WorldWideScience

Sample records for resembled anaplastic oligodendroglioma

  1. Unusual intracranial spread of anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are the third most common type of glioma. Oligodendrogliomas are typically indolent tumours, yet the majority of them are incurable and most patients will ultimately die. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas are important to recognise from other primary brain tumours, since they have unique molecular, histological and clinical features. Oligodendroglioma, especially the anaplastic type, has a tendency to intracranial and extracranial metastasis. In this paper, we present an unusual manifestation of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. PMID:22891021

  2. SNP Array Analysis Reveals Novel Genomic Abnormalities Including Copy Neutral Loss of Heterozygosity in Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Dehais, Caroline; Courdy, Célia; Carpentier, Catherine; de Bernard, Simon; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Mokhtari, Karima; Jouvet, Anne; Honnorat, Jérôme; Chinot, Olivier; Ramirez, Carole; Beauchesne, Patrick; Benouaich-Amiel, Alexandra; Godard, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19)(q10;p10), IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations).

  3. MicroRNA expression profiling in recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Giwon Kim; Edmond Changkyun Park; Chung Heon Ryu; Sin-Soo Jeon; Seung Il Kim; Hong-Seok Jang; Gun-Hwa Kim; Byung-Ock Choi

    2011-01-01

    In anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), genetic alternation was associated with clinical outcome. We explored radiation-associated up or downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in AO by comparing miRNA expression profiles in newly-diagnosed AO to recurrent AO treated with postoperative radiotherapy. We identified that 23 miRNAs were upregulated and 42 miRNAs were downregulated in recurrent AO compared with newly-diagnosed AO. Especially, the expression of MiR-124, miR-128, miR-139-5p, miR-153, miR...

  4. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  5. Interventricular low-grade oligodendroglioma with multiple parenchymal relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Rakhsha, Afshin; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas can be found anywhere oligodendrocytes exist; however, they mostly occur in frontal lobes. Although intra- and extra central nervous system dissemination of anaplastic oligodendroglioma is a well-known property of this tumour, low-grade oligodendroglioma with intracranial relapse is a very uncommon finding. In this case report, a 37-year-old man with grade II oligodendroglioma relapsed after 18?months with multiple parenchymal masses is presented. PMID:22684838

  6. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas: Imaging findings in six patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oligodendrogliomas are primarily supratentorial tumors. However, infrequently, they can also arise from infratentorial structures. There are only limited numbers of radiological articles on the specific imaging findings of this entity. Purpose: To investigate the imaging findings of infratentorial oligodendrogliomas. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical records of six patients with pathologically proven infratentorial oligodendrogliomas between December 1994 and April 2008. Tumor location, circumscription, signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, the presence of restricted diffusion, and the change of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on MRI were evaluated. Results: In total, six patients (three male, three female; mean age 65 years, range 51-75 years) were included. The pathology revealed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in all six patients. The location was cerebellum in four patients, medulla in one patient, and fourth ventricle and tegmentum in one patient. Three of them were of the infiltrative type, and the other three of the mass-forming type. The solid component of the tumors showed high SI (n=6) on FLAIR and T2-weighted images, and low (n=5) or iso (n=1) SI on T1-weighted images. All infiltrative lesions showed multifocal patchy enhancement, and mass-forming lesions showed heterogeneous enhancement (n=2) and diffuse homogeneous enhancement (n=1). Three patients had restricted diffusion, and one had leptomeningeal seeding. There was markedly increased rCBV on perfusion-weighted image (PWI) in one patient. Calcification or hemorrhage was not found. Tumor progression after operation, radiation therapy, gamma-knife surgery, or chemotherapy developed in five patients. Conclusion: Although infratentorial oligodendrogliomas did not show characteristic imaging findings, there was a tendency toward multifocal heterogeneous enhancement and absent or mild mass effect of infiltrative lesions. Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas may be more malignant than supratentorial oligodendrogliomas

  7. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti G

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available G Simonetti, P Gaviani, A Botturi, A Innocenti, E Lamperti, A Silvani Neurooncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy Abstract: Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS, from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients' quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients. Keywords: anaplastic oligodendroglioma, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, molecular markers, treatments toxicity

  8. Brain scanning in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six brain scans and biopsies from 34 patients with histologically verified oligodendrogliomas were evaluated. Twenty-nine of the 36 scans were positive (80.6 percent) but the abnormal uptake produced by these neoplasms had no distinguishing features. The levels of endothelial proliferation-vascularity, necrosis, and mitoses were significantly different between the positive and negative scans. In the oligodendrogliomas, the relationship between histologic malignancy, detectability on scan, and prognosis remains unresolved. (U.S.)

  9. Clinical management of grade III oligodendroglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligodendrogliomas represent the third most common type of glioma, comprising 4%–15% of all gliomas and can be classified by degree of malignancy into grade II and grade III, according to WHO classification. Only 30% of oligodendroglial tumors have anaplastic characteristics. Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) is often localized as a single lesion in the white matter and in the cortex, rarely in brainstem or spinal cord. The management of AO is deeply changed in the recent years. Maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) was considered as the standard of care since paramount findings regarding molecular aspects, in particular co-deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 19, revealed that these subsets of AO, benefit in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), from the addition of chemotherapy to RT. Allelic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q occur in 50%–70% of both low-grade and anaplastic tumors, representing a strong prognostic factor and a powerful predictor of prolonged survival. Several other molecular markers have potential clinical significance as IDH1 mutations, confirming the strong prognostic role for OS. Malignant brain tumors negatively impacts on patients’ quality of life. Seizures, visual impairment, headache, and cognitive disorders can be present. Moreover, chemotherapy and RT have important side effects. For these reasons, “health-related quality of life” is becoming a topic of growing interest, investigating on physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. Understanding the impact of medical treatment on health-related quality of life will probably have a growing effect both on health care strategies and on patients

  10. Age-related differences in 1p and 19q deletions in oligodendrogliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports indicate that anaplastic oligodendrogliomas frequently show allelic losses on chromosome arms 1p and 19q, and that these deletions are associated with better chemotherapeutic response and overall patient survival. Because of the diversified genetic makeup of the population and the centralized provincial referral system for brain tumor patients in Manitoba, the epidemiological features of such tumors sometimes differ from the published data acquired from non-community based settings. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of allelic deletions for chromosome arms 1p and 19q in anaplastic and in low-grade oligodendrogliomas in the Manitoba population. Methods Loss of heterozygosity (LOH analysis of brain tumors was carried out using 4 microsatellite markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D19S219 and D19S412 and a PCR based assay. The tumors were consecutively acquired during the period September 1999–March 2001 and a total of 63 tumors were assessed. Results We found that allelic loss of chromosome 1p and 19q was higher in oligodendrogliomas than in other diffuse gliomas and that for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, younger patients exhibited significantly more deletions than older patients (>60 years of age. Conclusions These studies suggest that age may be a factor in the genetic alterations of oligodendrogliomas. In addition, these studies demonstrate that this assay can easily be carried out in a cost-effective manner in a small tertiary center.

  11. A Malignant Oligarchy: Progenitors Govern the Behavior of Oligodendrogliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Yanxin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that brain tumors arise from neural stem cells, and are maintained by stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs). In this issue of Cancer Cell Persson et al. report that oligodendrogliomas, unlike malignant astrocytomas, originate from – and are propagated by – cells that resemble oligodendrocyte progenitors.

  12. Management of oligodendroglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on oligodendrogliomas which are rare intracranial tumors. While surgical resection (S) is the mainstay of treatment, radiation therapy (RT) remains controversial. To define its role and to delineate failure patterns and prognostic factors, a review of the UCLA experience and the literature was undertaken. Forty-nine cases of oligodendrogliomas were treated at UCLA between 1957 and 1990. Age, race, gender, CT findings, location, grade, histology, calcification, S ± RT, and RT fields and dose were evaluated for prognostic relevance by means of x2 and log-rank tests. At 5, 10, and 15 years, actuarial survival was 61%, 41%, and 24%, respectively. Ten patients were free of disease. Failure pattern was overwhelmingly local; in 97%, failure was only local. Analysis for prognostic factors showed age less than 40 years, low grade, calcification, and evaluation with CT to be significant. Trend toward improved 5-year survival with postoperative RT was noted. With stratification for subtotal resection, this improvement was significant. Furthermore, meta-analysis demonstrated survival advantage with S plus RT

  13. Psoriatic Arthritis during Treatment with Bevacizumab for Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graceffa, D; Maiani, E; Pace, A; Solivetti, F M; Elia, F; De Mutiis, C; Bonifati, C

    2012-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The drug, alone or in combination with other anticancer agents, has been shown to be effective against several types of neoplasms. We report a case of a woman with a history of severe psoriasis who developed psoriatic arthritis during a course of bevacizumab, which was administered for a malignant glioma. PMID:23243547

  14. Psoriatic Arthritis during Treatment with Bevacizumab for Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma

    OpenAIRE

    Graceffa, D.; E. Maiani; De Pace, A; Solivetti, F. M.; F. Elia; de Mutiis, C.; C. Bonifati

    2012-01-01

    Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanised monoclonal antibody directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The drug, alone or in combination with other anticancer agents, has been shown to be effective against several types of neoplasms. We report a case of a woman with a history of severe psoriasis who developed psoriatic arthritis during a course of bevacizumab, which was administered for a malignant glioma.

  15. Intraventricular oligodendroglioma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligodendrogliomas constitute approximately 5% off all cerebral gliomas and are usually found in the cerebral hemispheres (frontal lobe). They may invade the ventricles and spread to the ventricular system and leptomeninges. Oligodendrogliomas very rarely occur in the ventricles. This paper presents a case of 26-year-old woman with raised intracranial pressure and which computed tomographic findings of an intraventricular hyperdense mass occupying both lateral ventricles. Correlation with angiography and details of surgical treatment are presented. (author)

  16. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland. PMID:20849631

  17. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  18. Characteristic CT signs in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography offers valuable aid for improving the diagnostic capabilities for oligodendrogliomas. The authors have attempted to determine more precisely the CT characteristic signs for this type of tumor and to establish criteria for predicting malignancy grade. They can conclude that calcifications are the main signs which lead to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, as the most usual calcifying glioma. This finding was known before the CT era, but with the CT one can be more exact with regard to form, growth, number and density of the calcifications and especially the smallest of them, which are not to be seen on the conventional X-ray examination. The cyst formation is another feature of oligodendroglioma. The occurrence of contrast enhancement and cyst formation are the most characteristic signs of malignancy. (C.F.)

  19. Osteoclastoma-like anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Leena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor that is partially or totally undifferentiated. The use of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC to diagnose anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells, has been rarely reported. We report here a case of osteoclastoma - anaplastic carcinoma - that was diagnosed on cytology in a 58 year-old female patient, who presented with a progressively increasing swelling over the anterior aspect of the neck. Multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts are rarely seen in the giant cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma.

  20. Oligodendroglioma presenting as chronic mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAHA, Rahul; JAKHAR, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Oligodendrogliomas may present with a variety of psychological symptoms but it only rarely presents with mania. The patient described in this case report is a 55-year-old man with a three year history of progressive mania who was initially diagnosed as chronic mania but a subsequent MRI identified a brain tumor. This report highlights the importance of considering differential organic diagnosis when patients present with atypical presentations of psychiatric disorders. A brain tumor should be considered and brain imaging studies conducted for patients with a late age of onset who do not respond to appropriate medication.     PMID:26300601

  1. CT evaluation of intracranial oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial oligodendrogliomas show relatively low incidence among the intracranial tumors and difficult to differentiation with the other brain tumors. CT plays an important role in the diagnosis of these lesions. Authors reviewed the 16 cases of pathologically proven oligodendrogliomas at Korea University Medical Center for recent 7 years and the results were as follows; 1. They showed biphasic age distribution, one peak in 2nd decade and another in 5th decade. 2. 14 cases (88%) located supratentorially and frequent in frontal lobe of the patient age over 20 (6/8), frequent in parietal lobe below 20 (4/6). 3. Generally the tumors composed of solid portion but they almost always had some cystic or degenerative portion. 4. The diameter of the tumors varied from 2.5 cm to 8 cm. 5. The tumor calcification on CT scans were found in 14 cases and appearances were; 1) large irregular nodular calcifications; 5 cases 2) small nodular calcification; 4 cases 3) scattered stippled calcifications; 4 cases 4) shell like incomplete circular calcifications; 2 cases 6.14 cases (88%) showed contrast enhancement, irregular enhancement in 5 cases, diffuse enhancement in 4 case and ring like enhancement pattern in 5 cases

  2. Oligodendroglioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  3. Recurrent Oligodendroglioma Treated with Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2015-06-01

    Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture have been shown to be effective in tumor treatment. However, their effectiveness for treating oligodendroglioma has not been reported yet. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial report on the effectiveness of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture for the treatment of an oligodendroglioma by presenting a case that was treated successfully. A 54-year-old man, who had experienced intracranial hemorrhage, was diagnosed with recurrent oligodendroglioma. His expected survival period was 3-6 months. The patient received daily acupuncture and weekly pharmacopuncture of mountain ginseng and bee venom. After treatment for 18 months, the tumor size was decreased markedly on brain magnetic resonance imaging, and severe seizures had disappeared. In this case, a combination of acupuncture and pharmacopuncture was shown to be effective for the treatment of recurrent oligodendroglioma. PMID:26100069

  4. Oligodendroglioma: pathology, molecular mechanisms and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Pieter; van den Bent, Martin; Perry, Arie

    2015-06-01

    For nearly a century, the diagnosis and grading of oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas has been based on histopathology alone. Roughly 20 years ago, the first glioma-associated molecular signature was found with complete chromosome 1p and 19q codeletion being particularly common in histologically classic oligodendrogliomas. Subsequently, this codeletion appeared to not only carry diagnostic, but also prognostic and predictive information, the latter aspect only recently resolved after carefully constructed clinical trials with very long follow-up times. More recently described biomarkers, including the non-balanced translocation leading to 1p/19q codeletion, promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene, mutations of the IDH1 or IDH2 gene, and mutations of FUBP1 (on 1p) or CIC (on 19q), have greatly enhanced our understanding of oligodendroglioma biology, although their diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive roles are less clear. It has therefore been suggested that complete 1p/19q codeletion be required for the diagnosis of 'canonical oligodendroglioma'. This transition to an integrated morphological and molecular diagnosis may result in the disappearance of oligoastrocytoma as an entity, but brings new challenges as well. For instance it needs to be sorted out how (histopathological) criteria for grading of 'canonical oligodendrogliomas' should be adapted, how pediatric oligodendrogliomas (known to lack codeletions) should be defined, which platforms and cut-off levels should ideally be used for demonstration of particular molecular aberrations, and how the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma should be made in centers/countries where molecular diagnostics is not available. Meanwhile, smart integration of morphological and molecular information will lead to recognition of biologically much more uniform groups within the spectrum of diffuse gliomas and thereby facilitate tailored treatments for individual patients. PMID:25943885

  5. Identification of novel oligodendroglioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor genes in 1p36 and 19q13 using microarray-based expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, Bjoern; Felsberg, Joerg; Hartmann, Christian; Kunitz, Annegret; Hahn, Meinhard; Toedt, Grischa; Neben, Kai; Hummerich, Lars; von Deimling, Andreas; Reifenberger, Guido; Lichter, Peter

    2006-08-15

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q is the most common genetic alteration in oligodendroglial tumors and associated with response to radio- and chemotherapy as well as favorable prognosis. Using microsatellite analysis, we previously identified the chromosomal regions 1p36.22-p36.31 and 19q13.3, as candidate tumor suppressor gene regions being commonly deleted in these tumors. To identify genes within these regions that are downregulated in oligodendroglial tumors with LOH 1p/19q, we performed cDNA microarray-based RNA expression profiling of 35 gliomas with known allelic status on 1p and 19q, including 7 oligodendrogliomas and 8 diffuse astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, as well as 14 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas of WHO grade III. The microarrays used for expression profiling carried approximately 7,000 gene-specific cDNAs, with complete coverage of the genes located in 1p36.13-p36.31 and 19q13.2-q13.33. Microarray analysis identified 8 genes from these regions (MGC4399, SRM, ICMT, RPL18, FTL, ZIN, FLJ10781 and DBP), which all showed significantly lower expression in 1p/19q-deleted gliomas when compared to gliomas without 1p/19q losses. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses were performed for the MGC4399, ICMT and RPL18 genes and confirmed the microarray findings. In addition, we found that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4C) gene at 19q13.3 demonstrated significantly lower expression in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III) when compared to well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II). Taken together, our study provides a set of interesting novel candidate genes that may play important roles in the pathogenesis of oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:16550607

  6. Concordant cerebral oligodendroglioma in identical twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Roelvink, N C; Kamphorst, W.; Lindhout, D.; Ponssen, H

    1986-01-01

    A case of concordant oligodendroglioma in monozygotic twins is reported. The twins were also concordant for uterine leiomyoma and one twin partner had fibroadenoma and lipoma of the breast and myelofibrosis. As very few cases of concordant glioma in monozygotic twins have been published and no such cases in dizygotic twins, a genetic influence in the aetiology of glioma can only be suggested.

  7. Prognosis of Glioblastoma With Oligodendroglioma Component is Associated With the IDH1 Mutation and MGMT Methylation Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyung Myung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO is a newly described GBM subtype in the 2007 World Health Organization classification. However, its biological and genetic characteristics are largely unknown. We investigated the clinicopathological and molecular features of 34 GBMOs and compared the survival rate of these patients with those of patients with astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA, and conventional GBMs in our hospital. GBMO could be divided into two groups based on the presence of an IDH1 mutation. The IDH1 mutation was more frequently found in secondary GBMO, which had lower frequencies of EGFR amplification but higher MGMT methylation than the wild type IDH1 group, and patients with mutant IDH1 GBMO were on average younger than those with wild-type IDH1. Therefore, GBMO is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous subtype, largely belonging to a proneural and classical subtype of GBM. The survival rate of GBMO patients itself was worse than that of AOA patients but not significantly better than that of conventional GBM patients. GBMO survival was independent of the dominant histopathological subtype i.e., astrocyte-dominant or oligodendroglioma -dominant, but it was significantly associated with the IDH1 mutation and MGMT methylation status. Therefore, GBMO should be regarded as a separate entity from AOA and must be classified as a subtype of GBM. However, further study is needed to determine whether it is a pathologic variant or a pattern of GBM because GBMO has a similar prognosis to conventional GBMs.

  8. KPNA2 predicts long term survival in patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousias, Konstantinos; Niehusmann, Pitt; Gielen, Gerrit; Simon, Matthias; Boström, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The family of karyopherins comprises importins and exportins which are both involved in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Increased levels of karyopherin a2/importin 1 (KPNA2) and chromosome region maintenance protein 1/exportin 1 (CRM1) have been associated with poorer prognosis in patients with infiltrative astrocytomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) R132H mutation status was also recently identified as a prognostic factor for malignant gliomas. We evaluated KPNA2 and CRM1, as well as the IDH1 mutation status, as possible novel biomarkers for World Health Organization grade III anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA). We analyzed nuclear expression of KPNA2 by immunohistochemistry in 72 primary anaplastic gliomas (29 AOA, 24 anaplastic astrocytomas, 19 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). The IDH1 mutation status was also determined in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas and AOA, and AOA patients were additionally evaluated for CRM1 nuclear expression. Long term survivors (LTS; >8 years) with AOA showed lower KPNA2 expression levels compared to non-LTS (p=0.005). KPNA2 expression (? 5% versus <5%, 1-<5%, median) was found to correlate inversely with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in our overall series as well as in the AOA group (anaplastic gliomas: OS p=0.017; PFS p=0.033; AOA: OS p=0.017, PFS p=0.040). Mutant IDH1-R132H was detected in 69% of the AOA cohort; a combination of KPNA2 low expression and mutant IDH1-R132H was only seen in LTS (p=0.050). No differences between the histological subtypes were observed in terms of KPNA2 expression and IDH1-R132H mutation status. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that KPNA2 expression may have potential as a prognostic biomarker for AOA as well. PMID:24929863

  9. Meningioma anaplásico / Anaplastic meningioma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arlines Alina, Piña Tornés; Fernando, Mendoza Montero; Francisco José, Oliva Pontón.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente que comenzó a presentar cefalea, vértigos, trastornos visuales y pérdida del equilibrio. Mediante la resonancia magnética se visualizó una imagen tumoral parietal izquierda de 3 cm diámetro, de localización extraaxial y contornos lobulados bien definidos, c [...] on gran captación no homogénea de contraste, rodeada de extenso edema perilesional. Se realizó angiotomografía, previa a la cirugía, en busca de irrigación y daño vascular. Se logró la resección de 95% de la lesión (grado II de Simpson), que incluyó duramadre adyacente infiltrada y respetó el seno longitudinal superior. Los resultados anatomopatológicos confirmaron que se trataba de un meningioma anaplásico de grado III, con criterio de tratamiento coadyuvante. Abstract in english The case report of a patient who began presenting headache, vertigos, visual disorders and loss of balance is presented. By means of the magnetic resonance a left tumoral parietal image of 3 cm diameter was visualized, of extra-axial localization and well defined lobulated contours, with great non-h [...] omogeneous zones of contrast, surrounded by extensive perilesional edema. An angiotomography was carried out, previous to the surgery, looking for irrigation and vascular compromise. The resection of 95% of the lesion was achieved (grade II of Simpson) which included adjacent infiltrated dura madre and preserving the superior longitudinal sinus. Pathological results confirmed that it was an anaplastic meningioma grade III, with criterium for adyuvant treatment.

  10. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Background?Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes,?>?17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation?A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion?Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature. PMID:26251811

  11. Prognostic impact of molecular phenotype in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma treated with prolonged administration of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Hong Rye; Choi, Yoon-Ra; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    We retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of molecular phenotypes in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma treated with prolonged administration of temozolomide (TMZ). Malignant gliomas have a dismal prognosis despite the available multimodal treatments. We reviewed 87 patients who were diagnosed with recurrent anaplastic gliomas between March 2004 and June 2010, and 58 were enrolled for analysis. In the cohort, 21 patients had anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 18 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and 19 anaplastic astrocytomas. All patients were initially treated with surgical resection or biopsy followed by involved-field radiotherapy. At recurrence, patients were treated with 150-200mg/m(2) of TMZ on days 1-5 in 28day cycles until disease progression. We evaluated the association of molecular phenotypes, including 1p19q deletion, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation and other clinico-histopathological findings with treatment outcome. During the mean follow-up period of 34.6months, 33 patients were still alive (56.9%). Median survival from recurrence was 39.7months (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.7-56.7). Time to progression from administration of TMZ was 6.4months (95% CI 5.0-7.8). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of the IDH1 mutation was closely associated with treatment response (8.4 versus 3.8months; p=0.015). Oligodendroglial lineage, 1p19q deletion status and MGMT promoter methylation status were not independent variables for determining the TMZ treatment outcome. In recurrent anaplastic gliomas, TMZ treatment is an effective modality regardless of MGMT methylation status or histological type. The IDH1 mutation has the most powerful prognostic impact on overall patient survival. PMID:26138051

  12. Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pavan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system. We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature. A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998. He had intracranial recurrence in 2004, confirmed by biopsy. He was given adjuvant chemotherapy in form of PCV. At 10 months after completion of chemotherapy, he developed extracranial scalp metastasis and so was treated with palliative local radiation therapy to the scalp metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with oral Etoposide. Scalp metastasis completely disappeared and ataxia improved. After five cycles of chemotherapy, the patient had progression of disease in form of scalp and cervical lymph node metastasis confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology, biopsy and immunohistochemistry. He was given salvage chemotherapy (carboplatin + ifosfamide + etoposide at 3-weekly. He had partial response and was still on chemotherapy till May 2007.

  13. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  14. Oligodendroglioma occurring after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 38 year old male dentist developed an oligodendroglioma of the left medial temporal lobe and parasellar region 12 years after radiotherapy with 6600 rads for acromegaly. The 30 cases of radiation-induced gliomas reported in the English literature are reviewed and analysed. The criteria for defining radiation-induced tumours of the central nervous system are proposed as follows: the tumour has a long quiescent ''latency period'', a location in the previously irradiated field, a verified histological difference from a primary condition, and does not arise from a primary condition associated with a genetic syndrome such as neurofibromatosis or tuberous sclerosis. The reported case fulfilled these criteria but appears to be the only reported radiation-induced oligodendroglioma. (author)

  15. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Mozaffari; A. Derakhshanfar

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral he...

  16. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical pathological characteristics, immunophenotyping, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and prognosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA with anaplastic features.  Methods  HE staining was used for histological observation. The expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vimentin (Vim, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, progestrone receptor (PR, neurofilment protein (NF, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, Nestin (Nes, S-100 protein (S-100, P53 and Ki-67 labeling index were detected by immunohistochemical method. BRAF mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification.  Results  A 43-year-old male patient presented with repeatedly paroxysmal tic of limbs and disturbance of consciousness. Cranial MRI revealed multiple abnormal signals in left temporo-occipito-parietal lobe and posterior horn of lateral ventricle, with unclear borderline and cystic degeneration. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed. Histologically, the tumor was biphasic. One part was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles or as running water, with weird multinuclear giant cells. Abundant vacuolated lipidized cytoplasm could be seen. Mitosis and "map"-like necrosis were noted. Another part revealed the tumor cells were consistent in size and uniform in distribution, with loose background tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells were diffusely positive for GFAP, Vim, S-100, Nes, CD34 and P53, and negative for EMA, Syn, NeuN and NF. Ki-67 labeling index was about 15%. Reticular fiber staining showed abundant reticular fibers in the tumor tissue. BRAF mutation detected by PCR amplification was not found.  Conclusions  Classified as grade ? in the World Health Organization (WHO classification, the prognosis of PXA is good. A diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features should be considered when the tumor demonstrates mitotic activity > 5/10 high power field (HPF and/or areas of necrosis. The differential diagnosis from glioblastoma multiforme and gaint cell glioblastoma should be paid attention, as all of them contain variable numbers of pleomorphic astrocytes, in order to avoid overtreatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672?6731.2015.08.010

  18. Alien limb syndrome secondary to multimodal treatment of recurrent oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Rachel E; Bonney, Phillip A; Sughrue, Michael E; Bharucha, Kersi J; Battiste, James D

    2015-10-01

    We present a 41-year-old man who experienced alien limb syndrome as a complication of treatment for recurrent Grade III oligodendroglioma of the right parietal lobe. Alien limb syndrome is a rare phenomenon in which a limb performs involuntary actions and the affected individual feels a sense of estrangement towards the limb. It occurs most commonly as a result of corticobasal syndrome, though a variety of other etiologies have been reported. It is rarely associated with focal lesions, such as stroke or tumors. PMID:26094559

  19. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  20. Outcome of oligodendroglioma treatment in the era of modern neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The benefit of routine postoperative radiotherapy for low grade oligodendroglioma remains controversial. Most published series include many patients treated before the availability of CT or MRI scans which allow early diagnosis, guide surgery, detect residual disease, improve radiotherapy, and detect asymptomatic recurrences. The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether observation rather than radiation continues to be an appropriate option for selected patients with the availability of modern neuroimaging. Materials and Methods: 58 patients (age 2-67 years, 6 pts. =2 poor prognostic factor (p=.04). Results: Two and five year actuarial freedom from local progression was 93 +/- 4% and 75% +/- 8% whereas 2 and 5 year overall survival was 94% +/- 3% and 80% +/- 7%. Despite the imbalance of prognostic factors, there was no significant difference whether or not postoperative RT was given. With RT, 2 and 4 year actuarial freedom from progression was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8%, whereas without RT it was 94% +/- 6% at 2 and 4 years. Similarly, 2 and 4 year actuarial survival was 94% +/- 4% and 78% +/- 8% with RT and was 91% +/- 8% without RT. (5(10)) recurrences were detected radiologically without new or progressive clinical symptoms. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that, in the era of modern neuroimaging, the initial observation of good risk patients and immediate irradiation of poor risk patients is an appropriate treatment approach which results in good medium term control and survival for low grade oligodendroglioma patients. A policy of treatment vs. observation based on selected prognostic factors will be tested prospectively in an intergroup trial for low grade glioma histologies

  1. Unexpected expression of intermediate filament protein genes in human oligodendroglioma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashima, Tsuyoshi; Vinters, H.V.; Campagnoni, A.T. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    From a human oligodendroglioma cell line cDNA library, ten intermediate filament (IF) cDNA clones were isolated. Five clones corresponded to vimentin mRNA, two corresponded to cytokeratin K7 mRNA, and two corresponded to cytokeratin K8 mRNA. One clone encoded a novel IF mRNA. The expression of these and other IF protein genes was examined in five cell lines derived from human oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma and neuroblastoma tumors. Vimentin mRNA and K18 mRNA were expressed in all the cell lines. The K7 and K8 genes were expressed only in the oligodendroglioma cell lines. Surprisingly, nestin mRNA was expressed in the astrocytoma lines and the neuroblastoma line, but was not expressed in the oligodendroglioma lines. These results indicate that oligodendroglioma cell lines express Types I and II cytokeratin genes. This pattern of IF gene expression was different from that of the astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines, which expressed IF genes usually associated with the mature cell types or with differentiating fetal neural precursor cells, i.e. GFAP and neurofilament-L. The results also suggest that the oligodendroglioma cell lines are more epithelial in character and do not reflect the gene expression of mature oligodendrocytes. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Incidental anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembegül GÜNE?

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is one of the most aggressive of all human malignant diseases. It has an unfavorable prognosis and responsible for most of the mortality and morbidity rates due to thyroid carcinomas. We present a case of incidental anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and discuss the epidemiology, biology, risk factors, prognostic factors of the disease and the approach to treatment, in the light of the current medical literature. The prognosis is much better in cases with incidental carcinoma compared to the classical type and surgical excision of the tumor has a favorable effect on the results. Our case was followed-up for 1.5 years with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  3. Breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background:A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. Methods:We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. Results:: During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among coho...

  4. Extensive Growth of an Anaplastic Meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslehaty, Homajoun; Petridis, Athanasios K.; Doukas, Alexandros; Mahvash, Mehran; Barth, Harald; Mehdorn, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old male patient with an almost complete destruction of the calvarial bone through an anaplastic meningioma diagnosed in line with dizziness. Neuroimaging revealed an extensive growing, contrast enhancing lesion expanding at the supra- and infratentorial convexity, infiltrating and destroying large parts of the skull, and infiltrating the skin. Due to progressive ataxia and dysarthria with proven tumor growth in the posterior fossa in the continuing course, parts of the tumor were resected. A surgical procedure with the aim of complete tumor resection in a curative manner was not possible. Six months after the first operation, due to a new tumor progression, most extensive tumor resection was performed. Due to the aggressive and destructive growth with a high rate of recurrence and tendency of metastases, anaplastic meningiomas can be termed as malignant tumors. The extrinsic growth masks the tumor until they reach a size, which makes these tumors almost unresectable. In the best case scenarios, the five-year survival is about 50%. With the presented case, we would like to show the aggressive behavior of anaplastic meningiomas in a very illustrative way. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery reach their limits in this tumor entity. PMID:24288634

  5. Role of endothelin B receptor in oligodendroglioma proliferation and survival: In vitro and in vivo evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xin; Zhang, Longbo; Jiang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the role of the endothelin B receptor (ETBR) in oligodendroglioma cell proliferation and survival was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression and knockdown of ETBR was conducted in Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, and cell proliferation and activation (phosphorylation) of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured in vitro. An orthotopic xenograft oligodendroglioma mouse model was established. Mouse survival times and immunohistochemical Ki67 staining in the xenografts were examined. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the overexpression of ETBR significantly enhanced the proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells and the activation of ERK compared with the controls, which was eliminated by the selective ETBR inhibitor BQ788 and ERK-specific inhibitor U0126, but not selective endothelin A receptor inhibitor BQ123. By contrast, the knockdown of endogenous ETBR markedly decreased oligodendroglioma cell proliferation and the activation of ERK compared with the controls. Overexpression of ETBR significantly increased immunohistochemical Ki67 staining in the Hs683 cell orthotopic xenograft and decreased animal survival. By contrast, knockdown of ETBR significantly decreased Ki67 staining and increased mouse survival times. Intratumoral injection of BQ788, but not BQ123, significantly decreased Ki67 staining and prolonged mouse survival times. In conclusion, ETBR was demonstrated to mediate the proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells according to an ERK-dependent mechanism. Using an orthotopic xenograft oligodendroglioma mouse model, it was demonstrated in vivo that ETBR promotes oligodendroglioma proliferation and that the selective ETBR antagonist effectively inhibits the proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells and prolongs survival times. This study provides a novel insight into the role of ETBR in oligodendroglioma proliferation and survival, and provides the first in vivo evidence that ETBR-specific antagonists are a potential therapeutic alternative for oligodendrogliomas. PMID:24145738

  6. Oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body: a unique case report and the review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, there is no report in the international literature of an oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body, nor is there an analysis of the possible origins of this lesion. Here we report on a 52-year-old man admitted to our hospital with a ciliary body tumor revealed by clinical examination and ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies. Following enucleation, pathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Postoperative histopathological staining results included OLIGO-2(+) and GFAP(-), leading to a pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma of the ciliary body in the right eye (WHO grade II). Since malignant gliomas derive from transformed neural stem cells, the presence of oligodendroglioma in the ciliary body supports the hypothesis that gliomas can occur wherever neural stem cells exist. Tumors of the ciliary body derived from oligodendrocytes are difficult to diagnose; pathological analyses are essential

  7. ETV/Pea3 family transcription factor-encoding genes are overexpressed in CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padul, Vijay; Epari, Sridhar; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Shetty, Prakash; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrogliomas with combined loss of chromosome arms 1p and 19q are known to be particularly sensitive to chemotherapy, and the CIC gene located on 19q is known to be mutated in over 50% of the 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas. However, the role of CIC in the oligodendroglioma pathogenesis is not known. Exome sequencing of 11 oligodendroglial tumors identified 9 tumors with combined loss of 1p and 19q. Somatic mutations were found in the CIC and FUBP1 genes. Recurrent somatic mutations were also identified in the Notch signaling pathway genes NOTCH1 and MAML3, the chromatin modifying gene ARID1A and in KRAS. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of CIC-mutant and CIC-wild type oligodendrogliomas from the study cohort as well as 65 1p/19q codeleted oligodendrogliomas from the TCGA cohort identified genes encoding the ETV transcription factor family to be significantly upregulated in the CIC-mutant tumors. Upregulation of a number of negative regulators of the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway like Sprouty and SPRED family members in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas is likely due to the constitutive activation of the pathway resulting from inactive CIC protein. Higher expression of the oncogenic ETV transcription factors in the CIC-mutant oligodendrogliomas may make these tumors more aggressive than the CIC-wild type tumors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26357005

  8. Primary Spinal Cord Oligodendroglioma with Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Woon Tak; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Primary spinal cord oligodendrogliomas are rare tumors comprising two percent of all spinal cord tumors. Although a treatment guideline has yet to be established, maximal surgical resection is primary in the treatment of spinal cord oligodendrogliomas. Adjuvant radiotherapy has remained controversial, and it is unclear whether chemotherapy adds any benefit. In this case report, the authors present a 24-year-old male who had a seven-year history of left leg weakness and a radiating pain in both legs. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an intramedullary mass at the T4-T8 level. He underwent subtotal removal of the tumor and pathologic diagnosis revealed a WHO grade II oligodendroglioma. The patient was treated with radiotherapy postoperatively and followed up with MRI annually. Clinical and radiological status of the patient had been stationary for four years after the surgery. The five-year follow-up MRI showed an increase in the size and extent of the residual tumor. Despite radiological progression, considering that symptoms and the performance status of the patient had remained unchanged, further treatment has not been performed. Given the clinical outcome of this patient, close observation after subtotal removal with adjuvant radiotherapy is one of the acceptable treatment options for WHO grade II spinal cord oligodendrogliomas. PMID:26512274

  9. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome in Ki-1 (CD30)-positive, large-cell anaplastic lymphomas using the polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, C. W.; Schlegelmilch, J. A.; Grogan, T M; Weiss, L.M.; Schnitzer, B; Hanson, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Ki-1 (CD30)-positive, large-cell anaplastic lymphoma (LCAL) is a distinctive subset of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; morphologically, the neoplastic cells of LCAL may closely resemble Reed-Sternberg cell variants of Hodgkin's disease. The neoplastic cells in Hodgkin's disease are often CD30-positive, as are some of the transformed lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis. Recent evidence suggests an etiologic role for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in Hodgkin's disease. Because of the phenotypic simil...

  10. Risk Factors for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaljevic, V.; Slijepcevic, N.; Paunovic, I.; Diklic, A.; Kalezic, N.; Marinkovic, J.; Zivic, R.; Vekic, B.; Sipetic, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a form of thyroid cancer with very poor prognosis, but is fortunately quite rare. Its aetiology is unknown and not well researched. Aim. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for ATC. Material and Method. Case-control study of 126 ATC patients (77 females and 49 males) and 252 controls individually matched by gender, age, and place of abode. In statistical analysis we used a Cox regression model. Results. Univariate logistic regression showed that the risk factors for ATC are low education level, type B blood group, goitre, other nonthyroid malignancies, diabetes, late menarche, and an early first pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for ATC are low education level (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.86), type B blood group (OR?=?2.41, 95% CI?=?1.03–5.66), and goitre (OR?=?25–33, 95% CI?=?5.66–126.65). Conclusion. Independent risk factors for ATC are: low education level, type B blood group, and goitre. PMID:24949009

  11. Attenuated Expression of DFFB is a Hallmark of Oligodendrogliomas with 1p-Allelic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Gregory N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allelic loss of chromosome 1p is frequently observed in oligodendroglioma. We screened 177 oligodendroglial tumors for 1p deletions and found 6 tumors with localized 1p36 deletions. Several apoptosis regulation genes have been mapped to this region, including Tumor Protein 73 (p73, DNA Fragmentation Factor subunits alpha (DFFA and beta (DFFB, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Members 9 and 25 (TNFRSF9, TNFRSF25. We compared expression levels of these 5 genes in pairs of 1p-loss and 1p-intact tumors using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (QRTPCR to test if 1p deletions had an effect on expression. Only the DFFB gene demonstrated decreased expression in all tumor pairs tested. Mutational analysis did not reveal DFFB mutations in 12 tested samples. However, it is possible that DFFB haploinsufficiency from 1p allelic loss is a contributing factor in oligodendroglioma development.

  12. ALK1-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma of the Breast from a Nonprosthesis Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mulligan, MBBS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the breast is a rare malignancy associated with prosthetic breast implants. We present a case of a woman with no prior history of breast implants who developed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma on a background of a previous benign cyst aspiration.

  13. Successful radiopeptide targeting of metastatic anaplastic meningioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biersack Hans-Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A patient with anaplastic meningioma and lung metastases resistant to conventional treatment underwent radiopeptide therapy with 177Lu- DOTA-octreotate in our institute. The treatment resulted in significant improvement in patient's quality of life and inhibition of tumor progression. This case may eventually help to establish the value of radiopeptide therapy in patients with this rare condition.

  14. Anaplastic cerebral hemangiopericytoma: Rare variant of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemangiopericytoma (HPC is a rare tumor of central nervous system, anaplastic type (grade 3 being the rarest. HPC closely mimics meningiomas in clinical and radiological features, thus, its diagnosis and treatment is a challenge. We report a rare case of histopathologically diagnosed anaplastic HPC of frontal lobe of the brain. A lady in her 60?s presented with neurological signs of impaired memory, headache, decreased vision and slurring of speech that gradually progressed to aphasia over a period of 2 months. A space occupying lesion was identified on magnetic resonance imaging in the left frontal region. Left frontal craniotomy and Simpson grade 1 excision of the tumor was done. Postoperative radiotherapy was administered in view of positive margins on histopathological specimen. We describe the clinical, radiological, and histological features of this tumor, its outcome on completion of treatment and on subsequent follow-up along with a review of the literature.

  15. A case of rapid-growing anaplastic meningiomas

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios K. Petridis; Doukas, Alexandros; Mahvash, Mehran; Dörner, Lutz; Hugo, Heinz Hermann; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Meningiomas are tumours originating from the leptomeningeal covering of the brain and spinal cord and are generally benign and slow growing. Rarely, they show malignant anaplastic characteristics with a high recurrence rate. A number of factors have been reported to predict this high recurrence. Such factors are histopathological ones, such as necrosis and hypercellularity, the World Health Organization (WHO) grade, mitotic index, positivity of proliferation markers (Ki-67 or MIB-1), clinical...

  16. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature / Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Corti; Claudio, Yampolsky; Humberto, Metta; Mario, Valerga; Gustavo, Sevlever; Andrés, Capizzano.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empíric [...] o para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL. Abstract in english In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuro [...] radiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.

  17. Oligodendroglioma in a patient with AIDS: case report and review of the literature Oligodendroglioma en un paciente con sida: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, new techniques of neuroimages and histopathological methods have been added to the management of cerebral mass lesions in patients with AIDS. Stereotactic biopsy is necessary when after 14 days of empirical treatment for Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis there is no clinical or neuroradiologic improvement. We report a woman with AIDS who developed a single focal brain lesion on the right frontal lobe. She presented a long history of headache and seizures. After two weeks of empirical treatment for toxoplasma encephalitis without response, a magnetic resonance image with spectroscopy was performed and showed a tumoral pattern with a choline peak, diminished of N-acetyl-aspartate and presence of lactate. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was a diffuse oligodendroglioma type A. A microsurgical resection of the tumor was carried out and antiretroviral treatment was started. To date she is in good clinical condition, with undetectable plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count > 200 cell/uL.En los últimos años, las nuevas técnicas de neuroimágenes y diversos métodos de diagnóstico histopatológico se han agregado al manejo clínico de las lesiones de masa cerebral ocupante en los pacientes con sida. La biopsia estereotáxica es necesaria cuando, luego de dos semanas de tratamiento empírico para toxoplasmosis cerebral, no se comprueba mejoría clínica ni neurorradiológica. Presentamos una paciente con sida que desarrolló una lesión cerebral a nivel del lóbulo frontal derecho. Como antecedente refirió una larga historia de cefalea y convulsiones. La resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia de voxel único ubicado a nivel de la lesión mostró un patrón de lesión tumoral con pico de colina, déficit de N-acetil-aspartato y presencia de ácido láctico. La biopsia estereotáxica y el estudio histopatológico permitieron arribar al diagnóstico de oligodendroglioma difuso de tipo A. Se le efectuó resección por microcirugía y tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia. Actualmente la paciente se encuentra en buen estado clínico, con carga viral indetectable y recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + > de 200 cél/uL.

  18. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emoto Mie; Yuki Kazue; Takahashi Akihisa; Yane Katsunari; Ota Ichiro; Ohnishi Ken; Hosoi Hiroshi; Ohnishi Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation as...

  19. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL). Study Design: The study design was cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Armed forces institute of pathology. The duration of study was two years from 1st Jan 2010 to 31st Dec 2011. Material and Methods: A total of twenty five consecutive biopsy proven cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) were selected through non probability, consecutive sampling. The inclusion criteria was, all newly diagnosed patients of ALCL having sufficient tumour material in paraffin embedded tissue blocks with appropriate clinical information regarding age, gender and anatomic location. The exclusion criteria included all poorly fixed specimen. The clinical information regarding age, gender and location was noted. All the cases were evaluated on Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). Cases were subjected to Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using CD45 (LCA), CD3, CD 45 RO, CD 15, CD20, CD 30, ALK, EMA, Cytokeratin and classified according to WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasm. Results: Twenty five cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma were reported during this time period. Out of 25 cases, 22(88%) were ALCL ALK positive, 2(8%) were ALCL ALK negative and 1(4%) case was cutaneous ALCL. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The age range was between 6 years and 70 years with majority of cases in third decade. Seventy six percent were nodal and rest were extranodal. The cervical lymph nodes were the commonest nodal group involved making 15(60 %) cases followed by 3 (12%) cases of axillary lymph nodes. The histopathological appearance showed complete effacement of architecture in 17 (68 %) of cases followed by sinusoidal distribution in 6(24 %) cases while partial effacement of architecture in 2 (8%) of cases. All the cases were positive for CD30 while 23 (92%) cases for CD3, 22 (88 %) cases for ALK and 19 (76%) cases positive for EMA. ALK negative lymphomas were 3(12%) cases. Conclusion: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is more common in males and young adults. Nodal involvement is more common. Majority of cases show complete effacement of architecture. All cases are CD 30 positive. Most of cases are anaplastic lymphoma kinase antigen positive. (author)

  20. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  1. Galectin 1 Proangiogenic and Promigratory Effects in the Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Model Are Partly Mediated through the Control of BEX2 Expression1

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Marie Le; Fortin, Shannon; Mathieu, Véronique; Roland, Isabelle; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Bontempi, Gianluca; Decaestecker, Christine; Berger, Walter; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that galectin 1 (Gal-1) plays important biological roles in astroglial as well as in oligodendroglial cancer cells. As an oligodendroglioma model, we make use of the Hs683 cell line that has been previously extensively characterized at cell biology, molecular biology, and genetic levels. Galectin 1 has been shown to be involved in Hs683 oligodendroglioma chemoresistance, neoangiogenesis, and migration. Down-regulating Gal-1 expression in Hs683 cells through targete...

  2. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1?, Akt, TGF-?1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1? and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-?1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-?1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1?. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-?1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1?.

  3. Dual anaplastic large cell lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Hye Kyung; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Suh, Jung Ho [Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chae Heuck [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare T cell lymphoma composed of CD30-positive lymphoid cells. Most ALCLs present as nodal disease, with skin, bone, soft tissue, lung, and liver as common extranodal sites. ALCL rarely occurs in the central nervous system and is even more infrequent in the dura of the brain. We report a case of dural-based ALCL secondary to systemic disease in a 17-year-old male that mimicked meningioma on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

  4. Long-term Temozolomide Treatment Induces Marked Amino Metabolism Modifications and an Increase in TMZ Sensitivity in Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lamoral-Theys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions. Temozolomide (TMZ provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas. The actual benefits of TMZ during long-term treatment in oligodendroglioma patients have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we have investigated the effects of such a long-term TMZ treatment in the unique Hs683 oligodendroglioma model. We have observed increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 orthotopic tumors that were previously treated in vitro with months of progressive exposure to increasing TMZ concentrations before being xenografted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Whole-genome and proteomic analyses have revealed that this increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells previously treated for long periods with TMZ can be explained, at least partly, by a TMZ-induced p38-dependant dormancy state, which in turn resulted in changes in amino acid metabolism balance, in growth delay, and in a decrease in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell-invasive properties. Thus, long-term TMZ treatment seems beneficial in this Hs683 oligodendroglioma model, which revealed itself unable to develop resistance against TMZ.

  5. Age as a Prognostic Factor in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaljevic, Vladan; Zoric, Goran; Sabljak, Vera; Vekic, Berislav; Zivic, Rastko; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the tumors with the shortest survival in human medicine. Aim. The aim was to determine the importance of age in survival of patients with ATC. Material and Methods. We analyzed the data on 150 patients diagnosed with ATC in the period from 1995 to 2006. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to determine overall survival. Prognostic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results. The youngest patient was 35 years old and the oldest was 89 years old. According to univariate regression analysis, age was significantly associated with longer survival in patients with ATC. In multivariate regression analysis, patients age, presence of longstanding goiter, whether surgical treatment is carried out or not, type of surgery, tumor multicentricity, presence of distant metastases, histologically proven preexistent papillary carcinoma, radioiodine therapy, and postoperative radiotherapy were included. According to multivariate analysis, besides surgery (P = 0.000, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.29–0.63), only patients age (P = 0.023, OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49–0.95) was independent prognostic factor of favorable survival in patients with ATC. Conclusion. Age is a factor that was independently associated with survival time in ATC. Anaplastic thyroid cancer has the best prognosis in patients younger than 50 years. PMID:25024703

  6. Acetate Supplementation Induces Growth Arrest of NG2/PDGFR?-Positive Oligodendroglioma-Derived Tumor-Initiating Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Patrick M.; Tighe, Scott W.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lawler, Sean E.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA), which increases histone acetylation and inhib...

