 1.23 versus 2.16 ± 0.97 capillaries per area (mean ± SD), p

  10. Vaccine Therapy With or Without Sirolimus in Treating Patients With NY-ESO-1 Expressing Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Adult Solid Neoplasm; Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Male Breast Carcinoma; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Esophageal Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastric Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma

  11. Transformación anaplásica tardía de bocio multinodular Late anaplastic transformation Of multinodular goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Martínez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Cáncer tiroideo se caracteriza por su baja incidencia, comportamiento maligno infrecuente y baja mortalidad. La mayoría de ellos procede de bocios multinodulares de larga duración por lo que es muy importante tener en cuenta factores que constituyen riesgos potenciales como: tiempo de establecimiento de la enfermedad, tamaño, así como las características particulares personales y la evolución de la entidad en cada caso. Si tenemos en cuenta el gran avance tecnológico que constituye la Biopsia Aspirativa con Aguja Fina (BAAF, que nos permite no solamente evitar su transformación neoplásica maligna, sino que también podemos prolongar la vida con la calidad que humanamente se requiere que es en definitiva la meta principal de la Salud Pública Cubana. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del adecuado seguimiento evolutivo del Bocio multinodular como elemento significativo en la prevención de su transformación maligna. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina de 80 años de edad con aumento de volumen de la región anterior del cuello y antecedentes patológicos personales de Bocio Multinodular (BMN con tratamiento inconstante e irregular de años de evolución, quien no solamente pudo haber mejorado la calidad de su vida sino que no la hubiera truncado, considerando las condiciones atenuantes en la forma de presentación que tuvo su caso. Al examen físico: Aumento de la región anterior del cuello, palpándose masa de superficie irregular, consistencia firme, dolorosa, de aproximadamente 6x5 cm que había aumentado considerablemente en los últimos meses sin fecha precisada. La paciente fue ingresada por el gran agobio respiratorio y la toma del estado general, pudiéndose realizar únicamente la Biopsia Aspirativa con Aguja Fina (BAAF. Desde su ingreso presenta evolución tórpida con incremento del compromiso respiratorio requiriendo la práctica de la traqueotomía que sólo ayuda como medida de soporte al estadio terminal de esta enfermedad neoplásica maligna. (Carcinoma Anaplásico del Tiroides. A pesar de ello la paciente fallece y los familiares autorizan la necropsia. Conclusiones: los BMN deben tener seguimiento evolutivo que permita precisar una tiroidectomía a tiempo como prevención en enfermedades benignas del Tiroides, por los cambios malignos que pueden producirse cuando la glándula es irradiada. La tiroidectomía a tiempo permite evitar no solamente la transformación maligna que puede producirse, sino también previene las metástasis que ocurren en los Carcinoma Anaplásicos.Introduction: the thyroid carcinoma is characterized by low incidence, low malignant behaviour as well as low mortality. The most of they are developed from multinodular goitres of long duration so is important to be into account the risk factors such as: time of the establishment of the disease, size and the particular and personal characterists and the evolution of the each case. If we take into account the great technological advance of the BAAF from its performance in the past century to be united to the National Health System of our country ,we have to say that the multinodular goitres in any group of age are easily manageable and accessible which may us to avoid the malignant transformation besides we can do that the life continues with the quality humanely requested . Finally, this is the first goal of the Cuban Public Health. Objective: to highlight the importance of an appropriate follow-up of multinodular goitre as a significant element in the prevention of its multinodular malignant transformation. Case presentation: an 80 year- old, female patient presents an increase of the volumen of the anterior section of the neck, with pathologic antecedents of a multinodular goitre which the evolution has been characterized by an irregular and non systematic treatment along of years .She could have better quality of life as well as to avoid to death taking into account the wild conditions of that disease was presented herself. Physical examination: It has been observed an increase o

  12. Cooperative Cross-Talk between Neuroblastoma Subtypes Confers Resistance to Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaocai; Kennedy, Colin R.; Tilkens, Sarah B.; Wiedemeier, Olena; Guan, Hong; Park, Jong-in; Chan, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric solid tumor that can be stratified into stroma-rich and stroma-poor histological subgroups. The stromal compartment of neuroblastoma is composed mostly of Schwann cells, and they play critical roles in the differentiation, survival, and angiogenic responses of tumor cells. In certain neuroblastoma cell lines, the coexistence of neuroblastic N-type and substrate-adherent S-type is frequently observed. One such cell line, SK-N-SH, harbors a F1174L oncogenic mutation...

  13. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi; Rafael Almeida Fighera; Luiz Francisco Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros

    2008-01-01

    Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucl...

  14. Amiodarone Induced Hyponatremia Masquerading as Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion by Anaplastic Carcinoma of Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Pinaki; Kumar, Santosh; Kakkar, Nandita; Bhansali, Anil; Rotondo, Fabio; Kovacs, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia. The usual causes are malignancies, central nervous system, pulmonary disorders, and drugs. Amiodarone is a broad spectrum antiarrhythmic agent widely used in the management of arrhythmias. The different side effects include thyroid dysfunction, visual disturbances, pulmonary infiltrates, ataxia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, drug interactions, corneal microdeposits, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal disturbances. SIADH is a rare but lethal side effect of amiodarone. We describe a 62-year-old male who was suffering from advanced prostatic malignancy, taking amiodarone for underlying heart disease. He developed SIADH which was initially thought to be paraneoplastic in etiology, but later histopathology refuted that. This case emphasizes the importance of detailed drug history and the role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis and management of hyponatremia due to SIADH. PMID:24818037

  15. Combined chemo- and radiotherapy in inoperable small-cell anaplastic bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined treatment with adriamycin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (ACO) was used in 50 out-patients with histologically verified small-cell bronchial carcinoma. In 26 patients with locally and regionally limited metastases ('limited disease') radiotherapy (3000 rad focal dose) to mediastinum, hili and tumour opacity as well as prophylactic cranial irradiation (3000 rad focal dose) were performed after 3 cycles of chemotherapy. Complete clinical remission (without endoscopic control) was achieved in 32 out of 50 patients. Remissions in patients with bilateral pulmonary or extrathoracic metastases ('extensive disease', n = 24, 12 complete remission) only led to limited asymptomatic prolongations of life (median survival time 10 months, median remission period 5 months) despite maintenance therapy. On the other hand patients with 'limited disease' had considerable life prolongation (median survival 21 months, historical control value 3-4 months). Seven out of 26 patients in this group survived for 30 months after the onset of the disease, 6 out of 26 are now in their third year after starting therapy without signs of tumour recurrence. The results show that early recognition of patients with local and regional metastases has considerable prognostic value. (orig.)

  16. A Report of a Rare Case of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Kango, Prasad G.; Shah, Pushpak U.; Deshmukh, Revati S.

    2012-01-01

    Case history: Malignant lymphoma is a neoplastic proliferative process of the lymphopoietic portion of the reticuloendothelial system that involves cells of either the lymphocytic or histiocytic series in varying degrees of differentiation and occurs in an essentially homogenous population of a single cell type. The character of histologic involvement is either diffuse (uniform) or nodular and the distribution of involvement may be regional or systemic (generalized), the process basically bei...

  17. Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma in a Child with Type I Diabetes and Unrecognised Coeliac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jemima Sharp; Barry Pizer; George Kokai; Auth, Marcus K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Screening for coeliac disease is recommended for children from certain risk groups, with implications for diagnostic procedures and dietetic management. The risk of a malignant complication in untreated coeliac disease is not considered high in children. We present the case of a girl with type I diabetes who developed weight loss, fatigue, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Four years before, when she was asymptomatic, a screening coeliac tTG test was positive, but gluten was not eliminated from h...

  18. Small Cell Anaplastic Carcinoma of Primary Lung Tumor in a Miniature Schnauzer Dog

    OpenAIRE

    J M Kim, H. J. Han

    2011-01-01

    A seven-year-old male, an intact miniature Schnauzer dog with history of vomiting, abdominal distention, anorexia, and dyspnea was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Thoracic radiographs showed the well marginated solitary mass with soft density in the right caudal lung field, and abdominal radiographs showed signs of ascites, such as abdominal distention and moderate serosal detail loss. On ultrasonograph and computed tomograph, it was observed that the mass compressed the caudal...

  19. Protective effect of Paclitaxel against gamma-radiation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper was to study the biochemical effects of Paclitaxel (Ptx), ?-irradiation (IR) and their combination in undifferential thyroid cancer cells (ATC). There was a clear antagonism between Ptx and IP relative to cell cycle regulators. The net effect of these events during the first 48 H of cells incubation can be considered as antiapoptotic -Ptx attenuated cytotoxic effect of IR

  20. Oligodendroglioma cells synthesize the differentiation-specific linker histone H1° and release it into the extracellular environment through shed vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Saladino, Patrizia; Pitti, Rosario; Savettieri, Giovanni; Proia, Patrizia; Di Liegro, Italia

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling can be involved in some of the epigenetic modifications found in tumor cells. One of the mechanisms at the basis of chromatin dynamics is likely to be synthesis and incorporation of replacement histone variants, such as the H1° linker histone. Regulation of the expression of this protein can thus be critical in tumorigenesis. In developing brain, H1° expression is mainly regulated at the post-transcriptional level and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved. In the pa...