  7. Recurrent Systemic Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Presenting as a Breast Implant-Associated Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Locke, Frederick L; Emole, Josephine; Rosa, Marilin; Horna, Pedro; Hoover, Susan; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2015-07-01

    A woman aged 48 years presented with fevers, chills, weight loss, and night sweats. She had significant lymphadenopathy of the left neck as well as the left axilla. Her history was significant for bilateral breast augmentation with textured silicone implants more than 25 years ago. Excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node revealed large, atypical cells positive for CD4 and CD30 and negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8, CD15, CD20, pan-keratin, S100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and paired box 5. These findings were consistent with Ann Arbor stage IIIB ALK-anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The patient was started on 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. She initially had no signs or symptoms of breast involvement; however, after developing seroma during the clinical course, the patient underwent capsulectomy and removal of the intact, textured silicone implants. Pathological evaluation demonstrated ALK-ALCL in the left breast capsule with cells displaying a significant degree of pleomorphism with binucleated forms and numerous mitoses. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the tumor was negative for t(2;5). She presented 8 weeks later showing evidence of recurrent systemic disease. PMID:26351895

  8. ALK signaling and target therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiorgioInghirami

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery by Morris SW et al. in 1994 of the genes contributing to the t(2;5(p23;q35 translocation has put the foundation for a molecular based recognition of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL and pointed out the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of ALK genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  9. Lhx3 is required to maintain cancer cell development of high-grade oligodendroglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Qiang; Ni, Xiaowei; Yu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    The LHX genes play a substantial role in an amount of adorning processes. Potential roles of LHXs have been accepted and approved in an assortment of neoplastic tissues as bump suppressors or promoters depending on bump cachet and types. The aim of this abstraction was to investigate the action role of LHXs in the animal High-grade Oligodendroglioma (HG-OT). The gene announcement changes of LHXs in HG-OT tissues compared with non-cancerous colorectal tissues were detected using application real-time quantitative about-face transcriptase-polymerase alternation acknowledgment (QRT-PCR) assay and immunohistochemistry. And we articulate the gene LHX3 that was decidedly up-regulated in HG-OT by QRT-PCR assay and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, it was obvious that LHX3 responds to blight corpuscle admeasurement in vitro and LHX3 announcement activated with animated ?-catenin levels in HG-OT and ?-catenin action was appropriate for LHX3's oncogenic effects.  Mechanistically, LHX3 facilitates TCF4 to bind to ?-catenin and facilitates LHX3/TCF4/?-catenin circuitous and trans-active it's after ambition gene. LHX3 mutations that agitate the LHX3-?-catenin alternation partially anticipate its action in bump cells. All in all, LHX3 is a frequently activated bump apostle that actuates Wnt/?-catenin signaling in blight beef of HG-OT. PMID:25399296

  10. Critical appraisal of clinicopathological features of anaplastic carcinoma small intestine – A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    VANDANA PURI

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic carcinoma is an extremely rare variant of small intestine adenocarcinoma with only an occasional case having been reported in literature to date. We report a case of 46 year old male who presented with an endophytic tumor in ileum extending through full thickness of intestinal wall, with invasion into mesenteric fat. Microscopically, the tumor showed a biphasic growth pattern unlike conventional adenocarcinoma. The present case discusses the histomorphology of anaplastic c...

  11. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in. PMID:22029659

  12. Specificity of IRF4 Translocations for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: a Multicenter Study of 204 Skin Biopsies

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, David A.; Law, Mark E.; Hsi, Eric D.; DiCaudo, David J.; Ma, Linglei; Lim, Megan S.; de Souza, Aieska; Comfere, Nneka I; Weenig, Roger H.; Macon, William R; Erickson, Lori A.; Özsan, Nazan; Ansell, Stephen M; Dogan, Ahmet; Feldman, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    Current pathologic criteria cannot reliably distinguish cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma from other CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (lymphomatoid papulosis, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma with skin involvement, and transformed mycosis fungoides). We previously reported IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor-4) translocations in cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Here, we investigated the clinical utility of detecting IRF4 translocations in skin biopsies...

  13. Carfilzomib is an effective anticancer agent in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit; Zhang, Lisa; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Yaqin; Patel, Dhaval; Shen, Min; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. Currently, there is no standard or effective therapy for ATC. Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach for identifying compounds that may have antineoplastic effects. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput drug library screening to identify and subsequently validate novel therapeutic agents with anticancer effects in ATC. We performed quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) in ATC cell lines (SW-1736, 8505C, and C-643), using a compound library of 3282 drugs. qHTS identified 100 compounds that were active in all three ATC cell lines. Proteasome inhibitors were one of the most active drug categories according to enrichment analysis. Of the three proteasome inhibitors screened, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, was the most active. Treatment of ATC cells with carfilzomib significantly inhibited cellular proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Mechanistically, carfilzomib increased expression of p27 (CDKN1B) and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein ATF4. Pretreatment with carfilzomib reduced in vivo metastases (lung, bone, liver, and kidney) and disease progression, and decreased N-cadherin expression. Carfilzomib treatment of mice with established, widely metastatic disease significantly increased their survival, without significant toxicity. Our findings support the use or clinical study of carfilzomib as a therapeutic option in patients with advanced and metastatic ATC. PMID:25972243

  14. Outcome after intensity modulated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a malignancy with one of the highest fatality rates. We reviewed our recent clinical experience with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) combined with surgery and chemotherapy for the management of ATC. 13 patients with ATC who were treated by IMRT in our institution between October 2008 and February 2011, have been analyzed. The target volume for IMRT was planned to include Gross tumor volume (GTV): primary tumor plus any N + disease (66 Gy/33 F/6.6 W), with elective irradiation of thyroid bed, bilateral level II through VI and mediastinal lymph nodes to the level of the carina (54-60 Gy). Seven patients received surgical intervention and eleven patients had chemotherapy. The median radiotherapy dose to GTV was 60 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks. The median survival time of the 13 patients was 9 months. The direct causes of death were distant metastases (75%) and progression of the locoregional disease (25%). Ten patients were spared dyspnea and tracheostomy because their primary neck lesion did not progress. The results showed that IMRT combined by surgery and chemotherapy for ATC might be beneficial to improve locoregional control. Further new therapies are needed to control metastases

  15. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Signaling in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Shirai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangement in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene was identified as an oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007. A multi-targeted ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor, crizotinib, targeting this activated tyrosine kinase has led to significant clinical benefit including tumor shrinkage and prolonged survival without disease progression and has been approved by US FDA since 2011 for the treatment of advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC (Ou et al. Oncologist 17:1351-1375, 2012). Knowledge gained from treating ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients including the presenting clinicopathologic characteristics, methods of detecting ALK-rearranged NSCLC, pattern of relapse and acquired resistance mechanisms while on crizotinib, and the clinical activities of more potent ALK inhibitors has led us to a detailed and ever expanding knowledge of the ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer but also raising many more questions that remained to be answered in the future. This book chapter will provide a concise summary of the importance of ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer. Understanding the ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer will likely provide the roadmap to the management of major epithelial malignancies driven by receptor tyrosine kinase rearrangement. PMID:26667344

  16. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. 18F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author)

  17. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  18. Small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate: a clinical, pathological and immunohistological study of 27 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterling, J E; Hauzeur, C G; Farrow, G M

    1992-03-01

    Because small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate is an uncommon tumor, it has remained a poorly defined entity. To elucidate further the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of this cancer the 27 patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic from 1960 to 1990 were reviewed. Of these patients 18 (67%) presented with pure small cell anaplastic carcinoma, and 9 (33%) were diagnosed with small cell anaplastic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Twenty-six patients (96%) had either stage C or D disease at the time of diagnosis. Two patients presented with a paraneoplastic syndrome, including 1 man with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and 1 who suffered from thyroxine intoxication. Of 24 men with long-term followup 22 (92%) died of small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate despite antiandrogen therapy and the remaining 2 are alive with active, progressive disease. The median survival time following diagnosis was 17.1 months (range 2 to 90 months). All tumors with tissue available for immunohistochemical staining reacted positive for neuron-specific enolase, indicating that small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate is most likely a neuroendocrine neoplasm. No tumor stained positive for either prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate specific antigen. Pathologically, small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate appears to be similar to oat cell carcinoma of the lung. This series of 27 patients emphasizes that small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the prostate is highly malignant, is frequently of advanced stage at presentation, responds poorly to antiandrogen therapy and has a poor prognosis. PMID:1311395

  19. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  20. Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes. We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors. The presence of JC virus, which results in p53 protein accumulation, was also examined. p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) using immunohistochemistry. JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET. The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant. Log rank analysis of clinical outcome revealed significantly shorter survival in patients with p53 immunopositive embryonal tumors. No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3) was readily detected. Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, JC virus infection is not responsible for increased levels of p53 protein

  1. Combined chemotherapy and irradiation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pej?i? Ivica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a very rare and extremely aggressive cancer; patient's death usually occurs rapidly after diagnosis with a mean survival of six months in the majority of individual research series. Treatment of ATC ranges from surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these regimes. Yet, the optimal sequence of treatment modalities has not been established. Methods: From 1997 to 2002 six consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of ATC were treated with combined chemotherapy and irradiation at our Clinic for Oncology, Clinical Center Ni¹. Five of these patients were females and 1 male, aged between 28 and 71 years (mean age: 57 years. None of them had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. Extrathyroidal extension was present in 3 patients with invasion into skin and hypoderm. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 60 mg/m 2 plus cisplatin 60 mg/m 2 every three weeks. Total doses ranged between 158-375 mg/m 2 for doxorubicin and 183-380 mg/m 2 for cisplatin. External beam radiation to the neck was administered, at a daily dose of 1.2 Gy, up to total doses ranging between 45-60 Gy. Results: One patient achieved a complete response (CR and one patient achieved a partial response (PR. Three patients had stable disease. One patient with CR progressed during follow-up and died 18 months from bone and brain metastases. The treatment was moderately well tolerated, although all patients experienced some mild form of toxicity; neutropenia occurred in all patients, but none of them required hospital admission. Median survival was 8 months (range: 4-18 months. Conclusion: We concluded that the present regimen produces meaningful responses for patients with localized ATC. A randomized study is needed to determine the effect on survival.

  2. Steroid Dermatitis Resembling Rosacea: A Clinical Evaluation of 75 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Ammar F.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The use of topical steroids on the skin of the face should be carefully evaluated by the dermatologist; however, its misuse still occurs producing dermatological problem resembling rosacea. Objectives. To report the different clinical manifestations of steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea and to discover causes behind abusing topical steroids on the face. Methods. In this prospective observational study, 75 patients with steroid dermatitis resembling rosacea who had history of to...

  3. Malignant progression to anaplastic meningioma: Neuropathology, molecular pathology, and experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Patrick J

    2015-10-01

    Meningioma is a common adult intracranial tumor, and while several cases are considered benign, a subset is malignant with biologically aggressive behavior and is refractory to current treatment strategies of combined surgery and radiotherapy. Anaplastic meningiomas are quite aggressive and correspond to a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade III tumor. This highly aggressive phenotype mandates the need for more efficacious therapies. Designing rational therapies for treatment will have its foundation in the biologic understanding of involved genes and molecular pathways in these types of tumors. Anaplastic meningiomas (WHO Grade III) can arise from malignant transformation of lower grade (WHO Grade I/II) tumors, however there is an incomplete understanding of specific genetic drivers of malignant transformation in these tumors. Here, the current understanding of anaplastic meningiomas is reviewed in the context of human neuropathologic specimens and small animal models. PMID:26302177

  4. Hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma appearing 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-induced cerebellar glioma is extremely rare, and the etiology of such a tumor is unknown. We report a rare case of hemorrhagic cerebellar anaplastic glioma occurring 12 years after prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. We discuss the etiologies of the radiation-induced hemorrhagic cerebellar glioma as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma or Thyroid Metastasis from Cholangiocarcinoma? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presents as an extremely localy invasive neck mass while metastases in the thyroid are most commonly described as small, indolent, solitary nodules usually originating from kidney, breast, lungs and skin tumors. We report the case of a 74-year old male patient illustrating the difficulties of differential diagnosis between an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and a thyroid metastasis of a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma in a cirrhotic patient diagnosed and operated for a locally advanced thyroid tumor. The history, clinical and imagistical features strongly pleaded for the diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presumably with liver metastases, also supported by the rapid recurrence following total thyroidectomy. Immunohistochemical tests showed a malignant carcinomatous proliferation with anaplastic prophile. Positive immunochemical staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK7 and negative CK20, AFP, CD15, CD30, CD5, TTF1 and thyroglobulin directed the possible diagnosis toward a secondary thyroid tumor from a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical tests showed a malignant carcinomatous proliferation with anaplastic prophile. Positive immunochemical staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK7 and negative CK20, AFP, CD15, CD30, CD5, TTF1 and thyroglobulin directed the possible diagnosis toward a secondary thyroid tumor from a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. A CT-guided percutaneous hepatic punction biopsy was planned but the patient presented an ischemic stroke with fatal outcome. In conclusion, in spite of surgical treatment the rapid recurrent thyroid cancer either primary or metastatic had a poor prognosis with fatal outcome mainly in the presence liver cirrhosis and cardio-vascular co-morbidities.

  6. Effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid on the sensitivity of anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines to imatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Maria Graziella; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Poli, Roberta; Bosco, Ornella; Bertieri, Raffaello; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    New therapeutic approaches are mandatory for anaplastic thyroid cancer. We investigated the ability of a new combined treatment using valproic acid (VPA), the only clinically available histone deacetylase inhibitor, and the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate to control the cell growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. We showed that treatment with imatinib alone is unable to affect the cell growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells, whereas in ARO cells, the combined treatment resulted in a cytostatic effect, with clinically achievable doses of imatinib and VPA. The effect is mediated by G1 growth arrest, acting through p21 expression and the impairment of AKT phosphorylation. PMID:19148530

  7. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  8. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP, combined therapy

  9. Acantholytic Anaplastic Extramammary Paget's Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yu-Jin; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Sim, Woo-Young

    2011-10-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial neoplasm that most commonly arises on the vulva and perianal region. Very few cases of EMPD revealing a histological Bowenoid appearance have been reported. This study describes scrotal EMPD presenting with histological features of Bowen's disease in a 79-year-old man. He presented with a 5-year history of a pruritic erythematous plaque and a verrucous papule on the scrotum. The verrucous papule histopathologically showed Bowenoid features, and the erythematous plaque demonstrated acantholytic EMPD. Immunohistochemical findings revealed strong expression for carcinoembryonic antigen, Cam 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin (CK) 7, and pancytokeratin (AE1/AE3) in both areas, but negative CK20 staining, supporting the overall diagnosis of primary acantholytic anaplastic EMPD. This is the first reported case of acantholytic anaplastic EMPD in the Korean literature. PMID:22148057

  10. The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Hashikawa, Kazuo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Mottram, Nicholas; DEPREZ, Manuel; Ishizu, Koichi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Banati, Richard B.; Roncaroli, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a 18 kDa molecule mainly involved in cholesterol transport through the mitochondrial membrane. In microglia, PBR is expressed from the earliest stages of activation and appears to exert a pro-inflammatory function. This molecule is commonly up-regulated in inflammatory, degenerative, infective and ischaemic lesions of the central nervous system but it has never been reported in glioma-infiltrating microglia. We examined two anaplastic astrocytom...

  11. Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in Anaplastic Astrocytomas

    OpenAIRE

    Bäcklund, L M; Nilsson, B R; Liu, L.; Ichimura, K; Collins, V. P.

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) is, second to Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant type of adult CNS tumour. Since survival for patients with AA varies markedly and there are no known useful prognostic or therapy response indicators, the primary purpose of this study was to examine whether knowledge of the known genetic abnormalities found in AA had any clinical value. The survival data on 37 carefully sampled AA was correlated with the results of a detailed analysis of...

  12. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio; Arturi Franco; Paolino Donatella; Bulotta Stefania; Calvagno Maria; Celano Marilena; Filetti Sebastiano; Fresta Massimo; Russo Diego

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered ...

  13. Spinal cord compression caused by anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an HIV infected individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Wanchu, Ajay; Sharma, Aman; Mukherjee, Kanchan; Radotra, B D; Gupta, Vivek; Singh, Surjit

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas occur with an increased frequency in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. These are usually high-grade immunoblastic lymphomas and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is uncommon in HIV infected individuals. We describe here an uncommon presentation of this relatively rare lymphoma in the form of spinal cord compression syndrome in a young HIV infected individual. PMID:21119283

  14. Spinal cord compression caused by anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an HIV infected individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Susheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur with an increased frequency in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. These are usually high-grade immunoblastic lymphomas and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a distinct type of non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma. It is uncommon in HIV infected individuals. We describe here an uncommon presentation of this relatively rare lymphoma in the form of spinal cord compression syndrome in a young HIV infected individual.

  15. Spinal cord compression caused by anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an HIV infected individual

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Susheel; Wanchu Ajay; Sharma Aman; Mukherjee Kanchan; Radotra B; Gupta Vivek; Singh Surjit

    2010-01-01

    Lymphomas occur with an increased frequency in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. These are usually high-grade immunoblastic lymphomas and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma. It is uncommon in HIV infected individuals. We describe here an uncommon presentation of this relatively rare lymphoma in the form of spinal cord compression syndrome in a young HIV infected individual.

  16. Pazopanib Enhances Paclitaxel-Induced Mitotic Catastrophe in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Isham, Crescent R.; Bossou, Ayoko R.; Negron, Vivian; Fisher, Kelly E.; Kumar,Rakesh; Marlow, Laura; Lingle, Wilma L.; Smallridge, Robert C; Sherman, Eric J.; Suman, Vera J.; Copland, John A; Bible, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has perhaps the worst prognosis of any cancer, with a median survival of only about 5 months regardless of stage. Pazopanib monotherapy has promising clinical activity in differentiated thyroid cancers (generally attributed to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition), yet has less effective single-agent activity in ATC. We now report that combining pazopanib with microtubule inhibitors such as paclitaxel produced heightened and synergistic antitu...

  17. An Evolutionary Conserved Role for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Behavioral Responses to Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lasek, Amy W.; Lim, Jana; Kliethermes, Christopher L.; Berger, Karen H.; Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Xue, Liquan; Robertson, Margaret; Moore, Monica S.; Vranizan, Karen; Morris, Stephan W.; SCHUCKIT, MARC A.; White, Raymond L.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk exp...

  18. Expression of p63 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma but not in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Bacchi, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemical determination of p63 protein is frequently used in the pathologic diagnosis of nonhematological solid tumors. In malignant hematological disease, p63 expression has been reported in 22% of follicular lymphoma, about 35% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 23% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and in some cases of blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare disease that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma....

  19. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Beer, Ambros J; Geissinger, Eva; Rosenwald, Andreas; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis. PMID:25018638

  20. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  1. Conodont bioapatite resembles vertebrate enamel by XRD properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jüri Nemliher; Toivo Kallaste

    2012-01-01

    XRD properties of Phanerozoic conodont apatite material were studied. It was found out that in terms of crystallinity the apatite resembles the enamel tissue of modern vertebrates. In terms of crystal lattice, apatite of conodonts is independent of taxa on the one hand and of chemistry of the surrounding rock type on the other hand.

  2. Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H; Brenner, Ori

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh's disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs. PMID:25565716

  3. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  4. Carbonaceous objects resembling nannobacteria in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Robert L.; Lynch, F. Leo

    1998-07-01

    The carbon in Allende consists of balls ranging form 30 to 150 nm in diameter.Most are spheres, but some ovoid to worm- like forms occur. Grape-like clumps and rosary-like chains are the most dramatic mimics of terrestrial bacterial colonies. We propose that the carbon balls in Allende represent roasted corpses of nanobacteria because of their resemblance to nanobacteria on earth.

  5. Paraspinal Gossypiboma Resembling an Abscess: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Coþkun

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with complaints of low back pain, sciatalgia on the  left persisting for five months and fluid leakage from the wound. He had been operated for L4-5 disc herniation before seven months. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a contrasted mass lesion resembling abscess formation localized in the left posterior paravertebral region. Paravertebral abscess was diagnosed and aspiration was planned under local anesthesia with ultrason...

  6. expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from

    OpenAIRE

    Geoghegan, Joan A.; Smith, Emma J.; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if expresses surface proteins resembling those from and to characterise them. strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the ?-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of , a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonization of the human nares. L...

  7. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marilena; Calvagno, Maria Grazia; Bulotta, Stefania; Paolino, Donatella; Arturi, Franco; Rotiroti, Domenicoantonio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Fresta, Massimo; Russo, Diego

    2004-01-01

    Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio). Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M). When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M) and earlier exposure time (24 h). Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free) for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours. PMID:15363094

  8. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotiroti Domenicoantonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. Methods In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio. Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. Results A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M. When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M and earlier exposure time (24 h. Conclusion These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Gemcitabine-loaded liposomes in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of effective systemic antineoplastic drugs against anaplastic thyroid carcinomas has particularly important implications. In fact, the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agents presently used in these tumours, is strongly limited by their low therapeutic index. In this study gemcitabine was entrapped within a pegylated liposomal delivery system to improve the drug antitumoral activity, thus exploiting the possibility to reduce doses to be administered in cancer therapy. The cytotoxic effects of free or liposome-entrapped gemcitabine was evaluated against a human thyroid tumour cell line. ARO cells, derived from a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, were exposed to different concentrations of the drug. Liposomes formulations were made up of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol/ 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-MPEG (8:3:1 molar ratio). Cell viability was assessed by both trypan bleu dye exclusion assay and fluorimetric analysis of cell DNA content. A cytotoxic effect of free gemcitabine was present only after 72 h incubation (ARO cell mortality increased of approximately 4 fold over control at 1 ?M, 7 fold at 100 ?M). When gemcitabine was encapsulated in liposomes, a significant effect was observed by using lower concentrations of the drug (increased cell mortality of 2.4 fold vs. control at 0.3 ?M) and earlier exposure time (24 h). These findings show that, in vitro against human thyroid cancer cells, the gemcitabine incorporation within liposomes enhances the drug cytotoxic effect with respect to free gemcitabine, thus suggesting a more effective drug uptake inside the cells. This may allow the use of new formulations with lower dosages (side effect free) for the treatment of anaplastic human thyroid tumours

  10. The emerging pathogenic and therapeutic importance of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) is a gene on chromosome 2p23 that has expression restricted to the brain, testis and small intestine but is not expressed in normal lymphoid tissue. It has similarity to the insulin receptor subfamily of kinases and is emerging as having increased pathologic and potential therapeutic importance in malignant disease. This gene was originally established as being implicated in the pathogenesis of rare diseases including inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is a subtype of non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma. Recently the number of diseases in which ALK is implicated in their pathogenesis has increased. In 2007, an inversion of chromosome 2 involving ALK and a fusion partner gene in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer was discovered. In 2008, publications emerged implicating ALK in familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer of the sympatho-adrenal system. Chromosomal abnormalities involving ALK are translocations, amplifications or mutations. Chromosomal translocations are the longest recognised ALK genetic abnormality. When translocations occur a fusion gene is created between ALK and a gene partner. This has been described in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in which ALK is fused to NPM (nucleolar protein gene) and in non-small cell lung cancer where ALK is fused to EML4 (Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4). The most frequently described partner genes in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour are tropomyosin 3\\/4 (TMP3\\/4), however in IMTs a diversity of ALK fusion partners have been found, with the ability to homodimerise a common characteristic. Point mutations and amplification of the ALK gene occur in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. Therapeutic targeting of ALK fusion genes using tyrosine kinase inhibition, vaccination using an ALK specific antigen and treatment using viral vectors for RNAi are emerging potential therapeutic possibilities.

  11. FDG PET staging compared to C.T. in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of initial staging in Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic lymphoma is very important since treatment depends on the initial staging disease. An error of assessment can have serious consequences on evolution and survival. To judge PET scan performances initial staging was done on our patients by both conventional imaging and PET scan. Methods: 21 children (10 girls, 11 boys), median age 14,9 years (8 to 22) had a PET scan for the initial staging (17 Hodgkin's disease, 4 anaplastic lymphomas). Conventional staging for imaging included: Thorax x-ray, thorax and abdomen C.T., abdominal echography, and also two bone marrow biopsies. Others exams were done in accordance with special clinical data. PET scan was done on a C PET scan ADAC one hour after IV injection of 2 MBq/Kg of 18 FDG. C.T. and PET scan images were revised blindly and separately by radiologist and nuclearist with no knowledge of clinical data. Results: the staging by C.I. and PET scan were concordant in 84% of cases. In 16% of cases PET scan displayed localisation not seen by C.I., particularly bone lesions. The staging changed grading status from stage III to stage IV. The clinical cases will be presented. PET scan upgrading were confirmed by resonance imaging or bone scintigraphy. The change of stage led in each child an intensification of chemotherapy (6 courses instead of 4). Conclusion: FDG PET is a useful diagnostic tool in children with Hodgkin's disease or anaplastic lymphoma to achieve with a single exam an accurate staging allowing to choose the best treatment

  12. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Progressive Malignant Glioma or Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

  13. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma or Recurrent or Progressive Meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  14. Coming of Age: Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma After 18 Years of Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Mark W; Miranda, Roberto N

    2015-10-01

    Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIALCL) is a distinct clinical entity that can present in patients receiving either reconstructive or cosmetic breast implants. Presenting symptoms include onset of a delayed (>1 year after implantation) fluid collection, mass of the capsule, or lymphadenopathy. Treatment has progressed in recent years and most commonly includes implant removal and total resection of the tumor, including capsule, mass, and involved lymph nodes. Further research is warranted to determine potential malignant drivers, disease progression, and optimal treatment strategies in advanced disease. PMID:26408447

  15. Twelve cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S.S.; Heald, J; HARRIS, M

    1991-01-01

    In seven of 12 cases of Ber-H2 (Ki-1) positive anaplastic large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Ki-1 ALCL) disease remained localised to skin, and in five there was extracutaneous spread. Four patients had histological evidence of pre-existing or coexisting mycosis fungoides, and three patients had a long standing history of eczema or ichthyosis. In two cases the presence of a T phenotype was shown in frozen sections, and in a further six cases a T phenotype was firmly established in paraffin wa...

  16. Aggressive Multimodal Approach for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and Long-Term Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Hussain; Usman Mustafa; Su Hyeon Jung; Gilman, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) comprises 1-2% of all thyroid cancers and is one of the most aggressive cancers with a median survival rate of around four months. The average 5-year survival rate has been reported to be around 3.6%. In this paper, we have discussed management and prognostic variables of a patient with ATC who has survived for more than 5 years. A 59-year-old female was referred to our facility for an elective thyroid and parathyroidectomy for concerns of thyroid papillary can...

  17. Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas in a public hospital in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Assirati Junior, João Alberto; Coelho Junior, Vicente de Paulo Martins; Neder, Luciano

    2015-09-01

    Atypical/anaplastic (World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III) are less common and have poorer outcomes than benign meningiomas. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of patients with these tumors.Method Overall/recurrence-free survivals (RFS) and the Karnofsky Performance Scale of 52 patients with grades II (42) and III (9) meningiomas surgically treated were analyzed (uni/multivariate analysis).Results Total/subtotal resections were 60.8%/35.3%. Patients meningioma had better RFS (univariate analysis). Patients >60 years-old, de novo meningioma and radiotherapy had longer survival and patients meningiomas. PMID:26352496

  18. Treatment of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma with superficial X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene E. Jepsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimal radiation schedule for primary cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma (PCALCL has not been investigated. We report here satisfactory outcomes of low-dose (16-20 Gy, 3-5 fractions, superficial X-ray radiation (40-50 kV in a series of 10 patients with PCALCL. Only 1 patient developed a local relapse during the median observation time of 25 months; complete remission was recorded in the other patients. This observation indicates that superficial, low dose X-ray therapy may provide a cost-effective alternative to the traditional 35-45 Gy schedules.

  19. Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte uptake in Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-111-oxine labeled leukocyte (111In-WBC) scintigraphy is well known for its ability to localize in areas of active infection, but not in areas of lymphomatous involvement. We present a case of Ki-1-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that was initially thought to be a case of multifocal osteomyelitis because of positive uptake on a 111In-WBC scan. The areas of abnormal uptake on the indium scan were demonstrated histopathologically to be sites of lymphomatous involvement in bone. (orig.)

  20. Anaplastic small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the tonsils: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, R; Dehou, M F; Lentrebecq, B; Faverly, D; Simonet, M L; Dor, P; Chanoine, F

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of anaplastic small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the tonsils are presented. In the first, cervical metastases preceded the manifestation of the primary tumour by 2 years. In case 2 the tonsillar carcinoma was accompanied by a bronchial tumour of the same histological type and by cervical and axillary metastases. Positive Grimelius stain, positive immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and neurone-specific enolase and the presence, in case 1, of membrane-bound granules indicate that these tumours display many similarities with neuroendocrine carcinomas even if they originate from pluripotential ductal cells of tonsillar minor salivary glands and not from Kulchitsky-like cells. PMID:2466759

  1. Rare synchronous association of vestibular schwannoma and indolent insular oligodendroglioma in a patient without neurofibromatosis: controversial issue of timing for surgical treatment of asymptomatic low-grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizzi A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Roberto Colasanti,1 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Gabriele Polonara,2 Lucia Giovanna Maria Di Somma,1 Antonio Zizzi,3 Marina Scarpelli,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, 2Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, 3Department of Pathology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: The co-occurrence of a vestibular schwannoma and a low-grade glioma is rare, and even rarer is the association with an oligodendroglioma. Although various authors have addressed the problem of treating patients with incidentally discovered indolent low-grade gliomas, an established protocol does not exist to date. The common approach is to reserve surgery until there is radiological evidence of tumor growth or high-grade transformation. However, because incidental low-grade glioma may represent the first stage of unavoidable pathological progression towards high-grade glioma, early and radical surgical resection should be advocated in order to increase the chance of a "cure" and prolonged survival. This case report supports this view, and suggests reflection on a possible change from a conservative philosophy to preventative surgical treatment.Keywords: multiple primary intracranial tumors, vestibular schwannoma, oligodendroglioma, indolent low grade gliomas, incidentaloma, surgery

  2. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  3. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexy in animal metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-01-01

    For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999) draws attention to this pro...

  4. Sequence of retrovirus provirus resembles that of bacterial transposable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotohno, Kunitada; Mizutani, Satoshi; Temin, Howard M.

    1980-06-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the terminal regions of an infectious integrated retrovirus cloned in the modified ? phage cloning vector Charon 4A have been elucidated. There is a 569-base pair direct repeat at both ends of the viral DNA. The cell-virus junctions at each end consist of a 5-base pair direct repeat of cell DNA next to a 3-base pair inverted repeat of viral DNA. This structure resembles that of a transposable element and is consistent with the protovirus hypothesis that retroviruses evolved from the cell genome.

  5. Id4 and FABP7 are preferentially expressed in cells with astrocytic features in oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Kelly

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oligodendroglioma (ODG and oligoastrocytoma (OAC are diffusely infiltrating primary brain tumors whose pathogenesis remains unclear. We previously identified a group of genes whose expression was inversely correlated with survival in a cohort of patients with glioblastoma (GBM, and some of these genes are also reportedly expressed in ODG and OAC. We examined the expression patterns and localization of these survival-associated genes in ODG and OAC in order to analyze their possible roles in the oncogenesis of these two tumor types. Methods We used UniGene libraries derived from GBM and ODG specimens to examine the expression levels of the transcripts for each of the 50 GBM survival-associated genes. We used immunohistochemistry and cDNA microarrays to examine expression of selected survival-associated genes and Id4, a gene believed to control the timing of oligodendrocyte development. The expression of FABP7 and Id4 and the survival of patients with ODG and OAC were also analyzed. Results Transcripts of most survival-associated genes as well as Id4 were present in both GBM and ODG tumors, whereas protein expression of Id4 and one of the survival-associated genes, brain-type fatty acid-binding protein (FABP7, was present in cells with astrocytic features, including reactive and neoplastic astrocytes, but not in neoplastic oligodendrocytes. Id4 was co-expressed with FABP7 in microgemistocytes in ODG and in neoplastic astrocytes in OAC. Id4 and FABP7 expression, however, did not correlate with the clinical outcome of patients with ODG or OAC tumors. Conclusion Expression of Id4 and some of our previously identified GBM survival-associated genes is present in developing or mature oligodendrocytes. However, protein expression of Id4 and FABP7 in GBM, ODG, and OAC suggests that this group of functionally important genes might demonstrate two patterns of expression in these glioma subtypes: one group is universally expressed in glioma cells, and the other group of genes is expressed primarily in neoplastic astrocytes but not in neoplastic oligodendrocytes. Differential protein expression of these two groups of genes in ODG and OAC may be related to the cellular origins and the histological features of the neoplastic cells.

  6. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  7. Valproic acid enhances tubulin acetylation and apoptotic activity of paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Maria G; Poli, Roberta; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of paclitaxel into multimodal therapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has failed to improve overall survival. Toxicity rules out the high doses required, especially in older patients. The search for strategies to enhance paclitaxel antineoplastic activity and reduce its side effects is thus advisable. The study aimed to determine whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) improves the anticancer action of paclitaxel and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of combined treatment. We examined the effect of VPA on the sensitivity to paclitaxel of two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (CAL-62 and ARO), and the ability of the drug to determine tubulin acetylation and enhance paclitaxel-induced acetylation. The addition of as little as 0.7 mM VPA to paclitaxel enhances both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel alone. Increased apoptosis explains the enhancement of the cytotoxic effect. The mechanism underlying this effect is through inhibition of HDAC6 activity, which leads to tubulin hyperacetylation. The results suggest a mechanistic link between HDAC6 inhibition, tubulin acetylation, and the VPA-induced enhancement of paclitaxel effects, and provide the rationale for designing future combination therapies. PMID:17914112

  8. Carcinoma anaplásico. Presentación de un caso Anaplastic carcinoma. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Iglesias Díaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A la consulta especializada de cirugía del tiroides acude un paciente joven por presentar en el breve tiempo de una semana aumento de volumen del lateral izquierdo del cuello acompañado de tos, disfonía y disfagia, sintomatología común en el carcinoma anaplásico. Con el propósito de exponer las características del carcinoma anaplásico en una edad poco usual, su evolución y pronóstico, así como el tratamiento aplicado en este caso se efectuó una tiroidectomía total y tratamiento oncológico con radioquimio-terapia .Se realiza un análisis de las características clínicas, anatomopatológicas y tratamiento en relación con este caso, y se compara con lo reportado en la literatura consultada.A patient who attended to the specialized medical office for the surgery of thyroid gland presented, in a short period of time (a week, an enlargement in the left part of the neck associated with other common symptoms in the presence of anaplastic carcinoma: cough, dysphonia and dysphagia. This paper was aimed at explaining the characteristics of the anaplastic carcinoma in an uncommon age, its natural history, prognosis and the treatment in this case: a total Thyroidectomy and Radiotherapy. An analysis of the clinical and pathological features, as well as the treatment applied was carried out. This case was compared with other cases reported in the medical literature.

  9. High intratumoral macrophage content is an adverse prognostic feature in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin B; Danielsen, Allan V

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Macrophage infiltration has been associated with prognosis in several cancers, including lymphoma, but has not been assessed systematically in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The aim of the study was to correlate expression of the macrophage-associated antigens CD68 and CD163 with pre-therapeutic parameters and outcome in a cohort of treatment-naive ALCL patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-therapeutic tumour specimens from 52 patients with ALCL were included in a tissue microarray. The intratumoral macrophage content was assessed by immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163, and quantified using digital image analysis. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive patients were significantly younger and had a favourable outcome compared with ALK-negative ALCL patients (median age: 42 versus 59 years; P = 0.008). However, ALK expression was not a significant predictor when adjusting for age. Although classical risk factors were distributed evenly between the compared groups, high intratumoral content of CD68 and/or CD163 correlated with poor outcome, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. High intratumoral CD163 content showed the strongest adverse association with both overall and progression-free survival in ALK-negative patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A high content of intratumoral CD68- and/or CD163-positive macrophages correlates with an adverse outcome in ALK-negative ALCL.

  10. A comparative evaluation of supervised and unsupervised representation learning approaches for anaplastic medulloblastoma differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Roa, Angel; Arevalo, John; Basavanhally, Ajay; Madabhushi, Anant; González, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Learning data representations directly from the data itself is an approach that has shown great success in different pattern recognition problems, outperforming state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes for different tasks in computer vision, speech recognition and natural language processing. Representation learning applies unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods to large amounts of data to find building-blocks that better represent the information in it. Digitized histopathology images represents a very good testbed for representation learning since it involves large amounts of high complex, visual data. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different supervised and unsupervised representation learning architectures to specifically address open questions on what type of learning architectures (deep or shallow), type of learning (unsupervised or supervised) is optimal. In this paper we limit ourselves to addressing these questions in the context of distinguishing between anaplastic and non-anaplastic medulloblastomas from routine haematoxylin and eosin stained images. The unsupervised approaches evaluated were sparse autoencoders and topographic reconstruct independent component analysis, and the supervised approach was convolutional neural networks. Experimental results show that shallow architectures with more neurons are better than deeper architectures without taking into account local space invariances and that topographic constraints provide useful invariant features in scale and rotations for efficient tumor differentiation.

  11. Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C J; Parry, N M A; Jakowski, R M; Eshar, D

    2008-11-01

    A 2-year-old, female hedgehog presented with an 8-month history of progressive, ascending paresis/paralysis and was tentatively diagnosed with wobbly hedgehog syndrome. She died awaiting further diagnostic tests, and the owners consented to postmortem examination. Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages. The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal. Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected. These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter. A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. PMID:18984799

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Patients with Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Differential Features According to Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Lee, Jong Jin; Park, Seol Hoon; Chae, Sunyoung; Kim, Shin; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung; Ryu, Jinsook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression. Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peak SUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed. All cases were {sup 18}F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peak SUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n =16, 18.7±10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n =21, 10.0±4.9) (P =0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P=0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P =0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P =0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P =0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0%vs 20.0 %, P =0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results. On baseline PET, all cases showed {sup 18}F-FDG avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group.

  13. 18F-FDG PET in Patients with Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Differential Features According to Expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is divided into two entities according to the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). We investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) findings in primary systemic ALCL according to ALK expression. Thirty-seven patients who had baseline PET before CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, patients who underwent interim and/or post-therapy PET were further investigated for the treatment response and survival analysis. Baseline PET was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively using peak SUV, and interim and post-therapy PETs were visually analyzed. All cases were 18F-FDG-avid on baseline PET. The peak SUV of ALK-positive ALCL (n =16, 18.7±10.5) was higher than that of ALK-negative ALCL (n =21, 10.0±4.9) (P =0.006). In ALK-negative ALCL, complete response (CR) rate in negative-interim PET was higher than positive-interim PET (100 % vs 37.5 %, P=0.02); however, there was no such difference in ALK-positive ALCL (100 % vs 75 %, P =0.19). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was not significantly different between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL (72.7 % vs 47.6 %, P =0.34). In ALK-negative ALCL, negative interim and post-therapy PET patients had better 3-year PFS than positive interim (83.3 % vs 25.0 %, P =0.06) and post-therapy PET patients (70.0%vs 20.0 %, P =0.04). In contrast, ALK-positive ALCL had no such differences between PFS and PET results. On baseline PET, all cases showed 18F-FDG avidity, and ALK expression was related to higher 18F-FDG uptake. ALK-positive patients tend to have better PFS than ALK-negative patients. Negative-interim PET was a good indicator of CR, and interim or post-therapy PET was helpful for predicting the prognosis only in the ALK-negative group

  14. PI3K/AKT pathway alterations are associated with clinically aggressive and histologically anaplastic subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Giannini, Caterina; Rynearson, Amanda; Cen, Ling; Hoesley, Bridget; Gilmer-Flynn, Heather; Sarkaria, Jann N; Jenkins, Sarah; Long, Jin; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2010-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are well-differentiated gliomas having a favorable prognosis when compared with other diffuse or infiltrative astrocytomas. Molecular genetic abnormalities and activation of signaling pathways associated with clinically aggressive PA and histologically anaplastic PA have not been adequately studied. We performed molecular genetic, gene expression, and immunohistochemical studies using three PA subsets, including conventional PA (n = 43), clinically aggressive/recur...

  15. Autonomously Moving Colloidal Objects that Resemble Living Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Morimune

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of autonomously moving objects that resemble living matter is an excellent research topic that may develop into various applications of functional motion. Autonomous motion can demonstrate numerous significant characteristics such as transduction of chemical potential into work without heat, chemosensitive motion, chemotactic and phototactic motions, and pulse-like motion with periodicities responding to the chemical environment. Sustainable motion can be realized with an open system that exchanges heat and matter across its interface. Hence the autonomously moving object has a colloidal scale with a large specific area. This article reviews several examples of systems with such characteristics that have been studied, focusing on chemical systems containing amphiphilic molecules.

  16. PERCEPTUAL RESEMBLANCE OF FACIAL IMAGES: A NEAR SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.MUSTAFI

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a near set approach to image analysis. Near sets result from generalization of rough settheory. One set X is near another set Y to the extent that the description of at least one of the objects in X matches thedescription of at least one of the objects in Y. Near set Evaluation And Recognition (NEAR system is used to measure thedegree of resemblance between facial images. The goal of the NEAR system is to extract perceptual information fromimages using near set theory, which provides a framework for measuring the perceptual nearness of objects. In this work,we have used images from Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE database. The images were first converted intoLocal Binary Patterns (LBP images and then divided into non-overlapping blocks. The degree of nearness of histogramsof all the blocks of one image is measured with the corresponding blocks of another image by using NEAR system

  17. Skin adnexal neoplasm closely resembling adenomatoid tumor: a unique occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, S; Di Bella, C; Faravelli, A

    2006-04-01

    We describe a primary skin neoplasm located in the left chest wall that closely resembled adenomatoid tumor of male and female genital tract. It occurred in a 52-year-old woman who had undergone a left quadrantectomy with regional lymphadenectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast 7 years previously. The tumor involved the dermis and subcutaneous tissue and measured 0.7 cm in greatest diameter. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed strong positivity for cytokeratin pool and negativity for CD31, calretinin, WT-180, and for estrogen and progesterone receptors. We are unaware of a previous description of this morphologic pattern in a primary skin tumor, which we have interpreted as of skin adnexal and specifically of eccrine sweat gland origin. PMID:16703184

  18. A case of cervical radiation radiculopathy resembling motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 67-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscular weakness in the bilateral upper extremities (C5-7 regions) without signs of sensory deficit following the cervical radiation therapy (70.5 Gy) for right laryngeal cancer 4 years before. These clinical signs resembled those of lower motor neuron disease. MRI with gadolinium-DTPA, however, showed enhancement in the bilateral C5 and C6 anterior roots, suggesting the cervical radiculopathy due to radiotherapy. It is known that radiation to the spinal cord can lead to ''selective anterior horn cell injury''. This is the first case report of the cervical radiation radiculopathy, which, if without MRI, might be classified into selective anterior horn cell injury. Suggestion is made for the hypothesis that the spinal motoneuron loss in radiation myelopathy would be caused by retrograde degeneration due to anterior root damages. (author)

  19. Paraspinal Gossypiboma Resembling an Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Coþkun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with complaints of low back pain, sciatalgia on the  left persisting for five months and fluid leakage from the wound. He had been operated for L4-5 disc herniation before seven months. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI detected a contrasted mass lesion resembling abscess formation localized in the left posterior paravertebral region. Paravertebral abscess was diagnosed and aspiration was planned under local anesthesia with ultrasonography guidance. During intervention, a needle was inserted into cavity but enough material was not aspirated. Thus, surgery was plannedand a retained sponge material was found within the left paraspinal region  and removed totally. The patient healed without complication.

  20. A case of cervical radiation radiculopathy resembling motor neuron disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsunaga, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Takeo; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Takeshi; Kira, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Takuro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    A 67-year-old man developed slowly progressive muscular weakness in the bilateral upper extremities (C5-7 regions) without signs of sensory deficit following the cervical radiation therapy (70.5 Gy) for right laryngeal cancer 4 years before. These clinical signs resembled those of lower motor neuron disease. MRI with gadolinium-DTPA, however, showed enhancement in the bilateral C5 and C6 anterior roots, suggesting the cervical radiculopathy due to radiotherapy. It is known that radiation to the spinal cord can lead to ``selective anterior horn cell injury``. This is the first case report of the cervical radiation radiculopathy, which, if without MRI, might be classified into selective anterior horn cell injury. Suggestion is made for the hypothesis that the spinal motoneuron loss in radiation myelopathy would be caused by retrograde degeneration due to anterior root damages. (author)

  1. Multiple oligodendroglioma with pseudoprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year-old male hospitalized with aphasia, abnormal behavior, and rapidlyprogressive dementia.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enhanced by contrast media demonstrated multiplebrain tumors in left parietal lobe and left paraventricular region. Biopsy was performed,andhistopathological examination and genetical evaluation revealed anaplasticoligodendroglioma. Local radiation 50Gy was given, and Temozolomide via orallyadministered for 42 days. After the chemoradiotherapy, even though the parietal tumorshowed lessening of the size, enlargement of the tumor in the left paraventricularregion was observed, and we considered that phenomenon was pseudoprogression. 5courses of Temozolomide therapy was added, but cerebellar tumor appeared andenlarged with hydrocephalus, and died 1 year and 3 months after the firsthospitalization.

  2. Small cell anaplastic carcinoma of primary lung tumor in a miniature schnauzer dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-year-old male, an intact miniature Schnauzer dog with history of vomiting, abdominal distention, anorexia, and dyspnea was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Thoracic radiographs showed the well marginated solitary mass with soft density in the right caudal lung field, and abdominal radiographs showed signs of ascites, such as abdominal distention and moderate serosal detail loss. On ultrasonograph and computed tomograph, it was observed that the mass compressed the caudal vena cava (CVC) and adhered to the heart. Exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and then it was showed that mass adhered heart, CVC, and diaphragm. The mass was fully rejected although adhered part of CVC could not be completely rejected. On histopathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as small-cell anaplastic carcinoma

  3. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lei; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-11-01

    Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes. PMID:26536237

  4. Congenital primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, An Na; Lee, Seok-Jong; Choi, Yoon Hyuk; Chung, Ho Yun; Huh, Jooryung; Yoon, Ghil Suk

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) is the second most common type of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The median age of onset of C-ALCL is 60 years. Presented here is a case of congenital CD30-positive (CD30(+)) primary C-ALCL in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with a large erythematous indurative plaque in the right postauricular area. A systemic workup of the patient excluded other potential causes. The neonate was treated with wide excision, but chemotherapy or radiation therapy was not administered, as the patient's parents did not consent to such treatment. The patient has been monitored for 30 months after excision and there has been no disease recurrence. C-ALCL rarely occurs in children, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a neonate with congenital primary C-ALCL. PMID:25365497

  5. Metronomic chemotherapy in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A potentially feasible alternative to therapeutic nihilism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop Revannasiddaiah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is one of the most aggressive malignancies and prognostic outlook remains very dismal. Treatment most often is palliative in intent attempting to relieve the patients from local compressive symptoms in the neck. Radical surgery, radiotherapy (RT, and chemotherapy have not been tested in large prospective trials, and current evidence from retrospective series and small trials indicate only marginal survival benefits. Given the poor prognostic and therapeutic outlook, patients must be encouraged to be actively involved in the decision making process. We report the case of an elderly patient who had no response to palliative RT, and was treated with oral metronomic chemotherapy. The response to oral metronomic chemotherapy was dramatic, and the patient has enjoyed complete freedom from symptoms as well as radiologically exhibits a complete regression. Thus, we document the first ever use of a simple, cost-effective, and convenient oral metronomic chemotherapeutic regimen delivering a remarkable response in an elderly patient with ATC.

  6. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lei; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1) to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes. PMID:26536237

  7. Imaging findings of anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with maple syrup urine disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Wadhwani, Nitin R; Rishi, Lulla R; Ryan, Maura E

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which usually presents in childhood with encephalopathy due to cerebral edema and dysmyelination. Even with treatment, metabolic stressors may precipitate later episodes of acute decompensation. Changes related to cerebral and white matter edema have been described by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging can aid in both initial diagnosis and evaluation of decompensation. To date, there are no published known reports of cancer in patients with MSUD. Here, we present the first case report of an anaplastic astrocytoma in a teenager with MSUD, with a discussion of imaging findings and the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to help distinguish between tumor and metabolic changes. PMID:26084772

  8. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Diagnostic Signatures for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cuiling; Iqbal, Javeed

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) encompass at least 2 systemic diseases distinguished by the presence or absence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling on 33 ALK-positive (ALK[+]) ALCLs, 25 ALK-negative (ALK[-]) ALCLs, 9 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified (PTCLNOS), and normal T cells, and demonstrated that ALCLs express many of the miRNAs that are highly expressed in normal T cells with the prominent exception of miR-146a. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering demonstrated distinct clustering of ALCL, PTCL-NOS, and the AITL subtype of PTCL. Cases of ALK(+) ALCL and ALK(-) ALCL were interspersed in unsupervised analysis, suggesting a close relationship at the molecular level. We identified an miRNA signature of 7 miRNAs (5 upregulated: miR-512-3p, miR-886-5p, miR-886-3p, miR-708, miR-135b; 2 downregulated: miR-146a, miR-155) significantly associated with ALK(+) ALCL cases. In addition, we derived an 11-miRNA signature (4 upregulated: miR-210, miR-197, miR-191, miR-512-3p; 7 downregulated: miR-451, miR-146a, miR-22, miR-455-3p, miR-455-5p, miR-143, miR-494) that differentiates ALK(-) ALCL from other PTCLs. Our in vitro studies identified a set of 32 miRNAs associated with ALK expression. Of these, the miR-17?92 cluster and its paralogues were also highly expressed in ALK(+) ALCL and may represent important downstream effectors of the ALK oncogenic pathway.

  9. Diversity of Genomic Breakpoints in TFG-ALK Translocations in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Beà, Sílvia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Pinyol, Magda; Falini, Brunangelo; Carbone, Antonino; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Fernández, Alberto; Pulford, Karen; Mason, David; Morris, Stephan W.; Santos, Eugenio; Campo, Elias

    2002-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal aberrations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene at 2p23 that result in the expression of novel chimeric ALK proteins with transforming properties. In most of these tumors, the t(2;5)(p23;q35) generates the NPM-ALK fusion gene. However, several studies have now demonstrated that genes other than NPM may be fused to the ALK gene. We have recently described two different ALK rearrangements involving the TRK-fused gene (TFG) in which the same portion of ALK was fused to different length fragments of the 5? TFG region. These two rearrangements encoded chimeric proteins of 85 kd (TFG-ALKS) and 97 kd (TFG-ALKL), respectively. In this study, we have identified a new ALK rearrangement in which the catalytic domain of ALK was fused to a larger fragment of the TFG gene (TFG-ALKXL), encoding for a fusion protein of 113 kd. Genomic analysis of these three TFG-ALK rearrangements revealed that the TFG breakpoints occur at introns 3, 4, and 5, respectively, whereas the ALK breakpoints always occur in the same intron. No homologous regions or known recombination sequences were found in these regions. Transfection experiments using NIH-3T3 fibroblasts showed a similar transforming efficiency of TFG-ALK variants compared with NPM-ALK. In addition, in common with NPM-ALK, the TFG-ALK proteins formed stable complexes with the signaling proteins Grb2, Shc, and PLC-?. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the TFG may use a variety of intronic breakpoints in ALK rearrangements generating fusion proteins of different molecular weights, but with similar transforming potential than NPM-ALK. PMID:11943732

  10. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALK-negative clinically mimicking alcoholic hepatitis – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, described less than 30 years ago by Karl Lennert and Herald Stein in Kiel, West Germany, is a T-cell or null non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with distinctive morphology (hallmark cells, prominent sinus and/or perivascular growth pattern, characteristic immunophenotype (CD30+, cytotoxic granules protein+, CD3–/+ and specific genetic features as translocations involving the receptor tyrosine kinase called anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK on 2p23 and variable partners genes, which results in the expression of ALK fusion protein. The absence of ALK expression is also observed and is associated with poorer prognosis that seen with ALK expression. ALK-negative ALCL is more frequent in adults, with both nodal and extra nodal clinical presentation and includes several differential diagnoses with other CD30+ lymphomas. Liver involvement by ALCL is rare and is generally seen as mass formation; the diffuse pattern of infiltration is even more unusual. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented clinical symptoms of acute hepatic failure. The patient had a long history of alcohol abuse and the diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis was highly considered, although the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH value was highly elevated. The clinical course was fulminant leading to death on the fourth day of hospitalization. Autopsy demonstrated diffuse neoplastic hepatic infiltration as well as splenic, pulmonary, bone marrow, and minor abdominal lymph nodes involvement by the tumor. Based on morphological, immunophenotypical, and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of ALK- negative ALCL was concluded. When there is marked elevation of LDH the possibility of lymphoma, ALCL and other types, should be the principal diagnosis to be considered.

  11. Cáncer anaplásico de tiroides: Reporte de caso / Anaplastic thyroid cancer: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Pinto-Valdivia; Milagros, Ortiz-Torres; Jaime, Villena-Chávez; César, Chian-García.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mujer de 40 años, sin antecedente de patología tiroidea, con historia de enfermedad de cuatro semanas caracterizado por baja de peso, aumento rápido del tamaño de la glándula tiroides y dolor óseo generalizado. El examen físico mostró bocio multinodular no doloroso con múltiples ganglios cervicales. [...] Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron anemia y niveles elevados de transaminasas, fosfatasa alcalina y deshidrogenasa láctica. El perfil tiroideo fue normal y los anticuerpos antiperoxidasa tiroidea fueron negativos. La biopsia por aspiración mostró carcinoma de tiroides. Se realizó una tiroidectomía total con disección amplia de los ganglios del cuello y en el estudio de anatomía patológica resultó un carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides. La evolución de la paciente fue desfavorable, falleciendo por insuficiencia respiratoria, secundaria a embolismo pulmonar. El carcinoma anaplásico de tiroides es poco frecuente, pero tiene una alta mortalidad. Las metástasis a distancia están asociadas a mal pronóstico. Abstract in english A 40-year-old woman presented with a four weeks history of weight loss, rapid thyroid enlargement, and generalized bone pain. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination showed a painless multinodular goiter with multiple cervical lymph nodes. Laboratory tests showed anemia, [...] elevated levels of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase. Thyroid profile was normal and thyroid autoantibodies were negative. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed a malignant carcinoma of thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and extensive neck dissection for lymph nodes were performed. Pathology examination showed an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The clinical evolution was torpid, and patient died because of respiratory insufficiency, secondary to pulmonary embolism. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon and lethal malignancy. Distant metastases are associated with a low survival rate.

  12. Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK + ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK + ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK + ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the cells to become cytokine-independent and resistant to glucocorticoids (GCs). Targeting AKT/mTOR inhibited growth and triggered the apoptotic cell death of ALK + ALCL cells and NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells, and also reversed GC resistance induced by overexpression of NPM-ALK. Overexpression of ALK due to chromosomal translocations is seen in the majority of ALCL patients and endows them with a much better prognosis. The AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is highly activated in ALK + ALCL patients and targeting the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway might confer a great therapeutic potential in ALCL

  13. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    OpenAIRE

    Debruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depend...

  14. Facial Resemblance to Emotions: Group Differences, Impression Effects, and Race Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2...

  15. Menisectomized miniature Vietnamese pigs develop articular cartilage pathology resembling osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Raymundo; Ramírez, Carmen; Rojas, Oscar I; Casas-Mejía, Oscar; Kouri, Juan B; Vega-López, Marco A

    2015-11-01

    Animal models have been used to understand the basic biology of osteoarthritis (OA) and have helped to identify new candidate biomarkers for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Small animals cannot sufficiently mimic human diseases; therefore, large animal models are needed. Pigs have been used as models for human diseases because they are similar to humans in terms of their anatomy, physiology and genome. Hence, we analyzed articular cartilage and synovial membrane pathology in miniature Vietnamese pigs after a unilateral partial menisectomy and 20-day exercise regimen to determine if the pigs developed pathological characteristics similar to human OA. Histological and protein expression analysis of articular cartilage from menisectomized pigs revealed the following pathologic changes resembling OA: fibrillation, fissures, chondrocyte cluster formation, decrease in proteoglycan content and upregulation of the OA-associated proteins MMP-3, MMP-13, procaspase-3 and IL-1?. Moreover, histological analysis of synovial membrane revealed mild synovitis, characterized by hyperplasia, cell infiltration and neoangiogenesis. Pathological changes were not observed in the contralateral joints or the joints of sham-operated pigs. Further studies are required to validate such an OA model; however, our results can encourage the use of pigs to study early stages of OA physiopathology. Based on their similarities to humans, pigs may be useful for preclinical studies to identify new candidate biomarkers and novel treatments for OA. PMID:26296921

  16. Gait analysis in a mouse model resembling Leigh disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Ria; Russel, Frans G; Smeitink, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Leigh disease (LD) is one of the clinical phenotypes of mitochondrial OXPHOS disorders and also known as sub-acute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. The disease has an incidence of 1 in 77,000 live births. Symptoms typically begin early in life and prognosis for LD patients is poor. Currently, no clinically effective treatments are available. Suitable animal and cellular models are necessary for the understanding of the neuropathology and the development of successful new therapeutic strategies. In this study we used the Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4(-/-)) mouse, a model of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Ndusf4(-/-) mice exhibit progressive neurodegeneration, which closely resemble the human LD phenotype. When dissecting behavioral abnormalities in animal models it is of great importance to apply translational tools that are clinically relevant. To distinguish gait abnormalities in patients, simple walking tests can be assessed, but in animals this is not easy. This study is the first to demonstrate automated CatWalk gait analysis in the Ndufs4(-/-) mouse model. Marked differences were noted between Ndufs4(-/-) and control mice in dynamic, static, coordination and support parameters. Variation of walking speed was significantly increased in Ndufs4(-/-) mice, suggesting hampered and uncoordinated gait. Furthermore, decreased regularity index, increased base of support and changes in support were noted in the Ndufs4(-/-) mice. Here, we report the ability of the CatWalk system to sensitively assess gait abnormalities in Ndufs4(-/-) mice. This objective gait analysis can be of great value for intervention and drug efficacy studies in animal models for mitochondrial disease. PMID:26363424

  17. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental attention to date. This study compared the efficacy of two aversive conditioning treatments that used either humans or dogs to create sequences resembling chases by predators, which, along with a control category, were repeatedly and individually applied to 24 moderately habituated, radio-collared elk in Banff National Park during the winter of 2001–2002. Three response variables were measured before and after treatment. Relative to untreated animals, the distance at which elk fled from approaching humans, i.e., the flight response distance, increased following both human and dog treatments, but there was no difference between the two treatments. The proportion of time spent in vigilance postures decreased for all treatment groups, without differences among groups, suggesting that this behavior responded mainly to seasonal effects. The average distance between elk locations and the town boundary, measured once daily by telemetry, significantly increased for human-conditioned elk. One of the co-variates we measured, wolf activity, exerted counteracting effects on conditioning effects; flight response distances and proximity to the town site were both lower when wolf activity was high. This research demonstrates that it is possible to temporarily modify aspects of the behavior of moderately habituated elk using aversive conditioning, suggests a method for reducing habituation in the first place, and provides a solution for Banff and other jurisdictions to manage hyperabundant and habituated urban wildlife.

  18. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions. PMID:20085393

  19. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with development of sick sinus syndrome while on targeted treatment with crizotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hao; Li, Mei-Mei; Jin, Shu-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are younger and have never smoked, while pathologically are predominately adenocarcinomas. Crizotinib as an ALK inhibitor has been used in treating ALK positive NSCLC patients for several years and some adverse effects should be paid attention to. We now describe a case of ALK positive NSCLC patient with development of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) while on targeted treatment with crizotinib. A 46-year-old n...

  20. Evaluation of immunohistochemistry using two different antibodies and procedures for primary lung adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Akiba, Jun; Kawahara, Akihiko; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; TAIRA, TOMOKI; FUKUMITSU, CHIHIRO; TAKASE, YORIHIKO; YASUMOTO, MAKIKO; UMENO, YUMI; Todoroki, Keita; Kurita, Takashi; YAMAGUCHI, RIN; Kage, Masayoshi; YANO, HIROHISA

    2014-01-01

    Rearrangements of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been recently identified in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Previous studies have revealed characteristic features, including adenocarcinoma histology and mucin production, in ALK-positive lung carcinoma. The present study evaluated immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ALK-positive lung carcinoma using two different antibodies, clone 5A4 and D5F3, and compared the results. On the basis of the aforementioned characteristic features, out of 359 p...

  1. Cytotoxic activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    BOSCO, Ornella; CATALANO, MARIA GRAZIELLA; BUSSOLATI, Benedetta; BOCCUZZI, Giuseppe; GRANGE, CRISTINA; PUGLIESE, MARIATERESA; GARGANTINI, ELEONORA; POLI, ROBERTA; ASIOLI, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal clinical course, being resistant to multimodal treatments. Microtubules, ?/? tubulin heterodimers, are crucial in cell signaling, division and mitosis and are among the most successful targets for anticancer therapy. Panobinostat (LBH589) is a potent deacetylase inhibitor acting both on histones and nonhistonic proteins, including ?-tubulin. In vitro LBH589, evaluated in three ATC cell lines (BHT-101, CAL-62 and 8305C), resulted in impair...

  2. Multilevel dysregulation of STAT3 activation in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive T/null-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Raghunath, Puthryaveett N; Xue, Liquan; Majewski, Miroslaw; Carpentieri, David F; Odum, Niels; Morris, Stephan; Skorski, Tomasz; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2002-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), typically due to t(2;5) translocation, defines a distinct type of T/null-cell lymphoma (TCL). The resulting nucleophosmin (NPM) /ALK chimeric kinase is constitutively active and oncogenic. Downstream effector molecules triggered by NPM/ALK remain, however, largely unidentified. Here we report that NPM/ALK induces continuous activation of STAT3. STAT3 displayed tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding in all (fou...

  3. Sunitinib Malate plus Lomustine for Patients with Temozolomide-refractory Recurrent Anaplastic or Low-grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerinck, Johnny; DU Four, Stephanie; Sander, Wilhelm; VAN Binst, Anne-Marie; Everaert, Hendrik; Michotte, Alex; Hau, Peter; Neyns, Bart

    2015-10-01

    Tyrosine kinase signaling through the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor- ? (PDGFR-?) and KIT cell surface receptors mediates neo-angiogenesis and contributes to cancer cell survival in recurrent anaplastic and low-grade glioma. Thirteen patients with temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic or low-grade glioma were treated with sunitinib malate, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the VEGFR, PDGFR, and KIT receptors, in combination with lomustine. The most frequent grade 3 and 4 adverse events were fatigue, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia. The best objective tumor response by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria was one complete response, one unconfirmed partial response and three cases of stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval=1.0-2.7 months) with 6-month progression-free survival of 15% (95% confidence interval=0-35%). The median overall survival was 6.7 months (95% confidence interval=0.7-12 months). The investigated combination regimen of sunitinib and lomustine is well-tolerated but insufficiently active to warrant further investigation in an unselected population of patients with temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic and low-grade glioma. PMID:26408725

  4. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan-Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (S-ALCL is a rare disease with a highly variable prognosis and no standard chemotherapy regimen. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK has been reported as an important prognostic factor correlated with S-ALCL in many but not all studies. In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 92 patients with S-ALCL from the Peking University Lymphoma Center for clinical and molecular prognostic factors to make clear the role of ALK and other prognostic factors in Han Chinese S-ALCL. Results The majority of Chinese S-ALCL patients were young male patients (median age 26, male/female ratio 1.7 and the median age was younger than previous reports regardless of ALK expression status. The only statistically significant different clinical characteristic in S-ALCL between ALK positive (ALK+ and ALK negative (ALK- was age, with a younger median age of 22 for ALK+ compared with 30 for ALK-. However, when pediatric patients (?18 were excluded, there was no age difference between ALK+ and ALK-. The groups did not differ in the proportion of males, those with clinical stage III/IV (49 vs 51% or those with extranodal disease (53 vs 59%. Of 73 evaluable patients, the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 60% and 47%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that three factors: advanced stage III/IV, lack of expression of ALK, and high Ki-67 expression, were associated with treatment failure in patients with S-ALCL. However, ALK expression correlated with improved survival only in patients younger than 14?years, while not in adult patients. In multivariate analysis, only clinical stage was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Expressions of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 correlated with the expression of ALK, but they did not have prognostic significance. High Ki-67 expression was also a poor prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results show that ALK expression alone is not sufficient to determine the outcome of ALCL and other prognostic factors must be considered. Clinical stage is an independent prognostic factor. Ki-67 expression is a promising prognostic factor.

  5. Iodide uptake in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells after transfer of the human thyroid peroxidase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkom, U. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A.; Jiang, S.; Morr, I.; Mahmut, M. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Human thyroperoxidase (hTPO) is critical for the accumulation of iodide in thyroid tissues. Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumours which lack thyroid-specific gene expression fail to accumulate iodide and, therefore, do not respond to iodine-131 therapy. We consequently investigated whether transfer of the hTPO gene is sufficient to restore the iodide-trapping capacity in undifferentiated thyroid and non-thyroid tumour cells. The human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines C643 and SW1736, the rat Morris hepatoma cell line MH3924A and the rat papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line L2 were used as in vitro model systems. Employing a bicistronic retroviral vector based on the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus for the transfer of the hTPO and the neomycin resistance gene, the C643 cells and SW1736 cells were transfected while the L2 cells and MH3924A cells were infected with retroviral particles. Seven recombinant C643 and seven SW1736 cell lines as well as four recombinant L2 and four MH3924A cell lines were established by neomycin selection. They were studied for hTPO expression using an antibody-based luminescence kit, followed by determination of the enzyme activity in the guaiacol assay and of the iodide uptake capacity in the presence of Na{sup 125}I. Genetically modified cell lines expressed up to 1,800 times more hTPO as compared to wild type tumour cells. The level of hTPO expression varied significantly between individual neomycin-resistant cell lines, suggesting that the recombinant retroviral DNA was integrated at different sites of the cellular genome. The accumulation of iodide, however, was not significantly enhanced in individual recombinant cell lines, irrespective of low or high hTPO expression. Moreover, there was no correlation between hTPO expression and enzyme activity in individual cell lines. The transduction of the hTPO gene per se is not sufficient to restore iodide trapping in non-iodide-concentrating tumour cells. Future studies will have to concentrate on the possible expression of enzymatically active proteins or the transfer of multiple genes involved in iodide trapping. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade II and grade III gliomas samples, collected in Sweden and Denmark. The statistically significant genetic variants from the first dataset (P <0.05) were taken forward for confirmation in a second dataset of 72 grade II and III gliomas from northern UK. In this dataset, eight gene variants mapping to five different DNA repair genes (ATM, NEIL1, NEIL2, ERCC6 and RPA4) which were associated with survival. Finally, these eight genetic variants were adjusted for treatment, malignancy grade, patient age and gender, leaving one variant, rs4253079, mapped to ERCC6, with a significant association to survival (OR 0.184, 95% CI 0.054-0.63, P = 0.007). We suggest a possible novel association between rs4253079 and survival in this group of patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas that needs confirmation in larger datasets.

  7. Current Status of Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues is 3%-5%. The first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. A randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients demonstrated durable responses and well tolerance in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802, and AP26113, and new agents shock protein 90 inhibitors. This review aims to present the current knowledge on this fusion gene, the treatment advances, and novel drug clinical trials in ALK rearranged NSCLC.

  8. Effectiveness of interferon-beta and temozolomide combination therapy against temozolomide-refractory recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hajime

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant gliomas recur even after extensive surgery and chemo-radiotherapy. Although a relatively novel chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ, has demonstrated promising activity against recurrent glioma, the effects last only a few months and drug resistance develops thereafter in most cases. Induction of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT in tumors is considered to be responsible for resistance to TMZ. Interferon-beta has been reported to suppress MGMT in an experimental glioma model. Here we report a patient with TMZ-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (AA who was treated successfully with a combination of interferon-beta and TMZ. Case presentation A patient with recurrent AA after radiation-chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy was treated with TMZ. After 6 cycles, the tumor became refractory to TMZ, and the patient was treated with interferon-beta at 3 × 106 international units/body, followed by 5 consecutive days of 200 mg/m2 TMZ in cycles of 28 days. After the second cycle the tumor decreased in size by 50% (PR. The tumor showed further shrinkage after 8 months and the patient's KPS improved from 70% to 100%. The immunohistochemical study of the initial tumor specimen confirmed positive MGMT protein expression. Conclusion It is considered that interferon-beta pre-administration increased the TMZ sensitivity of the glioma, which had been refractory to TMZ monotherapy.

  9. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  10. Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas: Is there a role for palliative surgical procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Vaithianathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic carcinoma (AC or undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare variant among the malignant pancreatic neoplasms. These tumors have a poor prognosis with survival measured in months. The role of surgical palliation to improve the quality of life is not well defined in these patients. We report a case of AC of pancreas in a 65-year-old male patient. Patient had upper abdominal pain with frequent bilious vomiting. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a mass in the body of pancreas with possible infiltration of duodenojejunal flexure (DJF. Laparotomy revealed an inoperable mass with posterior fixity and involvement of the DJF. Patient underwent a palliative duodenojejunostomy. Tissue biopsy from the tumor showed pleomorphic type AC with giant cells. Patient had good symptomatic relief from profuse vomiting and progressed well at follow up. AC of pancreas is a rare and aggressive malignancy with dismal outlook. If obstructive symptoms are present due to duodenal involvement, a palliative bypass may be a worthwhile surgical option in selected cases.

  11. An evolutionary conserved role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase in behavioral responses to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasek, Amy W; Lim, Jana; Kliethermes, Christopher L; Berger, Karen H; Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Xue, Liquan; Robertson, Margaret; Moore, Monica S; Vranizan, Karen; Morris, Stephan W; Schuckit, Marc A; White, Raymond L; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk) is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:21799923

  12. Aggressive Multimodal Approach for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer and Long-Term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nasir; Mustafa, Usman; Jung, Su Hyeon; Gilman, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) comprises 1-2% of all thyroid cancers and is one of the most aggressive cancers with a median survival rate of around four months. The average 5-year survival rate has been reported to be around 3.6%. In this paper, we have discussed management and prognostic variables of a patient with ATC who has survived for more than 5 years. A 59-year-old female was referred to our facility for an elective thyroid and parathyroidectomy for concerns of thyroid papillary cancer and hyperparathyroidism. At the time of surgery, the tumor mass had invaded the muscular layer of esophagus; radicle thyroidectomy parathyroidectomy along with removal of muscle layer of esophagus was performed, and diagnosis of ATC was made. The patient was treated with chemoradiation with a good treatment response and no recurrence of tumor for two and a half years until PET/CT followed by wedge biopsy of lung confirmed ATC recurrence. The patient was treated with another course of radiation treatment with a good treatment response. Since then, the patient has been following in our outpatient oncology clinic and has no evidence of tumor recurrence. Aggressive multimodal approach of combining radicle surgery with chemoradiation treatment in select patients of ATC with no distant metastasis helps improve prognosis. PMID:23533874

  13. A bone metastases model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), an aggressive form of thyroid cancer, represents less than 2% of all thyroid cancers. The survival of patients with ATC remains low especially when accompanied with bone metastasis. This study aims to establish a reproducible animal model of bone metastasis of ATC which may be useful for further research on novel treatment strategy. Eight 6-8 week old female athymic nude mice were randomly selected. ATC cell line ARO cells were injected into the left ventricular cavity of each mouse respectively. Each mouse was imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET/CT scanner after successful injection of [18F]-FDG under deep anesthesia. Pathological examination was carried out to confirm the bone metastases of ATC. Histopathology established ATC bone metastases in five nude mice’s tibia. Similarly, PET image displayed significantly increased radioactivity (P<0.01) in the established bone metastasis compared with the control normal tibia. Both micro-PET/CT and histomorphometric measurement confirmed the bone metastases model of ATC in nude mice by left ventricular cavity injection of ARO cell line. The bone metastases model of ATC will thus facilitate the understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the development of novel therapies.

  14. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino / Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Ricardo, Rissi; Rafael Almeida, Fighera; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards, De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo de, Barros.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido [...] subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Abstract in english A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several [...] organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  15. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão.A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  16. Antineoplastic activity of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Melanie R; Klisaroska, Aleksandra; Kollmann, Karoline; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Sexl, Veronika; Egger, Gerda

    2012-11-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism establishing long-term gene silencing during development and cell commitment, which is maintained in subsequent cell generations. Aberrant DNA methylation is found at gene promoters in most cancers and can lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is able to reactivate genes silenced by DNA methylation and has been shown to be a very potent epigenetic drug in several hematological malignancies. In this report, we demonstrate that 5-aza-CdR exhibits high antineoplastic activity against anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare CD30 positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell origin. Low dose treatment of ALCL cell lines and xenografted tumors causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. This is also reflected in genome-wide expression analyses, where genes related to apoptosis and cell death are amongst the most affected targets of 5-aza-CdR. Furthermore, we observed demethylation and re-expression of p16(INK4A) after drug administration and senescence associated ?-galactosidase activity. Thus, our data provide evidence that 5-aza-CdR is highly efficient against ALCL and warrants further clinical evaluation for future therapeutic use. PMID:22687603

  17. Antineoplastic activity of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Melanie R.; Klisaroska, Aleksandra; Kollmann, Karoline; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Sexl, Veronika; Egger, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism establishing long-term gene silencing during development and cell commitment, which is maintained in subsequent cell generations. Aberrant DNA methylation is found at gene promoters in most cancers and can lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is able to reactivate genes silenced by DNA methylation and has been shown to be a very potent epigenetic drug in several hematological malignancies. In this report, we demonstrate that 5-aza-CdR exhibits high antineoplastic activity against anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare CD30 positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell origin. Low dose treatment of ALCL cell lines and xenografted tumors causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. This is also reflected in genome-wide expression analyses, where genes related to apoptosis and cell death are amongst the most affected targets of 5-aza-CdR. Furthermore, we observed demethylation and re-expression of p16INK4A after drug administration and senescence associated ?-galactosidase activity. Thus, our data provide evidence that 5-aza-CdR is highly efficient against ALCL and warrants further clinical evaluation for future therapeutic use. PMID:22687603

  18. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients. Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure. Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice. Case report This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration. Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned. The slides were sent for second opinion. After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed. Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks. Conclusion Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

  19. The Emphasis of Tumor Suppressor Genes and Oncogenes in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Anaplastic Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ç???r Biray AVCI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to the determine the profiles of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes which cause brain tumor, establishing the association between the prognosis of cancer and the quantitation of genetic and epigenetic changes, and bringing a molecular approach to definite diagnosis. For this purpose, explant cell cultures are performed from the anaplastic brain tumor tissues of the cases. The expression analysis of the tumor suppressor genes (p53, RB1, PTEN, MGMT, RUNX3, DMBT1, PIKE and oncogenes (EGFR, PIK3CA, MDM2, Olig2, GSTT1, COX–2 and hTERT were determined by comparing the expression of GAPDH housekeeping gene using real-time online RT-PCR. The promoter regions of all the tumor suppressor genes' hypermethylation and also methylated and unmethylated copy numbers were determined with Q-PCR by using methylation specific primer and probes and the quantitation was carried out by comparing with each other. A significant difference was determined among the oncogenes; EGFR and hTERT gene expressions in patient tumor group. hTERT gene expression showed a significant difference with tumor grades. DMBT1 gene expression showed a significant difference with tumor grades. A prominent decrease was found in the aberration of tumor suppressor gene copy number in the glioma group. Gene copy number and gene expression of GSTT1 gene showed a significant correlation. RB1 and MGMT promoter methylation showed a significant difference in tumor patient group. Over expression of PIK3CA, EGFR and COX-2 among oncogenes and loss of copy number of PTEN, RB1 and RUNX3 among tumor suppressor genes found associated with short survival.

  20. Construction of a natural phage antibody library of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, J M; Pang, H; Hu, X L; Wang, Z J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and construct a human natural phage single-chain antibody (scFv) library of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) using phage display technology. Total RNA was extracted from lymphatic tissue near an ATC and used to amplify variable heavy chain (VH) and variable light chain (VL) fragments with added linker sequences using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After purification, the VH and VL amplicons were used to produce scFv fragments with added SfiI and NotI restriction enzyme recognition sites using splicing-overlap-extension PCR. Following digestion, the scFv gene was cloned in the pCANTAB-5E plasmid, and the recombinant phagemids were transformed into the susceptible Escherichia coli TG1 strain. After infection by the helper phage M13K07, a human ATC phage antibody library was successfully constructed. Clear 28 S and 18 S bands could be seen in the total RNA from the library, and the sizes of the VH, VL, and scFv genes contained therein were approximately 370, 350, and 750 bp, respectively. In addition, the conversion efficiency as measured by the pUC19 standard plasmid was 10(8) CFU/?g, and the positive insert ratio was 86.4% (19/22). These results demonstrated the successful construction of a human ATC scFv antibody gene library, and might provide the experimental basis for the further screening and identification of a phage single-chain antibody with ATC cell-specificity. PMID:26345766

  1. Treatment of Primary Cutaneous CD30+ Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (CALCL) is a relatively rare and indolent variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). This report examines the response of localized disease to radiation alone. Methods: The Yale Cancer Center records were examined, and all patients with CTCL from January 1, 2001, to September 1, 2006, evaluated in the Department of Therapeutic Radiology were identified. Only those patients with localized or single CALCL lesions, no clinical evidence or history of lymphomatoid papulosis, no history of other CTCLs, no history of other skin disorders, lack of lymph node involvement, unambiguous pathology reports, and treatment with radiation alone were included. Results: Eight patients were identified. Median age was 67 years, and gender was split evenly. Patients received radiation ranging from 34 to 44 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. Most patients (5 of 8) received 40 Gy, using 6 to 9 MeV electrons with 0.5 to 2 cm of bolus. All patients had a complete response. All patients were without evidence of disease at the most recent follow-up (median follow-up, 12 months). Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and the only recorded toxicity was Grade I to II dermatitis. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone for localized CALCL is very well tolerated and clinical response is excellent. A dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions seems to be well tolerated and effective in inducing a complete response. Lower doses may be effective in achieving the same result, but data are not available. Longer follow-up is necessary before conclusions regarding durable disease-free survival can be made

  2. Anaplastic astrocytoma mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis in 13-year old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talathi, Saurabh; Gupta, Neha; Reddivalla, Naresh; Prokhorov, Sergey; Gold, Menachem

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor. Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) are high grade gliomas (HGG), found very rarely in pediatric patients. AA mainly results from a dedifferentiation of a low grade astrocytoma. Clinical features of supra-tentorial tumors vary according to their anatomic location, biologic aggressiveness and age of the patient. They can be either completely asymptomatic or present with signs of raised intracranial pressure, seizures (about 40% of cases), behavior changes, speech disorders, declining school performance, or hemiparesis. There have been published adult cases of brain tumor misdiagnosed as viral encephalitis. Due to variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis of AA can be challenging. Here we report a case of a 13 year old girl who presented with clinical features suggestive of viral encephalitis, such as fever, headache, dizziness, and first seizure with postictal sleep and prolonged drowsiness. However, her brain MRI findings were consistent with long standing mass effect from the underlying intracranial contents and that coupled with her history of unusual taste led to further investigations and the diagnosis of the AA. In retrospect, this presentation could have been a temporal epileptic aura. High grade astrocytomas are particularly difficult to treat with a two-year survival rates range from 10% to 30%. The treatment is multimodal with gross total surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy with or without nitrosourea-containing chemotherapy regimen. Recent promising results seen with the use of temozolamide in adults has not been yet demonstrated in the pediatric patients. The extent of tumor resection remains the most significant indicator of survival and early recognition of this tumor is essential. This case report emphasizes the fact that mass lesions in the temporal lobe, including high-grade astrocytoma, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspected herpes simplex encephalitis, especially those not responding to therapy. Remodeling of the calvarium adjacent to an intracranial lesion suggests a long standing process. PMID:26272584

  3. Single agent nanoparticle for radiotherapy and radio-photothermal therapy in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Wen, Xiaoxia; Erwin, Bill; Mawlawi, Osama; Lai, Stephen Y; Li, Chun

    2015-07-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The aggressive behavior of ATC and its resistance to traditional treatment limit the efficacy of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. The purpose of this study is aimed at enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) combined with photothermal therapy (PTT) in murine orthotopic model of ATC, based on our developed single radioactive copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticle platform. We prepare a new dual-modality therapy for ATC consisting of a single-compartment nanoplatform, polyethylene glycol-coated [(64)Cu]CuS NPs, in which the radiotherapeutic property of (64)Cu is combined with the plasmonic properties of CuS NPs. Mice with Hth83 ATC were treated with PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs and/or near infrared laser. Antitumor effects were assessed by tumor growth and animal survival. We found that in mice bearing orthotopic human Hth83 ATC tumors, micro-PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies showed that about 50% of the injected dose of PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NPs was retained in tumor 48 h after intratumoral injection. Human absorbed doses were calculated from biodistribution data. In antitumor experiments, tumor growth was delayed by PEG-[(64)Cu]CuS NP-mediated RT, PTT, and combined RT/PTT, with combined RT/PTT being most effective. In addition, combined RT/PTT significantly prolonged the survival of Hth83 tumor-bearing mice compared to no treatment, laser treatment alone, or NP treatment alone without producing acute toxic effects. These findings indicate that this single-compartment multifunctional NPs platform merits further development as a novel therapeutic agent for ATC. PMID:25913249

  4. Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite intensive multimodal treatment, outcome of patients with malignant glioma remains poor, and a standard dose of radiotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma has not been defined. In the past RTOG study (83-02), the arm of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for malignant gliomas showed better outcome than the arms of higher doses (76.8 – 81.6 Gy) and the arms of lower doses (48 – 54.4 Gy). The purpose of this study is to verify the efficacy of this protocol. From July 1995, 44 consecutive eligible patients with histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma were enrolled in this study (HFRT group). The standard regimen in this protocol was post-operative radiotherapy of 72 Gy in 60 fractions (1.2 Gy/fraction, 2 fractions/day) with concurrent chemotherapy (weekly ACNU). The primary endpoint was local control rate (LCR), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and late toxicity. Three-year OS of the HFRT group was 64.8% (95% confidence interval; 48.4–81.3%). Three-year PFS rate and LCR were 64.4% (95%CI: 48.4–80.3%) and 81.6% (95%CI: 69.2–94.8%), respectively. The number of failures at 5 years in the HFRT group were 14 (32%). The number of failures inside the irradiation field was only about half (50%) of all failures. One (2%) of the patients clinically diagnosed as brain necrosis due to radiation therapy. The results of this study suggested that 72 Gy HFRT seemed to show favorable outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma with tolerable toxicity

  5. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma - case report / Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células anaplásicas - relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Silveira Rabello de, Oliveira; Madeleyne Palhano, Nobrega; Maira Gomes, Monteiro; Wagner Leite de, Almeida.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T anaplásicas faz parte do espectro de processos linfoproliferativos cutâneos CD30+ e caracteriza-se por nódulos únicos ou multifocais, ulcerados, autorregressivos e recidivantes. Pode haver disseminação extracutânea, principalmente para linfonodos regiona [...] is. O histológico mostra infiltrado difuso, não-epidermotrópico, grandes células linfóides anaplásicas de imunohistoquímica CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- e TIA1-/+. O prognóstico é bom e independe da invasão ganglionar. Radioterapia, retirada da lesão e/ou metotrexato em baixas doses são os tratamentos de escolha. Este estudo relata o caso de uma mulher, 57 anos, com Linfoma cutâneo primário de grandes células T com lesões multifocais e que, após 7 anos, evoluiu com acometimento pulmonar. Apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com metotrexato em baixas doses semanais. Abstract in english Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is part of the spectrum of CD30+ lymphoproliferative cutaneous processes, characterized by single or multifocal nodules that ulcerate, are autoregressive and recurrent. Extracutaneous dissemination may occur, especially to regional lymph nodes. Histol [...] ogy shows a diffuse, non-epidermotropic infiltrate , anaplastic large lymphoid cells of immunohistochemistry CD30+, CD4+, EMA-/+, ALK-, CD15- and TIA1-/+. Prognosis is good and does not depend on lymphatic invasion. Radiotherapy, removal of the lesion and/or low-dose methotrexate are the treatments of choice. The present study reports the case of a 57-year-old-woman presenting Primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma with multifocal lesions. The pacient evolved with pulmonary involvement 7 years later. She showed a good response to the treatment with low-dose methotrexate prescribed weekly.

  6. Diversity of Genomic Breakpoints in TFG-ALK Translocations in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas : Identification of a New TFG-ALKXL Chimeric Gene with Transforming Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Luis; Beà, Sílvia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Pinyol, Magda; Falini, Brunangelo; Carbone, Antonino; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Fernández, Alberto; Pulford, Karen; Mason, David,; Morris, Stephan W.; Santos, Eugenio; CAMPO, ELIAS

    2002-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal aberrations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene at 2p23 that result in the expression of novel chimeric ALK proteins with transforming properties. In most of these tumors, the t(2;5)(p23;q35) generates the NPM-ALK fusion gene. However, several studies have now demonstrated that genes other than NPM may be fused to the ALK gene. We have recently described two different ALK rearrangements involving the TRK-fused gen...

  7. Genomic profiling reveals different genetic aberrations in systemic ALK-positive and ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaverria, Itziar; Beà, Silvia; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Lespinet, Virginia; Pinyol, Magda; Burkhardt, Birgit; Lamant, Laurence; Zettl, Andreas; Horsman, Doug; Gascoyne, Randy; Ott, German; Siebert, Reiner; Delsol, Georges; Campo, Elias

    2008-03-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T/null-cell neoplasm characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene (ALK). Tumours with similar morphology and phenotype but negative for ALK have been also recognized. The secondary chromosomal imbalances of these lymphomas are not well known. We have examined 74 ALCL, 43 ALK-positive and 31 ALK-negative, cases by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and locus-specific alterations for TP53 and ATM were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chromosomal imbalances were detected in 25 (58%) ALK-positive and 20 (65%) ALK-negative ALCL. ALK-positive ALCL with NPM-ALK or other ALK variant translocations showed a similar profile of secondary genetic alterations. Gains of 17p and 17q24-qter and losses of 4q13-q21, and 11q14 were associated with ALK-positive cases (P = 0.05), whereas gains of 1q and 6p21 were more frequent in ALK-negative tumours (P = 0.03). Gains of chromosome 7 and 6q and 13q losses were seen in both types of tumours. ALCL-negative tumours had a significantly worse prognosis than ALK-positive. However no specific chromosomal alterations were associated with survival. In conclusion, ALK-positive and negative ALCL have different secondary genomic aberrations, suggesting they correspond to different genetic entities. PMID:18275429

  8. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII like 4 (TCEAL4 in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Shizuyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII-like 4 (TCEAL4, encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required.

  9. Well-differentiated and anaplastic astroblastoma in the same patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkari, Alaa; Hmoud, Mohammed; Al-Mehdar, Abeer; Abdullah, Shaker

    2015-01-01

    Astroblastoma is a rare brain tumor occurring in children and adults, rarely in the elderly. It constitutes up to 3% of all brain tumors. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with recurrent seizures and minimal right hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left fronto-parietal brain tumor. It was managed with subtotal resection in a local hospital. Subsequently, she was referred to Princess Nora Oncology Center for further characterization and management. Pathology slide revision revealed well-differentiated astroblastoma. Upon follow up, the patient had multiple recurrences of the same tumor and emergence of a new lesion at the area of Sylvian fissure. Excision of the emerging tumor revealed anaplastic astroblastoma. Astroblastoma is a glial tumor that predominantly affects females. Its clinical progression is unpredictable, with high recurrence rate. Surgical intervention is considered the mainstay of treatment, while radiotherapy and chemotherapy effectiveness is debatable. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of well-differentiated and anaplastic astroblastoma as two separate neoplastic lesions in the same patient with its clinical, radiological, and pathological features. PMID:26227256

  10. 18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  11. Older Adults' Trait Impressions of Faces Are Sensitive to Subtle Resemblance to Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Robert G.; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults (YA) attribute emotion-related traits to people whose neutral facial structure resembles an emotion (emotion overgeneralization). The fact that older adults (OA) show deficits in accurately labeling basic emotions suggests that they may be relatively insensitive to variations in the emotion resemblance of neutral expression faces that underlie emotion overgeneralization effects. On the other hand, the fact that OA, like YA, show a ‘pop-out’ effect for anger, more quickly locati...

  12. Pathogenicity of a fungus resembling Wangiella dermatitidis isolated from edible mushrooms.

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanas, N.

    1986-01-01

    A fungus resembling the human pathogen Wangiella dermatitidis (Kano) McGinnis, a dematiaceous hyphomycete, was recovered from imported desiccated "black fungus" mushrooms (Auricularia polytrichia (Mont.) Sacc.), a food item popular in Far Eastern cuisine. Except for its conidia, which are mostly reniform to allantoid rather than ovoid as is characteristic for W. dermatitidis, and the undecided mode of conidiogenesis, the isolate closely resembles W. dermatitidis in gross and microscopic morph...

  13. Familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Szöke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Alter, Caroline; Roy, Isabelle; Méary, Alexandre; Etain, Bruno; Bellivier, Frank; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions are considered to be putative markers of familial/genetic vulnerability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, familial resemblance must be demonstrated before executive functions are used as a potential endophenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate familial resemblance for executive functions in families of schizophrenic and bipolar subjects. We assessed executive functions by means of two tests - the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the T...

  14. Gene expression after x-ray irradiation and/or glycerol in human anaplastic carcinoma cells harboring mutated p53 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is well known that most patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma die within a year after diagnosis. Thus, it is important to improve the therapeutic effects to restore radio- and chemo-sensitivity to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. We have reported that wild type p53 cells were radiosensitive and thermo sensitive, because the cells showed a high incidence of apoptosis after radiotherapy and hyperthermia compared with mutant p53 cancer cells. Mutation in p53 is closely related to the poor prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in part. We have reported a new strategy using glycerol as a chemical chaperone for cancer therapy against mutant p53 cultured cancer cells. This strategy is based on a conformational change in mutant p53 molecules restoring the normal function of p53. We used the human anaplastic carcinoma strain 8305c. We analyzed the radio-sensitivity by colony formation assay, frequency of apoptosis by Hoechst staining and the expression of apoptosis-related genes by DNA array. The expressions of apoptosis-inductive genes, such as Apaf-1, PTEN were increased by the combined treatment with X-ray and glycerol. In addition, apoptosis-suppressive genes such as Survivin, IAP-1 and IAP-2 were increased with the combined them. These results suggest that X-ray sensitivity and induction of apoptosis might be controlled by the balance of apoptosis inductive and suppressive genes, when 8305c cells were treated with glycerol and then irradiated with X-ray

  15. Large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma with myogenic, melanotic and neuronal differentiation: A case report of a rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany A. Fathaddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is an embryonal neuroepithelial tumor of the cerebellum and is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children. Different histological variants and patterns have been described. The classic variant represents the majority of cases. This report describes a rare case of large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma with myogenic, melanotic and neuronal differentiation arising in the cerebellum of a 3-year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneously enhanced lesion in the fourth ventricle. Surgical resection of the tumor was accomplished, but a residual tumor was left behind because of the involvement of the brainstem. Postoperatively, the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Currently, 20 months after treatment, the patient has survived without further progression. Pathological examination revealed a high grade primitive neuronal tumor with foci of myogenic features, melanin containing epithelial elements and ganglion-like cells, which were confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  16. Molecular characterization of a new ALK translocation involving moesin (MSN-ALK) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, F; Pinyol, M; Pulford, K; Roncador, G; Hernandez, L; Nayach, I; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Kluin, P; Touriol, C; Delsol, G; Mason, D; Campo, E

    2001-03-01

    The majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are associated with chromosomal abnormalities affecting the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene which result in the expression of hybrid ALK fusion proteins in the tumor cells. In most of these tumors, the hybrid gene comprises the 5' region of nucleophosmin (NPM) fused in frame to the 3' portion of ALK, resulting in the expression of the chimeric oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK. However, other variant rearrangements have been described in which ALK fuses to a partner other than NPM. Here we have identified the moesin (MSN) gene at Xq11-12 as a new partner of ALK in a case of ALCL which exhibited a distinctive membrane-restricted pattern of ALK labeling. The hybrid MSN-ALK protein had a molecular weight of 125 kd and contained an active tyrosine kinase domain. The unique membrane staining pattern of ALK is presumed to reflect association of moesin with cell membrane proteins. In contrast to other translocations involving the ALK gene, the ALK breakpoint in this case occurred within the exonic sequence coding for the juxtamembrane portion of ALK. Identification of the genomic breakpoint confirmed the in-frame fusion of the whole MSN intron 10 to a 17 bp shorter juxtamembrane exon of ALK. The breakpoint in der(2) chromosome showed a deletion, including 30 bp of ALK and 36 bp of MSN genes. These findings indicate that MSN may act as an alternative fusion partner for activation of ALK in ALCL and provide further evidence that oncogenic activation of ALK may occur at different intracellular locations. PMID:11310834

  17. Cytotoxic activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in anaplastic thyroid cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Maria Graziella; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Gargantini, Eleonora; Grange, Cristina; Bussolati, Benedetta; Asioli, Sofia; Bosco, Ornella; Poli, Roberta; Compagnone, Alessandra; Bandino, Andrea; Mainini, Franco; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal clinical course, being resistant to multimodal treatments. Microtubules, ?/? tubulin heterodimers, are crucial in cell signaling, division and mitosis and are among the most successful targets for anticancer therapy. Panobinostat (LBH589) is a potent deacetylase inhibitor acting both on histones and nonhistonic proteins, including ?-tubulin. In vitro LBH589, evaluated in three ATC cell lines (BHT-101, CAL-62 and 8305C), resulted in impairment of cell viability, inhibition of colony formation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. Mechanistically, we showed that LBH589 not only affected the expression of p21 and cyclin D1, but markedly determined microtubule stabilization as evidenced by tubulin acetylation and increased tubulin polymerization. In a SCID xenograft model implanted with CAL-62 cells, the cytotoxic properties of LBH589 were confirmed. The drug at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly impaired tumor growth (final tumor volume 2.5-fold smaller than in untreated animals); at this dose, no relevant side effects were observed. In tumors of treated animals, a significant reduction of Ki67, which was negatively correlated with tubulin acetylation, was observed. Moreover, acetyl-tubulin levels negatively correlated with tumor volume at sacrifice, reinforcing the opinion that tubulin acetylation has a role in the inhibition of tumor growth. In conclusion, LBH589, acting on both histones and nonhistonic proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer, appears to be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of this kind of cancer which is known not to respond to conventional therapy. PMID:21400508

  18. The NADPH oxidase NOX5 protects against apoptosis in ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, S; Rougemont, A-L; Doroshow, J H; Nagy, M; Mouche, S; Gumy-Pause, F; Szanto, I

    2015-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key modulators of apoptosis and carcinogenesis. One of the important sources of ROS is NADPH oxidases (NOXs). The isoform NOX5 is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues, but it has not been detected in any common Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. In diverse, nonlymphoid malignant cells NOX5 exerts an antiapoptotic effect. Apoptosis suppression is the hallmark feature of a rare type of lymphoma, termed anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), and a major factor in the therapy resistance and relapse of ALK(+) ALCL tumors. We applied RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to detect NOX5 expression in three ALK(+) ALCL cell lines (Karpas-299, SR-786, SUP-M2). We investigated the role of NOX5 in apoptosis by small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing and chemical inhibition of NOX5 using FACS analysis and examining caspase 3 cleavage in Karpas-299 cells. We used immunohistochemistry to detect NOX5 in ALK(+) ALCL pediatric tumors. NOX5 mRNA was uniquely detected in ALK(+) ALCL cells, whereas cell lines of other lymphoma classes were devoid of NOX5. Transfection of NOX5-specific siRNA and chemical inhibition of NOX5 abrogated calcium-induced superoxide production and increased caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in Karpas-299 cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed focal NOX5 reactivity in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL tumor cells. These results indicate that NOX5-derived ROS contribute to apoptosis blockage in ALK(+) ALCL cell lines and suggest NOX5 as a potential pharmaceutical target to enhance apoptosis and thus to suppress tumor progression and prevent relapse in pediatric ALK(+) ALCL patients that resist classical therapeutic approaches. PMID:25797883

  19. 18F-DOPA-PET in Planning Surgery in Patients With Gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma; Medulloepithelioma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  20. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: synchronous uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and ovarian sex cord tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullazade, Samir; Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Adanir, Ilknur; Kutluay, Lale; Usubutun, Alp

    2010-12-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (UTROSCTs) are very rare. In this article, we present 3 cases that manifest classical histomorphological features alongside diverse immunohistochemical findings. As a distinctive finding, one of the patients had UTROSCT in the uterus and an ovarian sex cord tumor, called granulosa cell tumor, in the left ovary, simultaneously. Problems in diagnosing such pathologic condition generally arise because of the variable histologic picture of UTROSCT and may cause problems for general and other nongynecologic surgical pathologists. Immunohistochemically, these tumors express different markers that indicate their polyphenotypic origins. PMID:21074692

  1. Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H.; Brenner, Ori

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh’s disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs.

  2. Canine sterile neutrophilic dermatitis (resembling Sweet’s syndrome) in a Dachshund

    OpenAIRE

    Gains, Malcolm J.; Morency, Andréanne; Sauvé, Frédéric; Blais, Marie-Claude; Bongrand, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old Dachshund was presented with a 2-day history of lethargy, anorexia and cutaneous erythema, edema, and multifocal erythematous papules affecting the ventral abdomen, axillae, and groin. Microscopic examination revealed a sterile neutrophilic dermatitis resembling Sweet’s syndrome; however, extracutaneous lesions were not present. The condition responded rapidly to corticosteroid therapy.

  3. Pneumonia and empyema infection associated with a Bacillus species that resembles B. alvei.

    OpenAIRE

    Coudron, P E; Payne, J. M.; Markowitz, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    An organism resembling Bacillus alvei was isolated from the lung and pleural fluid of an immunocompetent patient. The isolate differed from the type strain of B. alvei in its ability to reduce nitrate and its inability to produce dihydroxyacetone and acetylmethylcarbinol. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin and showed intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin.

  4. Polioencephalomyelopathy in a mixed breed dog resembling Leigh’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Orit; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H.; Brenner, Ori

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old mixed-breed dog was presented with acute onset of exercise intolerance that quickly progressed to quadriparesis. Gross and microscopic autopsy findings indicated a type of degenerative polioencephalomyelopathy resembling subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy in dogs or Leigh’s disease in humans. This syndrome has previously been reported only in purebred dogs. PMID:25565716

  5. Immunosuppression involving increased myeloid-derived suppressor cell levels, systemic inflammation and hypoalbuminemia are present in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; KANKE, YASUYUKI; ASHIZAWA, MAI; UJIIE, DAISUKE; SUZUSHINO, SEIKO; NAKANO, KEIICHI; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; KUMAMOTO, KENSUKE; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive neoplasms in humans and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to the negative regulation of immune responses in the context of cancer and inflammation. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of thyroid cancer, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 49 patients with thyroid cancer, 18 patients with non-cancerous thyroid diseases and 22 healthy volunteers. The MDSC levels were found to be ...