  1. Disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor of childhood: a distinctive clinicopathologic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fausto J; Perry, Arie; Rosenblum, Marc K; Krawitz, Sherry; Cohen, Kenneth J; Lin, Doris; Mosier, Stacy; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2012-11-01

    Rare, generally pediatric oligodendroglioma-like neoplasms with extensive leptomeningeal dissemination have been interpreted variably as glial, oligodendroglial or glioneuronal. The clinicopathologic features have not been fully characterized. We studied 36 patients, 12 females and 24 males with a median age of 5 years (range 5 months-46 years). MRI demonstrated leptomeningeal enhancement, frequently with cystic or nodular T2 hyperintense lesions within the spinal cord/brain along the subpial surface. A discrete intraparenchymal lesion, usually in the spinal cord, was found in 25 (of 31) (81 %). Tumors contained oligodendroglioma-like cells with low-mitotic activity (median 0 per 10 high power fields, range 0-4), and rare ganglion/ganglioid cells in 6 cases (17 %). Tumors were mostly low-grade, with anaplastic progression in 8 (22 %). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong reactivity for OLIG2 (7 of 9) (78 %), and moderate/strong S100 (11 of 12) (92 %), GFAP (12 of 31) (39 %) and synaptophysin (19 of 27) (70 %). NeuN, EMA, and mutant IDH1 (R132H) protein were negative. Median MIB1 labeling index was 1.5 % (range <1-30 %). FISH (n = 13) or SNP array (n = 2) demonstrated 1p loss/intact 19q in 8 (53 %), 1p19q co-deletion in 3 (20 %), and no 1p or 19q loss in 4 (27 %). Clinical follow-up (n = 24) generally showed periods of stability or slow progression, but a subset of tumors progressed to anaplasia and behaved more aggressively. Nine patients (38 %) died 3 months-21 years after diagnosis (median total follow-up 5 years). We report a series of a neoplasm with distinct clinicopathologic and molecular features. Although most progress slowly, a significant fraction develop aggressive features. PMID:22941225

  2. Valor do esfregaço no diagnóstico per-operatório dos tumores provenientes de neurocirurgias / Value of the smear in the rapid diagnosis of tumors removed in neurosurgeries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leila, Chimelli; Ivelise de Souza, Campos.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica do esfregaço no diagnóstico per-operatório de tumores provenientes de neurocirurgias vem sendo utilizada em diversos centros de neuropatologia. Com o objetivo de testar esta técnica, examinamos 137 esfregaços e correlacionamos os aspectos cito e histológicos. Analisamos 12 astrocitomas, 4 [...] astrocitomas anaplásicos, 26 glioblastomas, 7 oligodendrogliomas, 7 ependimomas, 5 meduloblastomas, 8 schwannomas, 17 meningiomas, 13 adenomas de hipófise, 20 metástases e 18 tumores diversos e entidades não neoplásicas. Os resultados mostraram porcentual de acerto de 91,2%, coincidente à literatura. O conhecimento da localização do tumor contribuiu para o acerto diagnóstico e o reconhecimento do tecido normal foi importante inclusive para orientar o neurocirurgião a localizar o tumor. Acreditamos que o esfregaço deva ser mais usado em nosso meio, não só pela simplicidade na sua realização mas também pela precisão diagnostica. Abstract in english The smear technique has been used for rapid diagnosis of tumors removed in neurosurgeries in many neuropathological centers. In order to> assess the diagnostic accuracy of this technique, we examined 137 smears and made a cytohistological correlation. Our cases include 12 astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic [...] astrocytomas, 26 glioblastomas, 7 oligodendrogliomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 8 schwannomas, 17 meningiomas, 13 pituitary adenomas, 20 metastatic tumors and 18 assorted tumors and non neoplastic lesions. The correct diagnosis was made in 91.2% of the cases which coincides to the literature. The knowledge of the localization and the characteristic morphologic features of some tumors were important for the diagnosis. The ability to recognize normal nervous tissue in smears was important even to help the surgeon to reach the tumor. We believe that the use of smears should be encouraged in our country in view of the simplicity of its preparation and accuracy of results.

  3. Valor do esfregaço no diagnóstico per-operatório dos tumores provenientes de neurocirurgias Value of the smear in the rapid diagnosis of tumors removed in neurosurgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chimelli

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica do esfregaço no diagnóstico per-operatório de tumores provenientes de neurocirurgias vem sendo utilizada em diversos centros de neuropatologia. Com o objetivo de testar esta técnica, examinamos 137 esfregaços e correlacionamos os aspectos cito e histológicos. Analisamos 12 astrocitomas, 4 astrocitomas anaplásicos, 26 glioblastomas, 7 oligodendrogliomas, 7 ependimomas, 5 meduloblastomas, 8 schwannomas, 17 meningiomas, 13 adenomas de hipófise, 20 metástases e 18 tumores diversos e entidades não neoplásicas. Os resultados mostraram porcentual de acerto de 91,2%, coincidente à literatura. O conhecimento da localização do tumor contribuiu para o acerto diagnóstico e o reconhecimento do tecido normal foi importante inclusive para orientar o neurocirurgião a localizar o tumor. Acreditamos que o esfregaço deva ser mais usado em nosso meio, não só pela simplicidade na sua realização mas também pela precisão diagnostica.The smear technique has been used for rapid diagnosis of tumors removed in neurosurgeries in many neuropathological centers. In order to> assess the diagnostic accuracy of this technique, we examined 137 smears and made a cytohistological correlation. Our cases include 12 astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic astrocytomas, 26 glioblastomas, 7 oligodendrogliomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 8 schwannomas, 17 meningiomas, 13 pituitary adenomas, 20 metastatic tumors and 18 assorted tumors and non neoplastic lesions. The correct diagnosis was made in 91.2% of the cases which coincides to the literature. The knowledge of the localization and the characteristic morphologic features of some tumors were important for the diagnosis. The ability to recognize normal nervous tissue in smears was important even to help the surgeon to reach the tumor. We believe that the use of smears should be encouraged in our country in view of the simplicity of its preparation and accuracy of results.

  4. Basic Principles of Creation of Topometrical Cards of Beam Therapy in the Cases of High-grade Malignant Supratentorial Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. High-grade malignant supratentorial gliomas: anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoatrocitomas (AOA), anaplastic ependimomas (AE), glioblastomas (GB) and other less occasional forms of gliomas are approximately 1,82% of all cases of malignant tumors. Life expectancy for such patients still is very low, for several forms of tumors -12-18 months. High-grade malignant gliomas need for combined approach, and one part of such approach is beam therapy. For reaching qualitative results of beam therapy, method of topometrical planning of beam therapy is crucial, because it allow planning therapy due to anatomic features of every patient. The aim of work was comparison of basic principles of creation of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) topometrical cards of beam therapy. Material and methods. In the process of research, analyse of creation of 2D and 3D cards for patients in period 2000-2005 were made. For creation of 2D cards pelviometer, conturometer of head (Picture 1), pictures of tests of brains in the biggest cross - section of tumor (Picture 2) were used. For creation 3D cards computertomography LightSpeed Rt, which is suitable for topometry (Picture 3), planning system of 3D reconstruction ECLIPSE (Picture 4), 3D reconstruction by data from pre - surgery and/or after - surgery tests of brain (Picture 5), and matching in format of DICOM (Picture 6) were used. In this research 214 patients with supratentorias research 214 patients with supratentorial malign gliomas were covered (Table 1,2). Results. In 98 cases 2D topometrical cards were made, which allows creating only two contrary areas of entry of beams or two areas of entry under angle (Picture 7, 8). In 55 cases in 2D topographic cards two contrary areas of entry were made and in 43 cases plan of beam therapy with areas of entry under angle were made. 3D cards anatomic features of patient as well as location of critical organs were taken into account (picture 10). In case of 3D the number of areas of beams were 3-6. Definite number of areas in process of localization of tumor can not be defined. Most important was individual approach to the every patient. Conclusion. 3D topometrical card by the side with 2D allows maximally occur located mass of brain tumors and create precise plan of X-ray treatment and prevent critical brain structures. (Authors)

  5. Spinal endodermal cyst resembling an arachnoid cyst in appearance: Pitfalls in intraoperative diagnosis of cystic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Nakamizo, Akira; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Tanaka, Shunya; Tsuchimochi, Ryosuke; Amano, Toshiyuki; Yoshimoto, Koji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of endodermal cysts requires total removal of the cyst wall during the first operation to prevent recurrence. Therefore, intraoperative pathological diagnosis plays an important role in determining the optimal surgical strategy. We present a rare case of a spinal endodermal cyst and discuss its diagnostic difficulty during the intraoperative pathological examination. Case Description: An 18-year-old male presented with progressive paraparesis and precordial oppression. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary cystic mass having the same signal intensity as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) without gadolinium enhancement at the T1-T2 level. The preoperative diagnosis was an endodermal or arachnoid cyst. The patient underwent surgery. An intraoperative frozen section showed a cyst wall consisting of loose, thin, fibrous tissue intermittently covered by flattened epithelium. The diagnosis was an arachnoid cyst. Accordingly, partial resection of the cyst wall was performed to create CSF communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis from permanent sections was an endodermal cyst, which was lined with ciliated columnar epithelium that was immunopositive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Subsequent paraffin embedding and immunostaining of the intraoperative frozen sample also confirmed patchy cytokeratin expression by all flattened epithelial cells. The patient's cyst had refilled 10 months after surgery, and he subsequently underwent fenestration of the cyst wall and placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt. Conclusion: Examination of multiple samples from multiple sites or intraoperative immunostaining of frozen sections is recommended for accurate intraoperative diagnosis of endodermal cysts. PMID:22937478

  6. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-holm, Marie; Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D.; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chron...