  6. 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism and consequent appearing of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: simple case-report or real pathophysiologic link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scanelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND 131I is usually employed for the therapy of hyperfunctioning thyroid diseases. This ?-emitting radioisotope acts releasing its radiations in small tissue volumes, but it is mandatory to consider, also for the small doses, the carcinogenic risk, well documented with the high 131I dosages used to cure differentiated thyroid cancers. METHODS We describe a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma appeared 4 years after therapy with 131I for Graves’ disease. The patient was treated both surgically and with thyonamides for Graves’ disease 20 years before; thereafter she underwent simple nephrectomy owing to Grawitz disease. After some years of well being, she was treated with 131I for a relapse of Graves’ disease. Four years later, she was treated with interleukin-2 and TNF-?, owing to distant metastases (pancreas, liver and lung of Grawitz cancer. Some months later, because of a rapid enlargement of the thyroid gland, she was thyroidectomized and anaplastic thyroid cancer was histologically documented. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS It is very difficult to investigate the possible transformation of a benign thyroid lesion to a malignant one, and data from the literature are conflicting. Fractioned doses of 131I are known to induce less cancers than high doses: they allow DNA to repair. Nevertheless, in patients with altered or non valid genetic repair’s mechanisms (i.e. patients with p53 mutations and, for this reason, prone to develop cancers, even low doses of 131I can induce carcinogenetic effects. In a patient with a history of cancer, who subsequently develops hyperthyroidism, even low doses of 131I can induce anaplastic thyroid cancer; in these subjects, therefore, other treatments than 131I could be preferred for the therapy of Graves’ disease. In our peculiar case, moreover, some studies have noteworthy demonstrated that certain cytokines (IL-1, TGF-?1 e TNF-? can, rather than inhibit, induce anaplastic thyroid cancer cells to grow.

  7. Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: Results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987. After surgery, low-risk patients (R0, M0) received maintenance chemotherapy until elective RT at age of three. In high-risk patients (R+, M+) intensive induction chemotherapy was followed by maintenance chemotherapy and subsequently delayed RT. If there was, progression radiotherapy started immediately. In the HIT-SKK 92, trial MTX-based chemotherapy was applied. RT was administered in non-responders only. Results: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months). All children received chemotherapy. In 13 children, no RT was administered. Preventive RT after chemotherapy was given in nine, and salvage RT in 12 children. OS and PFS rates after 3-year were 55.9 and 27.3%, respectively. Twenty-five children relapsed. Positive impact on survival was observed in children with higher age, M0-stage, complete resection, and treatment with radiotherapy. Without RT only 3/13, children survived. Conclusion: Delaying RT jeopardizes survival even after intensive chemotherapy. Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site. RT of the neuraxis should be omitted in localized disease

  8. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico; Lillholm, Martin; Karsdal, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within ...

  9. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Karssemeijer, N; Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, C M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program...

  10. Captive fledgling American kestrels prefer to play with objects resembling natural prey

    OpenAIRE

    Negro, Juan J.; Bustamante, Javier; Milward, Jane; Bird, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Object play may be a mechanism by which young predators acquire skills in manipulating prey, as well as physical strength and endurance. It has also been proposed that fledgling raptors play with live or dead prey if available, but would play with surrogates such as sticks or grass if not. Different objects were offered to captive fledgling American kestrels, Falco sparverius, to test whether they prefer to play with objects resembling prey. Individuals were divided into two groups: ...

  11. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    OpenAIRE

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...

  12. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory. PMID:24766340

  13. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax

    OpenAIRE

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R.; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome w...

  14. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the ?-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallm...

  15. Trustworthy but not lust-worthy: context-specific effects of facial resemblance

    OpenAIRE

    Debruine, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    If humans are sensitive to the costs and benefits of favouring kin in different circumstances, a strong prediction is that cues of relatedness will have a positive effect on prosocial feelings, but a negative effect on sexual attraction. Indeed, positive effects of facial resemblance (a potential cue of kinship) have been demonstrated in prosocial contexts. Alternatively, such effects may be owing to a general preference for familiar stimuli. Here, I show that subtly manipulated images of oth...

  16. Esophagitis resulting from treatment with crizotinib for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-positive lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Osamu; Oguri, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Midori; Hijikata, Hisatoshi; Uemura, Takehiro; Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Maeno, Ken; Niimi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Treatment is currently focused on individualization according to the molecular profile of the disease. Here we present the case of a 41-year-old patient who presented with multiple pulmonary nodules, a left pleural effusion and an ovarian tumor. Adenocarcinoma of the lung was diagnosed from pathological examination of the pleural effusion and the surgically resected ovarian tumor, and chemotherapy was initiated. Relapse was experienced following third-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive adenocarcinoma was diagnosed using a specimen from the resected ovarian tumor. Subsequently, crizotinib therapy was initiated. Eight days later the patient developed severe nausea and vomiting and esophagitis was diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscopic examination. Following the interruption of crizotinib treatment by treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), crizotinib treatment was re-initiated and was effective for a minimum of 6 months. Clinicians should be aware that treatment with crizotinib may result in severe esophagitis. PMID:24649319

  17. Evaluation of immunohistochemistry using two different antibodies and procedures for primary lung adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Jun; Kawahara, Akihiko; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Taira, Tomoki; Fukumitsu, Chihiro; Takase, Yorihiko; Yasumoto, Makiko; Umeno, Yumi; Todoroki, Keita; Kurita, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Rin; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2014-11-01

    Rearrangements of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been recently identified in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Previous studies have revealed characteristic features, including adenocarcinoma histology and mucin production, in ALK-positive lung carcinoma. The present study evaluated immunohistochemistry (IHC) in ALK-positive lung carcinoma using two different antibodies, clone 5A4 and D5F3, and compared the results. On the basis of the aforementioned characteristic features, out of 359 primary lung carcinomas, the ALK status of 14 adenocarcinomas was screened using the intercalated antibody-enhanced polymer (iAEP) method with antibody 5A4, and this was compared with the ALK status obtained using rabbit monoclonal antibody D5F3 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for ALK. Eight cases were demonstrated to be ALK-positive by IHC. Seven cases exhibited ALK rearrangement, which was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The IHC for ALK obtained using D5F3 was comparable with that of the iAEP and exhibited low heterogeneity. This finding suggests that IHC for ALK could be useful in limited tissue samples, such as biopsy specimens or cytology, for the screening of ALK-positive lung carcinoma. In the present study, it was demonstrated that IHC with ALK monoclonal antibody D5F3 was useful for screening lung adenocarcinoma harboring ALK rearrangement. PMID:25295103

  18. Expression of human butyrylcholinesterase with an engineered glycosylation profile resembling the plasma-derived orthologue

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Jeannine D; Castilho, Alexandra; Neumann, Laura; Altmann, Friedrich; Loos, Andreas; Kannan, Latha; Mor, Tsafrir S.; Steinkellner, Herta

    2013-01-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is considered a candidate bioscavenger of nerve agents for use in pre- and post-exposure treatment. The presence and functional necessity of complex N-glycans (i.e. sialylated structures) is a challenging issue in respect to its recombinant expression. We aim to produce recombinant BChE (rBChE) in plants with a glycosylation profile that largely resembles the plasma-derived counterpart. rBChE was transiently co-expressed in the model plant Nicotiana benthami...

  19. HyperPeer : Searching for resemblance in a P2P network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest.

  20. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human ?-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human ?-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  1. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein expression, genetic abnormalities, and phosphorylation in soft tissue tumors: Phosphorylation is associated with recurrent metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yukinao; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Koji; Arakawa, Fumiko; Haraguchi, Toshiaki; Nakashima, Shinji; Hashiguchi, Toshihiro; Shoda, Takanori; Hamada, Tetsuya; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto; Nagata, Kensei; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Gene and protein abnormalities of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) play an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers and serve as important therapeutic targets. We investigated ALK protein expression, phosphorylation, and genetic aberrations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 81 soft tissue tumor samples: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, n=1; alveolar soft part sarcoma, n=2; leiomyosarcoma, n=10; well-differentiated liposarcoma, n=7; pleomorphic liposarcoma, n=2; extraskeletal osteosarcoma, n=1; epithelioid sarcoma, n=1; synovial sarcoma, n=4; malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, n=4; undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, n=19; rhabdomyosarcoma, n=6; myxofibrosarcoma, n=8; myxoid liposarcoma, n=11; fibrosarcoma, n=4; and desmoid-type fibromatosis, n=1. ALK protein expression, gene signal gain (without translocation), and phosphorylation were observed in 33/81 (40.7%), 55/81 (67.9%), and 30/81 (37.0%) tumor samples, respectively. ALK protein expression was statistically associated with phosphorylation, but not with gene signal gain. ALK phosphorylation-positive cases showed a statistically worse metastasis-free survival compared with phosphorylation-negative cases (P=0.0215). Particularly, metastasis of myxoid liposarcoma was associated with ALK phosphorylation (P=0.0019), but not with ALK protein expression or gene signal gain. However, the prognosis had no association with ALK protein expression, gene signal gain, or phosphorylation. ALK protein expression and phosphorylation play an important role in tumor biology and provide potential therapeutic targets for soft tissue tumors. Future research should focus on the oncogenic role and the efficacy of potential inhibitors of ALK. PMID:25683346

  2. MART-10, the vitamin D analog, is a potent drug to inhibit anaplastic thyroid cancer cell metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chen, Chih-Hung; Ng, Sohching; Lin, Shu-Fu; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chen, Li-Wei; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C; Juang, Horng-Heng; Kittaka, Atsushi; Lin, Jen-Der; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2015-12-01

    The survival rate of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is still very poor due to its fast growth and high metastatic potential. Currently, no effective treatment is available. The active form of vitamin D3, 1?,25(OH)2D3, has been shown to have a anti-metastatic effect in pre-clinical studies, however induction of hypercalcemia hampered its clinical application. The new class of less-calcemic vitamin D analog, 19-nor-2?-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (MART-10), is much more potent than 1?,25(OH)2D3 to repress cancer growth and metastasis in a variety of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1?,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of ATC cells, 8305C and 8505C, with MART-10 much more potent than 1?,25(OH)2D3. The anti-metastatic effect of 1?,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 on ATC cells is mediated by reversal of cadherin switch (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin), which led to the attenuation of EMT process, and decrease of F-actin formation. We further showed that the expressions of Slug, the EMT-related transcriptional factor, and MMP-9 were inhibited by 1?,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in 8505C cells, but not in 8303C cells. Since metastasis is the important cause of ATC-related death, our results strongly encourage the further in vivo study of MART-10 application against ATC. PMID:26282787

  3. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sowinski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  4. A novel chemo-radiotherapy with low-dose daily cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has a dismal prognosis, some patients show favorable survival following multimodal treatment with surgery, external irradiation and chemotherapy. However, no regimen has yet been established. We reviewed outcomes for patients who underwent a unique chemoradiotherapy regimen between 1998 and 2007. The regimen consists of external irradiation (40 Gy at 2 Gy/day) combined with concurrent low-dose cisplatin at 5 mg/m2 on Days 1-5, 8-12, 15-19 and 22-26, 5-fluorouracil at 200 mg/m2 on Days 1-26 and doxorubicin at 20 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 15. This regimen was performed on 21 patients (13 men, 8 women) with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Median age at the time of treatment was 66 years (range, 54-81 years). The treatment regimen was completed in 19 patients (90%) and was interrupted in 2 (10%) due to progressive distant metastases. After excluding 10 patients who underwent complete resection before chemoradiotherapy, 1 patient (11%) showed partial response, 7 (78%) showed stable disease and 1 (11%) had progressive disease on the basis of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Overall, 6-month survival rate for patients treated with chemoradiotherapy was 57%. With this novel chemoradiotherapy, death from loco-regional disease was seen in only two patients (11%). Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 12 patients (63%), but no treatment-related deaths were encountered. Our new chemoradiotherapy is effective for loco-regional control of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, particularly when combined with radical surgery. This regimen could not prevent distant metastases, but offers acceptable toxicity while maintaining patient quality of life. (author)

  5. Role of the nucleophosmin (NPM) portion of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma-associated NPM-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion protein in oncogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, D; Pulford, K.; Mason, D. Y.; Morris, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    The NPM-ALK fusion gene, formed by the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, encodes a 75-kDa hybrid protein that contains the amino-terminal 117 amino acid residues of the nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) joined to the entire cytoplasmic portion of the receptor tyrosine kinase ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase). Here, we demonstrate the transforming ability of NPM-ALK and show that oncogenesis by the chimeric protein requires the activation of its kinase function...

  6. Concomitant occurrence of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and KRAS (V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) mutations in an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive lung adenocarcinoma patient with acquired resistance to crizotinib : a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Henrik H; Grauslund, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma patients are generally highly responsive to the dual anaplastic lymphoma kinase and MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. However, they eventually acquire resistance to this drug, preventing the anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors from having a prolonged beneficial effect. The molecular mechanisms responsible for crizotinib resistance are beginning to emerge, e.g., in some anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas the development of secondary mutations in this gene has been described. However, the events behind crizotinib-resistance currently remain largely uncharacterized. Thus, we report on an anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung carcinoma patient with concomitant occurrence of epidermal growth factor receptor and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutations upon development of crizotinib-resistance.

  7. Alterations of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16(INK4a)), p14(ARF), CDKN2B (p15(INK4b)), and CDKN2C (p18(INK4c)) in atypical and anaplastic meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, J; Meyer-Puttlitz, B; Wolter, M; Blaschke, B; Weber, R G; Lichter, P; Ichimura, K; Collins, V P; Reifenberger, G

    2001-08-01

    We investigated 67 meningothelial tumors (20 benign meningiomas, 34 atypical meningiomas, and 13 anaplastic meningiomas) for losses of genetic information from chromosome arms 1p and 9p, as well as for deletion, mutation, and expression of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16(INKa)/MTS1), p14(ARF), CDKN2B (p15(INK4b)/MTS2) (all located at 9p21) and CDKN2C (1p32). Comparative genomic hybridization and microsatellite analysis showed losses on 1p in 11 anaplastic meningiomas (85%), 23 atypical meningiomas (68%), and 5 benign meningiomas (25%). One atypical meningioma with loss of heterozygosity on 1p carried a somatic CDKN2C mutation (c.202C>T: R68X). Losses on 9p were found in five anaplastic meningiomas (38%), six atypical meningiomas (18%), and one benign meningioma (5%). Six anaplastic meningiomas (46%) and one atypical meningioma (3%) showed homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B genes. Two anaplastic meningiomas carried somatic point mutations in CDKN2A (c.262G>T: E88X and c.262G>A: E88K) and p14(ARF) (c.305G>T: G102V and c.305G>A: G102E). One anaplastic meningioma, three atypical meningiomas, and one benign meningioma without a demonstrated homozygous deletion or mutation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), or CDKN2B lacked detectable transcripts from at least one of these genes. Hypermethylation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B could be demonstrated in one of these cases. Taken together, our results indicate that CDKN2C is rarely altered in meningiomas. However, the majority of anaplastic meningiomas either show homozygous deletions of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B, mutations in CDKN2A and p14(ARF), or lack of expression of one or more of these genes. Thus, inactivation of the G(1)/S-phase cell-cycle checkpoint is an important aberration in anaplastic meningiomas. PMID:11485924

  8. A case of Scabies with Lesions Resembling Perforating Folliculitis and Uremic Pruritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Akgün

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is an infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei and characterised by polymorphous lesions that may include burrows, papules, pustules, crusts and excoriations. Several pruritic diseases may be confused with scabies. Herein, we present a case of scabies with lesions resembling perforating folliculitis diagnosed on the basis of both clinical and histopathological view. A 72-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and receiving hemodialysis for ten years due to end-stage renal disease was admitted to our dermatology department with a 6-month history of severe pruritus. Based on the results of skin biopsy revealing Sarcoptes scabiei in the epidermis, the patient was diagnosed as scabies and was successfully treated with 5% permethrin. This case is presented to emphasize that scabies should be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of chronic pruritus.

  9. Ethionamide-induced pellagroid dermatitis resembling lichen simplex chronicus: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pellagra is a niacin deficiency disorder characterized clinically by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. However, few drugs also cause pellagroid dermatitis. Recently, we encountered two cases of pellagroid dermatitis; both were on second line of antituberculosis drugs. Case 1 was of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient was on ethionamide since one year before developing pellagroid dermatitis. Case 2 was of central nervous system tuberculoma and was on second line of antitubercular drugs. This patient was on ethionamide and isoniazid (INH since six months before developing pellagroid dermatitis. This patient had previously taken first line of antituberculous therapy, inclusive of INH, for 1 year without any dermatitis. The skin lesions in both patients were symmetric hyperpigmented thickened plaques with prominent skin markings resembling lichen simplex chronicus. Nicotinamide 300 mg in three divided doses healed the lesions completely within 4 weeks and 3 weeks in first and second patient, respectively.

  10. Pathological features of proteinuric nephropathy resembling Alport syndrome in a young Pyrenean Mountain dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Go; Naito, Ichiro; Miyagawa, Yuichi; Komiyama, Takaaki; Takemura, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Mineshige, Takayuki; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2015-10-01

    The renal biopsy tissue from a 9-month-old, male Pyrenean Mountain dog with renal disorder and severe proteinuria was examined. Ultrastructural examination revealed multilaminar splitting and fragmentation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and diffuse podocyte foot process effacement. Immunofluorescent staining for ?(IV) chains revealed presence of ?5(IV) and complete absence of ?3(IV) and ?4(IV) chains in the GBM. Immunohistochemistry also revealed decreased and altered expression of nephrin and podocin in the glomeruli compared with normal canine glomeruli. These results suggested that the glomerular disease of the present case might be consistent with canine hereditary nephropathy resembling human Alport syndrome caused by genetic defect of type IV collagen, and indicated possible contribution of podocyte injury to severe proteinuria in this case. PMID:25892536

  11. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case-control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1+S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage.RESULTS:The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0+/-5.7years and 55.2+/-10.5years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC)=0.63+/-0.02, P

  12. Aberrant expression and biological significance of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell transcriptional factor, in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sox2 (sex-determining region Y-Box) is one of the master transcriptional factors that are important in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In line with this function, Sox2 expression is largely restricted to ESCs and somatic stem cells. We report that Sox2 is expressed in cell lines and tumor samples derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL), for which the normal cellular counterpart is believed to be mature T-cells. The expression of Sox2 in ALK+ALCL can be attributed to nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the oncogenic fusion protein carrying a central pathogenetic role in these tumors. By confocal microscopy, Sox2 protein was detectable in virtually all cells in ALK+ALCL cell lines. However, the transcriptional activity of Sox2, as assessed using a Sox2-responsive reporter construct, was detectable only in a small proportion of cells. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 using short interfering RNA in isolated Sox2active cells, but not Sox2inactive cells, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity. To conclude, ALK+ALCL represents the first example of a hematologic malignancy that aberrantly expresses Sox2, which represents a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK mediates tumorigenesis. We also found that the transcriptional activity and oncogenic effects of Sox2 can be heterogeneous in cancer cells

  13. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  14. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-28

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 ?m) showed a power conversion efficiency (?) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (? = 6.1%). PMID:25923133

  15. Tilting marks: Observations on tool marks resembling trace fossils and their morphological varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Tilting marks, defined here as linear tool marks having transverse ornamentation, are produced in shallow water when the oscillatory action of waves of short wavelength tilt grounded objects rhythmically in such a way that they move and push sediment aside. These tool marks can resemble trace fossils, particularly if they are bilaterally symmetrical. Even asymmetrical objects can produce symmetrical tilting marks because the shape of the mark only depends on the geometry of the ground-touching part of the object, which may be partially floating. Objects of either soft or hard consistency, such as jellyfish or wood, respectively, can produce tilting marks. Tilting marks are normally produced linearly parallel or at an angle to the direction of wave propagation and do not show sharp bends or curves. Tilting marks can be formed on plane beds as well as rippled surfaces. Tilting marks can be distinguished from trace fossils by taking into account the geometry (symmetry), the direction of movement, and the mainly linear course and the internal pattern.

  16. Mouse limbs expressing only the Gli3 repressor resemble those of Sonic hedgehog mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting; Wang, Chengbing; Yang, Mei; Wu, Chuanqing; Wang, Baolin

    2013-07-15

    Anterioposterior vertebrate limb patterning is controlled by opposing action between Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and the Gli3 transcriptional repressor. Unexpectedly, Gli3(?699) mutant mice, which are thought to express only a Gli3 repressor and not the full-length activator, exhibit limb phenotypes inconsistent with those of Shh mutant mice. Therefore, it remains debatable whether Shh patterns the anterioposterior limb primarily by inhibiting generation of the Gli3 repressor. However, one caveat is that Gli3(?699) may not be as potent as the natural form of Gli3 repressor because of the nature of the mutant allele. In the present study, we created a conditional Gli3 mutant allele that exclusively expresses Gli3 repressor in the presence of Cre recombinase. Using this mutant, we show that the phenotypes of mouse limbs expressing only the Gli3 repressor exhibit no or single digit, resembling those of Shh mutant limbs. Consistent with the limb phenotypes, the expression of genes dependent on Shh signaling is also inhibited in both mutants. This inhibition by the Gli3 repressor is independent of Shh. Thus, our study clarifies the current controversy and provides important genetic evidence to support the hypothesis that Shh patterns the anterioposterior limb primarily through the inhibition of Gli3 repressor formation. PMID:23644062

  17. Small Cell Type of Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Resembling a Submucosal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Osamu; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Ozawa, Soji; Shimada, Hideo; Nishi, Takayuki; Kise, Yoshifumi; Hara, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Kazuno, Akihito; Kajiwara, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    We report a rare case of primary small cell type esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma with a unusual endoscopic form similar to a submucosal tumor with the results of the histological and immunohistochemical analyses. A 57-year-old woman with dysphagia was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment, and was diagnosed as type 1s esophageal carcinoma in the middle thoracic esophagus. Endoscopy revealed a protruding esophageal carcinoma resembling a submucosal tumor with an irregular and nodular surface covered by non-neoplastic epithelium stained with iodine. Analysis of the esophageal biopsy specimen revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Based on a diagnosis of type 1s carcinoma in the middle thoracic esophagus that was 5 cm in size longitudinally, a radical esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological examination with histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the resected specimen revealed a small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma overlaid by a non-neoplastic epithelium, extending into the adventitia without lymph node metastasis (T3, N0, M0, Stage II). However, multiple metastases in the brain and lung developed 3 months postoperatively, and the patient died of the cancer 7 months after the operation. This was a rare case of a highly malignant primary small cell type esophageal neuroendocrine carcinoma showing extremely rare form. PMID:26150181

  18. Granular cell ameloblastoma: case report of a particular ameloblastoma histologically resembling oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Fujita, Shuichi; Kawasaki, Goro; Hirota, Yoshinosuke; Rokutanda, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ikeda, Tohru; Umeda, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is classified as a histological subtype of solid/multicystic ameloblastoma. Usual granular cell ameloblastoma is histologically characterized by granular changes of stellate-like cells located in the inner portion of the epithelial follicles. Here we report a case of another type of granular cell ameloblastoma, showing predominant anastomosing double-stranded trabeculae of granular cells. This type of granular cell ameloblastoma is extremely rare, and the World Health Organization classification does not contain the entity. We tentatively termed it 'anastomosing granular cell ameloblastoma' in this report. The present case suggests the importance of differential diagnosis because the histology of 'anastomosing granular cell ameloblastoma' resembles that of salivary gland oncocytoma rather than that of usual granular cell ameloblastoma. The trabeculae observed in our case continued to the peripheral cells of a small amount of epithelial sheets of plexiform ameloblastoma, and the tumor cells were positive for CK19, which is regarded as an immunohistochemical marker of odontogenic epithelium. Similar to usual granular cell ameloblastoma, the tumor cells had CD68-positive granules. For precise diagnosis of this condition, immunohistochemistry using CK19 and CD68, as well as detailed histological observation, are recommended. PMID:25421074

  19. Inherited multicentric osteolysis with arthritis: a variant resembling Torg syndrome in a Saudi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aqeel, A; Al Sewairi, W; Edress, B; Gorlin, R J; Desnick, R J; Martignetti, J A

    2000-07-01

    The autosomal recessive multicentric osteolytic disorders of childhood-Torg, Winchester, and François syndromes-predominantly affect the carpal, tarsal, and interphalangeal joints, and their progressive bone loss and crippling arthritic deformities mimic severe juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family two affected sibs with facial anomalies and short stature displayed a distal arthropathy of the metacarpal, metatarsal, and interphalangeal joints starting in the first few months of life that eventually progressed to the proximal joints and resulted in crippling ankylosis and severe generalized osteopenia. Facial changes included proptosis, a narrow nasal bridge, bulbous nose, and micrognathia. In addition, they had large, painful fibrocollagenous palmar and plantar pads and mild body hirsutism. Affected individuals were of normal intelligence and had normal renal function. Routine hematologic, chemistry, and rheumatoid studies were within normal limits. Histologic examination of bone marrow and an interphalangeal joint biopsy were not informative. The autosomal recessive inheritance, clinical, and radiologic characteristics of the affected sibs suggested that they had a form of multicentric osteolysis most closely resembling the Torg syndrome, but with a unique facial appearance, fibrocollagenous pads, and body hirsutism not noted in the original description of the syndrome. PMID:10861676

  20. Source misattributions and false recognition errors: examining the role of perceptual resemblance and imagery generation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Mary Ann; Bays, Rebecca Brooke; Foy, Jeffrey; Woodfield, Mila

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine the extent to which participants' memory errors are affected by the perceptual features of an encoding series and imagery generation processes. Perceptual features were examined by manipulating the features associated with individual items as well as the relationships among items. An encoding instruction manipulation was included to examine the effects of explicit requests to generate images. In all three experiments, participants falsely claimed to have seen pictures of items presented as words, committing picture misattribution errors. These misattribution errors were exaggerated when the perceptual resemblance between pictures and images was relatively high (Experiment 1) and when explicit requests to generate images were omitted from encoding instructions (Experiments 1 and 2). When perceptual cues made the thematic relationships among items salient, the level and pattern of misattribution errors were also affected (Experiments 2 and 3). Results address alternative views about the nature of internal representations resulting in misattribution errors and refute the idea that these errors reflect only participants' general impressions or beliefs about what was seen. PMID:24931435

  1. Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors treated by resectoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuti, Giancarlo; Gonfiantini, Cristina; Mirra, Maurizio; Galli, Carlo; Luerti, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare neoplasms of uncertain malignancy, affecting either pre or menopausal women. Only 48 cases of UTROSCTs have been reported and in most patients the diagnosis was made incidentally, after a hysterectomy as a result of the assumption of a leiomyoma. Although no death from progressive disease was reported, locoregional spread or abdominal relapse was detected in some patients. Up until now, a treatment sparing the uterus was reported in only 2 patients with UTROSCTs. Both patients conceived after surgery and were free from recurrent disease after a mean follow-up of 16.5 months. We report a third case of a young patient affected by pure UTROSCTs and treated conservatively. A 29-year-old woman underwent resectoscopic hysteroscopy because of the assumption of a grade-1 submucous myoma measuring about 5 cm. To accomplish the removal of the endometrial mass, a 2-step hysteroscopic resection was required. Histology showed epithelioid cells arranged in nests, cords, tubules, and trabeculae infiltrating the myometrium; no sarcoma cell differentiation was detected. Immunohistochemistry resulted in positivity to CD99, inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptor, whereas a negative staining to epithelial membrane antigen, actin, desmin, and human melanoma black 45 was obtained. Based on histologic pattern and immunohistochemical phenotype, a diagnosis of pure UTROSCTs was made; the staging of disease revealed neither locoregional spread nor distant metastases. Two months after surgery, reassessment by hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy revealed no residual endometrial disease. The patient was free from disease 13 months after surgery. Because of the uncertain malignant potential of UTROSCTs and based on the poor data available from current literature, a fertility-sparing surgery in young patients appears safe. However, a close long-term follow-up is required and a quick completion of a patient's childbearing desire seems advisable. PMID:19249718

  2. Distinctive features and resemblances between VVER and PWR fuels tested in the Halden Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PWR types of fuel have been tested in the Halden reactor (HBWR) since 1970’s when the first Instrumented Fuel Assembly (IFA) was loaded. Since that time hundreds of PWR fuel rods have been tested under different conditions towards high fuel burnup. The VVER types of fuel have been tested in HBWR since 1995 when first VVER and PWR fuels have been loaded in IFA-503. Since that time a few fuel assemblies with several VVER fuel rods have been tested. In this paper general characterization of VVER and PWR fuels as well as VVER and PWR fuel and material investigations in the Halden reactor (comparison of in-pile performances - differences and resemblances) are presented. Conclusions: 1) Fuel temperatures of VVER hollow fuel pellets and PWR solid pellets can be compared for different diameter rods (also for the same as VVER design) to analyse effect of hollow. 2) The conductivity degradation (and reference functions used for modeling) are very similar for both fuels up to a burnup of 60 MWd/kg U. 3) Original VVER fuel densification was larger than PWR fuel but modified fuel exhibited improved dimensional behaviour, which is dependent on initial fuel microstructure. Analysis shows similar correlations of in-pile densification against re-sintering test, garin size and fission density at BOL. 4) The higher internal gas pressure at power was in the rods with hollow pellets (with the same outer diameter rods), whereas the temperature FGR threshold is identical to the PWR fuel. 5) The fuel and cladding mechanical behaviour was not enough investigated to make some conclusions (cladding creep test is going on, PCMI was done at different conditions, lift- off test was done at low coolant temperature (VVER-440), fuel creep test was not performed). 6) Corrosion behaviour of modern VVER and PWR claddings is under investigation. 7) The VVER fuel rods behaviour under LOCA conditions vs. PWR fuel is going to be analysed

  3. Metabolism of a lipid nanoemulsion resembling low-density lipoprotein in patients with grade III obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Alves Dantas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity increases triglyceride levels and decreases high-density lipoprotein concentrations in plasma. Artificial emulsions resembling lipidic plasma lipoprotein structures have been used to evaluate low-density lipoprotein metabolism. In grade III obesity, low density lipoprotein metabolism is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the kinetics with which a cholesterol-rich emulsion (called a low-density emulsion binds to low-density lipoprotein receptors in a group of patients with grade III obesity by the fractional clearance rate. METHODS: A low-density emulsion was labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [³H]-triglycerides and injected intravenously into ten normolipidemic non-diabetic patients with grade III obesity [body mass index higher than 40 kg/m²] and into ten non-obese healthy controls. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours to determine the plasma decay curve and to calculate the fractional clearance rate. RESULTS: There was no difference regarding plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between the two groups. The fractional clearance rate of triglycerides was 0.086 ± 0.044 in the obese group and 0.122 ± 0.026 in the controls (p = 0.040, and the fractional clearance rate of cholesterol ester (h-1 was 0.052 ± 0.021 in the obese subjects and 0.058 ± 0.015 (p = 0.971 in the controls. CONCLUSION: Grade III obese subjects exhibited normal low-density lipoprotein removal from plasma as tested by the nanoemulsion method, but triglyceride removal was slower.

  4. A Japanese girl with an early-infantile onset vanishing white matter disease resembling Cree leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kyoko; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Sato, Mutsumi; Takagi, Mariko; Anzai, Rie; Okuda, Mitsuko; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Okabe, Tetsuhiko; Aida, Noriko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Osaka, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    Vanishing white matter disease (VWM)/childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH) is an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in one of five genes, EIF2B1-5, encoding the 5 subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). The classical phenotype is characterized by early childhood onset and chronic progressive neurological deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, optic atrophy and epilepsy. However, the onset of disease varies from antenatal period to adulthood. Cree leukoencephalopathy (CLE) is a severe variant of VWM and caused by a homozygous mutation (R195H) in the EIF2B5 gene. The patient reported in this study developed lethargy, vomiting and seizure 3days after an oral poliovirus vaccination at the age of 4months. She presented with rapid neurological deterioration within a month of onset. Brain MRI showed abnormal white matter intensity. Whole-exome sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations in the EIF2B5 gene: a known mutation, c.584G>A (R195H, which is homozygous in CLE), and a novel mutation, c.1223T>C (I408T, which resides in the "I-patch"). Mutations in the "I-patch" encoded region of eIF2B? may be related to an early-infantile onset phenotype. This patient exhibits an early-infantile onset and progressive disease course resembling CLE, suggesting a severe functional disruption of eIF2B? caused by R195H as well as by I408T mutations. PMID:25457085

  5. Chronic Phase Intracranial Hemorrhage Caused by Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm Induced by Carmustine Wafer Implantation for Insulo-opercular Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimitoshi; Dan, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Miyajima, Yoshiteru; Hara, Atsuko; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2015-11-16

    Carmustine wafers improve the survival of patients with high-grade gliomas, but several adverse events have been reported. A 42-year-old man with left insulo-opercular anaplastic astrocytoma developed a massive intra-cavital hematoma with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) adjacent to the site of carmustine wafers implanted 6 months previously. Intraoperative finding demonstrated a dissection of the insular portion of the MCA, and pathological examination identified the resected pseudoaneurysm. This case demonstrates that carmustine wafers can cause changes in local vessels. Therefore, implantation of carmustine wafers near to important vessels passing close to the resection cavity should be considered with great caution. PMID:26423018

  6. Long-Term Remission in a Case of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Following Local Irradiation and High-Dose Chemotherapy With Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kato

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC is a tumor with bad prognosis and long-term survival is very low. However, appropriate combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radition have been reported to potentially improve the treatment results for ATC. We describe a case of refractory ATC successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT. There has not been any evidence of recurrence for 10 years after auto-PBSCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ATC that has been followed up for a longterm period after HDC with auto-PBSCT. This case suggests that intensive therapeutic approach such as HDC with auto- PBSCT may be useful.

  7. Diversity of genomic breakpoints in TFG-ALK translocations in anaplastic large cell lymphomas: identification of a new TFG-ALK(XL) chimeric gene with transforming activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Luis; Beà, Sílvia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Pinyol, Magda; Falini, Brunangelo; Carbone, Antonino; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Fernández, Alberto; Pulford, Karen; Mason, David; Morris, Stephan W; Santos, Eugenio; Campo, Elias

    2002-04-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal aberrations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene at 2p23 that result in the expression of novel chimeric ALK proteins with transforming properties. In most of these tumors, the t(2;5)(p23;q35) generates the NPM-ALK fusion gene. However, several studies have now demonstrated that genes other than NPM may be fused to the ALK gene. We have recently described two different ALK rearrangements involving the TRK-fused gene (TFG) in which the same portion of ALK was fused to different length fragments of the 5' TFG region. These two rearrangements encoded chimeric proteins of 85 kd (TFG-ALK(S)) and 97 kd (TFG-ALK(L)), respectively. In this study, we have identified a new ALK rearrangement in which the catalytic domain of ALK was fused to a larger fragment of the TFG gene (TFG-ALK(XL)), encoding for a fusion protein of 113 kd. Genomic analysis of these three TFG-ALK rearrangements revealed that the TFG breakpoints occur at introns 3, 4, and 5, respectively, whereas the ALK breakpoints always occur in the same intron. No homologous regions or known recombination sequences were found in these regions. Transfection experiments using NIH-3T3 fibroblasts showed a similar transforming efficiency of TFG-ALK variants compared with NPM-ALK. In addition, in common with NPM-ALK, the TFG-ALK proteins formed stable complexes with the signaling proteins Grb2, Shc, and PLC-gamma. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the TFG may use a variety of intronic breakpoints in ALK rearrangements generating fusion proteins of different molecular weights, but with similar transforming potential than NPM-ALK. PMID:11943732

  8. Combined postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymomas in childhood: results of the German prospective trials hit 88/89 and hit 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome in children with anaplastic ependymomas after surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy; and to identify prognostic factors for survival. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five children (n = 27 girls, 28 boys; median age at diagnosis, 6.2 years) with newly diagnosed anaplastic ependymomas were treated in the multicenter, prospective trials HIT 88/89 and HIT 91. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 28 patients; 27 patients underwent incomplete resection. All patients received chemotherapy before (n = 40) or after irradiation (n = 15). The irradiation volume encompassed either the neuraxis followed by a boost to the primary tumor site (n = 40) or the tumor region only (n = 13). No radiotherapy was administered in two patients. Results: Median follow-up was 38 months. The overall survival rate at 3 years after surgery was 75.6%. Disease progression occurred in 25 children with local progression occurring in 20. The median time to disease progression was 45 months. The only significant prognostic factor was the extent of resection (estimated progression-free survival [EPFS] after 3 years was 83.3% after complete resection and 38.5% after incomplete resection) and the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis (0% vs. 65.8% 3-year EPFS in localized tumors). Age, sex, tumor site, mode of chemotherapy, and irradiation volume did not influence survival. Conclusions: Treatment centers should be meticulous about surgery and diagnostic workup. Because the primary tumor region is the predominant site of failure it is important to intensify local treatment. Dose escalation by hyperfractionation or stereotactic radiotherapy might be a promising approach in macroscopically residual disease. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy requires further study

  9. Combining Different Views of Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations include RMLO, RCC, LMLO, LCC views. Thus here we investigated the interrelation and combination of MTR scoring from several views. METHOD AND MATERIALS The study included mammograms of 495 women (aged 58.0±5.7 years) from the Dutch screening program of which 250 controls were without diagnosis the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step is included to reduce input space dimensionality. Weak local decision scores for pixels were fused into an overall risk score. The dataset was randomly separated into a training data set (60%) and a test data set (40%). Risk scores for combinations of views were obtained by linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA, QDA) where respectively Fisher criterion and Likelihood ratio were used as combination scores. LDA and QDA parameters were obtained from the training set. Performance was evaluated by AUC statistics. Correlations were analyses as Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. RESULTS No significant difference in age was found between cases and controls. The AUC values for RMLO, LMLO, RCC and LCC views are respectively 0.604, 0.579, 0.602 and 0.605. Combination of views yielded RMLO & LMLO: 0.600; RCC & LCC: 0.612; RMLO & RCC: 0.632; LMLO & LCC: 0.623. The correlation of scores from contralateral views was 0.72-0.75. Scatter plots are shown below. CONCLUSION The MTR AUCs are a little lower than earlier reported probably due to the smaller training set. MTR scores obtained from two contralateral views correlated well, but not as highly as previously reported on density (>0.85). We conclude that view combination may reduce some of the risk

  10. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guanhua; Hu, Zuojun; Yin, Henghui; Zhang, Yunjian; Huang, Xueling; Wang, ShenMing; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD), was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and ...

  11. Clinical Benefit From Pemetrexed Before and After Crizotinib Exposure and From Crizotinib Before and After Pemetrexed Exposure in Patients With Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Eamon M; Lu, Xian; Maxson, DeLee; Barón, Anna E.; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Solomon, Benjamin J; Doebele, Robert C.; Varella-Garcia, Maria; Camidge, D. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analyses suggest enhanced sensitivity to pemetrexed in crizotinib-naive anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of a retrospective analysis of ALK+ patients exposed to crizotinib and pemetrexed to determine if any clinical cross-resistance exists. Progression-free survival (PFS) results for ALK+ patients administered pemetrexed followed by crizotinib (PEM-CRIZ) and ALK+ patients first treated with crizotinib and then p...

  12. Linfoma anaplásico de células grandes ALK-1 positivo, primario de pulmón: Informe de un caso pediátrico / ALK-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the lung: Report of a pediatric case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. Georgina, Siordia-Reyes; Floribel, Ferman-Cano; Alicia, Rodríguez-Velasco.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El linfoma no Hodgkin anaplásico de células grandes, positivo al antígeno Ki-1, es una entidad bien reconocida. La característica clínica usual es la linfadenopatía con extensión mediastinal y en la enfermedad extranodal, que ocurre en la mitad de los casos, es la piel el sitio más común, con afecci [...] ón poco frecuente a médula ósea, pulmón y sistema nervioso. La mayor frecuencia de presentación del linfoma anaplásico de células grandes es en la población joven, con pronóstico más favora ble que en la población adulta. El linfoma anaplásico de células grandes primario de pulmón es una entidad clínica rara. Su comportamiento clínico corresponde a un linfoma de alto grado y en la mayoría de los casos se presentan al diagnóstico como una enfermedad en estadio avanzado. Se informa un caso pediátrico de linfoma anaplásico de células grandes primario de pulmón, ALK 1 positivo, que es un marcador pronóstico y específico de esta entidad. Abstract in english Ki 1 anaplastic large cell non Hodgkin lymphoma is a well recognized clinical entity. The main clinical feature includes lymphadenopathy with mediastinal sparing. In the extranodal disease, which occurs in approximately half of the cases, the skin is the most common site; bone marrow, lung and centr [...] al nervous system are generally not involved. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is more common among young people, in whom the prognosis is more favorable. Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the lung is a rare clinical entity. Its clinical expression is similar to a high grade malignant lymphoma, and in most cases the diagnosis is made in advanced stages. We present a pediatric case with ALK1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the lung.

  13. Acute Liver Injury in a Patient with Alcohol Dependence: A Case Resembling Autoimmune Hepatitis or Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Masahiro; KANDA, TATSUO; NAKAMURA, MASATO; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; NAKAMOTO, SHINGO; Wu, Shuang; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; YOKOSUKA, OSAMU

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with alcohol dependence may initially present with atypical laboratory and histological features resembling autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) or drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Even with liver biopsy, it may be difficult to diagnose certain patients with alcohol dependence. However, careful follow-up of our patient and consultations with the attending psychiatrist were successful in diagnosing alcohol dependence and its liver injury. The immune mechanisms of alcoholic liver diseases,...

  14. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Preisinger Rudolf; Sharifi Ahmad R; Weigend Steffen; Philipp Hans-Christian; Schwarz Susanne CN; Trapp Sascha; Kothlow Sonja; Bader Sophie R; Schmahl Wolfgang; Kaspers Bernd; Matiasek Kaspar

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from o...

  15. Adenosine is Inherently Favored as the Branch-Site RNA Nucleotide in a Structural Context That Resembles Natural RNA Splicing†

    OpenAIRE

    Zelin, Elena; Wang, Yangming; SILVERMAN, SCOTT K.

    2006-01-01

    We previously used in vitro selection to identify the 7S11 deoxyribozyme, which catalyzes formation of 2?,5?-branched RNA using a branch-site adenosine nucleophile and a 5?-triphosphate electrophile. An unanswered question is whether the use of branch-site adenosine is inherently preferred or a chance event during the particular selection experiment. Here we have found that deoxyribozymes newly selected to use uridine as the branch-site RNA nucleotide in a structural context that resembles na...

  16. Cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating: correlations between parent and adolescent. : Familial resemblance in eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Heude, Barbara; Basdevant, Arnaud; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, in a general population, the resemblance in eating behaviour between adolescents and their parents. This study was based on the first examination of a community-based epidemiological study in Northern France. Subjects were offspring aged 14-22 years (135 boys and 125 girls) and their parents (174 fathers and 205 mothers). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18) identified three aspects of eating behaviour: cognitive re...

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow-induced resonance of slender deep cavities that resemble automotive door gaps:

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, A.T.; Bijl, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cavity aeroacoustic noise is relevant for aerospace and automotive industries and widely investigated since the 1950’s. Most investigations so far consider cavities where opening length and width are of similar scale. The present investigation focuses on a less investigated setup, namely cavities that resemble the door gaps of automobiles. These cavities are both slender (width much greater than length or depth) and partially covered. Furthermore they are under influence of a low Mach number ...

  18. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Jen Chen; Yinghui Liu; Youfa Wang

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-...

  19. Development of a Spontaneous Liver Disease Resembling Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice Lacking Tyro3, Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Nan; Liu, Peipei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe type of chronic liver disease. The lack of appropriate animal models has resulted in a limited understanding regarding the etiology of AIH. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient in Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) developed persistent inflammatory liver damage resembling AIH. Tyro3?/?Axl?/?Mer?/? triple mutant (TAM?/?) mice exhibited chronic hepatitis, manifested by progressive appearance of interface hepatitis, immune cell i...

  20. Socioeconomic and demographic factors for spousal resemblance in obesity status and habitual physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  1. Wild-type p53 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radionuclide gene therapy using sodium iodide symporter in a murine anaplastic thyroid cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the role of p53 in radionuclide gene therapy, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of 131I and 188Re following cotransfection of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and wild-type p53 (wt-p53) genes into cancer cells. The NIS gene was transfected to human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) expressing mutant p53 (mt-p53) using liposomes. The uptakes of 125I and 188Re were measured in the transfected (ARO-N) and wild-type cell lines (ARO). A recombinant adenovirus-5 vector containing a CMV promoter and wt-p53 cDNA, called Ad-p53, was established and transduced to ARO and ARO-N cells. After incubating cells with 131I and 188Re, the survival rate of each cell line was measured using a clonogenic assay. For radionuclide gene therapy in an animal model, Ad-p53 was injected directly into ARO and ARO-N tumours which were transplanted to nude mice. Two days later, 188Re or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the mice, and the tumours were measured using a calliper for 4 weeks. In ARO-N cells, the uptakes of 125I and 188Re were 505.16±21.30 pmol/106 cells and 13,875.20±504.85 cpm/106 cells at 30 min, respectively. There was no difference between the survival rates of ARO cells and ARO-N cells after incubation with 131I or 188Re. When Ad-p53 was transduced to ARO-N cells, the survival rate of wt-p53-expressing ARO-N cells incubated with 131I (18.5 MBq/5 ml) and 188Re (18.5 MBq/5 ml) decreased to 48.8±18.4% and 32.6±23.5%, respectively. In the nude mice experiment, ARO and ARO-N tumours gradually grew up to six to eight times larger than the initial volume. ARO and ARO-N tumours transduced with Ad-p53 continued to grow. However, the ARO-N tumours treated with Ad-p53 and 185 MBq of 188Re regressed to 20% of the initial volume. Growth of ARO-N tumour treated with 131I or 188Re was significantly inhibited by Ad-p53 transduction in vivo as well as in vitro. Transfection of the NIS gene into human anaplastic thyroid cancer induced the accumulation of beta-emitter radionuclides, and cotransfection with a wt-p53 gene enhanced the cytotoxic effect. (orig.)

  2. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken; Bondy, Melissa L; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Feychting, Maria; Il'yasova, Dora; Inskip, Peter D; Johansen, Christoffer; Melin, Beatrice S; Ruder, Avima M; Butler, Mary Ann; Scheurer, Michael E; Schüz, Joachim; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Wrensch, Margaret R; Davis, Faith G

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors (including oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and mixed glioma). Data from 7 case-control studies (5 US and 2 Scandinavian) were pooled. Unc...

  3. TRK-fused gene (TFG) is a new partner of ALK in anaplastic large cell lymphoma producing two structurally different TFG-ALK translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, L; Pinyol, M; Hernández, S; Beà, S; Pulford, K; Rosenwald, A; Lamant, L; Falini, B; Ott, G; Mason, D Y; Delsol, G; Campo, E

    1999-11-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35), which generates the NPM-ALK fusion gene encoding an 80-kD protein. Several studies have suggested that genes other than NPM may be fused to the ALK gene. Here we have identified TRK-fused gene (TFG) as a new ALK partner in 2 ALCL, 1 of which exhibited a t(2;3)(p23;q21). In these cases, TFG was involved in 2 different fusion genes, TFG-ALK(S) and TFG-ALK(L), coding respectively 85-kD and 97-kD chimeric proteins. The ALK breakpoint in these translocations was the same as in the classic t(2;5) translocation. These 2 proteins were both active in an in vitro tyrosine kinase assay showing that the new cloned cDNA sequences are translated into chimeric proteins with functional activity. These findings indicate that TFG can provide an alternative to NPM as a fusion partner responsible for activation of the ALK and the pathogenesis of ALCL. PMID:10556217

  4. Promising response of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma to crizotinib salvage treatment: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ouyang, Jian; Zhou, Rongfu; Chen, Bing; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ALK + DLBCL) is a rare and poorly characterized subtype of lymphoma. Reports suggest that this type of tumor responds poorly to standard regimens for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with rituximab playing no therapeutic role due to the absence of CD20 expression. In view of the expression of ALK in this disease, it is plausible that the ALK inhibitor crizotinib may be an effective treatment. We report a case of a 21-year-old male ALK + DLBCL patient. He initially received five cycles of CHOP-21 (vincristine, pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide and prednisone) and achieved a partial remission (PR) but soon deteriorated. He was subsequently treated with five courses of the salvage chemotherapy regimen ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide) and achieved PR again. He refused to accept an autologous stem-cell transplantation, after which the disease progressed rapidly. We administered two courses of an alternative salvage chemotherapy regimen containing GEMOX and dexamethasone with the addition of the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. His symptoms alleviated for a short time but soon worsened and the patient died of massive progressive disease. PMID:26221234

  5. A propósito de un linfoma anaplásico de células grandes con manifiesta peculiaridad de la relación clínica-patológica / Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Report of an unusual case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Vallina; F., Fresno; E., Suárez; A. R, Guardado; J. M., Arribas.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un linfoma anaplásico de células grandes que reune todas las condiciones exigidas para incluirlo dentro de las formas descritas como "de tejido blando". Son llamativos en este caso, aparte de su escasa frecuencia en adultos, la grave repercusión sistémica del proceso, pese a no demostrar [...] se la generalización del mismo, la ausencia de expresión de la proteína ALK1, frecuentemente positiva en las formas generalizadas, y la falta de respuesta a la poliquimioterapia. Creemos que este caso subraya la heterogenicidad del proceso en lo que se refiere a la relación clínico-patológica de este tipo de linfomas. Abstract in english An anaplastic large cell Iymphoma which fulfills all the criteria required for its inclusion among the soft tissue forms is reported. We point out in this case, in addition to its low frequency in adults, the severe systemic involvement of the disorder with out generalization, the lack of expression [...] of the ALK1 protein, frequently positive in the generalized forms and the absence of response to polichiomiotherapy. We think that this case emphasizes the heterogenicity if the disorder on the clinical pathologycal relation ship of this kind of Iymphomas.

  6. Epigenetic Silencing of the Proapoptotic Gene BIM in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma through an MeCP2/SIN3a Deacetylating Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Piazza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BIM is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Here, we investigated the epigenetic status of the BIM locus in NPM/ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL cell lines and in lymph node biopsies from NPM/ALK+ ALCL patients. We show that BIM is epigenetically silenced in cell lines and lymph node specimens and that treatment with the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A restores the histone acetylation, strongly upregulates BIM expression, and induces cell death. BIM silencing occurs through recruitment of MeCP2 and the SIN3a/histone deacetylase 1/2 (HDAC1/2 corepressor complex. This event requires BIM CpG methylation/demethylation with 5-azacytidine that leads to detachment of the MeCP2 corepressor complex and reacetylation of the histone tails. Treatment with the ALK inhibitor PF2341066 or with an inducible shRNA targeting NPM/ALK does not restore BIM locus reacetylation; however, enforced expression of NPM/ALK in an NPM/ALK-negative cell line significantly increases the methylation at the BIM locus. This study demonstrates that BIM is epigenetically silenced in NPM/ALK-positive cells through recruitment of the SIN3a/HDAC1/2 corepressor complex and that NPM/ALK is dispensable to maintain BIM epigenetic silencing but is able to act as an inducer of BIM methylation.

  7. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  8. Wild-type p53 enhances the cytotoxic effect of radionuclide gene therapy using sodium iodide symporter in a murine anaplastic thyroid cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Molecular Imaging Research Center, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Tumor Immunity Medical Research Center, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Molecular Imaging Research Center, Nowon-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the role of p53 in radionuclide gene therapy, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of {sup 131}I and {sup 188}Re following cotransfection of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and wild-type p53 (wt-p53) genes into cancer cells. The NIS gene was transfected to human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) expressing mutant p53 (mt-p53) using liposomes. The uptakes of {sup 125}I and {sup 188}Re were measured in the transfected (ARO-N) and wild-type cell lines (ARO). A recombinant adenovirus-5 vector containing a CMV promoter and wt-p53 cDNA, called Ad-p53, was established and transduced to ARO and ARO-N cells. After incubating cells with {sup 131}I and {sup 188}Re, the survival rate of each cell line was measured using a clonogenic assay. For radionuclide gene therapy in an animal model, Ad-p53 was injected directly into ARO and ARO-N tumours which were transplanted to nude mice. Two days later, {sup 188}Re or saline was injected intraperitoneally into the mice, and the tumours were measured using a calliper for 4 weeks. In ARO-N cells, the uptakes of {sup 125}I and {sup 188}Re were 505.16{+-}21.30 pmol/10{sup 6} cells and 13,875.20{+-}504.85 cpm/10{sup 6} cells at 30 min, respectively. There was no difference between the survival rates of ARO cells and ARO-N cells after incubation with {sup 131}I or {sup 188}Re. When Ad-p53 was transduced to ARO-N cells, the survival rate of wt-p53-expressing ARO-N cells incubated with {sup 131}I (18.5 MBq/5 ml) and {sup 188}Re (18.5 MBq/5 ml) decreased to 48.8{+-}18.4% and 32.6{+-}23.5%, respectively. In the nude mice experiment, ARO and ARO-N tumours gradually grew up to six to eight times larger than the initial volume. ARO and ARO-N tumours transduced with Ad-p53 continued to grow. However, the ARO-N tumours treated with Ad-p53 and 185 MBq of {sup 188}Re regressed to 20% of the initial volume. Growth of ARO-N tumour treated with {sup 131}I or {sup 188}Re was significantly inhibited by Ad-p53 transduction in vivo as well as in vitro. Transfection of the NIS gene into human anaplastic thyroid cancer induced the accumulation of beta-emitter radionuclides, and cotransfection with a wt-p53 gene enhanced the cytotoxic effect. (orig.)

  9. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangements in patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer: CT characteristics and response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangchul; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hosoda, Waki; Kondo, Chiaki; Shimizu, Junichi; Horio, Yoshitsugu; Yoshida, Kimihide; Tanaka, Kosuke; Oguri, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Hida, Toyoaki

    2014-02-01

    Few articles have been published on the imaging findings of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To investigate the radiological findings of ALK-positive NSCLC in the advanced stage, CT scans were examined. In addition, the response to chemotherapy was evaluated. Of the 36 patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC, a mass and a nodule were identified in 17 (47.2%) and 16 (44.4%), respectively, indicating that more than 40% had a small-sized tumor. Overall, 31 (86.1%) patients had lymphadenopathy, seven (19.4%) had extranodal lymph node invasion, and three (8.3%) had lymphangitis. A pleural effusion was seen in 15 patients (41.7%). All but one patient had no ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions, indicating that most ALK-positive tumors showed a solid growth pattern without GGO on CT. Twenty were evaluable for response to chemotherapy; 10 (50.0%) had a partial response (PR), nine (45.0%) had stable disease (SD), and one (5.0%) had progressive disease (PD) with first-line chemotherapy. With second-line chemotherapy, five (26.3%) had PR, 11 (57.9%) had SD, and three (15.8%) had PD. The five patients with PR were all treated by using crizotinib. Time to progression was 8.2 months with first-line chemotherapy, and 6.0 months with second-line chemotherapy. Advanced-stage ALK-positive tumors have a relatively aggressive phenotype, which cannot be inferred from the size of the tumor alone. ALK-positive patients have a good response to first-line cytotoxic drugs and to crizotinib as second-line therapy, but a relatively poor response to cytotoxic drugs as second-line therapy. PMID:24403104

  10. Sister chromatid exchange induction in patients with anaplastic gliomas undergoing treatment with radiation plus diaziquone or 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaziquone (AZQ) (NSC 182986), a lipid-soluble benzoquinone derivative, is presently being tested in a Phase III clinical trial to determine its efficacy in patients with anaplastic gliomas compared to the more standard 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) treatment following whole-brain irradiation. These patients on single-drug chemotherapy allowed us to evaluate the effects of each agent on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in vivo. Eight weeks following the final radiation treatment, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) 200 mg BCNU/m2, i.v., every 8 weeks; of (b) 15 mg AZQ/m2/day, i.v., for 3 consecutive days, every 4 weeks. Blood (5-10 ml) was drawn by venipuncture before treatment, within 10 h after treatment, and for two BCNU-treated patients at various other times. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured by standard techniques for analysis of SCE. Eight weeks after irradiation but before chemotherapy, the mean SCE frequency in the patients' peripheral blood lymphocytes was 9.6 SCEs/metaphase. Following treatment with AZQ or BCNU, the baseline SCE frequency was increased more than 2-fold or 3-fold, respectively. Two months after BCNU treatment, there was less than a 25% reduction in SCE levels compared to samples taken and cultured within 10 h after treatment. These data show that lesions leading to SCE in human peripheral blood lymphocytes are relatively longlived, and that on a mg/m2 basis, AZQ is a more potent inducer of SCE in vivo than is BCNU

  11. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the published data for future treatment decision-making remains difficult when the histologic diagnosis has not been based on the new improved classification system.

  12. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling. Additionally, we observed typical histological images of dissolution of the connective tissue matrix around eosinophils. Conclusion The present study shows that a timely regulated influx of infiltrating leukocytes is associated with an extensive collagen remodeling process that allows the pubic separation for a normal delivery in guinea-pig. Thus, the findings in this study support the hypothesis that the guinea-pig pubic symphyseal relaxation at parturition resembles an inflammatory process.

  13. An analysis on equal width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding-based discretization and its performance resemblances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.

  14. Entropy generation in a channel resembling gas turbine cooling passage: Effect of rotation number and density ratio on entropy generation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Basha; M Al-Qahtani; B S Yilbas

    2009-06-01

    Flow into a passage resembling a gas turbine blade cooling passage is considered and entropy generation rate in the passage is examined for unique rotation number and density ratios. In the simulations, leading and trailing walls of the passage are assumed to be at constant temperature. A control volume approach is introduced to discretize the governing equations of ?ow, heat transfer, and entropy generation. Reynolds stress turbulence model is accommodated in the simulation to account for the turbulence. The study is extended to include two rotational speeds and three density ratios. The passage aspect ratio is kept 10:1. It is found that volumetric entropy generation rate attains high values at passage inlet due to attainment of high temperature gradient in this region. Increasing rotation number and density ratio enhances volumetric entropy generation rate in the passage.

  15. Development of a spontaneous liver disease resembling autoimmune hepatitis in mice lacking tyro3, axl and mer receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nan; Liu, Peipei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Hui; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe type of chronic liver disease. The lack of appropriate animal models has resulted in a limited understanding regarding the etiology of AIH. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient in Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) developed persistent inflammatory liver damage resembling AIH. Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) triple mutant (TAM(-/-)) mice exhibited chronic hepatitis, manifested by progressive appearance of interface hepatitis, immune cell infiltrations and elevated inflammatory cytokine levels in the liver. Accordingly, increased levels of transaminases were observed. Moreover, characteristic autoantibodies and high levels of plasma immunoglobulin G for AIH were detected as TAM(-/-) mice aged. Finally, we provided evidence that the liver damage in TAM(-/-) mice mainly result from bone marrow-derived cells and could be rescued by transplantation of WT bone marrow cells. Results suggest that TAM RTKs play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance of the liver. PMID:23799121

  16. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  17. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E. [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  18. Adult family members and their resemblance of coronary heart disease risk factors: The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease tends to run in families, and the familial resemblance of major risk factors for the disease was examined among various types of adult family members. Family units were assembled from a total of 4,738 men and women who took part in a cross sectional health survey in four Norwegian municipalities where all inhabitants between 20 and 52 years of age were invited. After adjusting for age and other confounders, correlation coefficients were derived as a measure of the degree of resemblance. Viewed across all types of investigated familial relationships, similarity was found to be stronger for total cholesterol than for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and also stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Between husbands and wives (3,060 subjects), correlations were small (between 0.02 and 0.06), except for 0.11 for total cholesterol. Lipid and blood pressure correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 for parents and their offspring (471 subjects, p < 0.05) and from 0.11 to 0.22 among siblings (2,166 subjects, p < 0.01). Sibling correlations were consistent across age groups. Furthermore, reports from each individual on daily smoking (yes or no) revealed that husbands and wives had similar habits in 63.5% of all marriages as compared with the expected 49.4% had no smoking similarity at all been present. Smoking concordance was also demonstrated among siblings (p < 0.01). The persistent pattern of lipid and blood pressure aggregation among genetically related individuals from 20 to 52 years of age and the much weaker such similarity between husbands and wives, point towards genes or commonly shared environment at early ages as a major reason why coronary heart disease runs in families

  19. A phase II trial of primary temozolomide in patients with grade III oligodendroglial brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Hui K.; Rosenthal, Mark A.; Dowling, Anthony; Kalnins, Renate; Algar, Elizabeth; Wong, Nicholas; Benson, Angela; Woods, Anne-Marie; Cher, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Glial tumors with oligodendroglial components are considered chemo-responsive. Forty newly diagnosed patients (11 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas [OD] and 29 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas [OA]) were enrolled into this multicenter, open-label, single-arm Phase II trial of first-line temozolomide (200 mg/m2 on days 1–5 every 4 weeks for 6 cycles). The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) with response rate (RR), median PFS, and median overall survival (OS) as secondary endp...

  20. Survival improvement in anaplastic astrocytoma, combining external radiation with halogenated pyrimidines: final report of RTOG 86-12, phase I-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and tumor efficacy of the halopyrimidine IUdR as a chemical modifier of radiation response in patients with malignant glioma. The preliminary results published in 1993 demonstrated no real advantage in the group of patients with glioblastoma. However, a benefit appeared to be evolving in the group of patients with Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA). We are now presenting the results on the long-term follow-up of patients with AA. Methods and Materials: Between August 1987 and October 1991, 79 patients were entered in a prospective study with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. Twenty-one of 79 were AA. The study was designed to have a fixed dose of radiation consisting of 60.16 Gy in 32 fractions in 6.5 weeks but varying the dose schedule of IUdR, delivered in a continuous intravenous infusion of long (96 h) or short (48 and 24 h) duration, every week for the 6.5 weeks of radiation treatment. Results: The last AA patient was entered in March 1991. Ninety-five percent of the AA patients were under 59 years of age and 86% had a Karnofsky score 80. Thirty-eight percent had a tumor diameter of less than 5 cm and 52% had a tumor diameter between 5-10 cm. Seventy-six percent had partial or total tumor resection. The toxicity of this treatment was acceptable and has already been published elsewhere. At the time of this report, 14 out of 21 patients with AA are dead. The median survival, calculated from the Kaplan-Meier, is 3.2 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients have survived 5 years. These results compare favorably with the best results reported in the literature with postoperative external radiation plus chemotherapy, median survival time (MST) of 3 years, and previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) experience with radiation alone, MST of 2 years. Conclusions: Our findings in patients with AA corroborate the improved therapeutic results published recently when combining external radiation with 'long' infusion of i.v. BUdR and indicate the need to proceed with randomized Phase III studies utilizing halogenated pyrimidines and radiation. One such study has already been activated, RTOG no. 94-04

  1. Survival improvement in anaplastic astrocytoma, combining external radiation with halogenated pyrimidines. Final report of RTOG 86-12, phase I-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and tumor efficacy of the halopyrimidine IUdR as a chemical modifier of radiation response in patients with malignant glioma. The preliminary results published in 1993 demonstrated no real advantage in the group of patients with glioblastoma. However, a benefit appeared to be evolving in the group of patients with Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AAF). We are now presenting the results on the long-term follow-up of patients with AAF. Methods and Materials: Between August 1987 and October 1991, 79 patients were entered in a prospective study with newly diagnosed AAF and glioblastoma. (21(79)) were AAF. The study was designed to have a fixed dose of radiation (60.16 Gy in 32 fractions in 6.5 weeks) but varying the dose schedule of IUdR, delivered in a continuous intravenous infusion of long (96 hours) or short (48 and 24 hours) duration, every week for the 6.5 weeks of radiation treatment. Results: The last patient with AAF was entered in March 1991. 95% of the AAF patients were ? 59 years of age, 86% had a Karnofsky score ? 80, 38% had a tumor diameter of less than 5 cm and 52% between 5-10 cm. 76% had partial or total tumor resection. The toxicity of this treatment is acceptable and has already been published elsewhere. At the time of this report, 14 out of 21 patients with AAF are dead. The median survival calculated from the Kaplan-Meier plot is 3 years. Thirty-three percent of the patients have survived 5 years. These results compare favorably with the best results reported in the literature with post-op external radiation plus chemotherapy, median survival of 3 years and previous RTOG experience with radiation alone, median survival of 2 years. As was the case with glioblastoma patients, there is a trend for a better survival experience in the patients who received the long 96-hour course schedule of IUdR (Median survival not yet reached after 6 years). Conclusion: Our findings in patients with AAF corroborate the improved therapeutic results published recently when combining external radiation with IV BUdR and indicate the need to proceed with randomized phase III studies utilizing halogenated pyrimidines and radiation. One such study has already been activated, RTOG no. 94-04

  2. A phase III randomized prospective trial of external beam radiotherapy, mitomycin C, carmustine, and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of adults with anaplastic glioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate strategies to overcome the resistance of anaplastic gliomas of the brain to external beam radiotherapy (ERT) plus carmustine (BCNU). Patients were ? 15 years of age, had a histologic diagnosis of malignant glioma, and a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 60%. Methods and Materials: In Randomization 1, patients were assigned to receive either ERT alone (61.2 Gy) or ERT plus mitomycin C (Mito, IV 12.5 mg/m2) during the first and fourth week of ERT. After this treatment, patients went on to Randomization 2, where they were assigned to receive either BCNU (i.v. 200 mg/m2) given at 6-week intervals or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP, 750 mg/m2 IV daily for 3 days every 6 weeks), with BCNU given on the third day of the 6-MP treatment. Three hundred twenty-seven patients underwent Randomization 1. One hundred sixty-four received ERT alone, and 163 received ERT + Mito [average age 52.7 years; 63% male; 69% glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 66% had a resection; 56% KPS ? 90%]. Step-wise analysis of survival from Randomization 1 or 2 indicates that survival was significantly diminished by: (a) age ? 45 years (b) KPS < 90%; (c) GBM/Gliosarcoma histology; (d) stereotactic biopsy as opposed to open biopsy or resection. Median survival from Randomization 1 in both arms (ERT + Mito) was 10.8 months. Median survival from Randomization 2 was 9.3 months for BCNU/6MP vs. 11.4 months for the BCNU group (p = 0.35). Carmustine/6-MP showed a possible survival benefit for histologies other than GBM/GS. Two hundred and thirty-three patients underwent Randomization 2. The proportion of patients in the ERT group who terminated study prior to Randomization 2 was significantly less in the ERT group than in the ERT + Mito group (20 vs. 37%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: (a) The addition of Mito to ERT had no impact on survival; (b) patients treated with ERT + Mito were at greater risk of terminating therapy prior to Randomization 2; (c) there was not a significant survival benefit to the addition of 6-MP to BCNU

  3. Translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling for an orally available novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Ros oncogene 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shinji; Lam, Justine L; Zou, Helen Y; Wang, Hui; Smeal, Tod; Vicini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    An orally available macrocyclic small molecule, PF06463922 [(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile], is a selective inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-Ros oncogene 1 (ROS1). The objectives of the present study were to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of PF06463922 between its systemic exposures, pharmacodynamic biomarker (target modulation), and pharmacologic response (antitumor efficacy) in athymic mice implanted with H3122 non-small cell lung carcinomas expressing echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK mutation (EML4-ALK(L1196M)) and with NIH3T3 cells expressing CD74-ROS1. In these nonclinical tumor models, PF06463922 was orally administered to animals with EML4-ALK(L1196M) and CD74-ROS1 at twice daily doses of 0.3-20 and 0.01-3 mg/kg per dose, respectively. Plasma concentration-time profiles of PF06463922 were adequately described by a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Using the model-simulated plasma concentrations, a pharmacodynamic indirect response model with a modulator sufficiently fit the time courses of target modulation (i.e., ALK phosphorylation) in tumors of EML4-ALK(L1196M)-driven models with EC50,in vivo of 36 nM free. A drug-disease model based on an indirect response model reasonably fit individual tumor growth curves in both EML4-ALK(L1196M)- and CD74-ROS1-driven models with the estimated tumor stasis concentrations of 51 and 6.2 nM free, respectively. Thus, the EC60,in vivo (52 nM free) for ALK inhibition roughly corresponded to the tumor stasis concentration in an EML4-ALK(L1196M)-driven model, suggesting that 60% ALK inhibition would be required for tumor stasis. Accordingly, we proposed that the EC60,in vivo for ALK inhibition corresponding to the tumor stasis could be considered a minimum target efficacious concentration of PF06463922 for cancer patients in a phase I trial. PMID:25073473

  4. Extending the honey bee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, M; Cardoen, D; Formesyn, E M; Brunain, M; Van Driessche, G; Blank, S; Spillner, E; Verleyen, P; Wenseleers, T; Schoofs, L; Devreese, B; de Graaf, D C

    2013-04-01

    Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5. PMID:23350689

  5. Resembling breast milk: influence of polyamine-supplemented formula on neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mouse microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Collado, M Carmen; Pérez, Gaspar; Ilo, Toni; Jaakkola, Ulla-Marjut; Bernal, María J; Periago, María J; Frias, Rafael; Ros, Gaspar; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-03-28

    Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula). In addition to its nutritional value, breast milk contains bioactive substances that drive microbial colonisation and support immune system development, which are usually not present in infant formulas. Among these substances, polyamines have been described to be essential for intestinal and immune functions in newborns. However, their effect on the establishment of microbiota remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an infant formula supplemented with polyamines has an impact on microbial colonisation by modifying it to resemble that in breast-fed neonatal BALB/c mice. In a 4 d intervention, a total of sixty pups (14 d old) were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) breast-fed group; (2) non-enriched infant formula-fed group; (3) three different groups fed an infant formula enriched with increasing concentrations of polyamines (mixture of putrescine, spermidine and spermine), following the proportions found in human milk. Microbial composition in the contents of the oral cavity, stomach and small and large intestines was analysed by quantitative PCR targeted at fourteen bacterial genera and species. Significantly different (PAkkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium groups to levels found in the breast-fed group. Such an effect requires further investigation in human infants, as supplementation of an infant formula with polyamines might contribute to healthy gastrointestinal tract development. PMID:24229796

  6. Sensory afferent segregation in three-eared frogs resemble the dominance columns observed in three-eyed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L.; Houston, Douglas W.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The formation of proper sensory afferent connections during development is essential for brain function. Activity-based competition is believed to drive ocular dominance columns (ODC) in mammals and in experimentally-generated three-eyed frogs. ODC formation is thus a compromise of activity differences between two eyes and similar molecular cues. To gauge the generality of graphical map formation in the brain, we investigated the inner ear projection, known for its well-defined and early segregation of afferents from vestibular and auditory endorgans. In analogy to three eyed-frogs, we generated three-eared frogs to assess to what extent vestibular afferents from two adjacent ears could segregate. Donor ears were transplanted either in the native orientation or rotated by 90 degrees. These manipulations should result in either similar or different induced activity between both ears, respectively. Three-eared frogs with normal orientation showed normal swimming whereas those with a rotated third ear showed aberrant behaviors. Projection studies revealed that only afferents from the rotated ears segregated from those from the native ear within the vestibular nucleus, resembling the ocular dominance columns formed in three-eyed frogs. Vestibular segregation suggests that mechanisms comparable to those operating in the ODC formation of the visual system may act on vestibular projection refinements. PMID:25661240

  7. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, K A; Wong, A K; Liu, H; Famula, T R; Pedersen, N C; Ruhe, A; Wallace, M; Neff, M W

    2010-08-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a disorder of Pug Dogs that appears to have an immune etiology and high heritability based on population studies. The present study was undertaken to identify a genetic basis for the disease. A genome-wide association scan with single tandem repeat (STR) markers showed a single strong association near the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex on CFA12. Fine resolution mapping with 27 STR markers on CFA12 further narrowed association to the region containing DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and, -DQB1 genes. Sequencing confirmed that affected dogs were more likely to be homozygous for specific alleles at each locus and that these alleles were linked, forming a single high risk haplotype. The strong DLA class II association of NME in Pug Dogs resembles that of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NME appears to have an autoimmune basis, involves genetic and nongenetic factors, has a relatively low incidence, is more frequent in females than males, and is associated with a vascularly orientated nonsuppurative inflammation. However, NME of Pug Dogs is more aggressive in disease course than classical human MS, appears to be relatively earlier in onset, and involves necrosis rather than demyelination as the central pathobiologic feature. Thus, Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) shares clinical features with the less common acute variant forms of MS. Accordingly, NME of Pug Dogs may represent a naturally occurring canine model of certain idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system. PMID:20403140

  8. Bruck 88 : a young star cluster with an old age resemblance in the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster Bruck 88. From the comparison of the cluster integrated spectrum with template cluster spectra we found that the Milky Way globular cluster template spectra are the ones which best resemble it. However, the extracted cluster colour magnitude diagram reveals that Bruck 88 is a young cluster (log(t) = 8.1 +- 0.1). The derived cluster age is compatible with the presence of a Bright Red Giant (BRG) star located ~ 2.6 arcsec in the sky from the cluster centre. We serendipitously observed HW 33, a star cluster located ~ 3 arcmin to the south-east from Bruck 88. We obtained for the cluster the same age than Bruck 88 and surprisingly, a BRG star located within the cluster radius also appears to be compatible with the cluster age. We estimated the MK type of the BRG star in the Bruck 88 field to be in the range G9 II/Ib - K1 III. By combining the spectrum of a star within this MK type range with a 100-150 Myr template cluster...

  9. ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcock, Karen S; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Camps, Jordi; Shin, Dong-Mi; Triner, Daniel; Shaffer, Arthur L; Maul, Robert W; Steinberg, Seth M; Gearhart, Patricia J; Staudt, Louis M; Morse, Herbert C; Ried, Thomas; Hodes, Richard J

    2015-11-12

    The serine-threonine kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in maintaining genomic integrity. In mice, ATM deficiency is exclusively associated with T-cell lymphoma development, whereas B-cell tumors predominate in human ataxia-telangiectasia patients. We demonstrate in this study that when T cells are removed as targets for lymphomagenesis and as mediators of immune surveillance, ATM-deficient mice exclusively develop early-onset immunoglobulin M(+) B-cell lymphomas that do not transplant to immunocompetent mice and that histologically and genetically resemble the activated B cell-like (ABC) subset of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). These B-cell lymphomas show considerable chromosomal instability and a recurrent genomic amplification of a 4.48-Mb region on chromosome 18 that contains Malt1 and is orthologous to a region similarly amplified in human ABC DLBCL. Of importance, amplification of Malt1 in these lymphomas correlates with their dependence on nuclear factor (NF)-?B, MALT1, and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival, paralleling human ABC DLBCL. Further, like some human ABC DLBCLs, these mouse B-cell lymphomas also exhibit constitutive BCR-dependent NF-?B activation. This study reveals that ATM protects against development of B-cell lymphomas that model human ABC DLBCL and identifies a potential role for T cells in preventing the emergence of these tumors. PMID:26400962

  10. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood Medulloblastoma; Untreated Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Pineoblastoma; Untreated Childhood Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Untreated Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  11. Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested

  12. Hybrid copolymer-phospholipid vesicles: phase separation resembling mixed phospholipid lamellae, but with mechanical stability and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Santore, Maria M

    2015-04-01

    Vesicles whose bilayer membranes contain phospholipids mixed with co-polymers or surfactants comprise new hybrid materials having potential applications in drug delivery, sensors, and biomaterials. Here we describe a model polymer-phospholipid hybrid membrane system exhibiting strong similarities to binary phospholipid mixtures, but with more robust membrane mechanics. A lamella-forming graft copolymer, PDMS-co-PEO (polydimethylsiloxane-co-polyethylene oxide) was blended with a high melting temperature phospholipid, DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), over a broad compositional range. The resulting giant hybrid unilamellar vesicles were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to analogous mixed phospholipid membranes in which a low melting temperature phospholipid, DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), was blended with DPPC. The mechanical properties of the hybrid vesicles, even when phase separated, were robust with high lysis stresses and strains approaching those of the pure copolymer vesicles. The temperature-composition phase diagram of the hybrid vesicles closely resembled that of the mixed phospholipids; with only slightly greater nonidealities in the hybrid compared with DOPC/DPPC mixed membranes. In both systems, it was demonstrated that tension could be used to manipulate DPPC solidification into domains of patchy or striped morphologies that exhibited different tracer incorporation. The patch and stripe-shaped domains are thought to be different solid DPPC polymorphys: ripple and tilt (or gel). This work demonstrates that in mixed-phospholipid bilayers where a high-melting phospholipid solidifies on cooling, the lower-melting phospholipid may be substituted by an appropriate copolymer to improve mechanical properties while retaining the underlying membrane physics. PMID:25687473

  13. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106 subject respectively) were C: 2.4(1.4-4.2), R: 2.4(1.4-4.1), P: 2.5(1.5-4.2), E: non-significant, H: 4.2(2.4-7.2), and A: 5.6(3.2-9.8). The AUC analysis showed a similarly increasing pattern (C: 0.58±0.02, R: 0.57±0.03, P: 0.60±0.03, H: 0.63±0.02, A: 0.66±0.02). The AUC of the aggregate marker (A) surpasses others significantly except H. HRT-MTR (E) did not significantly identify future cancers or correlate with any other marker. Conclusions: Breast cancer risk MTR marker was independent of density scores and more predictive of risk. The hormone replacement treatment MTR marker did not identify patients at risk.

  14. {sup 131}I radioconjugated antibodies for the locoregional radioimmunotherapy of high-grade malignant glioma. Phase I and II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Casi, M.; Gentile, R. [`M.Bufalini` Hospital, Cesena (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Frattarelli, M.; Guiducci, G.; Cremonini, A.M.; Giuliani, G. [`M.Bufalini` Hospital, Cesena (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Riva, N. [`Pierantoni` Hospital, Forli (Italy). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Jekunen, A.A.; Kairemo, J.A. [Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Oncology

    1999-11-01

    Locoregional radioimmunotherapy (LR-RIT) was administered to 111 patients (20 were recruited in a phase I and 91 in a phase II study) with malignant gliomas: 1 patient with oligodendroglioma, 7 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2 with grade II astrocytoma, 10 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 with glioblastoma, amounting to 58 newly diagnosed and 53 recurrent tumours. The {sup 131}I-labelled monoclonal antibodies BC-2 and BC-4 were used in order to recognize stromal and intracellular glycoprotein tenascin, and antigen present particularly in glioblastoma. The patients were enrolled between February 1990 and December 1997 after conventional therapy. The radiopharmaceutical was injected directly into the tumour site. Sequential scintigraphies demonstrated a high and enduring uptake in the tumour. The mean irradiation dose in the tumour was 300 Gy per cycle. In the group of 74 phase II glioblastoma patients the clinical responses were as follows: 10 patients with stable disease (SD), 9 with partial responses (PR), 23 with no evidence of disease (NED) and 1 patient with complete response (CR). The median survival was 19 months. The response rate (CR+PR+NED) was 17.8% for those patients with bulky lesions, with a median survival of 17 months, but 66.6% for patients with small lesions, with a median survival of 25 months. Better outcomes were recorded in cases with less aggressive diseases: oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. We conclude that fractionated LR-RIT can be safely performed, with promising results especially in patients with minimal disease. (orig.)

  15. 131I radioconjugated antibodies for the locoregional radioimmunotherapy of high-grade malignant glioma. Phase I and II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locoregional radioimmunotherapy (LR-RIT) was administered to 111 patients (20 were recruited in a phase I and 91 in a phase II study) with malignant gliomas: 1 patient with oligodendroglioma, 7 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 2 with grade II astrocytoma, 10 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 91 with glioblastoma, amounting to 58 newly diagnosed and 53 recurrent tumours. The 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies BC-2 and BC-4 were used in order to recognize stromal and intracellular glycoprotein tenascin, and antigen present particularly in glioblastoma. The patients were enrolled between February 1990 and December 1997 after conventional therapy. The radiopharmaceutical was injected directly into the tumour site. Sequential scintigraphies demonstrated a high and enduring uptake in the tumour. The mean irradiation dose in the tumour was 300 Gy per cycle. In the group of 74 phase II glioblastoma patients the clinical responses were as follows: 10 patients with stable disease (SD), 9 with partial responses (PR), 23 with no evidence of disease (NED) and 1 patient with complete response (CR). The median survival was 19 months. The response rate (CR+PR+NED) was 17.8% for those patients with bulky lesions, with a median survival of 17 months, but 66.6% for patients with small lesions, with a median survival of 25 months. Better outcomes were recorded in cases with less aggressive diseases: oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic astrocytoma. We conclude that fractionated LR-RIT can be safely performed, with promising results especially in patients with minimal disease. (orig.)

  16. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible cytotoxicity, effective transfection, “smart” cancer targeting, and therefore is a promising siRNA nanocarrier. Keywords: small interfering RNA, dendrimer, gene silencing, human ether-à-go-go-related gene, anaplastic thyroid cancer

  17. Anaplastic transformation of an atypical intraventricular meningioma with metastases to the liver: case report / Transformación anaplásica de un meningioma atípico intraventricular con metástasis hepáticas: caso clínico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., García-Conde; H., Roldan-Delgado; D., Martel-Barth-Hansen; C., Manzano-Sanz.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares son muy infrecuentes. En la bibliografía existente sólo se han descrito once casos hasta ahora. Siete de ellos desarrollaron metástasis a través del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR). Presentamos el primer caso de un meningioma maligno intraventricu [...] lar con metástasis extraneurales. Caso clínico. Paciente varón de 44 años de edad con una clínica de cefalea progresiva y desorientación. La resonancia magnética mostraba un proceso expansivo intracraneal en el trígono derecho con captación de contraste de forma homogénea. Intervención. Se practicó una resección total de la lesión a través de un acceso transcortical. El análisis histológico mostró un meningioma atípico. A pesar de la resección total, el tumor recidivó otras dos veces. Después de la primera recidiva, el tumor fue extirpado nuevamente y el paciente recibió radioterapia externa. En la segunda recidiva, el tumor se comportó de forma más agresiva, invadiendo el parénquima cerebral. El análisis histológico mostraba un meningioma anaplásico. El paciente fue ingresado nuevamente por fiebre y dolor en el hipocondrio derecho. Una ecografía abdominal mostró múltiples lesiones hipoecogénicas hepáticas. La biopsia de dichas lesiones fue compatible con metástasis del meningioma maligno. El paciente falleció debido a una insuficiencia hepática aguda siete meses después del diagnóstico inicial. Conclusiones. Los meningiomas malignos intraventriculares tienden a recurrir y producir metástasis, principalmente a través del LCR. Sin embargo, nuestro caso muestra que los meningioma malignos intraventriculares también pueden metastatizar fuera del sistema nervioso central, siendo el primer caso descrito. Por lo tanto, cuando un deterioro sistémico ocurra en un paciente con un meningioma maligno intraventricular debería descartarse la posibilidad de metástasis extraneurales como sucedió en este caso. Abstract in english Objective. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are very rare. To the best of our knowledge, only eleven cases have been reported thus far. Seven of them developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metastases. We present herein the first case of a malignant intraventricular meningioma with extraneural met [...] astases. Clinical presentation. We report a 44 year-old-man with a history of progressive headache and disorientation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a 5-cm homogeneously-enhancing mass in the right trigone. Intervention. The lesion was totally resected via a parietooccipital transcortical approach. Histological examination demonstrated an atypical meningioma. Thereafter, the tumor recurred twice. At first recurrence, the tumor was completely removed again and external radiotherapy was administered. At surgery at second recurrence, the tumor was more aggressive, invading the brain parenchyma. Histological examination showed anaplastic meningioma. The patient was readmitted to hospital with fever and pain in right hypochondrium. Abdominal ultrasound examination disclosed multiple hypoechoic liver lesions. Biopsy was consistent with liver metastases of a malignant meningioma. The patient died of acute liver failure seven months after initial diagnosis. Conclusion. Malignant intraventricular meningiomas are prone to recur and develop metastases, mainly through the CSF. Nevertheless, our case shows that extraneural metastases are also possible. Therefore, when systemic deterioration occurs in a patient with a malignant intraventricular meningioma, metastases to extraneural organs such as the liver must be ruled out.

  18. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT-Negative Recurrent High-Grade Anaplastic Astrocytoma Detected by {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2013-12-15

    A 37-year-old woman with grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) of the left frontal lobe, underwent surgical excision, chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy in 2004. After being in remission for 5 years, recurrence was suspected clinically when she presented with seizures. The result of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was equivocal for recurrence and radiation necrosis (not available ). The patient was then referred for {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), as the initial primary tumour was high grade in nature. {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT was negative for recurrence and demonstrated only post-operative changes in the left frontal region (Fig. 1a, b, arrow). Due to strong clinical suspicion, 3,4-dihydroxy-6-{sup 18}F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) PET-CT was done, 5 days after {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. The study revealed an {sup 18}F-FDOPA-avid mass lesion in the left frontal region (Fig. 1c, d, arrow), thereby confirming the presence of recurrent disease. The patient underwent surgical resection of the mass, and it was confirmed by histopathology as grade 3 AA. However, after a short asymptomatic period of 4 months the patient became symptomatic again. Follow-up MRI after 6 months of surgery revealed presence of ipsilateral and contralateral multifocal contrast enhancing recurrent mass lesions (Fig. 1e, f, arrow), suggesting the progression of disease. The patient was started on temozolamide but she died after 8 months' follow-up. Though MRI is routinely used in assessment of brain tumours, its ability to differentiate between treatment-induced changes and residual or recurrent tumour is limited. {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the first tracer used for assessment of brain tumours; however, it has a low tumour-to-background ratio in brain, limiting its utility. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correlates with tumour grade, with high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV) showing higher uptake than low-grade gliomas. Therefore, in spite of its limitations, {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is used for imaging of high-grade glioma. Amino acid PET radiotracers including {sup 18}F-FDOPA display superior contrast to {sup 18}F-FDG because of low uptake of amino acids in normal brain tissue. They have particularly special value in the detection of low-grade gliomas. However, {sup 18}F-FDOPA tumour uptake cannot provide reasonable predictions about tumour grade and proliferation in recurrent tumours that have undergone treatments. Also, their difficult synthesis or need for an on-site cyclotron limits their widespread use. The present case shows the utility of {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT in detection of a recurrent high-grade AA that was missed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. It highlights that {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT can be falsely negative, even in high-grade recurrent gliomas and, therefore, in cases with strong clinical suspicion {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT can be an alternative imaging modality to rule out recurrence even when {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT is negative.

  19. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  20. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  1. TARC, a CC chemokine, is frequently expressed in classic Hodgkin's lymphoma but not in NLP Hodgkin's lymphoma, T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma, and most cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, S C; Kim, L H; Poppema, S

    2001-07-01

    Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) has been identified as a lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine that attracts activated T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells in humans. Recent studies showed that the T cells surrounding Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) are Th2 type. Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL), T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) can mimic HL in some instances. This study aimed to establish the pattern of TARC expression in these diseases. Immunohistochemical stain using a polyclonal goat anti-human antibody to TARC was performed on 119 cases of confirmed HL; 99 were classical type (43 mixed cellularity, 43 nodular sclerosis, 5 lymphocyte depleted, 4 lymphocyte rich, 4 unclassifiable) and 20 lymphocyte predominant HL. Additional 27 ALCL (9 T-, 18 null-cell phenotype), 16 T-cell and 8 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were studied. A total of 85.8% of the classical HL, one case of ALCL, and one case of large cell B-cell lymphoma with anaplastic morphology showed positive TARC expression in the tumor cells. The expression was paranuclear and/or diffuse in the cell cytoplasm. The tumor cells in all cases of lymphocyte predominant HL, TCRBCL, null ALCL, and T-NHL did not express TARC. The high frequency of TARC expression in the Reed-Sternberg cells of classical HL may explain the characteristic T-cell infiltrate in this disease. The absence in other types that may be morphologically similar indicates that staining for TARC may aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:11420464

  2. Research progress of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-shan ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gene mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2 mainly occur in astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and secondary glioblastoma. The IDH1/2 gene mutation can alter proteinase function, consume ?-ketoglutarate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-reduced (NADPH and thus produce carcinogenic metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate. The intracellular accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate will induce a series of downstream effects which may result in the development of gliomas mentioned above. Both IDH1/2 mutations and other concomitant hereditary variations are biomarkers for differential diagnosis and IDH1/2 mutations are also independent factors for the prognosis of gliomas. The molecular targeting therapy for IDH1/2 mutations has become the research focus of glioma treatment. This review summarizes the recent progress of this field. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.017

  3. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; John D. Young

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine wit...

  4. Characterization of an organism that produces type E botulinal toxin but which resembles Clostridium butyricum from the feces of an infant with type E botulism.

    OpenAIRE

    McCroskey, L M; Hatheway, C L; Fenicia, L; Pasolini, B; Aureli, P

    1986-01-01

    The apparent causative organism from the only reported case of type E infant botulism was isolated and characterized. Except for its ability to produce type E botulinal toxin, this organism (strain 5262) would be unquestionably identified as Clostridium butyricum. This is the second time an organism resembling a defined Clostridium species other than a member of the C. botulinum group has been implicated in infant botulism.

  5. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    F.L.C. Brito; L.C. Alves; F.C.L. Maia; A.R. Albuquerque; J.P.D. Ortiz; J.L Laus

    2007-01-01

    One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológic...

  6. Dedifferentiation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor to an Anaplastic KIT Negative Phenotype – a Diagnostic Pitfall. Morphologic and Molecular Characterization of 8 Cases Occurring either de-novo or after Imatinib Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Romeo, Salvatore; Zhang, Lei; Nafa, Khedoudja; Hornick, Jason L.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Dei Tos, Paolo A; Fletcher, Christopher D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Most GISTs can be recognized by their monotonous cytologic features and overexpression of KIT oncoprotein. Altered morphology and loss of CD117 reactivity has been described previously after chronic imatinib treatment; however, this phenomenon has not been reported in imatinib-naïve tumors. Eight patients with abrupt transition from a classic CD117-positive spindle cell GIST to an anaplastic CD117-negative tumor were investigated for underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor progression. Pathologic and molecular analysis was performed on each of the two components. Genomic DNA PCR for KIT, PDGFRA, BRAF and KRAS hot spot-mutations and FISH for detecting KIT gene copy number alterations were performed. TP53 mutational analysis was performed in 5 cases. There were 7 males and 1 female, with an age range of 23–65 years. Five of the primary tumors were located in the stomach, while one case each originated in small bowel, colon and rectum. In 3 patients, the dedifferentiated component occurred in the setting of imatinib-resistance, while the remaining 5 occurred de novo. The dedifferentiated component had an anaplastic appearance, including one angiosarcomatous phenotype, with high mitotic activity and necrosis, and showed complete loss of CD117 (8/8) and CD34 (5/8) expression, and de novo expression of either cytokeratin (4/8) or desmin (1/8). There was no difference in the KIT genotype between the two components. However, two imatinib-resistant tumors showed co-existence of KIT exon 11 and exon 13 mutations. FISH showed loss of one KIT gene in 3 cases and low level amplification of KIT in 2 other cases in the CD117-negative component, compared to the CD117-positive area. TP53 mutation was identified in 1/5 cases tested, being present in both components. In summary, dedifferentiation in GIST may occur either de novo or after chronic imatinib exposure and can represent a diagnostic pitfall. This phenomenon is not related to additional KIT mutations, but might be secondary to genetic instability, either represented by loss of heterozygosity or low level of KIT amplification. PMID:23348204

  7. Dedifferentiation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor to an anaplastic KIT-negative phenotype: a diagnostic pitfall: morphologic and molecular characterization of 8 cases occurring either de novo or after imatinib therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Romeo, Salvatore; Zhang, Lei; Nafa, Khedoudja; Hornick, Jason L; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur Petur; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Dei Tos, Paolo A; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2013-03-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can be recognized by their monotonous cytologic features and overexpression of KIT oncoprotein. Altered morphology and loss of CD117 reactivity has been described previously after chronic imatinib treatment; however, this phenomenon has not been reported in imatinib-naive tumors. Eight patients with abrupt transition from a classic CD117-positive spindle cell GIST to an anaplastic CD117-negative tumor were investigated for underlying molecular mechanisms of tumor progression. Pathologic and molecular analysis was performed on each of the 2 components. Genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction for KIT, PDGFRA, BRAF, and KRAS hot spot mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detecting KIT gene copy number alterations were performed. TP53 mutational analysis was performed in 5 cases. There were 7 men and 1 woman, with an age range of 23 to 65 years. Five of the primary tumors were located in the stomach, and 1 case each originated in the small bowel, colon, and rectum. In 3 patients, the dedifferentiated component occurred in the setting of imatinib resistance, whereas the remaining 5 occurred de novo. The dedifferentiated component had an anaplastic appearance, including 1 angiosarcomatous phenotype, with high mitotic activity and necrosis, and showed complete loss of CD117 (8/8) and CD34 (5/8) expression and de novo expression of either cytokeratin (4/8) or desmin (1/8). There was no difference in the KIT genotype between the 2 components. However, 2 imatinib-resistant tumors showed coexistence of KIT exon 11 and exon 13 mutations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed loss of 1 KIT gene in 3 cases and low-level amplification of KIT in 2 other cases in the CD117-negative component, compared with the CD117-positive area. TP53 mutation was identified in 1/5 cases tested, being present in both components. In summary, dedifferentiation in GIST may occur either de novo or after chronic imatinib exposure and can represent a diagnostic pitfall. This phenomenon is not related to additional KIT mutations, but might be secondary to genetic instability, either represented by loss of heterozygosity or low level of KIT amplification. PMID:23348204

  8. The heat shock protein-90 co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40, promotes ALK-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma viability and its expression is regulated by the NPM-ALK oncoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) is a T cell lymphoma defined by the presence of chromosomal translocations involving the ALK tyrosine kinase gene. These translocations generate fusion proteins (e.g. NPM-ALK) with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity, which activate numerous signalling pathways important for ALK+ ALCL pathogenesis. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) plays a critical role in allowing NPM-ALK and other signalling proteins to function in this lymphoma. Co-chaperone proteins are important for helping Hsp90 fold proteins and for directing Hsp90 to specific clients; however the importance of co-chaperone proteins in ALK+ ALCL has not been investigated. Our preliminary findings suggested that expression of the immunophilin co-chaperone, Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40), is up-regulated in ALK+ ALCL by JunB, a transcription factor activated by NPM-ALK signalling. In this study we examined the regulation of the immunophilin family of co-chaperones by NPM-ALK and JunB, and investigated whether the immunophilin co-chaperones promote the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines. NPM-ALK and JunB were knocked-down in ALK+ ALCL cell lines with siRNA, and the effect on the expression of the three immunophilin co-chaperones: Cyp40, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51, and FKBP52 examined. Furthermore, the effect of knock-down of the immunophilin co-chaperones, either individually or in combination, on the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines and NPM-ALK levels and activity was also examined. We found that NPM-ALK promoted the transcription of Cyp40 and FKBP52, but only Cyp40 transcription was promoted by JunB. We also observed reduced viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA, but not with siRNAs directed against FKBP52 or FKBP51. Finally, we demonstrate that the decrease in the viability of ALK+ ALCL cell lines treated with Cyp40 siRNA does not appear to be due to a decrease in NPM-ALK levels or the ability of this oncoprotein to signal. This is the first study demonstrating that the expression of immunophilin family co-chaperones is promoted by an oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Moreover, this is the first report establishing an important role for Cyp40 in lymphoma

  9. Successful delivery after conservative resectoscopic surgery in a patient with a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor with myometrial invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Seong, Seok Ju; Shin, Eunah

    2015-01-01

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) is an extremely rare type of uterine stromal neoplasm that exhibits prominent sex cord-like differentiation. The clinical characteristics of a UTROSCT are not fully understood. Most reported cases of UTROSCT were treated by hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, a few cases have been treated by only tumor resection in patients who had a strong desire to preserve their fertility. We present a case of UTROSCT with myometrial invasion, which resulted in a successful delivery after the patient was treated by resectoscopic surgery and conservation of the uterus, and a brief review of the literature. PMID:26430670

  10. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L.C. Brito

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológico e sorológico por meio de exame do material da medula óssea e por imunofluorescência indireta, respectivamente. À citologia da úlcera corneana, visibilizaram-se formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp.

  11. Amastigota forms resembling Leishmania sp. on corneal ulceration in a dog: case report / Formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. em ulceração corneal de cão: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.L.C., Brito; L.C., Alves; F.C.L., Maia; A.R., Albuquerque; J.P.D., Ortiz; J.L., Laus.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um cão com leishmaniose visceral apresentando lesões cutâneas, caquexia e úlcera de córnea. Realizou-se o diagnóstico parasitológico e sorológico por meio de exame do material da medula óssea e por imunofluorescência indireta, respectivamente. À citologia da úlcera corneana, visi [...] bilizaram-se formas amastigotas compatíveis com Leishmania sp. Abstract in english One dog with visceral leishmaniasis is reported presenting cutaneous lesions, cachexia, and corneal ulceration. Parasitological and serological diagnoses were performed by exam of contents of the aspirative punction of the bone marrow and by immunofluorecence, respectively. Amastigota forms resembli [...] ng Leishmania sp. were visualized by citology.