  7. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  8. Saccade deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment resemble mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltsch, Alicia; Hemraj, Alisha; Garcia, Angeles; Munoz, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disorder of progressive memory loss and executive dysfunction. Little is known about the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; isolated memory loss) to AD. Studies have found impairments in mild-stage AD and aMCI in specific tests of executive function. Here, we used objective saccade tasks to determine if they can effectively assess executive function deficits otherwise assessed by neuropsychological testing. To determine which executive function deficits the saccade tasks are most sensitive to, we also investigated the relationship between performance on saccade tasks and neuropsychological test scores. Twenty-two aMCI patients (63-90 years), 24 mild AD patients (61-87 years) and 76 healthy controls (60-85 years) performed a battery of neuropsychological tests, and two saccade tasks designed to probe sensory, motor and cognitive function. The prosaccade task requires a fast, automatic saccade toward an eccentric visual stimulus. The antisaccade task requires additional executive processing to inhibit the automatic prosaccade toward the stimulus, so that a voluntary saccade can be initiated to a location opposite the stimulus. Antisaccade performance was impaired similarly in aMCI and AD patients relative to controls; both groups were slower to initiate correct antisaccades and they made more direction errors (erroneous prosaccades), suggesting similar brain deficits. Scores on the Stroop task were inversely correlated with the percentage of short-latency direction errors in the antisaccade task for controls and aMCI patients, whereas other more global measures of executive function were not related to saccade measures in any subject group. Our results show that the antisaccade task is useful for detecting executive dysfunction in aMCI and AD, especially dysfunction in selective attention. Saccade tasks may therefore have potential to assess executive dysfunction when use of neuropsychological tests is not possible. PMID:24890471

  9. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris S Vasiliadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision.

  10. Prolonged episode of dystonia and dyskinesia resembling status epilepticus following acute intrathecal baclofen withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchio, Nicola; Carotenuto, Antonio; Trivisano, Marina; Cappelletti, Simona; Vigevano, Federico; Fusco, Lucia

    2011-07-01

    Spasticity is a state of sustained pathological increase in the tension of a muscle. Treatment for spasticity has been revolutionized by the introduction of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) continuous infusion. ITB is associated with a 30% rate of complications mostly as a result of catheter problems that lead to acute ITB withdrawal. We describe a 10-year-old girl with spastic quadriplegia caused by cerebral palsy successfully treated with ITB who developed dystonic-dyskinetic status following acute ITB withdrawal because of a catheter kink resolved by external manipulation. The patient presented with a subacute onset of generalized malaise characterized by anorexia, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, insomnia, worsening of hypertonus with a left predominance, and late appearance of dystonic-dyskinetic movements. Soon after hospitalization the child had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure followed by unresponsiveness. One hour later she developed multiple muscle contractions with dystonic posturing and continuous chaotic movements. She also had pyrexia, tachycardia, and hypertension. A video/EEG recording showed the nonepileptic nature of the symptoms and revealed dystonic-dyskinetic status. We report the clinical features and the video recording of the status. The prompt recognition of this life-threatening complication is essential, as rapid treatment may reduce the increased risk of death. Misdiagnosis is possible, and video/EEG monitoring is useful to this end. Although differing among patients, all symptoms are related to overexcitability of the extrapyramidal and autonomic systems. PMID:21606004

  11. Focal peliosis hepatis in a colon cancer patient resembling metastatic liver tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jun Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis (PH is a rare benign condition characterized by the presence of multiple, randomly distributed, blood filled cystic areas of variable size within the liver parenchyma. PH is difficult to recognize and may be mistaken for neoplasm, metastases or multiple abscesses. A 75-year-old female with a previous history of colon cancer was admitted when a liver mass in the right liver lobe was found 11 mo after surgery during the follow-up period. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen were performed. The initial possible diagnosis was metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent excision of the hepatic segment where the nodule was located. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was PH. PH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new liver lesions in patients whose clinical settings do not clearly favor metastasization. Clinicians and radiologists must recognize these lesions to minimize the probability of misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  12. Immediate differentiation of salmonella-resembling colonies on brilliant green agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biochemical system (OBIS) based on immediate enzymatic differentiation of Citrobacter, Proteus, Providencia, Hafnia and Morganella spp. from Salmonella on brilliant green agar was evaluated A total of 96 field isolates from various Salmonella serotypes, 18 Citrobacter freundii and 25 isolates of other Enterobacteriaceae were tested All Salmonella isolates were identified correctly by the kit, and none of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified as Salmonella. The results indicate complete specificity for Salmonella colonies on brilliant green agar.

  13. Establishment of lal-/- Myeloid Lineage Cell Line That Resembles Myeloid-Derived Suppressive Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinchun; Wu, Lingyan; Yan, Cong; Du, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in mouse are inflammatory cells that play critical roles in promoting cancer growth and metastasis by directly stimulating cancer cell proliferation and suppressing immune surveillance. In order to facilitate characterization of biochemical and cellular mechanisms of MDSCs, it is urgent to establish an "MDSC-like" cell line. By cross breeding of immortomouse (simian virus 40 large T antigen transgenic mice) with wild type and lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) knock-out (lal-/-) mice, we have established a wild type (HD1A) and a lal-/- (HD1B) myeloid cell lines. Compared with HD1A cells, HD1B cells demonstrated many characteristics similar to lal-/- MDSCs. HD1B cells exhibited increased lysosomes around perinuclear areas, dysfunction of mitochondria skewing toward fission structure, damaged membrane potential, and increased ROS production. HD1B cells showed increased glycolytic metabolism during blockage of fatty acid metabolism to fuel the energy need. Similar to lal-/- MDSCs, the mTOR signal pathway in HD1B cells is overly activated. Rapamycin treatment of HD1B cells reduced ROS production and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential. HD1B cells showed much stronger immunosuppression on CD4+ T cell proliferation and function in vitro, and enhanced cancer cells proliferation. Knockdown of mTOR with siRNA reduced the HD1B cell ability to immunosuppress T cells and stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the HD1B myeloid cell line is an "MDSC-like" cell line that can be used as an alternative in vitro system to study how LAL controls various myeloid cell functions. PMID:25807535

  14. Lathosterolosis: A Disorder of Cholesterol Biosynthesis Resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, A. C. C.; Fung, C. W.; Siu, T. S.; Ma, O. C. K.; Lam, C. W.; Tam, S.; Wong, V. C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Lathosterolosis is an inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis due to deficiency of the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta-5-desaturase (or sterol-C5-desaturase or SC5D). This leads to a block in conversion of lathosterol into 7-dehydrocholesterol. Only three patients with lathosterolosis have been reported in literature, of which one survived. We report a patient with dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies, and developmental delay, initially suspected to have Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, ...

  15. Search for cardiac calcium cycling gene mutations in familial ventricular arrhythmias resembling catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toivonen Lauri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT is a severe inherited cardiac disorder caused by mutations predominantly in the ryanodine receptor (RyR2 gene. We sought to identify mutations in genes affecting cardiac calcium cycling in patients with CPVT and in less typical familial exercise-related ventricular arrhythmias. Methods and Results We recruited 33 consecutive patients with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs without structural heart disease and often history of syncope or sudden death in family. Sixteen of the patients featured a phenotype typical of CPVT. In 17 patients, VPCs emerged also at rest. Exercise stress test and echocardiography were performed to each patient and 232 family members. Familial background was evident in 42% of cases (n = 14. We sequenced all the coding exons of the RyR2, FKBP1B, ATP2A2 and SLC8A1 genes from the index patients. Single channel recordings of a mutant RyR2 were performed in planar lipid bilayers. Two novel RyR2 missense mutations (R1051P and S616L and two RyR2 exon 3 deletions were identified, explaining 25% of the CPVT phenotypes. A rare variant (N3308S with open probabilities similar to the wild type channels in vitro, was evident in a patient with resting VPCs. No disease-causing variants were detectable in the FKBP1B, ATP2A2 or SLC8A1 genes. Conclusion We report two novel CPVT-causing RyR2 mutations and a novel RyR2 variant of uncertain clinical significance in a patient with abundant resting VPCs. Our data also strengthen the previous assumption that exon 3 deletions of RyR2 should screened for in CPVT and related phenotypes.

  16. Familial resemblance in religiousness in a secular society: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Petersen, Inge; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels C

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that human behavior and individual psychological traits are moderately to substantially heritable. Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have explored the genetic and environmental influence on religiousness. These studies originate predominantly from countries generally considered more religious than the very secular northern European countries. Comparisons of the results are complicated by diverse definitions of religiousness, but several studies indicate that the influence of the family environment is most predominant in early life, whereas genetic influences increase with age. We performed a population-based twin study of religiousness in a secular society using data from a Web-based survey sent to 6,707 Danish twins born 1970-1989, who were identified in the Danish Twin Registry. We applied Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of religiousness: cognition, practice, and importance. In all polygenic models and biometric analyses, we controlled for gender and age. The study sample comprised 2,237 same sex twins, a response rate of 45%. We found high correlations within both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs in most items of religiousness, indicating a large influence from shared environmental factors. Personal religiousness such as praying to God, believing in God, and finding strength and comfort in religion were more influenced by genetic factors than were social forms of religiousness such as church attendance. We found a small tendency for increasing genetic influence with increasing age for some religious items, but not for all. PMID:23433031

  17. Familial resemblance in religiousness in a secular society : A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HvidtjØrn, Dorte; Petersen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that human behavior and individual psychological traits are moderately to substantially heritable. Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have explored the genetic and environmental influence on religiousness. These studies originate predominantly from countries generally considered more religious than the very secular northern European countries. Comparisons of the results are complicated by diverse definitions of religiousness, but several studies indicate that the influence of the family environment is most predominant in early life, whereas genetic influences increase with age. We performed a population-based twin study of religiousness in a secular society using data from a Web-based survey sent to 6,707 Danish twins born 1970-1989, who were identified in the Danish Twin Registry. We applied Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of religiousness: cognition, practice, and importance. In all polygenic models and biometric analyses, we controlled for gender and age. The studysample comprised 2,237 same sex twins, a response rate of 45%. We found high correlations within both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs in most items of religiousness, indicating a large influence from shared environmental factors. Personal religiousness such as praying to God, believing in God, and finding strength and comfort in religion were more influenced by genetic factors than were social forms of religiousness such as church attendance. We found a small tendency for increasing genetic influence with increasing age for some religious items, but not for all.