  12. Redifferentiation and induction of tumor suppressors miR-122 and miR-375 by the PAX8/PPAR? fusion protein inhibits anaplastic thyroid cancer: a novel therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, H V; Driscoll, C B; Madde, P; Milosevic, D; Hurley, R M; McDonough, S J; Hallanger-Johnson, J; McIver, B; Eberhardt, N L

    2013-05-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an aggressive, fatal disease unresponsive to traditional therapies, generating a need to develop effective therapies. The PAX8/PPAR? fusion protein (PPFP) has been shown to favorably modulate tumor growth in follicular thyroid cancer, prompting our evaluation of its efficacy to inhibit ATC cell and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. PPFP was constitutively expressed in five ATC cell lines: BHT-101, FRO, C-643, KTC-2 and KTC-3, and inhibited cell growth in four of five cell lines and xenograft tumor growth in four of four cell lines. PPFP-mediated growth inhibition involved multiple mechanisms, including upregulation of miR-122 and miR-375, associated with decreased angiogenesis and AKT pathway inactivation, respectively. Also, PPFP expression resulted in marked increase of thyroid-specific marker transcripts, including PAX8, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin, to varying degrees by activating their respective promoters, suggesting that PPFP induced cellular redifferentiation. Functional studies demonstrate that increased NIS messenger RNA is not associated with increased 125I uptake. However, ectopic expression of wild-type NIS-induced perchlorate-sensitive iodine uptake, suggesting that endogenous NIS in ATC cell lines is defective. As current treatment for ATC is only palliative, overexpression of PPFP may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ATC. PMID:23598436

  13. Role of Evaluating MGMT Status and 1p36 Deletion in Radiosurgery-Induced Anaplastic Ependymoma That Rapidly and Completely Resolved by Temozolomide Alone: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kambe, Michiyo; Hiwasa, Takaki; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nakatani, Yukio; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2015-07-01

    Stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS)-induced brain tumors are extremely rare, and no ependymal tumors induced by GKS have been reported. Therefore, little is known about their clinical, pathologic, and genetic features. In addition, a regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy for anaplastic ependymoma (AE) has not been established. A 77-year-old man presented with a gait disturbance and left-side cerebellar ataxia more than 19 years after GKS performed for a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation. Imaging studies demonstrated an enhancing mass in the irradiated field with signs of intraventricular dissemination. Surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis of AE. Temozolomide (TMZ) was administrated postoperatively because the methylated promoter region of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and 1p36 deletion were observed. Surprisingly, images 16 days after TMZ initiation demonstrated a complete resolution of the residual tumor that was maintained after three cycles of TMZ. This first case report of GKS-induced AE emphasizes the importance of genetic evaluation of MGMT and chromosomal deletion of 1p36 that are not commonly performed in primary ependymal tumors. In addition, it is speculated that a GKS-induced tumor may have a different genetic background compared with the primary tumor because the pathogenesis of the tumors differed. PMID:26251808

  14. Afasia de conducción como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico parieto-temporo-occipital izquierdo: estudio de caso / Conduction Aphasia as a Result of Left Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Anaplastic Astrocytoma: A Case Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    OSCAR MAURICIO, AGUILAR MEJÍA; BEATRIZ, RAMÍREZ BERBERJO; JUAN CARLOS, ACEVEDO GONZÁLEZ; MIGUEL ENRIQUE, BERBEO CALDERÓN.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La afasia de conducción es un trastorno caracterizado por un lenguaje espontáneo relativamente fluido, buena comprensión, pero dificultades en la repetición asociadas con parafasias fonológicas. Se ha atribuido a lesiones del fascículo arqueado por desconexión entre el lóbulo temporal posterior y el [...] frontal; sin embargo, se ha debatido esta postura, planteando que la integridad y funcionamiento del fascículo arqueado no es indispensable en la repetición verbal. Se presenta un caso de un sujeto varón de 23 años que, como consecuencia de un astrocitoma anaplásico recidivante que abarca áreas parietales y temporo-occipitales, presenta una afasia de conducción. Se plantea una reconceptualización de esta afasia, analizándola en términos clínicos, neuropsicológicos y en las redes neuronales existentes entre áreas cerebrales posteriores ipsilaterales y contralaterales. Abstract in english Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by an impaired ability to repeat verbal material associated with phonological paraphasias but a relatively fluent spontaneous speech and preserved comprehension. It has been attributed to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus by disconnection betwe [...] en posterior temporal lobe and frontal lobe, however, this idea has been debated, because the integrity and function of the arcuate fasciculus does not seem to be essential in verbal repetition. We report a case of a 23 year old male, with conduction aphasia as a result of a recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma in parietal and temporo-occipital areas. We propose a reconceptualization of the aphasia, analyzing it in terms of clinical neuropsychological and neural networks between ipsilateral and contralateral posterior brain areas.

  15. Synthetic nanoemulsion resembling a protein-free model of 7-ketocholesterol containing low density lipoprotein: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani M, Favero; Raul C, Maranhão; Durvanei A, Maria; Débora, Levy; Sérgio P, Bydlowski.

    Full Text Available 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) differs from cholesterol by a functional ketone group at C7. It is an oxygenated cholesterol derivative (oxysterol), commonly present in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxysterols are generated and participate in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Fo [...] r instance, the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL have been widely attributed to bioactive compounds like oxysterols. The toxicity is in part due to 7-KC. Here we aimed to demonstrate the possibility of incorporating 7-KC into the synthetic nanoemulsion LDE, which resembles LDL in composition and behavior. This would provide a suitable artificial particle resembling LDL to study 7-KC metabolism. We were able to incorpórate 7-KC in several amounts into LDE. The incorporation was evaluated and confirmed by several methods, including gel filtration chromatography, using radiolabeled lipids. The incorporation did not change the main lipid composition characteristics of the new nanoparticle. Particle sizes were also evaluated and did not differ from LDE. In vivo studies were performed by injecting the nanoemulsion into mice. The plasma kinetics and the targeted organs were the same as described for LDE. Therefore, 7-KC-LDE maintains composition, size and some functional characteristics of LDE and could be used in experiments dealing with 7-ketocholesterol metabolism in lipoproteins.

  16. Analysis of high–dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high–dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30 Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D5% of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41 Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86 Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D98%, was 27.93 ± 0.84 Gy. The V100% of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V100% of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6 mm3, respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D98% to D80%) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D10% and D5%. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife

  17. Treatment of arteriovenous malformation with high-flow fistula and bilateral transverse-sigmoid sinuses stenosis resulting diffuse cortical vein engorgement and symptoms resembling carotid-cavernous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Wei; Su, I-Chang; Lee, Jing-Er; Liu, Hon-Man

    2015-01-01

    Patients harboring arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may present with focal neurological deficit, seizures, hemorrhage or be completely asymptomatic. This diversity in manifestation of AVM is related to the individual characteristics of AVMs such as size, location, configuration of feeding arteries, and drainage veins. Treating the AVMs with high-flow fistula and downstream sinuses occlusion is challenging. The authors reported their experience of treating this kind of AVM. The high venous pressure caused diffuse cortical venous regurgitation and engorgement of left superior ophthalmic vein and symptoms resembling carotid-venous fistula. To avoid possible reflux of embolization materials to cortical veins and facilitate surgical treatment, the bilateral transverse sinuses were re-canalized first. The venous pressure was measured through left transverse sinus, and it decreased significantly from 50 mmHg to 20 mmHg after bilateral sinus stenting. The AVM was then embolized and excised uneventfully. PMID:26425162

  18. New hospitals may resemble malls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzo, G

    1992-11-01

    Hospital designers and planners are adopting several features of the ubiquitous retail shopping mall to create a new model for a user-friendly, market-driven health care facility. Also, they are building and renovating hospitals in stages, which allows maximum flexibility in adapting to increasingly rapid changes in reimbursement patterns, clinical priorities and patient demand. PMID:10121980

  19. The oncoprotein NPM-ALK of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma induces JUNB transcription via ERK1/2 and JunB translation via mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Philipp B; Vesely, Paul; Haq, Naznin; Ott, Rene G; Funato, Kotaro; Bambach, Isabella; Fuchs, Claudia; Schauer, Silvia; Linkesch, Werner; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Sexl, Veronika; Bergler, Helmut; Kadin, Marshall E; Sternberg, David W; Kenner, Lukas; Hoefler, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) are highly proliferating tumors that commonly express the AP-1 transcription factor JunB. ALK fusions occur in approximately 50% of ALCLs, and among these, 80% have the t(2;5) translocation with NPM-ALK expression. We report greater activity of JunB in NPM-ALK-positive than in NPM-ALK-negative ALCLs. Specific knockdown of JUNB mRNA using small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in NPM-ALK-expressing cells decreases cellular proliferation as evidenced by a reduced cell count in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Expression of NPM-ALK results in ERK1/2 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of JUNB. Both NPM-ALK-positive and -negative ALCL tumors demonstrate active ERK1/2 signaling. In contrast to NPM-ALK-negative ALCL, the mTOR pathway is active in NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas. Pharmacological inhibition of mTOR in NPM-ALK-positive cells down-regulates JunB protein levels by shifting JUNB mRNA translation from large polysomes to monosomes and ribonucleic particles (RNPs), and decreases cellular proliferation. Thus, JunB is a critical target of mTOR and is translationally regulated in NPM-ALK-positive lymphomas. This is the first study demonstrating translational control of AP-1 transcription factors in human neoplasia. In conjunction with NPM-ALK, JunB enhances cell cycle progression and may therefore represent a therapeutic target. PMID:17690253

  20. Dynamic study of methionine positron emission tomography in patients with glioblastoma with oligodendroglial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hirohito; Ohe, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Nomura, Yu-Ichi; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis is classified as glioblastoma (GBM) with oligodendroglioma component (GBMO), according to the 2007 World Health Organization classification. The prognosis of GBMO remains controversial because definitive diagnostic criteria regarding the percentage of the oligodendroglial components (OC) in the GBM do not exist. We previously reported dynamic methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with these tumors. A significant decrease in the MET signal was seen in oligodendrocytic tumors, in contrast to a significant MET increase in GBMs. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic MET PET signal in four patients with primary (n = 2) and secondary (n = 2) GBMOs. Static PET scanning was performed in three consecutive phases. Both cases of primary GBMOs and one case of secondary GBMO presented with a gradual decrease in MET PET signal over the consecutive phases. In contrast, the remaining case of secondary GBMO presented with a pattern of slight increase. It is likely that the dynamic change of MET in patients with GBMO resemble those in patients with oligodendroglial tumor, however, further studies are needed to confirm them. We discuss the mechanisms from a viewpoint of pathological findings. PMID:25812514

  1. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite nuclei formation or to stabilize the nascent nuclei as amorphous or semi-crystalline spherical nanoparticles, until the same inhibitory influences are overwhelmed or de-repressed, whereby the apatite nuclei grow in size to coalesce into crystalline spindles and films-a mechanism that may explain not only the formation of calcium granules in nature but also normal or ectopic calcification in the body. PMID:19956594

  2. Permian ginkgophyte fossils from the Dolomites resemble extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaf-like fructifications of Ginkgo biloba L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustatscher Evelyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural elucidation and analysis of fructifications of plants is fundamental for understanding their evolution. In case of Ginkgo biloba, attention was drawn by Fujii in 1896 to aberrant fructifications of Ginkgo biloba whose seeds are attached to leaves, called O-ha-tsuki in Japan. This well-known phenomenon was now interpreted by Fujii as being homologous to ancestral sporophylls. The common fructification of Ginkgo biloba consists of 1-2 (rarely more ovules on a dichotomously divided stalk, the ovules on top of short stalklets, with collars supporting the ovules. There is essentially no disagreement that either the whole stalk with its stalklets, collars and ovules is homologous to a sporophyll, or, alternatively, just one stalklet, collar and ovule each correspond to a sporophyll. For the transition of an ancestral sporophyll resembling extant O-ha-tsuki aberrant leaves into the common fructification with stalklet/collar/ovule, evolutionary reduction of the leaf lamina of such ancestral sporophylls has to be assumed. Furthermore, such ancestral sporophylls would be expected in the fossil record of ginkgophytes. Results From the Upper Permian of the Bletterbach gorge (Dolomites, South Tyrol, Italy ginkgophyte leaves of the genus Sphenobaiera were discovered. Among several specimens, one shows putatively attached seeds, while other specimens, depending on their state of preservation, show seeds in positions strongly suggesting such attachment. Morphology and results of a cuticular analysis are in agreement with an affiliation of the fossil to the ginkgophytes and the cuticle of the seed is comparable to that of Triassic and Jurassic ones and to those of extant Ginkgo biloba. The Sphenobaiera leaves with putatively attached seeds closely resemble seed-bearing O-ha-tsuki leaves of extant Ginkgo biloba. This leads to the hypothesis that, at least for some groups of ginkgophytes represented by extant Ginkgo biloba, such sporophylls represent the ancestral state of fructifications. Conclusions Some evidence is provided for the existence of ancestral laminar ginkgophyte sporophylls. Homology of the newly found fossil ginkgophyte fructifications with the aberrant O-ha-tsuki fructifications of Ginkgo biloba is proposed. This would support the interpretation of the apical part of the common Ginkgo biloba fructification (stalklet/collar/ovule as a sporophyll with reduced leaf lamina.

  3. [Rolandic spikes as an electroencephalography manifestation of oligodendroglioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschnitz, W; Scheer, P; Körner, E; Kratky-Dunitz, M; Lechner, H

    1988-01-01

    A 10 5/12 year old boy was presented with seizures of uncertain origin on to the psychosomatic ward of our University Children's Hospital. The question and problem was the distinction of psychogenic versus epileptogenic origin (repeatedly performed EEG's had shown normal findings, the seizures did not response to anticonvulsive therapy). The exploration of a psychodynamic causes of the presenting problem was excluded by family therapeutic and psychoanalytical case history and psychodynamic interview. The first pathological finding was seen with registration of a long term EEG with typical findings of temporal central spikes and waves as seen in the benign rolandic-epilepsia. The following diagnostic considerations were discussed and differentiated. a) benign rolandi epilepsia b) malign rolandi epilepsia c) psychomotoric seizures d) rolandic spikes as symptomatic finding of a brain tumor. The definite diagnosis was finally confirmed by a cerebral computer-tomography which showed a large expensive process in the interferior right regio temporalis, which was identified histologically after operation as a oligodendrogliom grad-I. The tumor was removed successfully as a whole without any neurological defects. PMID:3241731

  4. Therapeutic Intervention of Post Surgical Removal of Oligodendroglioma- Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narkeesh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To describe the evaluation, management and rehabilitation of left side hemi plegia of a middle aged female in spastic stage. Background: History of tumor which was treated surgically. The reported onset was gradual with chief complaint of not being able to use her left side of the body, post surgery. Treatment: The patient was having medical, surgical and physiotherapy treatment from last 6 years. Uniqueness: This case is unique in terms that it involves a patient with, initially having minor weakness in left hand, progressed to spastic hemiplegic stage due to improper rehabilitation and unawareness. Conclusions: By presenting this case report, we hope a better understanding and necessity of early physiotherapy management and rehabilitation in hemiplegic cases and how to return to one's normal independent life.

  5. Therapeutic Intervention of Post Surgical Removal of Oligodendroglioma- Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Narkeesh; Lekhni Priya

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To describe the evaluation, management and rehabilitation of left side hemi plegia of a middle aged female in spastic stage. Background: History of tumor which was treated surgically. The reported onset was gradual with chief complaint of not being able to use her left side of the body, post surgery. Treatment: The patient was having medical, surgical and physiotherapy treatment from last 6 years. Uniqueness: This case is unique in terms that it involves a patien...

  6. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular ?-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  7. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular ?-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  8. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular ?-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  9. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  10. Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Tescucano, Alonso; Astudillo, Horacio; Reséndiz, Albany; Landa, Carla; España, Luis; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Estrada-García, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice. PMID:26568960

  11. Cytokeratin immunoreactivity in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H K; Lo, S T

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (AE1/3, CAM 5.2 and PKK-1) and polyclonal antisera against the cytokeratin proteins were reacted with a range of astrocytic tumours, oligodendrogliomas and ependymomas. Seven of 12 cases (58%) of glioblastoma multiforme, five of eight (63%) anaplastic astrocytomas and two of five (40%) well-differentiated astrocytomas were immunoreactive with AE1/3 but not with the other anti-cytokeratin antibodies. In oligodendrogliomas, AE1/3 stained isolated astrocyte-like cells as well as scattered neoplastic oligodendrocytes in four of eight cases (50%) cases. Four ependymomas were negative for all cytokeratin markers examined. The immunostaining of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas with AE1/3 might represent co-expression of cytokeratin with glial fibrillary acidic protein by gliomas and calls for caution in the use of these antibodies in the differential diagnosis between gliomas and carcinomas. PMID:2472343

  12. Nuclear Localization Signal-Enhanced Polyurethane-Short Branch Polyethylenimine-Mediated Delivery of Let-7a Inhibited Cancer Stem-Like Properties by Targeting the 3'-UTR of HMGA2 in Anaplastic Astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng-Yin; Chen, Ming-Teh; Huang, Pin-I; Wang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Yun-Chin; Yang, Yi-Ping; Lo, Wen-Liang; Sung, Wen-Hsing; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lee, Yi-Yen; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Yi-Wei; Ma, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a grade III glioma that often occurs in middle-aged patients and presents a uniformly poor prognosis. A small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) possessing a self-renewing capacity is reported to be responsible for tumor recurrence and therapeutic resistance. An accumulating amount of microRNAs (miRNA) were found aberrantly expressed in human cancers and regulate CSCs. Efforts have been made to couple miRNAs with nonviral gene delivery approaches to target specific genes in cancer cells. However, the efficiency of delivery of miRNAs to AA-derived CSCs is still an applicability hurdle. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and applicability of nonviral vector-mediated delivery of Let-7a with regard to eradication of AA and AA-derived CSC cells. Herein, our miRNA/mRNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of Let-7a, a tumor-suppressive miRNA, is inversely correlated with the levels of HMGA2 and Sox2 in the AA side population (SP(+)) cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed that Let-7a directly targets the 3'-UTRs of HMGA2 in AA-SP(+) cells. Knockdown of HMGA2 significantly suppressed the protein expression of Sox2 in AA-SP(+) cells, whereas overexpression of HMGA2 upregulated Sox2 expression in AA-SP(-). Nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides can facilitate nuclear targeting of DNA and are used to improve gene delivery. Using polyurethane-short branch polyethylenimine (PU-PEI) as a therapeutic delivery vehicle, we conjugated NLS with Let-7 and successfully delivered it to AA-SP(+) cells, resulting in significantly suppressed expression of HMGA2 and Sox2, tumorigenicity, and CSC-like abilities. This treatment facilitated the differentiation of AA-SP(+) cells into non-SP CSCs. Furthermore, PU-PEI-mediated delivery of NLS-conjugated Let-7a in AA-SP(+) cells suppressed the expression of drug-resistant and antiapoptotic genes, and increased cell sensitivity to radiation. Finally, the in vivo delivery of PU-PEI-NLS-Let-7a significantly suppressed the tumorigenesis of AA-SP(+) cells and synergistically improved the survival rate of orthotopically AA-SP(+)-transplanted immunocompromised mice when combined with radiotherapy. Therefore, PU-PEI-NLS-Let-7a is a potential novel therapeutic approach for AA. PMID:24898358

  13. Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años / Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Gallego-Pinazo; E., España Gregori; J., Aviñó Martínez; L., Salom Alonso; A., Tormo Micó; R., Villanueva Martí; M., Díaz-Llopis.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Mujer de 40 años remitida a nuestro servicio por persistencia durante meses de un cuadro de blefaritis anterior de aspecto indolente con aparición de un nódulo indurado en el párpado superior derecho filiado como chalazion refractario al tratamiento convencional, asociado a adenopatía [...] preauricular ipsilateral. La biopsia extemporánea se informó como carcinoma sebáceo. Procedimos a la exéresis completa de dicho párpado y a su reconstrucción con injerto de mucosa palatina y colgajo glabelar. Posteriormente se practicó un vaciamiento cervical radical por la presencia de adenopatías de aspecto necrótico en diversos territorios linfáticos. Se biopsió el párpado inferior que resultó positivo para infiltración carcinomatosa que se trató mediante braquiterapia. Discusión: La precocidad en el diagnóstico de los carcinomas sebáceos palpebrales es el principal factor pronóstico. La reconstrucción en casos de necesidad de exéresis completa del párpado es factible mediante un injerto de mucosa de paladar. En nuestro caso, el carácter anaplásico y la alta agresividad de la neoplasia han supuesto un reto terapéutico. Abstract in english Case report: A 40-year-old woman was referred to our department due to an apparent indolent anterior blepharitis with an indurated node in her right upper eyelid, which had persisted for months. It was believed to be a chalazion associated with an ipsilateral swollen pre-aurical lymph node, which ha [...] d not responded to conventional treatment. The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma. Complete exeresis was performed on that eyelid and it was reconstructed with a palate mucosa graft and a glabelar flap. A radical neck dissection was performed later, in order to remove the lymph nodes that appeared necrotic in several lymphatic areas. A biopsy was also performed on the lower eyelid, which was reported as positive for carcinomatous infiltration, and therefore it was treated with Curie-therapy. Discussion: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor. The reconstruction in cases with need of complete eyelid exeresis is feasible by means of a palate mucosa graft. In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

  14. A rare case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the pubic bone resembling small round cell tumor: an unusual morphological variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and malignant melanoma share overlapping immunohistochemistry with regard to the melanocytic markers HMB45, S100, and Melan-A. However, the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is specific to CCS. Therefore, although these neoplasms are closely related, they are now considered to be distinct entities. However, the translocation is apparently detectable only in 50%–70% of CCS cases. Therefore, the absence of a detectable EWS/AFT1 rearrangement may occasionally lead to erroneous exclusion of a translocation-negative CCS. Therefore, histological assessment is essential for the correct diagnosis of CCS. Primary CCS of the bone is exceedingly rare. Only a few cases of primary CCS arising in the ulna, metatarsals, ribs, radius, sacrum, and humerus have been reported, and primary CCS arising in the pubic bone has not been reported till date. We present the case of an 81-year-old man with primary CCS of the pubic bone. Histological examination of the pubic bone revealed monomorphic small-sized cells arranged predominantly as a diffuse sheet with round, hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells had scant cytoplasm, and the biopsy findings indicated small round cell tumor (SRCT). Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells to be positive for HMB45, S100, and Melan-A but negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary CCS of the pubic bone resembling SRCT. This ambiguous appearance underscores the difficulties encountered during the histological diagnosis of this rare variant of CCS. Awareness of primary CCS of the bone is clinically important for accurate diagnosis and management when the tumor is located in unusual locations such as the pubic bone and when the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is absent

  15. Loss of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in mice leads to progressive ectopic mineralization of spinal tissues resembling diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warraich, Sumeeta; Bone, Derek B J; Quinonez, Diana; Ii, Hisataka; Choi, Doo-Sup; Holdsworth, David W; Drangova, Maria; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Séguin, Cheryle A; Hammond, James R

    2013-05-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a noninflammatory spondyloarthropathy, characterized by ectopic calcification of spinal tissues. Symptoms include spine pain and stiffness, and in severe cases dysphagia and spinal cord compression. The etiology of DISH is unknown and there are no specific treatments. Recent studies have suggested a role for purine metabolism in the regulation of biomineralization. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) transfers hydrophilic nucleosides, such as adenosine, across the plasma membrane. In mice lacking ENT1, we observed the development of calcified lesions resembling DISH. By 12 months of age, ENT1(-/-) mice exhibited signs of spine stiffness, hind limb dysfunction, and paralysis. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) revealed ectopic mineralization of paraspinal tissues in the cervical-thoracic region at 2 months of age, which extended to the lumbar and caudal regions with advancing age. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of lesions revealed a high content of calcium and phosphorus with a ratio similar to that of cortical bone. At 12 months of age, histological examination of ENT1(-/-) mice revealed large, irregular accumulations of eosinophilic material in paraspinal ligaments and entheses, intervertebral discs, and sternocostal articulations. There was no evidence of mineralization in appendicular joints or blood vessels, indicating specificity for the axial skeleton. Plasma adenosine levels were significantly greater in ENT1(-/-) mice than in wild-type, consistent with loss of ENT1--a primary adenosine uptake pathway. There was a significant reduction in the expression of Enpp1, Ank, and Alpl in intervertebral discs from ENT1(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Elevated plasma levels of inorganic pyrophosphate in ENT1(-/-) mice indicated generalized disruption of pyrophosphate homeostasis. This is the first report of a role for ENT1 in regulating the calcification of soft tissues. Moreover, ENT1(-/-) mice may be a useful model for investigating pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics for the prevention of mineralization in DISH and related disorders. PMID:23184610

  16. A rare case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the pubic bone resembling small round cell tumor: an unusual morphological variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Shoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear cell sarcoma (CCS and malignant melanoma share overlapping immunohistochemistry with regard to the melanocytic markers HMB45, S100, and Melan-A. However, the translocation t(12; 22(q13; q12 is specific to CCS. Therefore, although these neoplasms are closely related, they are now considered to be distinct entities. However, the translocation is apparently detectable only in 50%–70% of CCS cases. Therefore, the absence of a detectable EWS/AFT1 rearrangement may occasionally lead to erroneous exclusion of a translocation-negative CCS. Therefore, histological assessment is essential for the correct diagnosis of CCS. Primary CCS of the bone is exceedingly rare. Only a few cases of primary CCS arising in the ulna, metatarsals, ribs, radius, sacrum, and humerus have been reported, and primary CCS arising in the pubic bone has not been reported till date. Case presentation We present the case of an 81-year-old man with primary CCS of the pubic bone. Histological examination of the pubic bone revealed monomorphic small-sized cells arranged predominantly as a diffuse sheet with round, hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells had scant cytoplasm, and the biopsy findings indicated small round cell tumor (SRCT. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells to be positive for HMB45, S100, and Melan-A but negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary CCS of the pubic bone resembling SRCT. This ambiguous appearance underscores the difficulties encountered during the histological diagnosis of this rare variant of CCS. Conclusion Awareness of primary CCS of the bone is clinically important for accurate diagnosis and management when the tumor is located in unusual locations such as the pubic bone and when the translocation t(12; 22(q13; q12 is absent.

  17. Identification and characterization of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid in fig (Ficus carica L.) by next generation sequencing of small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, M; Torchetti, E M; Di Serio, F; Minafra, A

    2014-08-01

    Viroids are small (246-401 nt) circular and non coding RNAs infecting higher plants. They are targeted by host Dicer-like enzymes (DCLs) that generate small RNAs of 21-24 nt (sRNAs), which are involved in the host RNA silencing pathways. The accumulation in plant tissues of such viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is a clear sign of an ongoing viroid infection. In this study, next generation sequencing of a sRNAs library and assembling of the sequenced vd-sRNAs were instrumental for the identification of a viroid resembling apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) in a fig accession. After confirming by molecular methods the presence of this viroid in the fig tree, its population was characterized, showing that the ADFVd master sequence from fig diverges from that of the ADFVd reference variant from apple. Moreover, since this viroid accumulates at a low level in fig, a semi-nested RT-PCR assay was developed for detecting it in other fig accessions. ADFVd seems to have a wider host range than thought before and this poses questions about its epidemiology. A further characterization of ADFVd-sRNAs showed similar accumulation of (+) or (-) vd-sRNAs that mapped on the viroid genome generating hotspot profiles. Moreover, similarly to other nuclear-replicating viroids, vd-sRNAs of 21, 22 and 24 nt in size prevailed in the distribution profiles. Altogether, these data support the involvement of double-stranded RNAs and different DCLs, targeting the same restricted viroid regions, in the genesis of ADFVd-sRNAs. PMID:24704673

  18. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ? 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ? Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ? Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP. ? The release of AIF and Endo G contributes importantly to cell death. ? Alterations of SOD1 or SOD2 levels alter menadione-induced neuronal cytotoxicity.

  19. Anaplastic astroblastoma: a rare glial tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Navabii, Hossein; Mehrabaniyan, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Astroblastoma is a rarely diagnosed primary brain neoplasm whose histogenesis has been clarified recently. It occurs in children and young adults and presents as a well-circumscribed, contrast enhancing lesion in the cerebral hemisphere. Here the authors present a case of 25-year-old woman with an astroblastoma in the left frontal convexity that was excised. The characteristic radiological and histopathological features of this case are described. An astroblastoma should be included in the differential of a localised brain tumour, especially in a young patient. PMID:22679316

  20. Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso / Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosilene C., Soares; Andréa F., Soares; Lélia B., Souza; Aldo L. V. dos, Santos; Leão P., Pinto.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológico [...] s como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva. Abstract in english Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects [...] , as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

  1. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer : 5th International Workshop on Breast Densitometry and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment, San Francisco, United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were ascertained in S2. Finally S2 was MTR scored based on textures from S1 and S2 in a leave-two-out fashion. Scores on S2 were related to future breast cancer incidence by AUC and analyses of quartiles adjusted for BMI, menopause status, and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use. A combined density and MTR model was also evaluated. RESULTS The MTR scores on S1 showed in a cross validation fashion significant capability to separate cancers from controls (AUC=0.63±0.02, p<0.001). This persisted after adjustment for mammographic density. Age of S1 was 58.0±5.7 years while age in S2 was younger with higher variation: 55.2±10.5 years. No significant difference in BMI, menopause status, or PMH was found between cases and matched controls in S2. S2 showed an AUC of 0.633, 0.613, and 0.600 based on respectively percentage density, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1 respectively. Adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed OR in quartiles of ref; 1.10 (0.64-1.89); 0.93 (0.52-1.68); 1.96 (1.19-3.23) respectively and a combined AUC of 0.654. CONCLUSION The heterogeneities that are recorded to characterize breast cancer risk in S1 were also a density independent risk factor in S2. Hence the textural patterns that indicated elevated risk persisted under differences in x-ray technology, population demographics, follow up time, and geography.

  2. Osteossarcoma de mandíbula inicialmente mimetizando lesão do periápice dental: relato de caso Osteosarcoma of mandible initially resembling lesion of dental periapex: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene C. Soares

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteossarcoma é um tumor mesenquimal maligno, no qual as células cancerosas produzem matriz óssea. É o tumor maligno primário mais comum do osso, responsável por aproximadamente 20% dos sarcomas, sendo que 5% destes ocorrem nos maxilares. Possuem variados aspectos não só clínicos e histopatológicos como também no curso e prognóstico. Este artigo apresenta um relato de caso de paciente do sexo feminino, com 20 anos de idade, que nos foi encaminhada apresentando aumento de volume na região de pré-molar inferior esquerdo. Após diagnóstico clínico de lesão do periápice dental, a paciente foi submetida previamente a tratamento endodôntico do dente envolvido, a partir do qual, em um período de 11 dias, pode-se observar um considerável aumento da lesão provocando visível assimetria facial. A radiografia oclusal mostrava imagem compatível com área de destruição óssea e formação de osso anormal na região, com cortical externa exibindo evidente radiopacidade semelhante a raios de sol, sugerindo o diagnóstico de osteossarcoma. A lesão foi biopsiada e obteve-se o diagnóstico histopatológico de osteossarcoma. A paciente foi então submetida à mandibulectomia parcial e uma reconstrução da área, usando osso de costela e enxerto de pele da nádega, para o revestimento da mucosa oral envolvida. Aos 8 meses após a cirurgia houve recorrência local da lesão e a paciente foi a óbito aproximadamente 1 ano depois da recidiva.Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for approximately 20% of the sarcomas, but only 5% of the osteosarcomas occur in the jaws. They present various clinical and histological aspects, as well as variable disease progression and outcome. This article shows a case report of a 20-year-old woman who presented swelling near the mandibular left premolar. After clinical diagnosis of lesion of the dental periapex, the patient initially underwent endodontic treatment of the tooth involved. Thereafter, in a period of eleven days, a significant increase of the lesion could be observed, resulting in visible facial asymmetry. The occlusal radiographic view showed an area of bone destruction and abnormal bone formation in the region. The external cortical portion showed clear radiopacity resembling sunrays, suggesting the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. The treatment comprised partial mandibulectomy and reconstruction of the area, using bone of the rib and skin graft from the buttock for the oral mucosa involved. Eight months after surgery, there was local recurrence of the lesion and the patient died approximately one year after relapse.

  3. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Denis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6 vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV, a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is unnecessary to invoke a role for insertional mutagenesis, gene activation, viral replication, or expression of other viral gene products in sheep lung tumorigenesis, although these processes may play a role in other clinically less important sequelae of JSRV infection such as metastasis observed with variable frequency in sheep.

  4. Ex-post evaluation by bibliometric method. Institutional comparison among 9 resembled foreign research institutes by using the energy citation database (ECD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a viewpoint of ex-post evaluation, research papers published from nine resembled nuclear research institutes located in Japan, the U.S.A., Germany and France were compared by a bibliometric method. A research database used was the Energy Citation Database (ECD) owned by USDOE. ECD is a database run by USDOE and has a high frequency of research paper acquisition assembled in the U.S. Response speed of ECD on the Website is quick and all logged data can be handled easily. INIS database is run by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and contains a lot of nuclear research papers collected from the member countries such as the U.S.A., Japan, Germany and France. INIS underestimates about 20% of the U.S.A. data than that of ECD. I. Institutional Comparison. (1) ECD shows that a total number of research papers published during 25 years (1978-2002) was of the order of the ORNL (34, 149 papers)>SNL>ANL>BNL>Idaho (>Karlsruhe>JAERI>Jeulich>Cadarache). Where, INIS shows it as ORNL>JAERI. (2) ECD can show a long-term data comparison with a time span more than 50 years (1953-2002). Disclosed research papers were of the order of the ORNL (55,857)>ANL (37,129)>SNL (24,628)>BNL (24,829)> Idaho (2,398). There were many records loaded without publication dates-over 50,000. Because of this, any searches which use dates are not finding these documents. Typically, the author found over 5,000 SNL items in the NSA range of records. SNL also kept a lot of defense reports, those are not disclosed yet. One had better know a historical background of each cite as to the case for long-range dates comparison. (3) ECD founds that research papers at a five-year period varied those numbers. At past (10), thus 1988-1922, paper reduction occurred sharply at most US-institutes. This might be attributed to lay-offs, funding shifts or complete elimination of programs, a policy change in reporting requirements for contract reporting deliverables. Definitions of what constituted STI (science and technology information) were beginning to vary also. II. Comparison at the research field of material science. With time span of 25 years, a comparison was made in the U.S. (1) Actinides; a number of papers disclosed was of the order of ORNL (944 papers) > ANL (927) > SNL (255). The difference is negligible between ORNL and ANL. ORNL was also the champion for the case of INIS. (2) Electromagnetic radiation; this case was of the order of ORNL (1.043 papers) > BNL (673) > SNL (605). ORNL was a champion, too. The activity of radiation application represented by this keyword might be degraded in the U.S. around a year of 1993. For INIS comparison, it was of the order of JAERI > ORNL > BNL. The champion was JAERI. (3) Neutron; it was of the order of ORNL (3,934 papers) > ANL (2718) > BNL (1568). The champion was ORNL > For the case of INIS, it was JAERI > ORNL > BNL. The neutron study in JAERI was most advanced. III. Comparison by CPI. CPI shows that ORNL research activities were beginning to vary from time to time. Covering period from past (20) to past (10), ORNL activity indicated by CPI was high but was low at the present (1998-2002). The tendency coincided with that observed in INIS. (author)

  5. Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses, and osteoclast-rich tumour of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling clear cell sarcoma of soft parts: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosemehmetoglu, Kemal; Folpe, Andrew L

    2010-05-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, distinctive soft tissue neoplasm, typically occurring in the distal extremities of young adult patients. Although CCS shows melanocytic differentiation, it is now clear that it is clinicopathologically and genetically distinct from conventional malignant melanoma. The 'osteoclast-rich tumour of the gastrointestinal tract with features resembling clear cell sarcoma of soft parts' is an extraordinarily rare gastrointestinal neoplasm that shares some features of CCS, but differs from it in other ways. The historical, histopathological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and genetic aspects of these two tumours are reviewed in this article. PMID:20418233

  6. Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Resembling Acute Herpetic Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Markakis; Athanasios Papathanasiou; Ermioni Papageorgiou; Kostantinos Siarkos; Georgios Gkekas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare disorder that typically follows a chronic or subacute course of personality changes, memory loss, seizures, and hallucinations. Early diagnosis is difficult and characteristic symptoms can be mimicked by a variety of conditions. We present a case of PLE, initially presenting as acute herpetic encephalitis. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of acute onset headache, fever, and confusion. On neurolog...

  7. Coronary fistula resembling patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgarbieri Ricardo Nilsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl, presenting with heart failure and a continuous murmur, similar to that of a patent arterial duct, was investigated using echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization revealing a left to right shunt throught a coronary artery fistulae between the first septal branch and the right ventricular outflow tract. The patient was submitted to surgery, occluding the anomalous branch by the suturing of its orifice in the right ventricular outflow tract, under cardiopulmonary bypass. After the operation, cardiac catheterization revealed complete occlusion of the fistula without any residual shunt or compromise to the coronary circulation. In seven years of follow-up the patient is completely free of symptoms.

  8. Does Anorexia Nervosa Resemble an Addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Foltin, Richard W.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by unrelenting self-starvation and life-threatening weight loss. The relentlessness with which individuals with anorexia nervosa pursue starvation and in some cases exercise despite the negative physical, emotional, and social consequences parallels features of addictive disorders. From a clinical perspective, individuals with anorexia nervosa behave similarly to individuals with substance abuse by narrowing their behavioral repe...

  9. Resemblance of Tongue Anatomy in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, Andrew I.; Brand, Joseph G; Buischi, Yvonne; Walter A. BRETZ

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins — six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, ...

  10. Resemblance of tongue anatomy in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Andrew I; Brand, Joseph G; Buischi, Yvonne; Bretz, Walter A

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the anatomical features of the tongue in nine pairs of twins - six monozygotic and three dizygotic. The aim of the project was to determine if tongues, like any other anatomical structure, could be used to reliably predict relatedness given that tongue shape, presentation and surface can be influenced by environment. Using the method of forced choice, 30 subjects were asked to match the photographs of tongues from twins. Our data indicate that, based on visual assessment, monozygotic twins have highly similar tongues (60% matches); similarly, dizygotic twins were matched 31% of the time, which is a higher probability than would be expected from random selection. This study should help identify baseline and control data in future behavioral studies of taste, which has a genetic basis. PMID:21623658

  11. Molecular genetic study of human malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of heterozygosity for loci on chromosome 10 were found in four of 9 (44%) informative cases of malignant gliomas. Deletions on RB1 locus were seen in six of 11 (54%) informative glioblastomas. LOH on chromosome 17p was found in eight of 16 (50%) malignant gliomas, including 2 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma. On the basis of the data presented here, it is possible to associate certain molecular abnormalities with malignant gliomas, LOH on chromosome 10, RB1 gene, and 17p. (Author)

  12. AZD2171 in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Primary CNS Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  13. Analysis of p53 mutation and epidermal growth factor receptor amplification in recurrent gliomas with malignant progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifenberger, J.; Ring, G.U.; Gies, U. [Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet, Duesseldorf (Germany)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Genomic alterations and expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) were investigated in 22 patients with primary World Health Organization (WHO) grade II gliomas that on recurrence had progressed to malignant gliomas of WHO grades III or IV. Mutations of the p53 gene (exons 5 to 8) were found in 12 of 22 primary tumors (10 of 13 astrocytomas, 1 of 7 oligodendrogliomas, 1 of 2 oligoastrocytomas). In each of these cases identical p53 mutations were present in the respective malignant recurrences. In all instances in which the p53 mutation was associated with p53 protein accumulation (10 of 12 cases), the percentage of p53 immunopositive tumor cells had increased from the primary to the recurrent tumor. None of the primary low-grade and none of the recurrent high-grade tumors (7 anaplastic astrocytomas, 10 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and 5 glioblastomas) showed evidence of EGFR gene amplification. Our results thus demonstrate that p53 is mutated in a high fraction of low-grade astrocytomas with progression to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas and that progression in such cases is frequently associated with an increase in the fraction of p53 immunopositive tumor cells. The general absence of EGFR amplification in our tumor series supports the hypothesis that the significance of p53 mutation and EGFR amplification may be different in glioblastomas that developed by progression from low-grade astrocytomas (secondary glioblastomas) compared to glioblastomas that developed rapidly in a de novo manner without a history of previous low-grade tumor (primary glioblastomas). 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Anaplastic meningioma: case report Meningioma anaplásico: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Asdrubal Falavigna; José Augusto Nasser dos Santos; Leila Chimelli; Fernando Antonio Patriani Ferraz; Antonio de Padua Furquim Bonatelli

    2001-01-01

    Intracranial meningiomas continue to challenge our best clinical efforts to eliminate them once discovered and deemed appropriate for treatment. Malignant meningiomas constitute 10% to 15% of all meningiomas and limited information exists regarding adjuvant treatment. The external whole brain irradiation is recommended. Traditional chemotherapy has proven ineffective; thus, new chemotherapeutic agents and new methods of delivery should be developed. Immunotherapy may be considered for patient...

  15. Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Associated With Breast Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi-Kumar, Shalini; Sanaei, Omid; Vasef, Mohammad; Rabinowitz, Ian; Fekrazad, Mohammad Houman

    2012-01-01

    A forty two years old woman with a history of bilateral breast augmentation for cosmetic reasons was presented for poor healing of the surgical site. Tissue and periprosthetic fluid were removed from the wound site revealing an atypical lymphoid infiltrate. Subsequently the patient developed axillary lymph adenopathy. Excisional biopsy was performed. Flow cytometry was non-diagnostic. She continued to heal poorly and eventually had removal of implant during a simple mastectomy. A nodular area...

  16. Post transplant anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferation that ranges from polyclonal hyperplasia to monoclonal malignant lymphoma. We report a 13-year-old boy who was diagnosed with PTLD in February 2007 after 3 1/2 years of deceased renal transplantation. We treated him with an adapted ACVBP (doxorubicin, cyclo-phosphamide, vincristine, bleomycin and prednisone) regimen. He responded well to the chemotherapy without deterioration of graft function. (author)

  17. Selective activity of BS-RNase against Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 21, ?. 2 (2001), s. 1035-1042. ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA523/01/0114; GA AV ?R KSK5052113 Keywords : thyroid cancer * BS-RNase * apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.416, year: 2001

  18. Intramedullary pilomyxoid astrocytoma with intracerebral metastasis exhibiting oligodendroglioma-like features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Kretzschmar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary glioma are rare and their biological behaviour can differ from their cerebral counterparts. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA, WHO grade II, predominantly occur in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region of infants and children. The few reported cases of pediatric intramedullary PMA displayed a particularly aggressive behavior. Here, we report a diagnostically challenging case of a five year old female patient presenting with intramedullary glioma and local tumor recurrence three years later. Twelve years after the initial manifestation, a second tumor was found intracerebrally. We performed a comprehensive histological, molecular pathological and imaging analysis of the tumors from both localizations. The results revealed a metastasizing PMA with unique histological and genetic features. Our study indicates that PMA comprise a heterogeneous group including aggressive subtypes which may not be compatible with the current classification according to WHO grade II. Furthermore, the case emphasizes the increasing relevance of molecular pathological markers complementing classic histological diagnosis.

  19. Gliomas cerebrales de bajo grado en el adulto

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio César, Suárez; S, Zunino; Juan Carlos, Viano; Enrique, Herrera; R, Theaux; A, Surur; G, Jarchum; M, Lavarda; B, Sonzini Astudillo; M, Arneodo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Bajo esta denominación se incluyen a los astrocitomas fibrilares y protoplasmáticos, a los oligodendrogliomas, y a los oligoastrocitomas o tumores mixtos, que corresponden a los grados II de la nueva clasificación de la OMS . Los astrocitomas de bajo grado representan el 15% de los gliomas [...] hemisféricos cerebrales en el adulto. Los oligodendrogliomas tienen una incidencia del 4% (2,4). Presentamos la experiencia de nuestro grupo de trabajo con este tipo de tumores entre enero de 1972 y diciembre de 2006. Material y método. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 25 pacientes adultos que presentaron esta variedad de tumor, de los cuales 15 eran mujeres y 10 varones, que representan el 15,6% de los gliomas cerebrales en este grupo etario. Resultados. Quince eran astrocitomas fibrilares, ocho oligodendrogliomas y dos oligoastrocitomas. El principal estudio de imagen fue la resonancia nuclear magnética con espectroscopia. El tratamiento dependió de la ubicación y del volumen tumoral, siendo la cirugía y la radioterapia las modalidades terapéuticas mas empleadas. El tumor recidivó en 16 enfermos, con una media de 37 ± 21 meses después del diagnóstico, cuyas histopatologías mostraron ser: astrocitomas anaplásicos en 7 y glioblastomas multiformes en 9. Han fallecido 16 enfermos, 14 por el tumor cerebral, uno por cáncer de lengua y otro por embolia pulmonar producida a los 10 días de la cirugía, con una mediana de sobrevida de 44 meses (10 días a 120 meses). De los 9 pacientes que viven, 7 tienen oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocitomas, y uno tiene un oligoastrocitoma; 7 requieren medicación antiepilética, ninguno tiene secuelas neurológicas, con una mediana de sobrevida de 36 meses (6 a 120 meses); dos han tenido recidiva, correspondientes a un oligodendroglioma y a un oligoastrocitoma, a los 22 y 60 meses respectivamente del diagnóstico, en los dos casos el tumor pasó de ser un grado II a grado III. Conclusión. La frecuencia relativa del 15,6% de todos los gliomas del adulto en nuestra serie coincide con cifras internacionales. Edad menor de 40 años, convulsiones como síntoma de presentación y extensión de la resección quirúrgica son factores pronósticos favorables de importancia, junto con un bajo índice del Ki 67 en los astrocitomas y la presencia de alteraciones en los cromosomas 1p y 19q en los oligodendrogliomas. La IRM en sus variedades estándar, con gadolinio, espectroscopia y funcional es el estudio más útil durante las diferentes alternativas del proceso diagnóstico y los estudios inmunohistoquímicos juntos con los de biología molecular son los mas importantes para el pronóstico de estos tumores. Abstract in english Objective. Gliomas reviewed in this article are grade II tumors according to the World Health Organization (WHO), that include: fibrillary and protoplasmic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas or mix tumors (1,2,3).Low grade astrocytomas constitute 15% of brain tumors in adults, wh [...] ile low grade oligodendrogliomas represent 4% (2,4). We present our experience with this type of tumor operated on between January 1972 and December 2006. Material and Method. The clinical reports of 25 patients with this type of tumor were analyzed, 15 women and 10 men, which represent 15,6% of hemispheric brain gliomas in adults in our series. Results. Fifteen were fibrillary astrocytomas, 8 oligodendrogliomas and 2 oligoastrocytomas. Treatment depended on tumor localization and size. Surgery and radiotherapy were the therapeutic modalities most frequently used. Tumor recurrence was observed in 16 patients, with a media of 37+/- 21 months after diagnosis: 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and 9 glioblastomas multiforme. In this series, 16 patients died with a median of 44 months (10 days to 120 months) after diagnosis. Cause of death were: tumor itself, in 14 cases, tongue cancer in 1, and pulmonary embolism after surgery in another. From the 9 surviving patients, 6 have oligodendrogliomas, 2 astrocytomas and 1 an oligoastrocytoma. Seven pa

  20. Irradiation of Pediatric High-Grade Spinal Cord Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the outcome using radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric patients with high-grade spinal cord tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted that included 17 children with high-grade spinal cord tumors treated with RT at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1981 and 2007. Three patients had gross total resection, 11 had subtotal resection, and 3 underwent biopsy. The tumor diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (n = 7), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 2). Seven patients received craniospinal irradiation (34.2-48.6 Gy). The median dose to the primary site was 52.2 Gy (range, 38-66 Gy). Results: The median progression-free and overall survivals were 10.8 and 13.8 months, respectively. Local tumor progression at 12 months (79% vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and median survival (13.1 vs. 27.2 months, p = 0.09) were worse for patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. The median overall survival was shorter for patients when failure included neuraxis dissemination (n = 8) compared with local failure alone (n = 5), 9.6 vs. 13.8 months, p = 0.08. Three long-term survivors with World Health Organization Grade III tumors were alive with follow-up, ranging from 88-239 months. Conclusions: High-grade spinal cord primary tumors in children have a poor prognosis. The propensity for neuraxis metastases as a component of progression after RT suggests the need for more aggressive therapy.

  1. Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in WHO grade III glioma patients treated with radiotherapy or radiotherapy plus chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the hierarchical risk groups for the estimated survival of WHO grade III glioma patients using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the results of RPA specifically for WHO grade III gliomas. A total of 133 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, n = 56), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO, n = 67), or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA, n = 10) were included in the study. These patients were treated with either radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy followed by PCV chemotherapy after surgery. Five prognostic factors, including histological subsets, age, performance status, extent of resection, and treatment modality were incorporated into the RPA. The final nodes of RPA were grouped according to their survival times, and the Kaplan-Meier graphs are presented as the final set of prognostic groups. Four risk groups were defined based on the clinical prognostic factors excluding age, and split variables were all incorporated into the RPA. Survival analysis showed significant differences in mean survival between the different groups: 163.4 months (95% CI: 144.9-182.0), 109.5 months (86.7-132.4), 66.6 months (50.8-82.4), and 27.7 months (16.3-39.0), respectively, from the lowest to the highest risk group (p = 0.00). The present study shows that RPA grouping with clinical prognostic factors can successfully predict the survival of patients with WHO grade III glioma

  2. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte L

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands by affinity chromatography. Subsequent sequencing identified the protein as TC. Further characterization in terms of glycosylation status and binding specificity to the Cbl-analogue cobinamide revealed that mouse TC does not bind Concanavalin A sepharose (like human TC), but is capable of binding cobinamide (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary glandand in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also in the kidney. By precipitation to insolubilised antibodies against mouse TC, we also showed that >97% of the Cbl-binding capacity and >98% of the Cbl were precipitated in serum. This indicates that TC is the only Cbl-binding protein in the mouse circulation. Our data show that TC but not HC is present in the mouse. Mouse TC is observed in tissues where humans express TC and/or HC. Mouse TC has features in common with both human TC and HC. Our results suggest that the Cbl-binding proteins present in the circulation and exocrine glands may vary amongst species.