  18. Short KIR Haplotypes in Pygmy Chimpanzee (Bonobo) Resemble the Conserved Framework of Diverse Human KIR Haplotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalingam, Raja; Hong, Mei; Adams, Erin J.; Shum, Benny P.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Some pygmy chimpanzees (also called Bonobos) give much simpler patterns of hybridization on Southern blotting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) cDNA probes than do either humans or common chimpanzees. Characterization of KIRs from pygmy chimpanzees having simple and complex banding patterns identified nine different KIRs, representing seven genes. Five of these genes have orthologs in the common chimpanzee, and three of them (KIRCI, KIR2DL4, and KIR2DL5) also have human orth...

  19. Transplantable malignant melanoma in LT.B6 congenic mice resembling pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dadras, Soheil S.; Silva, Kathleen A.; King, Lloyd E.; Sundberg, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models have been generated to recapitulate major signaling pathways deregulated in melanoma. Although these models are invaluable to delineate the relationship between gene mutations and targeted therapeutics, no spontaneously occurring melanomas are available in laboratory mice, which might be used to discover novel disrupted pathways, other than the widely studied MAPK, PI3-AKT and CDK4-INK4A-RB1. We report multiple spontaneously occurring melanomas on the tail ...

  20. Characterization of a Chlamydomonas Transposon, Gulliver, Resembling Those in Higher Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    While pursuing a chromosomal walk through the mt(+) locus of linkage group VI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, I encountered a 12-kb sequence that was found to be present in approximately 12 copies in the nuclear genome. Comparison of various C. reinhardtii laboratory strains provided evidence that the sequence was mobile and therefore a transposon. One of two separate natural isolates interfertile with C. reinhardtii, C. smithii (CC-1373), contained the transposon, but at completely different l...

  1. SMALL CYSTEINE-RICH PEPTIDES RESEMBLING ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES HAVE BEEN UNDER-PREDICTED IN PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multicellular organisms produce small cysteine-rich anti-microbial peptides as an innate defense against pathogens. While defensins, a well-known class of such peptides, are common among eukaryotes, there are classes restricted to the plant kingdom. These include thionins, lipid transfer proteins,...

  2. The psbA-gene from a red alga resembles those from cyanobacteria and cyanelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maid, U; Valentin, K; Zetsche, K

    1990-03-01

    Plastid DNA (ptDNA) from the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium was isolated. A 5.8 kb Eco RI, fragment containing the entire psbA-gene was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the psbA-gene determined. At the carboxyl terminus the encoded protein (D1) contains the seven amino acid-insertion which was found to be typical of the cyanobacteria and the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa. However, the overall sequence homology does not support a direct relationship between the plastids of Cyanidium, cyanelles and the cyanobacteria. As in other photosynthetic organisms the psbA-gene is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA. The ribosomal RNA operon was located 4 kb upstream of the psbA-gene. PMID:2111229

  3. Yeast accumulating 7-Dehydrocholesterol bears resemblance to mammalian Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, Markus; Raab, Andreas; Schilling, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good and easy manageable model to study membrane based cell variances and diseases. One example is the Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), which is a frequently occurring autosomal recessive developmental disorder in human. The disease is caused by a deficiency in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase activity, catalyzing the final step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, the conversion of 7- dehydrocholesterol into cholesterol. The con...

  4. Novel Yersinia Pestis Toxin that Resembles Bacillus Anthracis Edema Factor: Study of Activity and Structural Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motin, V; Garcia, E; Barsky, D; Zemla, A

    2003-02-05

    The goal of this project was to begin both experimental and computational studies of the novel plague toxin to establish its biological properties and create its 3D-model. The project was divided into two parts. (1) Experimental--This part was devoted to determine distribution of the genes encoding novel plague toxin among different isolates of Y.pestis. If the EF-like activity is important for Y.pestis pathogenicity, it is anticipated that all highly virulent strains will contain the toxin genes. Also, they proposed to initiate research to investigate the functionality of the novel Y.pestis toxin that they hypothesize is likely to significantly contribute to the virulence of this dangerous microbe. this research design consisted of amplification, cloning and expression in E.coli the toxin genes followed by affinity purification of the recombinant protein that can be further used for testing of enzymatic activity. (2) Computational--The structural modeling of the putative EF of Y.pestis was based on multiple sequence alignments, secondary structure predictions, and comparison with 3D models of the EF of B. anthracis. The x-ray structure of the last has been recently published [Nature. 2002. 415(Jan):396-402]. The final model was selected after detailed analysis to determine if the structure is consistent with the biological function.

  5. The scurfy mouse mutant has previously unrecognized hematological abnormalities and resembles Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, M. F.; Peters, J.; Glenister, P. H.; Ball, S.; Wright, E.

    1990-01-01

    The X chromosome-linked scurfy (sf) mutant of the mouse is recognized by the scaliness of the skin from which the name is derived and results in death of affected males at about 3-4 weeks of age. Consideration of known man-mouse homologies of the X chromosome prompted hematological studies, which have shown that the blood is highly abnormal. The platelet and erythrocyte counts are both reduced and become progressively lower relative to normal as the disease progresses. There is gastrointestin...

  6. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder resembling Wilms tumor. Diagnostic dilemma: renal biopsy or nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Edaire; Fustino, Nicholas; Klesse, Laura; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Sanghavi, Rinarani

    2011-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a life-threatening neoplasm that can occur after orthotopic liver transplant. We report a 14-month-old female status-post OLT with an atypical presentation of PTLD as a solitary renal mass. At eight-wk post-transplant, she presented with elevated transaminases, CMV counts (73,000 copies/mL), and EBV counts (35,000 copies/mL). CT scan revealed a solid heterogeneously enhancing right renal mass measuring 2.6 × 2.4 × 3.3 cm. The radiological diagnosis was Wilms tumor, although PTLD could not be excluded. Complete resection of a Wilms tumor is potentially curative. A needle biopsy would upstage the malignancy and result in radiochemotherapy that is deleterious to a liver graft. The mass was not amenable to partial nephrectomy. A total nephrectomy, given life-long nephrotoxic immunosuppressants, was an unfavorable option. Thus, needle biopsy was performed. Histology confirmed monoclonal, EBV-associated PTLD and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Her therapy included immunosuppression reduction, cyclophosphamide, steroids, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Concomitantly, she received Cytogam and gancyclovir. Complete remission was achieved three months after chemotherapy. This case illustrates that young age, CMV infection, and EBV infection are strong risk factors for PTLD. With such risk factors present, any mass or lesion in a solid organ transplant patient should be considered PTLD until proven otherwise. PMID:20670357

  7. [Papillary renal cell carcinoma surrounded by unusual fibrotic reaction resembling inflammatory pseudotumour--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hes, O; Hora, M; Havlícek, F; Chudácek, Z; Klecka, J; Michal, M

    2004-07-01

    Authors report clinicopathological features of an unusual case of composite renal lesion occuring in 32-year-old Caucasian male. The patient was followed for cystic lesion of retroperitoneal-renal region for 5 years. He was indicated for resection of the cystic lesion because of changes of the retroperitoneal mass on CT scan. A cyst was located on upper renal pole. A huge cystic mass filled mainly by necrotic material was resected and submitted for histological examination. The wall of the cyst was composed of fibrous tissue, indistinguishable from inflammatory pseudotumor on histological level. The vital intracystic tissue was formed by well-differentiated papillary renal cell carcinoma. The most important step within differential diagnosis is distinguishing of sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma. This very rare case demonstrates the importance of careful examination of all spindle cell lesions of the kidney. PMID:15493420

  8. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors

  9. Acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis resembling ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in a young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jose L; Jurado, Margarita; Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Olivas-Chacon, Cristina; Porres-Muñoz, Mateo; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taveras, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Acute myocarditis can be induced by various concomitant disease processes including infections. Most of these cases are viral in origin; however, bacterial infections are also implicated to a lesser degree. Group A streptococcus is a frequent culprit in bacterial-induced myocarditis. Its diagnosis is suspected by the presence of signs and symptoms of rheumatic fever as established by the Jones criteria. The development and refinement of current diagnostic tools has improved our ability to identify specific pathogens. It has been found that group A streptococcus may be responsible for more cases of infection-induced acute myocarditis than previously thought, and often without the clinical features of rheumatic fever. We present the case of a 43-year-old man hospitalized with chest pain that was initially diagnosed as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Further evaluation confirmed that his chief complaint was due to acute nonrheumatic streptococcal myocarditis. PMID:25829649

  10. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2014-04-16

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. PMID:24735072

  11. Human BAT Possesses Molecular Signatures That Resemble Beige/Brite Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Louis Z.; Shinoda, Kosaku; Ohno, Haruya; Scheel, David W.; Tomoda, Emi; Ruiz, Lauren; Hu, Houchun; Wang, Larry; Pavlova, Zdena; Gilsanz, Vicente; Kajimura, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy and generates heat to protect animals from cold and obesity. Rodents possess two types of UCP-1 positive brown adipocytes arising from distinct developmental lineages: “classical” brown adipocytes develop during the prenatal stage whereas “beige” or “brite” cells that reside in white adipose tissue (WAT) develop during the postnatal stage in response to chronic cold or PPAR? agonists. Beige cells’ inducible characteristics m...

  12. An acute hepatitis resembling autoimmune hepatitis occurring during imatinib therapy in a gastrointestinal stromal tumor patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietta, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a 6-month history of increasing abdominal size. His medical history was unremarkable. On physical examination, a mass was felt in the right abdomen. Laboratory tests were within normal range. In particular, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 21 and 22 U/dL, respectively (normal range

  13. Acute and chronic pituitary failure resembling Sheehan's syndrome following bites by Russell's viper in Burma.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Re; Warrell, Da; Moore, Ra; Burke, Cw

    1987-01-01

    Pituitary function was investigated in 9 patients in shock after Russell's viper bites and in 24 individuals who had been severely envenomed 2 weeks to 24 years previously. 3 out of 9 patients had hypoglycaemia and inappropriately low serum cortisol, plasma growth hormone, and plasma prolactin concentrations. 4 who died had pituitary haemorrhage and 1 had adrenal haemorrhage as well. Of the 24 who had apparently recovered from bites, 7 had clinical features of hypopituitarism and no response ...

  14. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumoff, C.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D/sub 3/. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D/sub 4/ through postmolt stage A/sub 2/, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low.

  15. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D3. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D4 through postmolt stage A2, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low

  16. Conformational States of a Bacterial ?2-Macroglobulin Resemble Those of Human Complement C3

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, David; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Job, Viviana; Gabel, Frank; Schoehn, Guy; Dessen, Andre?a

    2012-01-01

    ?2 macroglobulins (?2Ms) are broad-spectrum protease inhibitors that play essential roles in the innate immune system of eukaryotic species. These large, multi-domain proteins are characterized by a broad-spectrum bait region and an internal thioester, which, upon cleavage, becomes covalently associated to the target protease, allowing its entrapment by a large conformational modification. Notably, ?2Ms are part of a larger protein superfamily that includes proteins of the complement syste...

  17. Profound Amnesia after Temporal Lobectomy: An Autoimmune Process Resembling Patient H.M.?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonello, Michael; Larner, Andrew J.; Marson, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who developed significant cognitive decline with profound amnesia following non-dominant temporal lobectomy for refractory seizures, in whom the original suspicion of structural pathology was revised following the discovery of clinical and neuropathological markers of inflammation, neuropsychological evidence of bilateral involvement, and high titres of antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). This case adds to the evidence that the diagnosis of non...

  18. Profound amnesia after temporal lobectomy: an autoimmune process resembling patient h.m.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, Michael; Larner, Andrew J; Marson, Anthony G

    2014-09-01

    We describe a patient who developed significant cognitive decline with profound amnesia following non-dominant temporal lobectomy for refractory seizures, in whom the original suspicion of structural pathology was revised following the discovery of clinical and neuropathological markers of inflammation, neuropsychological evidence of bilateral involvement, and high titres of antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). This case adds to the evidence that the diagnosis of non-paraneoplastic anti-GAD limbic encephalitis merits consideration in any patient with a refractory seizure disorder and cognitive decline. PMID:25473398

  19. Profound Amnesia after Temporal Lobectomy: An Autoimmune Process Resembling Patient H.M.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, Michael; Larner, Andrew J.; Marson, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who developed significant cognitive decline with profound amnesia following non-dominant temporal lobectomy for refractory seizures, in whom the original suspicion of structural pathology was revised following the discovery of clinical and neuropathological markers of inflammation, neuropsychological evidence of bilateral involvement, and high titres of antibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). This case adds to the evidence that the diagnosis of non-paraneoplastic anti-GAD limbic encephalitis merits consideration in any patient with a refractory seizure disorder and cognitive decline. PMID:25473398

  20. Ablation of steroid receptor coactivator-3 resembles the human CACT metabolic myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L; Sagen, Jørn V; Nikolai, Bryan C; Zhou, Suoling; Louet, Jean-Francois; Chopra, Atul R; Chen, Xian; Reed, Graham; Noebels, Jeffrey; Adesina, Adekunle M; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Stevens, Robert D; Wenner, Brett R; Ilkayeva, Olga; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2012-05-01

    Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and impaired neurologic, cardiac and skeletal muscle performance, each of which is apparent in mice lacking SRC-3 expression. Consistent with human cases of CACT deficiency, dietary rescue with short chain fatty acids drastically attenuates the clinical hallmarks of the disease in mice devoid of SRC-3. Collectively, our results position SRC-3 as a key regulator of ?-oxidation. Moreover, these findings allow us to consider platform coactivators such as the SRCs as potential contributors to syndromes such as CACT deficiency, previously considered as monogenic. PMID:22560224

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS) into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60?mg/kg/d) subcutaneously (s.c.) for all 20?days of pregnancy (Group A), or for the first 10?days (Group B), or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C). Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2?ml/day) s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D). The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A) lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B) exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P?androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring. PMID:22607720

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60?mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20?days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10?days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2?ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P? Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  3. Structure of the inhibitory receptor for human natural killer cells resembles haematopoietic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q R; Mosyak, L; Winter, C C; Wagtmann, N; Long, E O; Wiley, D C

    1997-09-01

    Abnormal cells deficient in class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression are lysed by a class of lymphocytes called natural killer (NK) cells. This lysis provides a defence against pathogens and tumour cells that downregulate MHC expression to avoid an MHC-restricted, T-cell immune response. Normal cells escape lysis because their MHC molecules are recognized by NK-cell inhibitory receptors, which inhibit lysis. Several such inhibitory receptor families have been described in humans and mice. In the human killer-cell inhibitory receptor family, individual p58 members are specific for a subset of class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C molecules. The human p58 natural killer-cell inhibitory receptor clone 42 recognizes HLA-Cw4, -Cw2 and -Cw6, but not HLA-Cw3, -Cw2, -Cw7 or -Cw8, which are recognized by p58 killer-cell inhibitor receptor clone 43. We have determined the X-ray structure of the p58 NK-cell inhibitory receptor clone 42 at 1.7-A resolution. The structure has tandem immunoglobulin-like domains positioned at an acute, 60-degree angle. Loops on the outside of the elbow between the domains form a binding site projected away from the NK-cell surface. The topology of the domains and their arrangement relative to each other reveal a relationship to the haematopoietic receptor family, with implications for the signalling mechanism in NK cells. PMID:9288975

  4. Plasma Membrane Sterol Distribution Resembles the Surface Topography of Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu?stner, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol is an important constituent of cellular membranes. It has been suggested that cholesterol segregates into sterol-rich and -poor domains in the plasma membrane, although clear evidence for this is lacking. By fluorescence imaging of the natural sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE), the lateral sterol distribution has been visualized in living cells. The spatial labeling pattern of DHE coincided with surface structures such as ruffles, microvilli, and filopodia with correlation lengths in...

  5. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the…

  6. Rosenthal fiber encephalopathy in a dog resembling Alexander disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemañ, N; Marcaccini, A; Espino, L; Bermúdez, R; Nieto, J M; López-Peña, M

    2006-11-01

    A young male Bernese mountain dog presented with neurologic abnormalities consisting of nonambulatory tetraparesis, generalized tremors, and depressed mental status. At necropsy only a mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles was seen. The histologic examination revealed the presence of eosinophilic deposits consistent with Rosenthal fibers (RFs) throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. There was also a marked proliferation of abnormally large astrocytes and limited myelin changes. RFs were most prominent in perivascular, subpial, and subependymal areas, where they were perpendicularly located, producing a pallisaded arrangement. Immunohistochemically, RFs were strongly positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and when they were examined ultrastructurally they appeared as electron-dense amorphous masses located within the processes of astrocytes, most particularly in the perivascular feet. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings of this canine case were consistent with the published neuropathologic descriptions of Alexander disease in humans and in a few dogs, a rare condition that in humans has been shown to be caused by dominant mutations in the GFAP gene. PMID:17099166

  7. Murine adenovirus infection of SCID mice induces hepatic lesions that resemble human Reye syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirofski, L.; Horwitz, M. S.; Scharff, M. D.; Factor, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Murine adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection of CB-17 SCID mice (which are homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency mutation) induces hepatic histopathologic and ultrastructural features that are strikingly similar to human Reye syndrome. Gross pathologic examination of MAV-1-infected mice revealed only pale yellow liver tissue. Histopathologic studies of tissue from MAV-1-infected mice revealed diffuse hepatic injury manifested by microvesicular fatty degenerative changes of hepatoc...

  8. Obesity, rather than diet, drives epigenomic alterations in colonic epithelium resembling cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruifang; Grimm, Sara A; Chrysovergis, Kaliopi; Kosak, Justin; Wang, Xingya; Du, Ying; Burkholder, Adam; Janardhan, Kyathanahalli; Mav, Deepak; Shah, Ruchir; Eling, Thomas E; Wade, Paul A

    2014-04-01

    While obesity represents one of several risk factors for colorectal cancer in humans, the mechanistic underpinnings of this association remain unresolved. Environmental stimuli, including diet, can alter the epigenetic landscape of DNA cis-regulatory elements affecting gene expression and phenotype. Here, we explored the impact of diet and obesity on gene expression and the enhancer landscape in murine colonic epithelium. Obesity led to the accumulation of histone modifications associated with active enhancers at genomic loci downstream of signaling pathways integral to the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Meanwhile, colon-specific enhancers lost the same histone mark, poising cells for loss of differentiation. These alterations reflect a transcriptional program with many features shared with the program driving colon cancer progression. The interrogation of enhancer alterations by diet in colonic epithelium provides insights into the biology underlying high-fat diet and obesity as risk factors for colon cancer. PMID:24703701

  9. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper NØrskov

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial populations.

  10. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Rasekhi; Perikala Vijayananda Kumar; Navid Omidifar; Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic pati...

  11. A Family Resemblance Approach to the Nature of Science for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzik, Gurol; Nola, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Although there is universal consensus both in the science education literature and in the science standards documents to the effect that students should learn not only the content of science but also its nature, there is little agreement about what that nature is. This led many science educators to adopt what is sometimes called "the consensus…

  12. Retinyl Ester Storage Particles (Retinosomes) from the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Resemble Lipid Droplets in Other Tissues*

    OpenAIRE

    Orban, Tivadar; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Levels of many hydrophobic cellular substances are tightly regulated because of their potential cytotoxicity. These compounds tend to self-aggregate in cytoplasmic storage depots termed lipid droplets/bodies that have well defined structures that contain additional components, including cholesterol and various proteins. Hydrophobic substances in these structures become mobilized in a specific and regulated manner as dictated by cellular requirements. Retinal pigmented epithelial cells in the ...