  3. Leukemia cutis resembling a flare-up of psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, M.; Caetano, M.; Amorim, I.; Selores, M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Leukemia cutis represents a skin infiltration by leukemic cells. Clinically it can mimic a wide variety of dermatoses. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with psoriasis who presented with a 4-day history of erythematous, slightly scaly, asymptomatic plaques distributed on the trunk and upper-extremities, and associated asthenia, myalgias, and anorexia. A skin biopsy revealed a leukemic infiltrate. Studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow provided a diagnosis of acute mon...

  4. HD 98618: A Star Closely Resembling our Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, J; Robles, J A; Dodds-Eden, Katie; Melendez, Jorge; Observatory, RSAA/Mt Stromlo

    2006-01-01

    Despite the observational effort carried out in the last few decades, no perfect solar twin has been found to date. An important milestone was achieved a decade ago by Porto de Mello & da Silva, who showed that 18 Sco is almost a solar twin. In the present work, we use extremely high resolution (R = 10^5) high S/N Keck HIRES spectra to carry out a differential analysis of sixteen solar twin candidates. We show that HD 98618 is the second closest solar twin, and that the fundamental parameters of both HD 98618 and 18 Sco are very similar (within a few percent) to the host star of our solar system, including the likelihood of hosting a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone. We suggest that these stars should be given top priority in exoplanet and SETI surveys.

  5. Reason, Education, and Liberalism: Family Resemblance within an Overlapping Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses recent debates concerning the nature of liberalism and its central feature of reason. Examines ideas from Jonathan, Hirst, Rawls, Gadamer, Wittgenstein, Taylor, and Ackerman. Suggests that the search for transcendental conceptions of justice and reason must be abandoned in favor of a more fluid curriculum structure. (Contains 18…

  6. Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Sutak, J; Lazic, D.; Cullimore, J E

    2005-01-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcomas account for 0.25% of all uterine malignancies. These tumours were originally divided into low grade and high grade stromal sarcomas, but the recent World Health Organisation classification (2003) recognises low grade stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. Low grade sarcomas may exhibit other forms of differentiation, including smooth muscle and sex cord differentiation. In the latter form, the tumour contains epithelial-like or sex cord-like ele...

  7. Predator-Resembling Aversive Conditioning for Managing Habituated Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair; Elsabé Louise Kloppers; Thomas Eric Hurd

    2005-01-01

    Wildlife habituation near urban centers can disrupt natural ecological processes, destroy habitat, and threaten public safety. Consequently, management of habituated animals is typically invasive and often includes translocation of these animals to remote areas and sometimes even their destruction. Techniques to prevent or reverse habituation and other forms of in situ management are necessary to balance ecological and social requirements, but they have received very little experimental atten...

  8. Neurotized Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Resembling a Pigmented Neurofibroma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  9. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma. PMID:25657396

  10. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  11. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  12. Laing distal myopathy pathologically resembling inclusion body myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Roda, Ricardo H.; Schindler, Alice B.; Blackstone, Craig; MAMMEN, ANDREW L.; Corse, Andrea M; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in MYH7 cause autosomal dominant Laing distal myopathy. We present a family with a previously reported deletion (c.5186_5188delAGA, p.K1729del). Muscle pathology in one family member was characterized by an inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, increased MHC Class I expression, and perivascular and endomysial muscle inflammation comprising CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD68+ inflammatory cells. Interestingly, this biopsy specimen contained TDP-43, p62, and SMI-31-positive protein aggr...

  13. Laing distal myopathy pathologically resembling inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Ricardo H; Schindler, Alice B; Blackstone, Craig; Mammen, Andrew L; Corse, Andrea M; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in MYH7 cause autosomal dominant Laing distal myopathy. We present a family with a previously reported deletion (c.5186_5188delAGA, p.K1729del). Muscle pathology in one family member was characterized by an inflammatory myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, increased MHC Class I expression, and perivascular and endomysial muscle inflammation comprising CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD68(+) inflammatory cells. Interestingly, this biopsy specimen contained TDP-43, p62, and SMI-31-positive protein aggregates typical of inclusion body myositis. These findings should alert physicians to the possibility that patients with MYH7 mutations may have muscle biopsies showing pathologic findings similar to inclusion body myositis. PMID:25574480

  14. Antitumor activity of 9-deazapurines resembling to myoseverin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otmar, Miroslav; Kre?merová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 156, Suppl. 1 (2012), S69-S69. ISSN 1213-8118. [International Congress Natural Anticancer Drugs. 30.06.2012-04.07.2012, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antitumor * 9-deazapurines * myoseverin analog Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  16. A sacral lesion resembling osteochondrosis in the German Shepherd dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 30% (21 of 65) of German Shepherd dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression had radiographic and pathologic abnormalities compatible with osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate. Most of these dogs had a defect in the dorsal part of the sacral endplate and a detached bone fragment in the vertebral canal. Similar lesions were also found in growing and young adult dogs without clinical signs. The dogs with clinical signs of cauda equina compression also had severe degenerative disc disease with protrusion of the lumbosacral disc and compression of the cauda equina, suggesting that the signs of cauda equina compression more likely were related to the secondary degenerative changes (disc protrusions) rather than the primary disease. Clinically normal German Shepherds with sacral osteochondrosis usually were younger than 18 months, the dogs with cauda equina compression and sacral osteochondrosis older than 18 months (mean age 4.8 years). On the average, these dogs were two years younger as compared to dogs with cauda equina compression without sacral osteochondrosis. Male dogs are more often affected than females (5:1). There is a breed predisposition: in dogs other than German Shepherds, osteochondrosis of the sacral endplate seems to be extremely rare

  17. Congenital bladder diverticulum with benign bladder wall lesion resembling rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    David K-C Mak; Ruth Wragg; Eva Macharia; Karan Parashar

    2010-01-01

    Congenital bladder diverticula in children are uncommon and rarely present with bladder outlet obstruction. We present a case highlighting an interesting association between a congenital bladder diverticulum and a benign inflammatory bladder wall lesion mimicking a rhabdomyosarcoma. Open surgery was required as different imaging modalities and cystoscopy were insufficient to exclude a malignant process.

  18. Mucormycotic hepatic lesions resembling bacillary hemoglobinuria infarcts in irradiated calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To produce hematopoietic chimeras, 3 young, healthy calves were exposed to whole-body irradiation and, 6 days after irradiation, were injected with a bone-marrow suspension prepared from an unrelated, normal donor calf. Antibiotics were administered daily to control bacterial infection. One calf died 8 days postirradiation (PI), another died 10 days PI, and the third calf was killed in extremis 11 days PI. In addition to lesions of acute radiation injury, one to several spherical, firm, dry, reddish-black nodules were found in the liver of each calf. Hepatic changes and blood-stained urine were suggestive of bacillary hemoglobinuria. Fungi, identified by their morphologic features as members of the class Phycomycetes, were widely distributed in the tissues and lesions

  19. MRI reveals reversible lesions resembling posterior reversible encephalopathy in porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, M. [Huesrev Gerede c, 128/4 Tesvikiye, 80690 Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Neurology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey); Forta, H.; Babacan, G. [Department of Neurology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey); Dalkilic, Tuerker [Department of Neurosurgery, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Sisli Etfal S., Sisli, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a 20-year-old woman who had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria with seizures, hallucinations, autonomic and somatic neuropathy. T2-weighted MRI revealed multiple lesions which were no longer visible 3 months later. We suggest a similar mechanism to posterior reversible encephalopathy underlying cerebral symptoms in porphyria. (orig.)

  20. MRI reveals reversible lesions resembling posterior reversible encephalopathy in porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 20-year-old woman who had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria with seizures, hallucinations, autonomic and somatic neuropathy. T2-weighted MRI revealed multiple lesions which were no longer visible 3 months later. We suggest a similar mechanism to posterior reversible encephalopathy underlying cerebral symptoms in porphyria. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. A prospective pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiation between brain tumor recurrence and post-irradiation injury remains an imaging challenge. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot always distinguish between the two. Although glioma cell line studies substantiated a plausible imaging superiority of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) over other radiopharmaceuticals, little has been reported on its in vivo imaging properties. We assessed 99mTc-TF single-photon emission CT (SPECT) in cases where morphologic brain imaging was inconclusive between recurrence and radionecrosis. A total of 11 patients (7 men, 4 women) were evaluated. The initial diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (4), anaplastic astrocytoma (1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (3), grade-II astrocytoma (2), and low-grade oligodendroglioma (1). All patients had been operated on and then received adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy. After a mean follow-up period of 25 months, there was clinical suspicion of recurrence, for which 99mTc-TF SPECT was performed. In 8/11 cases, an abnormally increased tracer uptake appeared in the region that CT and/or MRI indicated as suspicious; in half of these cases, recurrence was confirmed histologically after surgery and in the other four by growth of the lesion over a 6-month follow-up period, and clinical deterioration. The remaining 3/11 patients had faint tracer uptake in the suspicious region, compatible with radiation injury; these lesions remained morphologically unaltered in a mean 12-month follow-up period, with no clinical deterioration in the patient's condition, a course strongly favoring the diagnosis of radiation injury. Metabolic brain imaging by 99mTc-TF could offer useful information in the workup of treated brain tumors, where radiomorphologic findings between recurrence and radionecrosis are inconclusive. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced brain injury: retrospective analysis of twelve pathologically proven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to determine the influencing factors and clinical course of pathologically proven cases of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI). The pathologic records of twelve patients were reviewed; these patients underwent surgery following radiotherapy due to disease progression found by follow-up imaging. However, they were finally diagnosed with RIBI. All patients had been treated with 3-dimensional conventional fractionated radiotherapy and/or radiosurgery for primary or metastatic brain tumors with or without chemotherapy. The histological distribution was as follows: two falx meningioma, six glioblastoma multiform (GBM), two anaplastic oligodendroglioma, one low grade oligodendroglioma, and one small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis. Radiation necrosis was noted in eight patients and the remaining four were diagnosed with radiation change. Gender (p 0.061) and biologically equivalent dose (BED)3 (p = 0.084) were the only marginally influencing factors of radiation necrosis. Median time to RIBI was 7.3 months (range, 0.5 to 61 months). Three prolonged survivors with GBM were observed. In the subgroup analysis of high grade gliomas, RIBI that developed <6 months after radiotherapy was associated with inferior overall survival rates compared to cases of RIBI that occurred ?6 months (p = 0.085). Our study demonstrated that RIBI could occur in early periods after conventional fractionated brain radiotherapy within normal tolerable dose ranges. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to identify the strong influencing factors for RIBI development

  3. Isla de Pascua e Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: semejanzas y diferencias en los vínculos de las compañías explotadoras y los "indígenas" / Easter Island and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: resemblances and differences in the links of the exploitative societies and the "indigenous people"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ROLF, FOERSTER.

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que las diferencias y semejanzas acaecidas a Rapanui y Selk’nam en sus relaciones con las "compañías o sociedades explotadoras" y el Estado de Chile, en el contexto de los fujos de personas y de capitales en los procesos de colonización en el contexto del imperialismo, permite [...] n una mejor comprensión de los factores detonantes de sus destinos como pueblos. La hipótesis central es que la doble convergencia -de colonos y de capital- en Tierra del Fuego hace superfuo a los Selk’nam (de allí la discrepancia y la controversia sobre su destino), mientras que en Pascua sólo el capital fuyó con lo cual la población autóctona debió ser transformada en funcional, en "colonos" y en "mano de obra". Se explora entonces las respuestas de las sociedades originarias a esta realidad. Abstract in english This article supports the idea that the differences and resemblances between Rapanui and Selk’nam in its relations with the "companies or exploitative societies" and the State of Chile, in the context of the flow of persons and of capitals in the colonization process in the context of imperialism, a [...] llow a better comprehension of the detonator factors of its destinations as peoples. The central hypothesis is that the double convergence -of colonists and capital- in Tierra del Fuego does superfuously to the Selk’nam (there is the discrepancy and the controversy on its destination), while in Easter Island only the capital few with which the indigenous population must be transformed in functional, in "colonists" and in "manpower". We explore then the answers of the native societies to this reality.

  4. Isla de Pascua e Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: semejanzas y diferencias en los vínculos de las compañías explotadoras y los "indígenas" Easter Island and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego: resemblances and differences in the links of the exploitative societies and the "indigenous people"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLF FOERSTER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sostiene que las diferencias y semejanzas acaecidas a Rapanui y Selk’nam en sus relaciones con las "compañías o sociedades explotadoras" y el Estado de Chile, en el contexto de los fujos de personas y de capitales en los procesos de colonización en el contexto del imperialismo, permiten una mejor comprensión de los factores detonantes de sus destinos como pueblos. La hipótesis central es que la doble convergencia -de colonos y de capital- en Tierra del Fuego hace superfuo a los Selk’nam (de allí la discrepancia y la controversia sobre su destino, mientras que en Pascua sólo el capital fuyó con lo cual la población autóctona debió ser transformada en funcional, en "colonos" y en "mano de obra". Se explora entonces las respuestas de las sociedades originarias a esta realidad.This article supports the idea that the differences and resemblances between Rapanui and Selk’nam in its relations with the "companies or exploitative societies" and the State of Chile, in the context of the flow of persons and of capitals in the colonization process in the context of imperialism, allow a better comprehension of the detonator factors of its destinations as peoples. The central hypothesis is that the double convergence -of colonists and capital- in Tierra del Fuego does superfuously to the Selk’nam (there is the discrepancy and the controversy on its destination, while in Easter Island only the capital few with which the indigenous population must be transformed in functional, in "colonists" and in "manpower". We explore then the answers of the native societies to this reality.

  5. Clinical Relevance of Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Therefore, molecular markers have become an integral part of tumor assessment in modern neuro-oncology and biomarker status now guides clinical decisions in some subtypes of gliomas. The routine assessment of IDH status improves histological diagnostic accuracy by differentiating diffuse glioma from reactive gliosis. It carries a favorable prognostic implication for all glial tumors and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with codeletion of 1p/19q chromosomes. Glial tumors that contain chromosomal codeletion of 1p/19q are defined as tumors of oligodendroglial lineage and have favorable prognosis. MGMT promoter methylation is a favorable prognostic marker in astrocytic high-grade gliomas and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic gliomas with wild-type IDH1/2 and in glioblastoma of the elderly. The clinical implication of other molecular markers of gliomas like mutations of EGFR and ATRX genes and BRAF fusion or point mutation is highlighted. The potential of molecular biomarker-based classification to guide future therapeutic approach is discussed and accentuated. PMID:26508407

  6. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sinning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors. Neo-angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and resistance to therapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample could be a useful way to obtain pro-angiogenic predictive or prognostic markers at different stages of the disease. As a first step we looked for pro-angiogenic activity in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas. We performed the chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay to study the angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, obtained either by lumbar puncture (LP or craniotomy from six patients with high-grade brain tumors (three glioblastoma (WHO grade IV, one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III, two anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO grade III, and four healthy controls. Significantly increased neo-angiogenesis was observed on the surface of the growing CAM in the 6 patients with high-grade gliomas compared to controls (3.69 ± 1.23 versus 2.16 ± 0.97 capillaries per area (mean ± SD, p<0.005. There was no statistical difference related to the hystological grade of the tumor (WHO grade III or IV, previous treatment (radio-chemotherapy plus temozolomide, temozolomide alone or no treatment, or the site of CSF sample (surgery or lumbar puncture. Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic potential in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas.

  7. Amplification and overexpression of the MDM4 (MDMX) gene from 1q32 in a subset of malignant gliomas without TP53 mutation or MDM2 amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, M J; Büschges, R; Wolter, M; Reifenberger, J; Boström, J; Kraus, J A; Schlegel, U; Reifenberger, G

    1999-12-15

    We have previously reported on the amplification and overexpression of the MDM2 proto-oncogene in a subset of malignant gliomas without TP53 mutation (G. Reifenberger et al, Cancer Res., 53: 2736-2739, 1993). Here, we show that the MDM4 (MDMX) gene located on 1q32 is a further target for amplification in malignant gliomas. MDM4 codes for a Mdm2-related protein that can bind to p53 and inhibits p53-mediated transcriptional transactivation. We investigated a series of 208 gliomas (106 glioblastomas, 46 anaplastic gliomas, and 56 low-grade gliomas) and identified 5 tumors (4 glioblastomas and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma) with MDM4 amplification and overexpression. Several other genes from 1q32 were found to be coamplified with MDM4, such as GAC1 in five tumors, REN in four tumors, and RBBP5 in three tumors. Additional analyses revealed that the malignant gliomas with MDM4 amplification and overexpression carried neither mutations in conserved regions of the TP53 gene nor amplification of the MDM2 gene. Taken together, our data indicate that amplification and overexpression of MDM4 is a novel molecular mechanism by which a small fraction of human malignant gliomas escapes p53-dependent growth control. PMID:10626796

  8. Immunohistochemical profiles of IDH1, MGMT and P53: practical significance for prognostication of patients with diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Ryosuke; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Natsumeda, Manabu; Isogawa, Mizuho; Aoki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Seiichi; Okamoto, Kouichiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Genetic and epigenetic status, including mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and TP53 and methylation of O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), are associated with the development of various types of glioma and are useful for prognostication. Here, using routinely available histology sections from 312 patients with diffuse gliomas, we performed immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for IDH1 mutation, MGMT methylation status, and aberrant p53 expression to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of these features. With regard to overall survival (OS), univariate analysis indicated that an IDH1-positive profile in patients with glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, or a MGMT-negative profile in patients with GBM and AA were significantly associated with a favorable outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that both profiles were independent factors influencing prognosis. The OS of patients with IDH1-positive/MGMT-negative profiles was significantly longer than that of patients with negative/negative and negative/positive profiles. A p53 profile was not an independent prognostic factor. However, for GBM/AA patients with IDH1-negative/MGMT-negative profiles, p53 overexpression was significantly associated with an unfavorable outcome. Thus, the immunohistochemical profiles of IDH1 and MGMT are of considerable significance in gliomas, and a combination of IDH1, MGMT and p53 profiles may be useful for prognostication of GBM/AA. PMID:25950388

  9. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana, Sinning; René, Letelier; Carlos, Rosas; Marcela, Fuenzalida; David, Lemus.

    Full Text Available High-grade gliomas are highly vascularized tumors. Neo-angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and resistance to therapy. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample could be a useful way to obtain pro-angiogenic predictive or prognostic markers at different stages of the disease. As a first step we lo [...] oked for pro-angiogenic activity in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas. We performed the chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) assay to study the angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), obtained either by lumbar puncture (LP) or craniotomy from six patients with high-grade brain tumors (three glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), one anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO grade III), two anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO grade III)), and four healthy controls. Significantly increased neo-angiogenesis was observed on the surface of the growing CAM in the 6 patients with high-grade gliomas compared to controls (3.69 ± 1.23 versus 2.16 ± 0.97 capillaries per area (mean ± SD), p

  10. Prognostic value of volume-based measurements on {sup 11}C-methionine PET in glioma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kentaro; Manabe, Osamu; Shiga, Tohru; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hirata, Kenji [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Hattori, Naoya [Hokkaido University, Department of Molecular Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Tanaka, Shinya [Hokkaido University, Department of Cancer Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET is an established diagnostic tool for glioma. Studies have suggested that MET uptake intensity in the tumor is a useful index for predicting patient outcome. Because MET uptake is known to reflect tumor expansion more accurately than MRI, we aimed to elucidate the association between volume-based tumor measurements and patient prognosis. The study population comprised 52 patients with newly diagnosed glioma who underwent PET scanning 20 min after injection of 370 MBq MET. The tumor was contoured using a threshold of 1.3 times the activity of the contralateral normal cortex. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined as the total volume within the boundary. Total lesion methionine uptake (TLMU) was defined as MTV times the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) within the boundary. The tumor-to-normal ratio (TNR), calculated as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) divided by the contralateral reference value, was also recorded. All patients underwent surgery (biopsy or tumor resection) targeting the tissue with high MET uptake. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the predictive value of each measurement. Grade II tumor was diagnosed in 12 patients (3 diffuse astrocytoma, 2 oligodendroglioma, and 7 oligoastrocytoma), grade III in 18 patients (8 anaplastic astrocytoma, 6 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 4 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma), and grade IV in 22 patients (all glioblastoma). TNR, MTV and TLMU were 3.1 ± 1.2, 51.6 ± 49.9 ml and 147.7 ± 153.3 ml, respectively. None of the three measurements was able to categorize the glioma patients in terms of survival when all patients were analyzed. However, when only patients with astrocytic tumor (N = 33) were analyzed (i.e., when those with oligodendroglial components were excluded), MTV and TLMU successfully predicted patient outcome with higher values associated with a poorer prognosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), while the predictive ability of TNR did not reach statistical significance (P = NS). MTV and TLMU may be useful for predicting outcome in patients with astrocytic tumor. (orig.)

  11. Induction of CD8+ T-Cell Responses Against Novel Glioma–Associated Antigen Peptides and Clinical Activity by Vaccinations With ?-Type 1 Polarized Dendritic Cells and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid Stabilized by Lysine and Carboxymethylcellulose in Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hideho; Kalinski, Pawel; Ueda, Ryo; Hoji, Aki; Kohanbash, Gary; Donegan, Teresa E.; Mintz, Arlan H.; Engh, Johnathan A.; Bartlett, David L.; Brown, Charles K.; Zeh, Herbert; Holtzman, Matthew P.; Reinhart, Todd A.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Potter, Douglas M.; Pollack, Ian F.; Salazar, Andres M.; Lieberman, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A phase I/II trial was performed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a novel vaccination with ?-type 1 polarized dendritic cells (?DC1) loaded with synthetic peptides for glioma-associated antigen (GAA) epitopes and administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) in HLA-A2+ patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. GAAs for these peptides are EphA2, interleukin (IL)-13 receptor-?2, YKL-40, and gp100. Patients and Methods Twenty-two patients (13 with glioblastoma multiforme [GBM], five with anaplastic astrocytoma [AA], three with anaplastic oligodendroglioma [AO], and one with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma [AOA]) received at least one vaccination, and 19 patients received at least four vaccinations at two ?DC1 dose levels (1 × or 3 × 107/dose) at 2-week intervals intranodally. Patients also received twice weekly intramuscular injections of 20 ?g/kg poly-ICLC. Patients who demonstrated positive radiologic response or stable disease without major adverse events were allowed to receive booster vaccines. T-lymphocyte responses against GAA epitopes were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and HLA-tetramer assays. Results The regimen was well-tolerated. The first four vaccines induced positive immune responses against at least one of the vaccination-targeted GAAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 58% of patients. Peripheral blood samples demonstrated significant upregulation of type 1 cytokines and chemokines, including interferon-? and CXCL10. Nine (four GBM, two AA, two AO, and one AOA) achieved progression-free status lasting at least 12 months. One patient with recurrent GBM demonstrated sustained complete response. IL-12 production levels by ?DC1 positively correlated with time to progression. Conclusion These data support safety, immunogenicity, and preliminary clinical activity of poly-ICLC-boosted ?DC1-based vaccines. PMID:21149657

  12. Extreme neutrophil granulocytosis in a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Frederik Neess; Møller, Michael Boe; Hasselbalch, Hans K; Mahdi, Bassam; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 47-year-old male admitted with fever and extreme neutrophil granulocytosis (up to 80 x 10(9)/L). All microbiology tests and test for autoimmune disease were negative. CT scan showed pulmonary infiltrates bilaterally, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Conventional pathological examination of bone marrow and lymph node biopsies did not demonstrate malignant cells and inflammatory disease was suspected. The patient died of multiorgan failure 23 days after admission. Autops...

  13. Transformación anaplásica tardía de bocio multinodular Late anaplastic transformation Of multinodular goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Martínez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Cáncer tiroideo se caracteriza por su baja incidencia, comportamiento maligno infrecuente y baja mortalidad. La mayoría de ellos procede de bocios multinodulares de larga duración por lo que es muy importante tener en cuenta factores que constituyen riesgos potenciales como: tiempo de establecimiento de la enfermedad, tamaño, así como las características particulares personales y la evolución de la entidad en cada caso. Si tenemos en cuenta el gran avance tecnológico que constituye la Biopsia Aspirativa con Aguja Fina (BAAF, que nos permite no solamente evitar su transformación neoplásica maligna, sino que también podemos prolongar la vida con la calidad que humanamente se requiere que es en definitiva la meta principal de la Salud Pública Cubana. Objetivo: destacar la importancia del adecuado seguimiento evolutivo del Bocio multinodular como elemento significativo en la prevención de su transformación maligna. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina de 80 años de edad con aumento de volumen de la región anterior del cuello y antecedentes patológicos personales de Bocio Multinodular (BMN con tratamiento inconstante e irregular de años de evolución, quien no solamente pudo haber mejorado la calidad de su vida sino que no la hubiera truncado, considerando las condiciones atenuantes en la forma de presentación que tuvo su caso. Al examen físico: Aumento de la región anterior del cuello, palpándose masa de superficie irregular, consistencia firme, dolorosa, de aproximadamente 6x5 cm que había aumentado considerablemente en los últimos meses sin fecha precisada. La paciente fue ingresada por el gran agobio respiratorio y la toma del estado general, pudiéndose realizar únicamente la Biopsia Aspirativa con Aguja Fina (BAAF. Desde su ingreso presenta evolución tórpida con incremento del compromiso respiratorio requiriendo la práctica de la traqueotomía que sólo ayuda como medida de soporte al estadio terminal de esta enfermedad neoplásica maligna. (Carcinoma Anaplásico del Tiroides. A pesar de ello la paciente fallece y los familiares autorizan la necropsia. Conclusiones: los BMN deben tener seguimiento evolutivo que permita precisar una tiroidectomía a tiempo como prevención en enfermedades benignas del Tiroides, por los cambios malignos que pueden producirse cuando la glándula es irradiada. La tiroidectomía a tiempo permite evitar no solamente la transformación maligna que puede producirse, sino también previene las metástasis que ocurren en los Carcinoma Anaplásicos.Introduction: the thyroid carcinoma is characterized by low incidence, low malignant behaviour as well as low mortality. The most of they are developed from multinodular goitres of long duration so is important to be into account the risk factors such as: time of the establishment of the disease, size and the particular and personal characterists and the evolution of the each case. If we take into account the great technological advance of the BAAF from its performance in the past century to be united to the National Health System of our country ,we have to say that the multinodular goitres in any group of age are easily manageable and accessible which may us to avoid the malignant transformation besides we can do that the life continues with the quality humanely requested . Finally, this is the first goal of the Cuban Public Health. Objective: to highlight the importance of an appropriate follow-up of multinodular goitre as a significant element in the prevention of its multinodular malignant transformation. Case presentation: an 80 year- old, female patient presents an increase of the volumen of the anterior section of the neck, with pathologic antecedents of a multinodular goitre which the evolution has been characterized by an irregular and non systematic treatment along of years .She could have better quality of life as well as to avoid to death taking into account the wild conditions of that disease was presented herself. Physical examination: It has been observed an increase o

  14. Analysis of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and survival in low-grade and anaplastic gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Wibom, Carl; Sjöström, Sara; Henriksson, Roger; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Johansson, Christoffer; Fleming, Sarah J; McKinney, Patricia A; Bethke, Lara; Houlston, Richard; Smits, Anja; Andersson, Ulrika; Melin, Beatrice S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the variation in DNA repair genes in adults with WHO grade II and III gliomas and their relationship to patient survival. We analysed a total of 1,458 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to cover DNA repair genes, in 81 grade II and grade III gliomas samples, collected in Sweden and Denmark. The statistically significant genetic variants from the first dataset (P <0.05) were taken forward for confirmation in a second dataset ...

  15. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi; Rafael Almeida Fighera; Luiz Francisco Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros

    2008-01-01

    Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células ...

  16. Breast Implant–associated Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Updated Results from a Structured Expert Consultation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Kim, MD, MPhil

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our assessment yielded consistent results on a number of key, incompletely addressed issues regarding BIA-ALCL, but additional research is needed to support these statement ratings and enhance our understanding of the biology, treatment, and outcomes associated with this disease.

  17. Antineoplastic activity of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, Melanie R.; Klisaroska, Aleksandra; Kollmann, Karoline; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Sexl, Veronika; Egger, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism establishing long-term gene silencing during development and cell commitment, which is maintained in subsequent cell generations. Aberrant DNA methylation is found at gene promoters in most cancers and can lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is able to reactivate genes silenced by DNA methylation and has been shown to be a very potent epigenetic drug in several hematologi...

  18. Acantholytic Anaplastic Extramammary Paget's Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Yu-jin; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Sim, Woo-Young

    2011-01-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an uncommon intraepithelial neoplasm that most commonly arises on the vulva and perianal region. Very few cases of EMPD revealing a histological Bowenoid appearance have been reported. This study describes scrotal EMPD presenting with histological features of Bowen's disease in a 79-year-old man. He presented with a 5-year history of a pruritic erythematous plaque and a verrucous papule on the scrotum. The verrucous papule histopathologically showed Bowe...

  19. Primary bone lymphoma: report of a case with multifocal skeletal involvement

    OpenAIRE

    BJJ Abdullah; ML wastie; Rahmat, K

    2007-01-01

    Primary bone lymphoma is an uncommon tumour accounting for approximately 4-5% of extra nodal lymphoma and less than 1% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The radiographic appearance of primary bone lymphoma is variable. As lesions frequently resemble other disease processes namely chronic osteomyelitis and metastases, further imaging evaluation and histopathological examination allow early identification for appropriate treatment. The authors present a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma of bo...

  20. Lymphoma-like presentation of acute monocytic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, B.; Manoharan, A; Lampert, I; McKenzie, C.; Catovsky, D

    1983-01-01

    Four patients in whom a diagnosis of acute monocytic leukaemia (M5) was subsequently made presented with extramedullary disease clinically resembling lymphoma. In all patients histological sections were initially misinterpreted as showing malignant lymphoma or anaplastic carcinoma. The diagnosis of M5 leukaemia was subsequently made on the basis of morphological and cytochemical studies of peripheral blood and bone marrow. The histological diagnosis of the soft tissue lesions of M5 leukaemia ...

  1. Malignant transformation of CD4+ T lymphocytes mediated by oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK recapitulates IL-2-induced cell signaling and gene expression reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Halasa, Krzysztof; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hong Y; Cheng, Mangeng; Baldwin, Donald; Tobias, John W; Schuster, Stephen J; Andersen, Anders Woetmann; Zhang, Qian; Turner, Suzanne D; Ødum, Niels; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), physiologically expressed only by nervous system cells, displays a remarkable capacity to transform CD4(+) T lymphocytes and other types of nonneural cells. In this study, we report that activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK chimeric protein, the dominant form of ALK expressed in T cell lymphomas (TCLs), closely resembles cell activation induced by IL-2, the key cytokine supporting growth and survival of normal CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Direct comparison of gene expre...

  2. Findings from positron emission tomography and genetic analyses for cerebellar liponeurocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Hirokazu; Mukasa, Akitake; Ikemura, Masako; Shibahara, Jyunji; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-07-01

    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor that usually develops in adult patients, and is categorized as World Health Organization grade II. Because of the small number of reports on its radiological and pathological features, the disease remains poorly characterized. The current case involved a 59-year-old man with tumor in the upper cerebellar vermis. Preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) showed high uptake on (11)C-methionine PET, but low uptake on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. These findings resemble those of central neurocytoma and oligodendroglioma, but are incompatible with other brain tumors. Subtotal tumor removal was performed by suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathological examinations showed sheets of small, isomorphic cells with round nuclei and clear cytoplasm, and focal vacuolated cells resembling adipose cells. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for synaptophysin and NeuN. Vacuolated cells were immunoreactive for perilipin. Based on these findings, cerebellar liponeurocytoma was diagnosed. Genetic analyses revealed absences of both chromosome 1p/19q loss and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, further ruling out oligodendroglioma. These radiological and genetic aspects of cerebellar liponeurocytoma, which are mostly in common with central neurocytoma, should prove helpful in differentiating this rare tumor from other tumors with similar morphology. PMID:25527206

  3. The Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas by Histology in the United States Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusthoven, Chad G., E-mail: Chad.Rusthoven@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Dally, Miranda J.; Barón, Anna E. [Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Yeh, Norman; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Liu, Arthur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Ney, Douglas E.; Damek, Denise M. [Department of Neurology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Lillehei, Kevin O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the survival impact of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) for malignant gliomas of glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) histology. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2007 for patients aged ?18 years with high-grade gliomas managed with upfront surgical resection, treated with and without adjuvant RT. Results: The primary analysis totaled 14,461 patients, with 12,115 cases of GBM (83.8%), 1312 AA (9.1%), 718 AO (4.9%), and 316 AOA (2.2%). On univariate analyses, adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) for GBMs (2-year OS, 17% vs 7%, p<.001), AAs (5-year OS, 38% vs 24%, p<.001), and AOAs (5-year OS, 55% vs 44%, p=.026). No significant differences in OS were observed for AOs (5-year OS, with RT 50% vs 56% without RT, p=.277). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models accounting for extent of resection, age, sex, race, year, marital status, and tumor registry, RT was associated with significantly improved OS for both GBMs (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50-0.55; P<.001) and AAs (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.68; P<.001) but only a trend toward improved OS for AOAs (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.09; P=.110). Due to the observation of nonproportional hazards, Cox regressions were not performed for AOs. A significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of RT and histology overall (interaction P<.001) and in a model limited to the anaplastic (WHO grade 3) histologies. (interaction P=.024), characterizing histology as a significant predictive factor for the impact of RT. Subgroup analyses demonstrated greater hazard reductions with RT among patients older than median age for both GBMs and AAs (all interaction P?.001). No significant interactions were observed between RT and extent of resection. Identical patterns of significance were observed for cause-specific survival and OS across analyses. Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort, glioma histology represented a significant predictor for the survival impact of RT. Adjuvant RT was associated with improved survival for AAs, with benefits comparable to those observed for GBMs over the same 10-year interval. No survival advantage was observed with adjuvant RT for AOs.

  4. The Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas by Histology in the United States Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the survival impact of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (RT) for malignant gliomas of glioblastoma (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), and mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) histology. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2007 for patients aged ?18 years with high-grade gliomas managed with upfront surgical resection, treated with and without adjuvant RT. Results: The primary analysis totaled 14,461 patients, with 12,115 cases of GBM (83.8%), 1312 AA (9.1%), 718 AO (4.9%), and 316 AOA (2.2%). On univariate analyses, adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS) for GBMs (2-year OS, 17% vs 7%, p<.001), AAs (5-year OS, 38% vs 24%, p<.001), and AOAs (5-year OS, 55% vs 44%, p=.026). No significant differences in OS were observed for AOs (5-year OS, with RT 50% vs 56% without RT, p=.277). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models accounting for extent of resection, age, sex, race, year, marital status, and tumor registry, RT was associated with significantly improved OS for both GBMs (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.50-0.55; P<.001) and AAs (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.68; P<.001) but only a trend toward improved OS for AOAs (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.45-1.09; P=.110). Due to the observation of nonproportional hazards, Cox regressions were not performed for AOs. A significant interaction was observed between the survival impact of RT and histology overall (interaction P<.001) and in a model limited to the anaplastic (WHO grade 3) histologies. (interaction P=.024), characterizing histology as a significant predictive factor for the impact of RT. Subgroup analyses demonstrated greater hazard reductions with RT among patients older than median age for both GBMs and AAs (all interaction P?.001). No significant interactions were observed between RT and extent of resection. Identical patterns of significance were observed for cause-specific survival and OS across analyses. Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort, glioma histology represented a significant predictor for the survival impact of RT. Adjuvant RT was associated with improved survival for AAs, with benefits comparable to those observed for GBMs over the same 10-year interval. No survival advantage was observed with adjuvant RT for AOs

  5. The presence of foetal ganglioside antigens 3'-isoLM1 and 3'6'-isoLD1 in both glioma tissue and surrounding areas from human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, H; Nygren, C; Boström, K; Collins, V P; Fredman, P

    1997-01-01

    Glioma-associated gangliosides, in particular the expression of foetal gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3'6'-isoLD1, have been investigated in biopsies from 44 patients with astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, oligodendrogliomas, and glioblastoma multiforme. The total ganglioside content decreased in proportion to the estimated number of tumour cells present in the biopsy. Ganglioside GD3 was increased in 17 of the tumour tissues and in 6 of the surrounding area specimens. In agreement with our previous studies, tumour specimens contained the lactoseries ganglioside 3'-isoLM1 and, as demonstrated for the first time, the disialylated form of the ganglioside, 3'6'-isoLD1. These gangliosides are in normal brain tissue restricted to the developmental period. Most frequent was the expression of ganglioside 3'-isoLM1 which was detected in 92% of the tumour specimens in concentrations varying between just detectable amounts to 13 nmol/g wet weight. In the area surrounding the macroscopic tumour tissue 78% of the specimens expressed 3'-isoLM1 and the values varied between just detectable amounts to 24 nmol/g wet weight. Ganglioside 3'6'-isoLD1 was found in 47% of the tumour biopsies and in only 17% of the specimens taken outside macroscopic tumour tissue. The values varied between non-detectable amounts to 40 nmol/g wet weight of tissue. The expression of 3'-isoLM1 correlated significantly (p < 0.01) to malignancy grade. For 3'6'-isoLD1 a significant (p < 0.05) difference was found between tumour and surrounding tissue. Likewise, 3'6'-isoLD1 correlated significantly (p < 0.05) to malignancy grade. The correlation between 3'-isoLM1 and 3'6'-isoLD1 to malignancy grade and the frequent expression of these gangliosides both in the tumour itself and in its surrounding area should encourage additional studies concerning their biological role in tumour disease. PMID:9088372

  6. Bevacizumab in Reducing CNS Side Effects in Patients Who Have Undergone Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Primary Brain Tumor, Meningioma, or Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Malignant Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineocytoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage I Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal

  7. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    OpenAIRE

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D.; Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses ...

  8. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D; Amsel, Ben D; DeLong, Katherine A; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., "printed schedule"); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., "conditional schedule"); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., "thin schedule"). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  9. A Shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles Salmonella phage ViI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She Yi-Min

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. Sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications. Results The lytic bacteriophage, ?SboM-AG3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, Shigella. It is morphologically similar to phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and a series of phages of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Rhizobium meliloti. The complete genome of ?SboM-AG3 was determined to be 158 kb and was terminally redundant and circularly permuted. Two hundred and sixteen open reading frames (ORFs were identified and annotated, most of which displayed homology to proteins of Salmonella phage ViI. The genome also included four genes specifying tRNAs. Conclusions This is the first time that a Vi-specific phage for Shigella has been described. There is no evidence for the presence of virulence and lysogeny-associated genes. In conclusion, the genome analysis of ?SboM-AG3 indicates that this phage can be safely used for biocontrol purposes.

  10. Low-grade central osteosarcoma of distal femur, resembling fibrous dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris S Vasiliadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 32 year-old male, admitted for a lytic lesion of the distal femur. One month after the first X-ray, clinical and imaging deterioration was evident. Open biopsy revealed fibrous dysplasia. Three months later, the lytic lesion had spread to the whole distal third of the femur reaching the articular cartilage. The malignant clinical and imaging features necessitated excision of the lesion and reconstruction with a custom-made total knee arthroplasty. Intra-operatively, no obvious soft tissue infiltration was evident. Nevertheless, an excision of the distal 15.5 cm of the femur including 3.0 cm of the surrounding muscles was finally performed. The histological examination of the excised specimen revealed central low-grade osteosarcoma. Based on the morphological features of the excised tumor, allied to the clinical findings, the diagnosis of low-grade central osteosarcoma was finally made although characters of a fibrous dysplasia were apparent. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare, well-differentiated sub-type of osteosarcoma, with clinical, imaging, and histological features similar to benign tumours. Thus, initial misdiagnosis is usual with the condition commonly mistaken for fibrous dysplasia. Central low-grade osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery alone, with rare cases of distal metastases. However, regional recurrence is quite frequent after close margin excision.

  11. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D.; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chron...

  12. Focal peliosis hepatis in a colon cancer patient resembling metastatic liver tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jun Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peliosis hepatis (PH is a rare benign condition characterized by the presence of multiple, randomly distributed, blood filled cystic areas of variable size within the liver parenchyma. PH is difficult to recognize and may be mistaken for neoplasm, metastases or multiple abscesses. A 75-year-old female with a previous history of colon cancer was admitted when a liver mass in the right liver lobe was found 11 mo after surgery during the follow-up period. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen were performed. The initial possible diagnosis was metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent excision of the hepatic segment where the nodule was located. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was PH. PH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new liver lesions in patients whose clinical settings do not clearly favor metastasization. Clinicians and radiologists must recognize these lesions to minimize the probability of misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.

  13. Lyme Disease Borrelia Species in Northeastern China Resemble Those Isolated from Far Eastern Russia and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Muqing; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Takada, Nobuhiro; Ishiguro, Fubito; Fujita, Hiromi; Iwaki, Atsue; WANG, HAIPENG; Wang, Jichun; Kawabata, Masato; Yanagihara, Yasutake

    1998-01-01

    Fifty-nine Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato culture isolates collected from northeastern China were characterized by 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Among 59 culture isolates, 30 (50.8%) were Borrelia garinii and 17 (28.8%) were Borrelia afzelii, 2 were mixtures composed of B. garinii with RFLP pattern B and B. garinii with pattern C, and 9 were mixtures composed of B. garinii and B. afzeli...

  14. Right-sided hepatic hernia of normal left lobe resembling cardiac tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nagamine, Hiroki; Toyoda, Akifumi; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Katori, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year-old boy was referred for cardiac tumor diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) at another hospital. The tumor appeared to be in the right atrium and obstructed inferior vena cava flow. TTE, enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography were done to confirm diagnosis. Subsequently, cardiac tumor was ruled out and he was diagnosed with a very rare condition of hepatic hernia containing a normal left lobe. When cardiac tumor is suspected in the right atrium on the basis of TTE, enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging should be done for definitive diagnosis. PMID:25919892

  15. Selective self-assembly of adenine-silver nanoparticles forms rings resembling the size of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmoon; Park, Soonyoung; Yang, Seon-Ah; Jeong, Yujin; Yu, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly has played critical roles in the construction of functional nanomaterials. However, the structure of the macroscale multicomponent materials built by the self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks is hard to predict due to multiple intermolecular interactions of great complexity. Evaporation of solvents is usually an important approach to induce kinetically stable assemblies of building blocks with a large-scale specific arrangement. During such a deweting process, we tried to monitor the possible interactions between silver nanoparticles and nucleobases at a larger scale by epifluorescence microscopy, thanks to the doping of silver nanoparticles with luminescent silver nanodots. ssDNA oligomer-stabilized silver nanoparticles and adenine self-assemble to form ring-like compartments similar to the size of modern cells. However, the silver ions only dismantle the self-assembly of adenine. The rings are thermodynamically stable as the drying process only enrich the nanoparticles-nucleobase mixture to a concentration that activates the self-assembly. The permeable membrane-like edge of the ring is composed of adenine filaments glued together by silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, chemicals are partially confined and accumulated inside the ring, suggesting that this might be used as a microreactor to speed up chemical reactions during a dewetting process. PMID:26643504

  16. Artifacts resembling budding bacteria produced in placer-gold amalgams by nitric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Microscopic filiform morphologies in gold which are indistinguishable from forms originally interpreted as bacterial in origin were produced in the laboratory by treating amalgams made from natural and artificial gold with hot nitric acid. Textures ranging from cobblestone to deeply crenulated to nodular filiform were produced in the laboratory from all tested natural and artificial gold amalgams; analogous textures widespread in Alaskan placer gold may have a similar inorganic origin. These results indicate that morphology alone cannot be considered adequate evidence of microbial involvement in gold formation.

  17. Halobacterium halobium strains lysogenic for phage phi H contain a protein resembling coliphage repressors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ken, R; Hackett, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins such as bacteriophage repressors belong to the helix-turn-helix family. Ionic interactions drive DNA binding, which means that repressors bind DNA most tightly at low salt concentrations. This raises the question of who gene expression might be regulated in obligate halophiles, which maintain internal salt concentrations of about 5 M. As a model system we have investigated the phage phi H, which infects the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium. Previous genetic data and...

  18. Development of a Synthetic PCB Mixture Resembling the Average Polychlorinated Biphenyl Profile in Chicago Air

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, H.; Adamcakova-Dodd, A.; Hu, D.; Hornbuckle, K.C.; Just, C.L.; Robertson, L.W.; Thorne, P S; Lehmler, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congen...

  19. Artifacts resembling budding bacteria produced in placer-gold amalgams by nitric acid leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, John R.

    1994-12-01

    Microscopic filiform morphologies in gold which are indistinguishable from forms originally interpreted as bacterial in origin were produced in the laboratory by treating amalgams made from natural and artificial gold with hot nitric acid. Textures ranging from cobblestone to deeply crenulated to nodular filiform were produced in the laboratory from all tested natural and artificial gold amalgams; analogous textures widespread in Alaskan placer gold may have a similar inorganic origin. These results indicate that morphology alone cannot be considered adequate evidence of microbial involvement in gold formation.

  20. Malignant change in a massive pleomorphic adenoma resembling the presentation of advanced inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Leonie; Colbert, Serryth; Spedding, Anne V; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    Massive tumours of the parotid are uncommon as due to their site, they are usually removed at an earlier stage. We present a bizarre case of a carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma which mimicked an advanced breast cancer, complete with a 'nipple-like' extension and peau d'orange changes in the overlying skin as a result of a dense dermal inflammatory response. A procedure akin to a mastectomy with facial nerve preservation was carried out for removal. To our knowledge, peau d'orange has not been reported before in parotid tumours. PMID:22464757

  1. Familial resemblance in religiousness in a secular society : A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HvidtjØrn, Dorte; Petersen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that human behavior and individual psychological traits are moderately to substantially heritable. Over the past decade, an increasing number of studies have explored the genetic and environmental influence on religiousness. These studies originate predominantly from countries generally considered more religious than the very secular northern European countries. Comparisons of the results are complicated by diverse definitions of religiousness, but several studies indicate that the influence of the family environment is most predominant in early life, whereas genetic influences increase with age. We performed a population-based twin study of religiousness in a secular society using data from a Web-based survey sent to 6,707 Danish twins born 1970-1989, who were identified in the Danish Twin Registry. We applied Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of religiousness: cognition, practice, and importance. In all polygenic models and biometric analyses, we controlled for gender and age. The studysample comprised 2,237 same sex twins, a response rate of 45%. We found high correlations within both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs in most items of religiousness, indicating a large influence from shared environmental factors. Personal religiousness such as praying to God, believing in God, and finding strength and comfort in religion were more influenced by genetic factors than were social forms of religiousness such as church attendance. We found a small tendency for increasing genetic influence with increasing age for some religious items, but not for all.

  2. A molecular 'signature' of primary breast cancer cultures; patterns resembling tumor tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhenhang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the spectrum of malignant attributes maintained outside the host environment, we have compared global gene expression in primary breast tumors and matched short-term epithelial cultures. Results In contrast to immortal cell lines, a characteristic 'limited proliferation' phenotype was observed, which included over expressed genes associated with the TGF? signal transduction pathway, such as SPARC, LOXL1, RUNX1, and DAPK1. Underlying this profile was the conspicuous absence of hTERT expression and telomerase activity, a significant increase in T?RII, its cognate ligand, and the CDK inhibitor, p21CIP1/WAF1. Concurrently, tumor tissue and primary cultures displayed low transcript levels of proliferation-related genes, such as, TOP2A, ANKT, RAD51, UBE2C, CENPA, RRM2, and PLK. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that commonly used immortal cell lines do not reflect some aspects of tumor biology as closely as primary tumor cell cultures. The gene expression profile of malignant tissue, which is uniquely retained by cells cultured on solid substrates, could facilitate the development and testing of novel molecular targets for breast cancer.

  3. Unmistakable Morphology? Infantile Malignant Osteopetrosis Resembling Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Anne; Furlan, Ingrid; Steinmann, Sandra; Buchholz, Bernd; Kremens, Bernhard; Rossig, Claudia; Corbacioglu, Selim; Rajagopal, Revathi; Lahr, Georgia; Yoshimi, Ayami; Strahm, Brigitte; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Schulz, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    The initial clinical and hematologic presentation of infantile malignant osteopetrosis may be indistinguishable from that of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in infants. Timely radiographic imaging, however, allows straightforward delineation of these 2 severe diseases and facilitates immediate initiation of appropriate therapy. PMID:25982139

  4. Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Takako

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

  5. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors

  6. Mouse limbs expressing only the Gli3 repressor resemble those of Sonic Hedgehog mutants

    OpenAIRE

    CAO, TING; Wang, Chengbing; Mei YANG; Wu, Chuanqing; WANG, BAOLIN

    2013-01-01

    Anterioposterior vertebrate limb patterning is controlled by opposing action between Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and the Gli3 transcriptional repressor. Unexpectedly, Gli3?699 mutant mice, which are thought to express only a Gli3 repressor and not the full-length activator, exhibit limb phenotypes inconsistent with those of Shh mutant mice. Therefore, it remains debatable whether Shh patterns the anterioposterior limb primarily by inhibiting generation of the Gli3 repressor. However, one caveat is t...