  13. Complex Inheritance Pattern Resembling Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Involving a Microdeletion in Thrombocytopenia–Absent Radius Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Klopocki, Eva ; Schulze, Harald ; Strauß, Gabriele ; Ott, Claus-eric ; Hall, Judith ; Trotier, Fabienne ; Fleischhauer, Silke ; Greenhalgh, Lynn ; Newbury-ecob, Ruth a  .; Neumann, Luitgard m  .; Habenicht, Rolf ; Ko?nig, Rainer ; Seemanova, Eva ; Megarbane, Andre? ; Ropers, Hans-hilger 

    2006-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia–absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and bilateral radial aplasia in the presence of both thumbs. Other frequent associations are congenital heart disease and a high incidence of cow’s milk intolerance. Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance comes from families with several affected individuals born to unaffected parents, but several other observations argue for a more complex pattern of inheritance. In this study, we ...

  14. Hell's Gate globin I: an acid and thermostable bacterial hemoglobin resembling mammalian neuroglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Aik-Hong; Saito, Jennifer A; Baharuddin, Aida; Tuckerman, Jason R; Newhouse, James S; Kanbe, Masaomi; Newhouse, Elizabeth I; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul; Favier, Frédérique; Didierjean, Claude; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F; Gonzalez, Gonzalo; Gilles-Gonzalez, Marie-Alda; Najimudin, Nazalan; Alam, Maqsudul

    2011-10-20

    Hell's Gate globin I (HGbI), a heme-containing protein structurally homologous to mammalian neuroglobins, has been identified from an acidophilic and thermophilic obligate methanotroph, Methylacidiphilum infernorum. HGbI has very high affinity for O(2) and shows barely detectable autoxidation in the pH range of 5.2-8.6 and temperature range of 25-50°C. Examination of the heme pocket by X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics showed that conformational movements of Tyr29(B10) and Gln50(E7), as well as structural flexibility of the GH loop and H-helix, may play a role in modulating its ligand binding behavior. Bacterial HGbI's unique resistance to the sort of extreme acidity that would extract heme from any other hemoglobin makes it an ideal candidate for comparative structure-function studies of the expanding globin superfamily. PMID:21925500

  15. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal

  16. Histological spectrum of ependymomas and correlation of p53 and Ki- 67 expression with ependymoma grade and subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri Vaishali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Clinical and histological criteria for ependymoma prognosis are well recognized. Recently few studies have been done based on Immunohistochemistry for prognostication of these tumours. In this study we have correlated the histlogical spectrum with immmunoexpression of p53 and Ki67 in these tumors. AIMS : To know the incidence of ependymomas; study their morphological spectrum and to evaluate expression of P53 and Ki 67 in diffferent morphological subtypes. MATERIAL AND METHOD : A retrospective sudy was preformed on 70 ependymomas received in a period between 1994 and 2001. Entire tissue received was processed for routine paraffin embedded H&E stained sections. Immunocytochemistry was performed using antibodies to GFAP, EMA, Pancytokeratin and synaptophysin, to differentiate papillary ependymoma from choroid plexus papilloma; clear cell ependymoma from oligodendroglioma and central neurocytoma; ependymoblastoma from other embryonal tumours. p53 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was performed to correlate their expression with various tumour grades and subtypes. RESULTS : There were 3 cases (4.2% of Grade I ependymoma (2 cases of myxopapillary ependymoma and 1 case of subependymoma; 57 cases (81.5% of ependymoma grade II (43 of these were of classical variety, 11 of clear cell ependymoma, 2 of papillary and 1 case of cellular ependymoma. There were 9 cases (12.8% of anaplastic ependymoma (one of these was a clear cell ependymoma and 1 case (1.5% of ependymoblastoma CONCLUSION : p53 and Ki67 indices can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories to supplement the tumor grade on histology and more studies with follow up should be performed toanalyse the prognsis of different subtypes. The expression of Ki 67 and p53 was significantly higher in anaplastic ependymomas. 4 out of 11 cases of clear cell ependymomas showed higher Ki 67 indices as compared to classical grade II ependymomas, thus further highlighting the importance of differentiating the various subtypes.

  17. Impact of Molecular Markers on Personalised-Treatment Concepts in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnell O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are rare brain-derived tumours classified according to mainly histopathological criteria by a 4-step grading system of the World Health Organisation (WHO grades I?IV. Differentiating between the underlying tumour cell components (eg, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, grading intends to give clinicians a general estimation about their patients? prognoses. Increasing knowledge about the molecular genetic profile now leads to a deeper insight into the predictive or prognostic value of several molecular markers with large impact on the treatment of glioma patients.br Hypermethylation of the 6O-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase (MGMT promoter has turned out to be an important predictive marker for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV receiving radiochemotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy and may be crucial for a treatment decision between (radio- chemotherapy versus radiation only in older patients. Moreover, mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH seem to have a strong prognostic impact in malignant gliomas since GBM patients with IDH mutation showed longer median survival compared to patients with anaplastic gliomas (WHO grade III without IDH mutation. Additionally, genetic co-deletion on chromosomes 1p and 19q (LOH 1p/19q has been demonstrated to be a favourable prognostic factor for patients with anaplastic gliomas receiving radiation, chemotherapy with alkylating agents, or both.br Hence, histological diagnosis will not be suffi cient to render the best medical treatment to glioma patients in the future. Determination especially of MGMT promoter methylation status, IDH mutation, and LOH1p/19q amongst others will have increasing influence on decision-making in order to meet the demand for more personalised therapy for glioma patients.

  18. Evidence-based adjuvant therapy for gliomas: Current concepts and newer developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of gliomas is increasing worldwide, including India. Of the 18,820 new cases of primary central nervous system (CNS tumors diagnosed annually in the United States, gliomas account for over 60% with 30-40% of them being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, 10% being anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, and 10% being low grade gliomas (LGGs. This is in contrast to one study from West Bengal, India, in which only 7.9% of the brain tumors were GBMs, while 46.8% were astrocytomas. Of all adult primary CNS tumors, GBM is the most common and the most malignant with about 7,000 to 8,000 new cases annually in the United States. Given poor outcomes, a number of treatment approaches have been investigated. Common to these approaches is the use of adjuvant radiation therapy, even as surgery alone, with or without chemotherapy, may be the mainstay for some lower grade and low-risk gliomas. Today, treatment typically involves external beam radiation, with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy for more aggressive histologies. Although gliomas are relatively uncommon, active research is ongoing. Results of landmark trials along with some of the recently published trials are presented. These trials and management strategies as well as evolving concepts are found by reviewing over 200 articles in the National Library Medical (NLM database, PubMed, more than 60 of which are refrenced. Specifically, the database is searched using the following keywords, with various combinations: glioma, low-grade, anaplastic, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, chemotherapy, radiation, new concepts, phase III, MGMT, CDX-110 (Celldex, temozolomide, 1p/19q deletion, and bevacizumab.

  19. Patterns of failure following CT-based 3-D irradiation for malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze the patterns of failure in patients with malignant glioma after localized irradiation. Patients and Materials: Recurrence patterns of 46 patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma: 24, anaplastic astrocytoma: 15, anaplastic oligodendroglioma: 5, unclassified malignant glioma: 2) were studied using CT/MR scans and radiotherapy planplots. All patients were operated before and a total dose of 5,940 cGy was given after CT assisted and individually configurated 3-D planning using 7-15 slices at an in between distance of 5 mm. The target volume included a 2-3 cm margin beyond the tumor indicated by preoperative CT scan. The following parameters were analyzed: tumor size and type, size of perifocal edema and whether the edema was fully included into treatment volume and finally the location of the recurrent tumor. The maximal distance between primary tumor and recurrent tumor was measured and also the distance from the border of the primary tumor to the distant border of edema for a visual analysis. Results: Local limited volume irradiation was sufficient since 73.9% of recurrences occurred within 2 cm distance from primary tumor and 93.5% of recurrences occurred completely within 3 cm distance from primary tumor. Regarding the distance between primary tumor and recurrent tumor and the time interval until appearance of recurrent tumor it was not of importance if perifocal edema was included completely into treaal edema was included completely into treatment volume or not. Conclusion: Limited volume irradiation of malignant glioma with a target volume 3 cm beyond that indicated by preoperative CT scan seems to be sufficient, since 93.5% of recurrences were completely within 3 cm distance from the margin of the tumor. Improvement of the results with larger treatment volumes are unlikely. Complete irradiation of perifocal edema was not found to be necessary. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of 11C-methionine, 11C-choline, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography for distinguishing glioma recurrence from radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the different metabolic activities characteristic of glioma recurrence and radiation necrosis (RN) and to explore the diagnostic accuracy for differentiation of the two conditions using 11C-methionine (MET), 11C-choline (CHO), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET). Fifty patients with lesions suggestive of recurrent glioma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent MET, CHO, and FDG-PET. All patients who had previously been treated with radiotherapy for malignant glioma were subjected to open surgery and pathological diagnosis (17 recurrent grade 3-gliomas (Gr.3s) comprising 7 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) and 10 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs), 17 recurrent glioblastomas (Gr.4s), and 16 RNs). We measured the PET/Gd volume ratio, the PET/Gd overlap ratio, and the lesion/normal brain uptake ratio (L/N ratio) and determined the optimal index of each PET scan. The PET/Gd volume ratio and the PET/Gd overlap ratio for RN were significantly lower than those of glioma recurrence only with MET-PET (P < 0.05). The L/N ratio of RN was significantly lower than that of Gr.4 with all PET imaging (P < 0.001) and was significantly lower than that of Gr.3, especially for AO, only with MET-PET images (P < 0.005). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the curve of MET, CHO, and FDG was 92.5, 81.4, and 77.4, respectively. MET L/N ratio of greater than 2.51 provided the best sensitivity and specificity for establishing glioma recurrence (91.2% and 87.5%, respectively). These results demonstrated that MET-PET was superior to both CHO and FDG-PET for diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing glioma recurrence from RN. (author)

  1. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas-Duport, C

    1993-07-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNTs) are a group of supratentorial cortical benignant lesions that superficially resemble mixed oligo-astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or astrocytomas. Clinically these tumours are associated with partial seizures beginning before the age of 20 years, with no neurologic deficit and no stigmata of phacomatosis. In the revised WHO classification, DNTs have been incorporated among the category of neuronal and mixed neuronoglial tumours. This classification describes a histologic variant characterized by the following criteria: cortical location, multinodular architecture--the nodule being made of multiple variants looking like astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas, foci of dysplastic cortical disorganization and the presence of a glioneuronal element showing a columnar structure perpendicular to the cortical surface. A study of 14 cases for which only a specific glioneuronal element could be identified demonstrated that this specific element is sufficient for diagnosing DNTs and that the spectrum of DNTs includes a simple form with a unique glioneuronal element. Preoperative imaging follow-up data, in the series of 23 simple and complex forms, indicated that DNTs are perfectly stable. However, these tumours may show a high MIB 1 labeling index. PMID:8293188

  2. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. Cloning and characterization of human RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of RTVP-1 in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report the cloning and characterization of RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of human RTVP-1, which was isolated from the U87 glioma cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that RTVP-1b contains an additional 71 base exon between exons 2 and 3 that is missing in RTVP-1, leading to a frame-shift and a different putative protein. The deduced protein was 237 amino acids in length, sharing the N-terminal 141 amino acids with RTVP-1. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that RTVP-1b was expressed in a wide range of tissues and that its expression was different from that of RTVP-1. In contrast, RTVP-1 and RTVP-1b showed similar patterns of expression in astrocytic tumors; highly expressed in glioblastomas as compared to normal brains, low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Overexpression of RTVP-1b increased glioma cell proliferation but did not affect cell migration. Our results suggest that RTVP-1b represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in gliomas

  4. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. [Utility of 11C-methionine PET/CT in neuro-oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Parera, Ignacio; Igirio Gamero, Jorge L; Blumenkrantz, Yamila; Bruno, Gabriel; Báez, Alejandra; Tafur Canabal, José G; Báez, Mariana; Kuchkaryan, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine (11C-methionine PET/CT) is a new technique used to evaluate primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We describe our experience regarding the first 4 patients with glial tumors and 11C-methionine PET/CT. This is a descriptive, observational and prospective study of 4 patients between 38-50 years of age, with different gliomas (WHO classification). MRI and 11C-methionine PET/CT were performed in all cases. Case 1, gliomatosis cerebri grade II post-radiotherapy. Case 2, oligodendroglioma grade II diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy in 1993. Case 3, glioblastoma grade IV post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. Case 4, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma grade III post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. The pattern of 11C-methionine uptake compared with MRI showed tumor progression in cases 1, 3 and 4, and in case 2 showed uptake although the final diagnosis was pseudoprogression. Unlike 18fluordeoxiglucose PET/TC, 11C-methionine uptake in normal brain tissue and pseudoprogression is low, and gliomas are displayed as metabolically active areas. The 11C-methionine PET/CT provided valuable information on the tumoral behavior and extension, although in one case presented did not differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression. 11C-methionine PET/CT could be a useful tool in the study and follow-up to patients with gliomas. PMID:23732194

  6. 1p/19q-driven prognostic molecular classification for high-grade oligodendroglial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haihui; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Xiaohui; Zeng, Wei; Jia, Wenqing; Wang, Junmei; Lin, Song

    2014-12-01

    The subjectivity in pathological diagnosis of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) and uncertainty in designation of glioblastoma with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) were two major dilemmas which puzzled neuro-pathologists and neurosurgeons. The present study was designed to project a molecular classification scheme based on the status of chromosome 1p and 19q. Patients (n = 117) with histological diagnosis of primary high-grade oligodendroglial tumors (HGOs) enrolled in the study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes 1p and 19q was performed. Univariate analysis showed that higher tumor grade, 1p/19q maintenance and 1q/19p co polysomy were confirmed as risk factors in HGOs (P < 0.01). Accordingly, patients with HGOs were divided into four subtypes which conferred remarkably distinct prognosis based on the number of risk factors (0 risk factor: HGOs-1, 1 risk factor: HGOs-2, 2 risk factors: HGOs-3, 3 risk factors: HGOs-4). Cox regression model revealed that the tumor grade was no longer independently associated with survival, while the molecular classification scheme showed a marked prognostic significance (HR = 0.359, 95 % CI 0.261-0.494, P < 0.001 for progression-free survival (PFS); HR = 0.393, 95 % CI 0.283-0.546, P < 0.001 for overall survival (OS)). The classification scheme incorporating traditional pathology with molecular information can be served as a supplement of the current WHO classification system and contribute to the personalized treatment decision-making. PMID:25151507

  7. Novel Use of the Contura for High Dose Rate Cranial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A popular choice for treatment of recurrent gliomas was cranial brachytherapy using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System. However, this device was taken off the market in late 2008, thus leaving a treatment void. This case study presents our experience treating a cranial lesion for the first time using a Contura multilumen, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy balloon applicator. The patient was a 47-year-old male who was diagnosed with a recurrent right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Previous radiosurgery made him a good candidate for brachytherapy. An intracavitary HDR balloon brachytherapy device (Contura) was placed in the resection cavity and treated with a single fraction of 20 Gy. The implant, treatment, and removal of the device were all completed without incident. Dosimetry of the device was excellent because the dose conformed very well to the target. V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 98.9%, 95.7%, 27.2, and 8.8 cc, respectively. This patient was treated successfully using the Contura multilumen balloon. Contura was originally designed for deployment in a postlumpectomy breast for treatment by accelerated partial breast irradiation. Being an intracavitary balloon device, its similarity to the GliaSite system makes it a viable replacement candidate. Multiple lumens in the device also make it possible to shape the dose delivered to the target, something not possible before with the GliaSite applicator.

  8. Extranodal testicular anaplastic versus plasmablastic plasma cell tumor: A rare case with diagnostic dilemma in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, P. Jovita M.; Ramesh, Anita; Hercules, Simon; Silamban,; Dhanasekar, T.; Mallikarjuna, V. S.; Mathew, Lionel Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Primary testicular plasmacytoma is rare, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. An 84-year-old gentleman was admitted with complaints of swelling over the right side of scrotum for the past 2 months. Local examination revealed a 10×15 cm tense and tender swelling involving the right scrotum. Therefore, high orchidectomy with excision of hemiscrotum was done. The histopathology revealed testicular plasmacytoma, which was positive fo...

  9. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors for second-line therapy of non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghmans T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Berghmans,1 Myriam Remmelink,2 Ahmad Awada31Clinic of Thoracic Oncology and Department of Intensive Care, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Pathology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 3Medical Oncology Clinic, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: Targeted therapies are nowadays a treatment option in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, for which oncogenic drivers have been identified. The epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib, are the standard of care for patients in whom tumors are presenting with an activating epidermal growth factor-receptor mutation, with new active agents like afatinib reaching clinics in the near future. Other genetic abnormalities have been documented in squamous and non-squamous lung cancer. The EML4–ALK gene fusion is a rare event, occurring in around 5% of lung cancer, quite exclusively in adenocarcinoma with a predominance of young non/light smokers. Detection of ALK-positive tumors is challenging, as there is no gold-standard technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the method used in prospective trials assessing the activity of crizotinib and is recommended by the American FDA. Crizotinib is the first orally active inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases, including ALK and ROS1, in clinical practice. Impressive results came from a phase I study and are now confirmed in a large phase II study with response rate of 60%, whatever the number of previous lines of chemotherapy. Other ALK inhibitors are currently in the preclinical phase, and some are showing promising results in early phase I/II studies. This review aims to present the current knowledge on the EML4–ALK gene fusion, the pitfalls for the pathologist and the clinician in searching this abnormality, and to review the existing literature on ALK inhibitors under development, focusing their role compared to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, EML4–ALK, crizotinib

  10. Análisis de la presencia de mutaciones por pérdida de heterocigocidad de 1p/19q en tumores cerebrales de estirpe glial / Allelic loss at 1p/19q analysis in brain tumors of glial lineage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Gil-Salú; A., Nieto; J.F., Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; J., Almarcha.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Analizar en tumores cerebrales, fundamentalmente de estirpe neuro-epitelial, la existencia de mutaciones en los cromosomas 1p y 19q por la técnica de análisis de la pérdida de heterocigocidad (LOH). Un primer objetivo implícito fue poner a punto la técnica del análisis. Método. Hemos inve [...] stigado la existencia de mutaciones en 3 alelos seleccionados del cromosoma 1p y en 2 alelos del 19q de distintos tumores cerebrales de estirpe glial intervenidos de manera consecutiva en nuestro Centro desde Octubre de 2004 a Marzo de 2006. La metodología empleada ha sido la detección en ADN tumoral de tejido en fresco y en sangre del paciente del marcaje por PCR de amplificados y electroforesis analizando la pérdida de heterocigocidad de microsatélites, repeticiones de dinucleótidos, situados en D1S508, D1S2734, D1S199, D19S412 y D19S219. Resultados. Hemos incluido en esta primera fase de estudio un total de 45 muestras de pacientes intervenidos de tumores cerebrales supratentoriales de estirpe neuroepitelial y que incluyen: 29 glioblastomas, 1 gliosarcoma, 7 astrocitomas grado II, 1 oligoastrocitoma, 3 oligodendrogliomas, 1 oligodendroglioma anaplásico, 1 xantoastrocitoma, 1 tumor neuroepitelial disembrioplásico y 1 astrocitoma pilocítico. La presencia de mutación la hemos considerado cuando el índice alélico (T1/T2)/(N1/N2) era inferior a 0.8. Por estirpe histológica destaca la presencia de mutación en un 80% de tumores oligodendrogliales, 14% de glioblastomas y 14% de astrocitomas fibrilares grado II. Conclusiones. La técnica de análisis de LOH en 1p/19q es factible de realizar en centros que dispongan de técnicas de estudios genético-moleculares, con un alto índice de fiabilidad. De su resultado se desprende qué pacientes se pueden beneficiar del tratamiento con alquilantes añadiendo, a la terapia quirúrgica y/o radioterápica en uso hasta la fecha, una posibilidad de tratamiento con alto porcentaje de respuestas. Abstract in english Background. To analyze in cerebral tumors of neuroepithelial tissue 1p/19q codeletions by study of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). A first implied objective was to get ready this molecular thecnique. Methods. We aimed to determine several deletions mapping 1p and 19q chromosomes, three allelic loss of [...] 1p and two allelic loss of 19q, in patients with cerebral tumors which were operated in our Deparment from October 2004 until March 2006. We have detected in blood and tumoral DNA loss of heterozygosity assay for molecular detection using PCR and capillary array electrophoresis of five markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D1S199, D19S412 y D19S219). Results. Were included in the first part of this study 45 sample of neuroepithelial tissue supratentorial tumors: 29 glioblastoma, 1 gliosarcoma, 7 diffuse astrocytoma grade II, 1 oligoastrocytoma, 3 oligodendroglioma, 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 1 xanthoastrocytoma, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma. We considered deleted regions identified when allelic ratio (T1/T2)/(N1/N2) was lower than 0.8. Taken together, histological tissue shown deletion in 80% of oligodendroglial tumors, 14% glioblastoma and 14% of diffuse astrocytoma grade II. Conclusions. Evaluation of 1p/19q allelic status by LOH analysis may provide useful information for guiding clinical and therapeutical decisions with high succes ratio. These results shown why patients with 1p/19q codeletion survive longer, because adjuvant alkylants adds further improvements to standard, surgery and radiotherapy, treatments.

  11. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors and Liver or Kidney Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Subependymoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  12. In vivo single voxel H MR spectroscopy in cerebral glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Chan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Jung, Hee Won; Kim, Dong Sung; Min, Kwan Hong; Kang, Sa Ouk; Min, Byoung Goo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    To assess the metabolite ratios in gliomas to determine whether the metabolic information obtained by using in vivo single voxel {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used as a marker for the grading of malignancy. A total of 28 {sup 1}H MR spectra from brain tumors in 27 patients with pathologically-proven gliomas were recorded. Seven patients had low grade gliomas (grade II astrocytoma in three, oligodendroglioma in three and mixed glioma in one), six had anaplastic gliomas (grade III astrocytoma in three and oligodendroglioma n three), and 14 had glioblastoma multiformes (grade IV). {sup 1}H MRS was performed on a 1.5T MR unit using PRESS sequence with a TR of 2000ms, a TE of 270 or 135ms and a voxel size of cm for all spectra. Relative lactate levels, NAA/Cho, NAA/ Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were measured based on the peak heights of each resonance and compared among gliomas. Most tumors demonstrated decreased NAA, elevated Cho and lactate. Relatively high lactate and Cho levels and markedly decreased NAA level were more frequently observed in the high grade gliomas than in low grade gliomas. Marked elevation of lactated level in the solid component of the tumor was mostly observed in high grade gliomas. In a patient with gliomatosis cerebri, {sup 1}H MRS demonstrated a spectral pattern of tumor infiltration in an area that on MR images was apparently normal. However, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios did not significantly correlate, however, with the histologic grading of malignancy. Because of the partial volume effect, the heterogeneity of tumors containing solid and cystic or necrotic components within a voxel limited the interpretation of {sup 1}H MRS data for the grading of malignancy. The results suggest that in some patients in vivo single voxel {sup 1}H MRS may be useful for grading the malignancy of gilomas and evaluating the exact extent of tumors. In solid gliomas, the relative level of lactate appears to be a good marker for the grading of malignancy.

  13. In vivo single voxel H MR spectroscopy in cerebral glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the metabolite ratios in gliomas to determine whether the metabolic information obtained by using in vivo single voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used as a marker for the grading of malignancy. A total of 28 1H MR spectra from brain tumors in 27 patients with pathologically-proven gliomas were recorded. Seven patients had low grade gliomas (grade II astrocytoma in three, oligodendroglioma in three and mixed glioma in one), six had anaplastic gliomas (grade III astrocytoma in three and oligodendroglioma n three), and 14 had glioblastoma multiformes (grade IV). 1H MRS was performed on a 1.5T MR unit using PRESS sequence with a TR of 2000ms, a TE of 270 or 135ms and a voxel size of cm for all spectra. Relative lactate levels, NAA/Cho, NAA/ Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were measured based on the peak heights of each resonance and compared among gliomas. Most tumors demonstrated decreased NAA, elevated Cho and lactate. Relatively high lactate and Cho levels and markedly decreased NAA level were more frequently observed in the high grade gliomas than in low grade gliomas. Marked elevation of lactated level in the solid component of the tumor was mostly observed in high grade gliomas. In a patient with gliomatosis cerebri, 1H MRS demonstrated a spectral pattern of tumor infiltration in an area that on MR images was apparently normal. However, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios did not significantly correlate, r ratios did not significantly correlate, however, with the histologic grading of malignancy. Because of the partial volume effect, the heterogeneity of tumors containing solid and cystic or necrotic components within a voxel limited the interpretation of 1H MRS data for the grading of malignancy. The results suggest that in some patients in vivo single voxel 1H MRS may be useful for grading the malignancy of gilomas and evaluating the exact extent of tumors. In solid gliomas, the relative level of lactate appears to be a good marker for the grading of malignancy

  14. Cotyledonary somatic embryos of Pinus pinaster Ait. most closely resemble fresh, maturing cotyledonary zygotic embryos: biological, carbohydrate and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Trontin, Jean-François; Corbineau, Françoise; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Beaufour, Martine; Reymond, Isabelle; Le Metté, Claire; Ader, Kevin; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Label, Philippe; Teyssier, Caroline; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Cotyledonary somatic embryos (SEs) of maritime pine are routinely matured for 12 weeks before being germinated and converted to plantlets. Although regeneration success is highly dependent on SEs quality, the date of harvesting is currently determined mainly on the basis of morphological features. This empirical method does not provide any accurate information about embryo quality with respect to storage compounds (proteins, carbohydrates). We first analyzed SEs matured for 10, 12 and 14 weeks by carrying out biological (dry weight, water content) and biochemical measurements (total protein and carbohydrate contents). No difference could be found between collection dates, suggesting that harvesting SEs after 12 weeks is appropriate. Cotyledonary SEs were then compared to various stages, from fresh to fully desiccated, in the development of cotyledonary zygotic embryos (ZEs). We identified profiles that were similar using hierarchical ascendant cluster analysis (HCA). Fresh and dehydrated ZEs could be distinguished, and SEs clustered with fresh ZEs. Both types of embryo exhibited similar carbohydrate and protein contents and signatures. This high level of similarity (94.5 %) was further supported by proteome profiling. Highly expressed proteins included storage, stress-related, late embryogenesis abundant and energy metabolism proteins. By comparing overexpressed proteins in developing and cotyledonary SEs or ZEs, some (23 proteins) could be identified as candidate biomarkers for the late, cotyledonary stage. This is the first report of useful generic protein markers for monitoring embryo development in maritime pine. Our results also suggest that improvements of SEs quality may be achieved if the current maturation conditions are refined. PMID:25115559

  15. Structure and expression of a Drosophila male accessory gland gene whose product resembles a peptide pheromone precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, S A; Wolfner, M F

    1988-09-01

    The accessory gland of male insects is a genital tissue that secretes many components of the ejaculatory fluid, some of which affect the female's receptivity to courtship and her rate of oviposition. We have examined the structure and expression of two tightly linked genes that are expressed exclusively in the male accessory glands of adult Drosophila melanogaster. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA, and are separated by 20 bases. Both genes are regulated by the sex determination hierarchy and are expressed in the absence of germ cells. Immunological analysis reveals the protein products of at least one of these genes in the secretion of the accessory gland. The proteins are transferred to the female fly during copulation and are rapidly altered in the female genital tract. The predicted sequence of one protein has features of a peptide hormone precursor, and a region in which 11 of 17 amino acids are identical to egg-laying hormone (ELH) of the California sea hare, Aplysia californica. PMID:3142802

  16. The Genome of the Saprophytic Fungus Verticillium tricorpus Reveals a Complex Effector Repertoire Resembling That of Its Pathogenic Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Michael F; Faino, Luigi; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Bolton, Melvin D; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2015-03-01

    Vascular wilts caused by Verticillium spp. are destructive plant diseases affecting hundreds of hosts. Only a few Verticillium spp. are causal agents of vascular wilt diseases, of which V. dahliae is the most notorious pathogen, and several V. dahliae genomes are available. In contrast, V. tricorpus is mainly known as a saprophyte and causal agent of opportunistic infections. Based on a hybrid approach that combines second and third generation sequencing, a near-gapless V. tricorpus genome assembly was obtained. With comparative genomics, we sought to identify genomic features in V. dahliae that confer the ability to cause vascular wilt disease. Unexpectedly, both species encode similar effector repertoires and share a genomic structure with genes encoding secreted proteins clustered in genomic islands. Intriguingly, V. tricorpus contains significantly fewer repetitive elements and an extended spectrum of secreted carbohydrate- active enzymes when compared with V. dahliae. In conclusion, we highlight the technical advances of a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach and show that the saprophyte V. tricorpus shares many hallmark features with the pathogen V. dahliae. PMID:25208342

  17. Urachal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the ovaries resembling primary ovarian mucinous carcinoma: a case report with the immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonae

    2010-01-01

    Urachal adencarcinoma is rare and its metastasis to the ovary is extremely rare. I report here on a case of urachal adenocarcinoma that metastasized to bilateral ovaries in a 72-year-old female. She presented with vaginal spotting. Abdominal CT revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass in the recto-