  7. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Forgács

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1 Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., “printed schedule”; (2 Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., “conditional schedule”; and (3 novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., “thin schedule”. We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete versus abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings versus abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness.

  8. A Model for the Universe that Begins to Resemble a Quantum Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Gudder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a sequential growth model for the Universe that acts like a quantum computer. The basic constituents of the model are a special type of causal set (causet called a c-causet. A c-causet is defined to be a causet that has a unique labeling. We characterize c-causets as those causets that form a multipartite graph or equivalently those causets whose elements are comparable whenever their heights are different. We show that a c-causet has precisely two c-causet offspring. It follows that there are 2n c-causets of cardinality n + 1. This enables us to classify c-causets of cardinality n + 1 in terms of n-bits. We then quantize the model by introducing a quantum sequential growth process. This is accomplished by replacing the n-bits by n-qubits and defining transition amplitudes for the growth transitions. We mainly consider two types of processes, called stationary and completely stationary. We show that for stationary processes, the probability operators are tensor products of positive rank-one qubit operators. Moreover, the converse of this result holds. Simplifications occur for completely stationary processes. We close with examples of precluded events.

  9. Mineralized Onchocercal Lesions Resembling Tuberculosis in Cattle. Report of Cases from Meat Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, T. W.; Webster, A.; Bundza, A

    1981-01-01

    Nematodes of the genus Onchocerca were found in mineralized foci in subcutaneous tissues near the stifle joint in several animals and in the gastrosplenic ligament in one case. These tissues were submitted to this laboratory by veterinary meat inspectors suspecting lesions of bovine tuberculosis.

  10. Does compulsive behavior in Anorexia Nervosa resemble an addiction? A qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, Lauren R.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery. These results suggested that individuals with AN view the compulsive nature of their behavior as central to the maintenance of their disorder, and as a significant barrier to recovery. The themes that emerged also showed parallels with the DSM-V criteria for SUDs, mapping onto the four groups of criteria (impaired control, social impairment, risky use of substance, pharmacological criteria). These results emphasize the need for further research to explore the possible parallels in behavioral and neural underpinnings of compulsivity in AN and SUDs, which may inform novel treatment avenues for AN. PMID:26539148

  11. Parent–child dietary intake resemblance in the United States: Evidence from a large representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Beydoun, May A; Wang, Youfa

    2009-01-01

    We studied the association in dietary intakes and patterns between parents (aged 20–65 years) and their children (aged 2–18 years), using nationally representative data collected by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals 1994–96. We analyzed two 24-h recall dietary data for 1061 fathers, 1230 mothers, 1370 sons and 1322 daughters. All analyses adjusted for sampling design complexity. We assessed multivariate-adjusted parent–child correla...

  12. Endodermal sinus tumour of the posteroinferior mediastinum resembling dumbbell neuroblastoma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todani, T; Watanabe, Y; Toki, A; Urushihara, N; Sato, Y

    1990-04-01

    A male infant presenting with paraplegia due to intraspinal extension of an endodermal sinus tumour in the posteroinferior mediastinum is reported. Dumbbell tumours are usually observed in mediastinal neuroblastomas, and rarely in rhabdomyosarcomas of the chest wall. The present case demonstrates the clinical similarity of endodermal sinus tumours to neuroblastomas with extradural extension. Therefore, endodermal sinus tumours should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posterior mediastinal masses, because of the distinctly different treatment from that for other tumours. PMID:2360370

  13. Response of mice to continuous 5-day passive hyperthermia resembles human heat acclimation

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh, Houtan; Tulapurkar, Mohan E.; Shah, Nirav G.; Singh, Ishwar S.; Hasday, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic repeated exposure to hyperthermia in humans results in heat acclimation (HA), an adaptive process that is attained in humans by repeated exposure to hyperthermia and is characterized by improved heat elimination and increased exercise capacity, and acquired thermal tolerance (ATT), a cellular response characterized by increased baseline heat shock protein (HSP) expression and blunting of the acute increase in HSP expression stimulated by re-exposure to thermal stress. Epidemiologic st...

  14. Light-activated guanosinetriphosphatase in Musca eye membranes resembles the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential in photoreceptor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenfeld, A; Erusalimsky, J; Heichal, O; Selinger, Z; Minke, B.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of light-dependent GTPase (EC 3.1.5.1) activity in a paradigm guided by electrophysiological experiments was used to examine the involvement of a guanine nucleotide binding protein in fly phototransduction. Cell-free membrane preparations of Musca eyes responded to blue light by a 10- to 20-fold increase in GTP-hydrolyzing activity. This light-dependent GTPase had a low Km for GTP (0.5 microM) and was effectively inhibited by guanosine (5'----O3)-1-thiotriphosphate and guanosine 5...

  15. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  16. Characterization of a Chlamydomonas Transposon, Gulliver, Resembling Those in Higher Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, P J

    1989-01-01

    While pursuing a chromosomal walk through the mt(+) locus of linkage group VI of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, I encountered a 12-kb sequence that was found to be present in approximately 12 copies in the nuclear genome. Comparison of various C. reinhardtii laboratory strains provided evidence that the sequence was mobile and therefore a transposon. One of two separate natural isolates interfertile with C. reinhardtii, C. smithii (CC-1373), contained the transposon, but at completely different l...

  17. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  18. The Generation and Resemblance Heuristics in Face Recognition: Cooperation and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleider, Heather M.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Like all probabilistic decisions, recognition memory judgments are based on inferences about the strength and quality of stimulus familiarity. In recent articles, B. W. A. Whittlesea and J. Leboe (2000; J. Leboe & B. W. A. Whittlesea, 2002) proposed that such memory decisions entail various heuristics, similar to well-known heuristics in overt…

  19. RESEMBLANCE OF RAIN FALL IN BANGLADESH WITH CORRELATION DIMENSION AND NEURAL NETWORK LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Nasir Mohammad Enamul Kabir; Hussain Muhammad Imran Hasan; Mohd Abdur Rashid; Azralmukmin Azmi; Md. Zakir Hossain; Md Shahjahan

    2013-01-01

    Rain fall and Temperature are undoubtedly two important factors that balance water in the environment. Adequate study of the rain behavior helps to forecast it. The time series obtained from different stations of the country throughout the several years are collected and analyzed. The dynamics of rain fall time series is analyzed with Correlation Dimension (CD) to characterize the several zones of Bangladesh. In addition a Neural Network (NN) predictor model was designed to realize complexity...

  20. RESEMBLANCE OF RAIN FALL IN BANGLADESH WITH CORRELATION DIMENSION AND NEURAL NETWORK LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nasir Mohammad Enamul Kabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain fall and Temperature are undoubtedly two important factors that balance water in the environment. Adequate study of the rain behavior helps to forecast it. The time series obtained from different stations of the country throughout the several years are collected and analyzed. The dynamics of rain fall time series is analyzed with Correlation Dimension (CD to characterize the several zones of Bangladesh. In addition a Neural Network (NN predictor model was designed to realize complexity of rain fall. We found the interesting similarity between CD and NN predictor. The findings are useful in explaining why several zones show behavioral regularity and change.

  1. Resistant tissues of modern marchantioid liverworts resemble enigmatic Early Paleozoic microfossils

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Linda E.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Cook, Martha E.; Gensel, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    Absence of a substantial pretracheophyte fossil record for bryophytes (otherwise predicted by molecular systematics) poses a major problem in our understanding of earliest land-plant structure. In contrast, there exist enigmatic Cambrian–Devonian microfossils (aggregations of tubes or sheets of cells or possibly a combination of both) controversially interpreted as an extinct group of early land plants known as nematophytes. We used an innovative approach to explore these issues: comparison o...

  2. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic ...

  3. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Maria Louise; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne Kerstine Rørbye; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael Christian; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic ...

  4. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.; (UPENN-MED)

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  5. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper NØrskov

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial populations.

  6. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper NØrskov

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial populations.

  7. Family resemblances: A common fold for some dimeric ion-coupled secondary transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-11-01

    Membrane transporter proteins catalyze the passage of a broad range of solutes across cell membranes, allowing the uptake and efflux of crucial compounds. Because of the difficulty of expressing, purifying, and crystallizing integral membrane proteins, relatively few transporter structures have been elucidated to date. Although every membrane transporter has unique characteristics, structural and mechanistic similarities between evolutionarily diverse transporters have been identified. Here, we compare two recently reported structures of membrane proteins that act as antimicrobial efflux pumps, namely MtrF from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and YdaH from Alcanivorax borkumensis, both with each other and with the previously published structure of a sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae, VcINDY. MtrF and YdaH belong to the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter (AbgT) family and have been reported as having architectures distinct from those of all other families of transporters. However, our comparative analysis reveals a similar structural arrangement in all three proteins, with highly conserved secondary structure elements. Despite their differences in biological function, the overall "design principle" of MtrF and YdaH appears to be almost identical to that of VcINDY, with a dimeric quaternary structure, helical hairpins, and clear boundaries between the transport and scaffold domains. This observation demonstrates once more that the same secondary transporter architecture can be exploited for multiple distinct transport modes, including cotransport and antiport. Based on our comparisons, we detected conserved motifs in the substrate-binding region and predict specific residues likely to be involved in cation or substrate binding. These findings should prove useful for the future characterization of the transport mechanisms of these families of secondary active transporters. PMID:26503722

  8. Aromatase-deficient mice spontaneously develop a lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease resembling Sjögren's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Gil-Jin; Warner, Margaret; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Andersson, Sandra; Liu, Lining; Ekman, Jenny; Imamov, Otabek; Jones, Margaret E.; Simpson, Evan R; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2004-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an incurable, autoimmune exocrinopathy that predominantly affects females and whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Like rheumatoid arthritis, its severity increases after menopause, and estrogen deficiency has been implicated. We have reported that estrogen receptor-? and -?-knockout mice develop autoimmune nephritis and myeloid leukemia, respectively, but neither develops SS. One model of estrogen deficiency in rodents is the aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mouse. In thes...

  9. Selective self-assembly of adenine-silver nanoparticles forms rings resembling the size of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmoon; Park, Soonyoung; Yang, Seon-Ah; Jeong, Yujin; Yu, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly has played critical roles in the construction of functional nanomaterials. However, the structure of the macroscale multicomponent materials built by the self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks is hard to predict due to multiple intermolecular interactions of great complexity. Evaporation of solvents is usually an important approach to induce kinetically stable assemblies of building blocks with a large-scale specific arrangement. During such a deweting process, we tried to monitor the possible interactions between silver nanoparticles and nucleobases at a larger scale by epifluorescence microscopy, thanks to the doping of silver nanoparticles with luminescent silver nanodots. ssDNA oligomer-stabilized silver nanoparticles and adenine self-assemble to form ring-like compartments similar to the size of modern cells. However, the silver ions only dismantle the self-assembly of adenine. The rings are thermodynamically stable as the drying process only enrich the nanoparticles-nucleobase mixture to a concentration that activates the self-assembly. The permeable membrane-like edge of the ring is composed of adenine filaments glued together by silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, chemicals are partially confined and accumulated inside the ring, suggesting that this might be used as a microreactor to speed up chemical reactions during a dewetting process. PMID:26643504

  10. Equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Connecticut caused by an agent resembling the human granulocytotropic ehrlichia.

    OpenAIRE

    Madigan, J. E.; Barlough, J E; Dumler, J. S.; Schankman, N S; DeRock, E

    1996-01-01

    The first recognized cases of equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis in New England are described. The DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the causative ehrlichia was found to be identical to that of the human granulocytotropic ehrlichia, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis.

  11. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haluska, F.G.; Russo, G.; Croce, C.M. (Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Kant, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA)); Andreef, M. (Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  12. Resemblance of symptoms for major depression assessed at interview versus from hospital record review.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, H; Li, Y.; Xie, D.; Wang, Z.; F. Yang; Shen, Y.; Ni, S.; Wei, Y.; Liu, Y.; Liu, L.; GAO, C; Liu, J.; Yan, L.; Wang, G; Li, K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnostic information for psychiatric research often depends on both clinical interviews and medical records. Although discrepancies between these two sources are well known, there have been few studies into the degree and origins of inconsistencies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared data from structured interviews and medical records on 1,970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depression (MD). Correlations were high for age at onset of MD (0.93) and number of episodes (...

  13. Intraepidermal adenocarcinoma in the perianal skin of two cats, a condition resembling human extramammary Paget's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Ann M; Baldessari, Audrey E; Walder, Emily J

    2008-02-01

    In humans, mammary and extramammary Paget's disease is an uncommon to rare manifestation of intraepidermal adenocarcinoma arising from simple epithelium, usually glandular in origin. This report describes two cats with lesions in perianal skin consisting of atypical intraepidermal neoplastic cells. Differential diagnoses included intraepidermal adenocarcinoma, in situ squamous or basal cell carcinoma, junctional amelanotic melanoma, and epitheliotropic tumours of histiocytic or lymphocytic origin. The atypical intraepidermal cells in the cats were immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18), which stains simple (glandular) epithelium. The keratinocytes and basal cells were negative for CK8/18. In addition, the atypical intraepidermal cells were immunohistochemically negative for melanocytic, lymphocytic, and histiocytic markers. The staining results confirmed the atypical intraepidermal cells to be of simple glandular origin, and ruled out other causes of intraepidermal malignancy. In one cat the clinical lesions consisted of a pruritic erythematous eruption surrounding the anus. Another cat presented clinically for an area of irregular anal thickening; this cat had well-regulated diabetes mellitus. The cats were otherwise clinically healthy. The clinical features, histological appearance, and immunohistochemical staining of the skin lesions were consistent with those described for human perianal extramammary Paget's disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an intraepidermal adenocarcinoma in a cat or other animal species. PMID:18177290

  14. Impact of Molecular Markers on Personalised-Treatment Concepts in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnell O

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are rare brain-derived tumours classified according to mainly histopathological criteria by a 4-step grading system of the World Health Organisation (WHO grades I?IV. Differentiating between the underlying tumour cell components (eg, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, grading intends to give clinicians a general estimation about their patients? prognoses. Increasing knowledge about the molecular genetic profile now leads to a deeper insight into the predictive or prognostic value of several molecular markers with large impact on the treatment of glioma patients.br Hypermethylation of the 6O-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase (MGMT promoter has turned out to be an important predictive marker for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV receiving radiochemotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy and may be crucial for a treatment decision between (radio- chemotherapy versus radiation only in older patients. Moreover, mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH seem to have a strong prognostic impact in malignant gliomas since GBM patients with IDH mutation showed longer median survival compared to patients with anaplastic gliomas (WHO grade III without IDH mutation. Additionally, genetic co-deletion on chromosomes 1p and 19q (LOH 1p/19q has been demonstrated to be a favourable prognostic factor for patients with anaplastic gliomas receiving radiation, chemotherapy with alkylating agents, or both.br Hence, histological diagnosis will not be suffi cient to render the best medical treatment to glioma patients in the future. Determination especially of MGMT promoter methylation status, IDH mutation, and LOH1p/19q amongst others will have increasing influence on decision-making in order to meet the demand for more personalised therapy for glioma patients.

  15. Evidence-based adjuvant therapy for gliomas: Current concepts and newer developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of gliomas is increasing worldwide, including India. Of the 18,820 new cases of primary central nervous system (CNS tumors diagnosed annually in the United States, gliomas account for over 60% with 30-40% of them being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, 10% being anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, and 10% being low grade gliomas (LGGs. This is in contrast to one study from West Bengal, India, in which only 7.9% of the brain tumors were GBMs, while 46.8% were astrocytomas. Of all adult primary CNS tumors, GBM is the most common and the most malignant with about 7,000 to 8,000 new cases annually in the United States. Given poor outcomes, a number of treatment approaches have been investigated. Common to these approaches is the use of adjuvant radiation therapy, even as surgery alone, with or without chemotherapy, may be the mainstay for some lower grade and low-risk gliomas. Today, treatment typically involves external beam radiation, with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy for more aggressive histologies. Although gliomas are relatively uncommon, active research is ongoing. Results of landmark trials along with some of the recently published trials are presented. These trials and management strategies as well as evolving concepts are found by reviewing over 200 articles in the National Library Medical (NLM database, PubMed, more than 60 of which are refrenced. Specifically, the database is searched using the following keywords, with various combinations: glioma, low-grade, anaplastic, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, chemotherapy, radiation, new concepts, phase III, MGMT, CDX-110 (Celldex, temozolomide, 1p/19q deletion, and bevacizumab.

  16. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors for second-line therapy of non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghmans T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Berghmans,1 Myriam Remmelink,2 Ahmad Awada31Clinic of Thoracic Oncology and Department of Intensive Care, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Pathology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 3Medical Oncology Clinic, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: Targeted therapies are nowadays a treatment option in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, for which oncogenic drivers have been identified. The epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib and erlotinib, are the standard of care for patients in whom tumors are presenting with an activating epidermal growth factor-receptor mutation, with new active agents like afatinib reaching clinics in the near future. Other genetic abnormalities have been documented in squamous and non-squamous lung cancer. The EML4–ALK gene fusion is a rare event, occurring in around 5% of lung cancer, quite exclusively in adenocarcinoma with a predominance of young non/light smokers. Detection of ALK-positive tumors is challenging, as there is no gold-standard technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the method used in prospective trials assessing the activity of crizotinib and is recommended by the American FDA. Crizotinib is the first orally active inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases, including ALK and ROS1, in clinical practice. Impressive results came from a phase I study and are now confirmed in a large phase II study with response rate of 60%, whatever the number of previous lines of chemotherapy. Other ALK inhibitors are currently in the preclinical phase, and some are showing promising results in early phase I/II studies. This review aims to present the current knowledge on the EML4–ALK gene fusion, the pitfalls for the pathologist and the clinician in searching this abnormality, and to review the existing literature on ALK inhibitors under development, focusing their role compared to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, EML4–ALK, crizotinib

  17. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors for second-line therapy of non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Berghmans T; Remmelink M.; Awada A

    2012-01-01

    Thierry Berghmans,1 Myriam Remmelink,2 Ahmad Awada31Clinic of Thoracic Oncology and Department of Intensive Care, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Pathology, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 3Medical Oncology Clinic, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: Targeted therapies are nowadays a treatment option in metastatic non...

  18. Comparing outcomes in poorly-differentiated versus anaplastic thyroid cancers treated with radiation: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Arora

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first large population-based study evaluating PDTC and ATC outcomes in patients who received radiation treatment. Radioisotope use and timing of radiotherapy (postoperative vs. preoperative were associated with improved CSS in both histologies.

  19. Extranodal testicular anaplastic versus plasmablastic plasma cell tumor: A rare case with diagnostic dilemma in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jovita M. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary testicular plasmacytoma is rare, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. An 84-year-old gentleman was admitted with complaints of swelling over the right side of scrotum for the past 2 months. Local examination revealed a 10×15 cm tense and tender swelling involving the right scrotum. Therefore, high orchidectomy with excision of hemiscrotum was done. The histopathology revealed testicular plasmacytoma, which was positive for CD 138.

  20. Extranodal testicular anaplastic versus plasmablastic plasma cell tumor: A rare case with diagnostic dilemma in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, P. Jovita M.; Ramesh, Anita; Hercules, Simon; Silamban,; Dhanasekar, T.; Mallikarjuna, V. S.; Mathew, Lionel Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Primary testicular plasmacytoma is rare, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. An 84-year-old gentleman was admitted with complaints of swelling over the right side of scrotum for the past 2 months. Local examination revealed a 10×15 cm tense and tender swelling involving the right scrotum. Therefore, high orchidectomy with excision of hemiscrotum was done. The histopathology revealed testicular plasmacytoma, which was positive for...

  1. (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT detection of multiple extracranial localizations in a patient with anaplastic meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemi, A; Ambrosini, A; Cecchi, P; Ruiu, A; Chondrogiannis, S; Farsad, M; Rubello, D

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a case of a 65-year-old male with intracranial recurrence of atypical meningioma initially treated with a combination of surgical resection and gamma knife radiotherapy. Afterwards, he underwent a (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT scan in order to evaluate the feasibility of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The scan identified multiple pulmonary, pleural and lymph node localizations. Histological diagnosis was consistent with intracranial atypical meningioma with diffuse metastatic spread. In our case, we have shown that meningioma with extracranial locations may present high uptake of somatostatin receptor analogues. Among other radionuclides, we believe that (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT may be particularly useful for staging, detection of recurrence, evaluation of disease extension and alternative therapeutic approaches. PMID:25890891

  2. Cloning and characterization of human RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of RTVP-1 in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report the cloning and characterization of RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of human RTVP-1, which was isolated from the U87 glioma cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that RTVP-1b contains an additional 71 base exon between exons 2 and 3 that is missing in RTVP-1, leading to a frame-shift and a different putative protein. The deduced protein was 237 amino acids in length, sharing the N-terminal 141 amino acids with RTVP-1. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that RTVP-1b was expressed in a wide range of tissues and that its expression was different from that of RTVP-1. In contrast, RTVP-1 and RTVP-1b showed similar patterns of expression in astrocytic tumors; highly expressed in glioblastomas as compared to normal brains, low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Overexpression of RTVP-1b increased glioma cell proliferation but did not affect cell migration. Our results suggest that RTVP-1b represents a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in gliomas

  3. FISHing Tips: What Every Clinician Should Know About 1p19q Analysis in Gliomas Using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, M B; Telford, N; Whitfield, G A; Colaco, R J; O'Neill, F; McBain, C A

    2015-08-01

    1p19q co-deletion is a chromosomal alteration associated with primary brain tumours of oligodendroglial histology. It is an established predictive and prognostic biomarker that informs whether patients are offered radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. In the near future, 1p19q co-deletion status may also be incorporated into the reclassification of gliomas. Analysis is commonly carried out using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) because it is a reliable and validated laboratory technique. The result is generally considered to be dichotomous (1p19q co-deletion present or absent), but there are subtleties in interpretation that are of clinical relevance. Separate centres may interpret certain chromosome deletion patterns differently. Pivotal trials in mixed and pure anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have used slightly different FISH probe ratios as the cut-off for chromosome deletion. Here we review the clinical implications of this variability and review the process of 1p19q co-deletion assessment using FISH in gliomas from a clinician's perspective. We also consider common alternative methods of analysis. PMID:25971646

  4. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  5. Utility of “1”1C -methionine PET/CT in neuro-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with “1”1C-methionine (“1”1C-methionine PET/CT) is a new technique used to evaluate primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We describe our experience regarding the first 4 patients with glial tumors and “1”1C-methionine PET/CT. This is a descriptive, observational and prospective study of 4 patients between 38-50 years of age, with different gliomas (WHO classification). MRI and “1”1C-methionine PET/CT were performed in all cases. Case 1, gliomatosis cerebri grade II post-radiotherapy. Case 2, oligodendroglioma grade II diagnosed and treated with radiotherapy in 1993. Case 3, glioblastoma grade IV post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. Case 4, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma grade III post-radiotherapy + temozolomide. The pattern of “1”1C-methionine uptake compared with MRI showed tumor progression in cases 1, 3 and 4, and in case 2 showed uptake although the final diagnosis was pseudoprogression. Unlike “1”8fluordeoxiglucose PET/TC, “1”1C-methionine uptake in normal brain tissue and pseudoprogression is low, and gliomas are displayed as metabolically active areas. The “1”1C-methionine PET/CT provided valuable information on the tumoral behavior and extension, although in one case presented did not differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression. “1”1C-methionine PET/CT could be a useful tool in the study and follow-up to patients with gliomas. (authors)

  6. Análisis de la presencia de mutaciones por pérdida de heterocigocidad de 1p/19q en tumores cerebrales de estirpe glial / Allelic loss at 1p/19q analysis in brain tumors of glial lineage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.L., Gil-Salú; A., Nieto; J.F., Rodríguez-Gutiérrez; J., Almarcha.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar en tumores cerebrales, fundamentalmente de estirpe neuro-epitelial, la existencia de mutaciones en los cromosomas 1p y 19q por la técnica de análisis de la pérdida de heterocigocidad (LOH). Un primer objetivo implícito fue poner a punto la técnica del análisis. Método. Hemos inve [...] stigado la existencia de mutaciones en 3 alelos seleccionados del cromosoma 1p y en 2 alelos del 19q de distintos tumores cerebrales de estirpe glial intervenidos de manera consecutiva en nuestro Centro desde Octubre de 2004 a Marzo de 2006. La metodología empleada ha sido la detección en ADN tumoral de tejido en fresco y en sangre del paciente del marcaje por PCR de amplificados y electroforesis analizando la pérdida de heterocigocidad de microsatélites, repeticiones de dinucleótidos, situados en D1S508, D1S2734, D1S199, D19S412 y D19S219. Resultados. Hemos incluido en esta primera fase de estudio un total de 45 muestras de pacientes intervenidos de tumores cerebrales supratentoriales de estirpe neuroepitelial y que incluyen: 29 glioblastomas, 1 gliosarcoma, 7 astrocitomas grado II, 1 oligoastrocitoma, 3 oligodendrogliomas, 1 oligodendroglioma anaplásico, 1 xantoastrocitoma, 1 tumor neuroepitelial disembrioplásico y 1 astrocitoma pilocítico. La presencia de mutación la hemos considerado cuando el índice alélico (T1/T2)/(N1/N2) era inferior a 0.8. Por estirpe histológica destaca la presencia de mutación en un 80% de tumores oligodendrogliales, 14% de glioblastomas y 14% de astrocitomas fibrilares grado II. Conclusiones. La técnica de análisis de LOH en 1p/19q es factible de realizar en centros que dispongan de técnicas de estudios genético-moleculares, con un alto índice de fiabilidad. De su resultado se desprende qué pacientes se pueden beneficiar del tratamiento con alquilantes añadiendo, a la terapia quirúrgica y/o radioterápica en uso hasta la fecha, una posibilidad de tratamiento con alto porcentaje de respuestas. Abstract in english Background. To analyze in cerebral tumors of neuroepithelial tissue 1p/19q codeletions by study of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). A first implied objective was to get ready this molecular thecnique. Methods. We aimed to determine several deletions mapping 1p and 19q chromosomes, three allelic loss of [...] 1p and two allelic loss of 19q, in patients with cerebral tumors which were operated in our Deparment from October 2004 until March 2006. We have detected in blood and tumoral DNA loss of heterozygosity assay for molecular detection using PCR and capillary array electrophoresis of five markers (D1S508, D1S2734, D1S199, D19S412 y D19S219). Results. Were included in the first part of this study 45 sample of neuroepithelial tissue supratentorial tumors: 29 glioblastoma, 1 gliosarcoma, 7 diffuse astrocytoma grade II, 1 oligoastrocytoma, 3 oligodendroglioma, 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 1 xanthoastrocytoma, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma. We considered deleted regions identified when allelic ratio (T1/T2)/(N1/N2) was lower than 0.8. Taken together, histological tissue shown deletion in 80% of oligodendroglial tumors, 14% glioblastoma and 14% of diffuse astrocytoma grade II. Conclusions. Evaluation of 1p/19q allelic status by LOH analysis may provide useful information for guiding clinical and therapeutical decisions with high succes ratio. These results shown why patients with 1p/19q codeletion survive longer, because adjuvant alkylants adds further improvements to standard, surgery and radiotherapy, treatments.

  7. Platform for Induction and Maintenance of Transgene-free hiPSCs Resembling Ground State Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Valamehr, Bahram; Robinson, Megan; Abujarour, Ramzey; Rezner, Betsy; Vranceanu, Florin; Le, Thuy.; Medcalf, Amanda; Lee, Tom Tong; Fitch, Michael; Robbins, David; Flynn, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cell banking, disease modeling, and cell therapy applications have placed increasing demands on hiPSC technology. Specifically, the high-throughput derivation of footprint-free hiPSCs and their expansion in systems that allow scaled production remains technically challenging. Here, we describe a platform for the rapid, parallel generation, selection, and expansion of hiPSCs using small molecule pathway inhibitors in stage-specific media compositions. The platform supported efficient and exped...

  8. Platform for induction and maintenance of transgene-free hiPSCs resembling ground state pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamehr, Bahram; Robinson, Megan; Abujarour, Ramzey; Rezner, Betsy; Vranceanu, Florin; Le, Thuy; Medcalf, Amanda; Lee, Tom Tong; Fitch, Michael; Robbins, David; Flynn, Peter

    2014-03-11

    Cell banking, disease modeling, and cell therapy applications have placed increasing demands on hiPSC technology. Specifically, the high-throughput derivation of footprint-free hiPSCs and their expansion in systems that allow scaled production remains technically challenging. Here, we describe a platform for the rapid, parallel generation, selection, and expansion of hiPSCs using small molecule pathway inhibitors in stage-specific media compositions. The platform supported efficient and expedited episomal reprogramming using just OCT4/SOX2/SV40LT combination (0.5%-4.0%, between days 12 and 16) in a completely feeder-free environment. The resulting hiPSCs are transgene-free, readily cultured, and expanded as single cells while maintaining a homogeneous and genomically stable pluripotent population. hiPSCs generated or maintained in the media compositions described exhibit properties associated with the ground state of pluripotency. The simplicity and robustness of the system allow for the high-throughput generation and rapid expansion of a uniform hiPSC product that is applicable to industrial and clinical-grade use. PMID:24672758

  9. Osteoprotegerin Reverses Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Endosteal Osteoclasts and Prevents Vascular Calcification by Blocking a Process Resembling Osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Hosung; Morony, Sean; Sarosi, Ildiko; Dunstan, Colin R; Capparelli, Casey; Scully, Sheila; Van, Gwyneth; Kaufman, Steve; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Lacey, David L.; Boyle, William J.; Simonet, W. Scott

    2000-01-01

    High systemic levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in OPG transgenic mice cause osteopetrosis with normal tooth eruption and bone elongation and inhibit the development and activity of endosteal, but not periosteal, osteoclasts. We demonstrate that both intravenous injection of recombinant OPG protein and transgenic overexpression of OPG in OPG?/2 mice effectively rescue the osteoporotic bone phenotype observed in OPG-deficient mice. However, intravenous injection of recombinant OPG over a 4-wk pe...

  10. Ancient sedimentary structures in the Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffke, Nora

    2015-02-01

    Sandstone beds of the Mars have been interpreted as evidence of an ancient playa lake environment. On Earth, such environments have been sites of colonization by microbial mats from the early Archean to the present time. Terrestrial microbial mats in playa lake environments form microbialites known as microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS). On Mars, three lithofacies of the Gillespie Lake Member sandstone display centimeter- to meter-scale structures similar in macroscopic morphology to terrestrial MISS that include "erosional remnants and pockets," "mat chips," "roll-ups," "desiccation cracks," and "gas domes." The microbially induced sedimentary-like structures identified in Curiosity rover mission images do not have a random distribution. Rather, they were found to be arranged in spatial associations and temporal successions that indicate they changed over time. On Earth, if such MISS occurred with this type of spatial association and temporal succession, they would be interpreted as having recorded the growth of a microbially dominated ecosystem that thrived in pools that later dried completely: erosional pockets, mat chips, and roll-ups resulted from water eroding an ancient microbial mat-covered sedimentary surface; during the course of subsequent water recess, channels would have cut deep into the microbial mats, leaving erosional remnants behind; desiccation cracks and gas domes would have occurred during a final period of subaerial exposure of the microbial mats. In this paper, the similarities of the macroscopic morphologies, spatial associations, and temporal succession of sedimentary structures on Mars to MISS preserved on Earth has led to the following hypothesis: The sedimentary structures in the Mars are ancient MISS produced by interactions between microbial mats and their environment. Proposed here is a strategy for detecting, identifying, confirming, and differentiating possible MISS during current and future Mars missions. PMID:25495393

  11. Histiocytic Sarcoma with Visceral Spread Resembling Metastasizing Poorly Differentiated Mast Cell Tumor in a 13 Year Old Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Curtseit1*, Leonardo Leonardi2, Luca Mechelli2, Elvira Condrut1 and Manuella Militaru1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS in a 13-year-old spayed female mixed breed Cocker. It started as a periocular multifocal nodular dermatopathy, without any other clinical and hematological abnormalities. In the process of clarifying the diagnosis, first test performed was cytologic examination of the fine needle aspirate, which was highly suggestive of a cutaneous poorly differentiated multifocal mast cell tumor (MCT. Deteriorating health status led to the decision for euthanasia, followed by necropsy. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemical stain, a final diagnosis of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma was made.

  12. Endometriosis extrapélvica semejando cáncer colorrectal estenosante: Reporte de dos casos / Colorectal cancer endometriosis resembling stenosing extrapelvic: Report of two cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josué, Gallardo Arteaga; Luis, Marin Calderón; Aurelio, Barboza Beraun; Luz, Rivas Wong; Oscar, Frisancho Velarde.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos a dos mujeres -de 40 y 42 años- con endometriosis colorrectal, ambas con antecedente de endometriosis pélvica y episodios de rectorragia simultáneos con la menstruación. En las evaluaciones endoscópicas detectamos una tumoración sigmoidea y una tumoración rectosigmoidea respectivamente, [...] que aparentaron corresponder a cáncer colorrectal estenosante de origen epitelial. Abstract in english We present two women of 40 and 42 years with colorectal endometriosis, both with a history of pelvic endometriosis and simultaneous episodes of rectal bleeding with menstruation. In endoscopic evaluations detected a sigmoid tumor and rectosigmoid tumor respectively, which apparently corresponds to s [...] tenosing colorectal cancer of epithelial origin.

  13. Chrysosporium speluncarum, a new species resembling Ajellomyces capsulatus, obtained from bat guano in caves of temperate Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Kola?ík, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 2 (2010), s. 253-260. ISSN 1617-416X Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GP206/08/P322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chrysosporium chiropterorum * Histoplasma capsulatum * tuberculate conidia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2010

  14. Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, A C; Haddock, R L; Nocon, F A; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Aleksi?, S; Bockemühl, J; Farmer, J J

    1991-07-01

    In 1985 the vernacular name Enteric Group 90 was coined for a small group of strains that had been referred to our laboratory as probable strains of Salmonella but did not agglutinate in Salmonella typing antisera. By DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method, 32P), seven strains of Enteric Group 90 were found to be closely related (98 to 100% at 60 degrees C and 94 to 100% at 75 degrees C) to the first strain received (0370-85). The relatedness of Enteric Group 90 to 62 strains of other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae was only 6 to 41%, with the highest values obtained with strains of Salmonella, Kluyvera, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter. We propose a new genus, Trabulsiella, with a single new species, Trabulsiella guamensis, for the highly related group of eight strains formerly known as Enteric Group 90. The type strain is designated ATCC 49490 (CDC 0370-85). T. guamensis strains grew well at 36 degrees C and had positive reactions in the following tests: methyl red, citrate utilization (Simmons) (38% positive at day 1, 88% positive at 2 days), H2S production, lysine decarboxylase, arginine dihydrolase (50% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), ornithine decarboxylase, motility, growth in KCN medium, mucate fermentation, acetate utilization, nitrate reduction to nitrite, weak tyrosine hydrolysis (88% positive at 2 days, 100% positive at 7 days), and ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside) test. The strains fermented D-glucose with gas production and fermented L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-galactose, D-galacturonate, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, D-sorbitol, trehalose, and D-xylose. T. guamensis strains had negative reactions in the following tests: indole production (13% positive), Voges-Proskauer, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, malonate utilization, lipase (corn oil), DNase, oxidase, pigment production, and acid production from adonitol, D-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, myo-inositol, melibiose, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, raffinose, and sucrose. There were delayed positive reactions for gelatin liquefaction (22 degrees C), which was positive at 12 to 23 days, esculin hydrolysis (13% positive at day 1, 50% positive at 7 days), lactose fermentation (13% positive at 3 to 7 days, 100% positive at 8 to 10 days), glycerol fermentation (88% positive at 7 days), and salicin fermentation (13% positive at day 1, 88% positive at 7 days). All strains were susceptible by the disk diffusion method to colistin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and most strains were susceptible to sulfadiazine (75% susceptible), tetracycline (88%), and carbenicillin (75%). The strains were resistant to penicillin, cephalothin, and ampicillin. The strains were isolated from vacuum cleaner dust (five strains), soil (one strain), and human feces (two strains). Although T. guamensis can occur in human diarrheal stools, there is no evidence that it actually causes diarrhea. Its main interest to clinical microbiologists may be its possible misidentification as a strain Salmonella. PMID:1885744

  15. FNAB cytology of extra-cranial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme may resemble a lung primary: A diagnostic pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincer HE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As extra-cranial metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is rare, it may create a diagnostic dilemma especially during interpretation of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB cytology. Case presentation We present transbronchial FNAB findings in a 62-year-old smoker with lung mass clinically suspicious for a lung primary. The smears of transbronchial FNAB showed groups of cells with ill-defined cell margins and cytological features overlapping with poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma. The tumor cells demonstrated lack of immunoreactivity for cytokeratin, thyroid transcription factor-1, and usual neuroendocrine markers, synaptophysin and chromogranin in formalin-fixed cellblock sections. However, they were immunoreactive for the other neuroendocrine immunomarker, CD56, suggesting neural nature of the cells. Further scrutiny of clinical details revealed a history of GBM, 13 months status-post surgical excision with radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy. The tumor recurred 7 months earlier and was debulked surgically and with intra-cranial chemotherapy. Additional evaluation of tumor cells for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunoreactivity with clinical details resulted in final interpretation of metastatic GBM. Conclusion Lack of clinical history and immunophenotyping may lead to a diagnostic pitfall with possible misinterpretation of metastatic GBM as poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma of lung in a smoker.

  16. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between kEpsilon and kOmegaSST, for the results just after the abrupt expansion.

  17. High-temperature, acid-hydrolyzed remains of Polytrichum (Musci, Polytrichaceae) resemble enigmatic Silurian-Devonian tubular microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodner, R B; Graham, L E

    2001-03-01

    Gametophytes and sporophyte components of two species of the evolutionarily early-divergent moss Polytrichum were separately subjected to high-temperature acid hydrolysis, and remains were examined by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Remains included fragments of capsule, seta, leaves, stems, and calyptra. Cell walls of all remains were autofluorescent in violet and UV excitation, suggesting occurrence of resistant polyphenolic compounds. Calyptras of both species dissociated into smooth- walled, acutely branched filamentous associations of tubular cells with distinctively thickened cell junctions. In these aspects and measurements of wall dimensions made from SEMs, the hydrolysis-resistant Polytrichum calyptra remains were similar to several tubular microfossils described from Silurian and Lower Devonian deposits, whose provenance is unknown or ascribed to fungi. Our data suggest the possibility that at least some ancient tubular microfossils might have originated from Polytrichum-like early mosses. They add to increasing evidence that bryophytes left microfossil evidence for their presence millions of years earlier than is indicated by their macrofossil record. PMID:11250824

  18. Quantifying the intersexual and interspecific morphometric variation in two resembling sympatric lacertids: Iberolacerta horvathi and Podarcis muralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Carretero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Podarcis muralis and Iberolacerta horvathi are sympatric, frequently syntopic, lacertids through the entire range of I. horvathi and very similar in their general body size and shape, as well as in most ecological traits. We morphologically compared adults from the area of sympatry using biometric measurements and performed analyses to investigate their sexual size and shape dimorphism. A total of 34 males and 24 females of I. horvathi, and 25 males and 23 females of P. muralis, all adult individuals, were measured. Both species showed sexual size dimorphism with females being longer (snout-vent length, SVL than males. After SVL correction (ANCOVA, head width, length and height and mass showed to be sexually dimorphic in both species. Males carry relatively wider, longer and higher heads and were heavier than conspecific females. I. horvathi heads were more flattened than those of P. muralis and P. muralis were heavier than I. horvathi. Both species displayed the same pattern of sexual dimorphism regarding body size, head size and shape not only in direction but also in magnitude. All results confirm that both species are very similar in studied biometric characters and, together with their ecological similarities, these suggest in absence of other factors they are likely to interact when living together.

  19. Isolation of an organism resembling Clostridium barati which produces type F botulinal toxin from an infant with botulism.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J D; McCroskey, L M; Pincomb, B J; Hatheway, C L

    1985-01-01

    All reported cases of infant botulism except one have been caused by proteolytic strains (group I) of Clostridium botulinum, toxin types A or B. We describe the cultural and biochemical characteristics of the causative organism of this singular case of infant botulism, caused by type F botulinal toxin. Although this organism produces type F botulinal toxin, it is quite different from proteolytic (group I) C. botulinum, being more closely related to Clostridium barati.

  20. Food webs patterns in species-poor insular lakes resemble climate-related patterns in continental lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Nicolas; Amsinck, Susanne Lildal

    2015-01-01

    Space-for-time substitution studies (SFTS, e.g. latitudinal gradient analyses) are often used to unravel climate effects on lake biota, and have shown a reduction in size, changes in diet and more frequent reproduction of fish in warmer climates, with cascading effects such as lower zooplankton and higher phytoplankton biomasses. SFTS results from continental lakes are, however, potentially confounded by biogeographical and evolutionary differences leading to often higher species richness in warm lakes. To somehow reduce these confounding effects, we studied species-poor lakes located in two remote island groups with contrasting climates but similar seasonality: The Faroe Islands (cold; 6.5±2.8°C) and the Azores (warm; 17.3±2.9°C). We analysed community and food web structure using a stable isotopes approach investigating fish, macro-invertebrates, and zooplankton in 20 lakes. We found a smaller mean body size of fish in the Azorean lakes even if standardised by maximum length of the fish species present, suggesting a higher predation pressure on zooplankton and consequently higher phytoplankton abundance at the same nutrient levels. A triangular shape of the food web, with wider carbon range for basal organisms and for the whole food web appeared in the colder lakes. In contrast to previous works, though, Layman metrics of the fish food web were similar between the two climatic regions despite differences in basal organisms. Our results from insular systems showed a reduced fish body size structure in the warmer region and suggest that temperature differences may drive the changes in fish size structure.

  1. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a ‘theory of mind’

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Derek C; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    After decades of effort by some of our brightest human and non-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand the concept of a ‘mental state’. In the present paper, we confront four related and contentious questions head-on: (i) What exactly would it mean for a non-verbal organism to have an ‘understanding’ or a ‘represent...

  2. A deletion in the VLDLR gene in Eurasier dogs with cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Martina; Fischer, Andrea; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Michaela; Drögemüller, Cord; Schmidt, Martin J; Bernardino, Filipa; Manz, Eberhard; Matiasek, Kaspar; Rentmeister, Kai; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM) is the result of aberrant brain development and mainly characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia. DWLM affected dogs display a non-progressive cerebellar ataxia. Several DWLM cases were recently observed in the Eurasier dog breed, which strongly suggested a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in this breed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 9 cases and 11 controls and found the best association of DWLM with markers on chromosome 1. Subsequent homozygosity mapping confirmed that all 9 cases were homozygous for a shared haplotype in this region, which delineated a critical interval of 3.35 Mb. We sequenced the genome of an affected Eurasier and compared it with the Boxer reference genome and 47 control genomes of dogs from other breeds. This analysis revealed 4 private non-synonymous variants in the critical interval of the affected Eurasier. We genotyped these variants in additional dogs and found perfect association for only one of these variants, a single base deletion in the VLDLR gene encoding the very low density lipoprotein receptor. This variant, VLDLR:c.1713delC is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon (p.W572Gfs*10). Variants in the VLDLR gene have been shown to cause congenital cerebellar ataxia and mental retardation in human patients and Vldlr knockout mice also display an ataxia phenotype. Our combined genetic data together with the functional knowledge on the VLDLR gene from other species thus strongly suggest that VLDLR:c.1713delC is indeed causing DWLM in Eurasier dogs. PMID:25668033

  3. A Deletion in the VLDLR Gene in Eurasier Dogs with Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation (DWLM)

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Martina; Fischer, Andrea; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Michaela; Drögemüller, Cord; Schmidt, Martin J; Bernardino, Filipa; Manz, Eberhard; Matiasek, Kaspar; Rentmeister, Kai; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    Dandy-Walker-like malformation (DWLM) is the result of aberrant brain development and mainly characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia. DWLM affected dogs display a non-progressive cerebellar ataxia. Several DWLM cases were recently observed in the Eurasier dog breed, which strongly suggested a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in this breed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 9 cases and 11 controls and found the best association of DWLM with markers on chromosome ...

  4. Images and Meaning-Making in a World of Resemblance: The Bavarian-Saxon Kidney Stone Affair of 1580

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article de-constructs and re-constructs the dynamic of a sixteenth-century political dispute between the Catholic Bavarian Duke Wilhelm V and the Protestant Saxon Elector August I. By focusing on the visual imagery which ignited the dispute, the paper explores sixteenth-century ‘ways of seeing’ and the epistemic role realistic images played in the production of knowledge about the natural world. While the peculiar dynamic of the affair is based on a specific understanding of the evidential role of images, the paper also argues that the wider socio-cultural context, in particular certain strategies of truth-telling, provide further clues as to the dynamic and closure of the affair. PMID:26290618

  5. Platform for Induction and Maintenance of Transgene-free hiPSCs Resembling Ground State Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Valamehr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell banking, disease modeling, and cell therapy applications have placed increasing demands on hiPSC technology. Specifically, the high-throughput derivation of footprint-free hiPSCs and their expansion in systems that allow scaled production remains technically challenging. Here, we describe a platform for the rapid, parallel generation, selection, and expansion of hiPSCs using small molecule pathway inhibitors in stage-specific media compositions. The platform supported efficient and expedited episomal reprogramming using just OCT4/SOX2/SV40LT combination (0.5%–4.0%, between days 12 and 16 in a completely feeder-free environment. The resulting hiPSCs are transgene-free, readily cultured, and expanded as single cells while maintaining a homogeneous and genomically stable pluripotent population. hiPSCs generated or maintained in the media compositions described exhibit properties associated with the ground state of pluripotency. The simplicity and robustness of the system allow for the high-throughput generation and rapid expansion of a uniform hiPSC product that is applicable to industrial and clinical-grade use.

  6. Fatal tiger attack: a case report with emphasis on typical tiger injuries characterized by partially resembling stab-like wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Borkar, Jaydeo; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2013-10-10

    Fatalities due to attacks by tigers on humans are uncommon and are rarely described in the medico-legal literature. We herein present a forensic investigation in a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild on a 35 year old female in India by an Indian Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). The attack resulted in two pairs of puncture wounds over the nape area with occult cervical spine injuries resulting from transfixing of spine due to the tiger canines; multiple puncture wounds, numerous scratches and abrasions consistent with the tiger claw injuries and injury to the right jugulocarotid vessels. This case outlines the characteristic injury pattern from such an attack along with the multiple sources of the tiger injuries. The analysis of these injuries might reveal the motivation behind the attack and the big cat species involved in the attack. A tiger injury is sometimes compared with a stab injury, as the patterned injuries due to a tiger bite are characterized by multiple penetrating, stab-like wounds. So, a special attention is paid toward establishment of the cause of death from bites by the animal teeth under unknown circumstances of trauma and to exclude the possibility of a homicide beyond reasonable doubt in such cases. PMID:23993646

  7. Primary Follicular Dystrophy with Scarring Dermatitis in C57BL/6 Mouse Substrains Resembles Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Sundberg; Taylor, Douglas; Lorch, Gwendolen; Miller, Jim; Silva, Kathleen A.; Sundberg, Beth A; Roopenian, Derry; Sperling, Leonard; Ong, David; King, Lloyd E; Everts, Helen

    2010-01-01

    A number of C57BL/6 (B6) substrains are commonly used by scientists for basic biomedical research. One of several B6 strain specific background diseases is focal alopecia that may resolve or progress to severe, ulcerative dermatitis. Clinical and progressive histologic changes of skin disease commonly observed in C57BL/6J and preliminary studies in other closely related substrains are presented. Lesions develop due to a primary follicular dystrophy with rupture of severely affected follicles ...

  8. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Alexandra K.; Daum, Bertram; Ziegler, Christine; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wanner, Gerhard; Klingl, Andreas; Leitinger, Gerd; Kolb-Lenz, Dagmar; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Auerbach, Anna; Mora, Maximilian; Probst, Alexander J.; Bellack, Annett; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The uncultivated “Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum” (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon) carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks (“hami”) on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal domain at their N-terminal region (44–47% identity). Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins. PMID:26106369

  9. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS. PMID:25375940

  10. Virus-resembling nano-structures for near infrared fluorescence imaging of ovarian cancer HER2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Yadir A; Bahmani, Baharak; Singh, Sheela P; Vullev, Valentine I; Kundra, Vikas; Anvari, Bahman

    2015-10-30

    Ovarian cancer remains the dominant cause of death due to malignancies of the female reproductive system. The capability to identify and remove all tumors during intraoperative procedures may ultimately reduce cancer recurrence, and lead to increased patient survival. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an optical nano-structured system for targeted near infrared (NIR) imaging of ovarian cancer cells that over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), an important biomarker associated with ovarian cancer. The nano-structured system is comprised of genome-depleted plant-infecting brome mosaic virus doped with NIR chromophore, indocyanine green, and functionalized at the surface by covalent attachment of monoclonal antibodies against the HER2 receptor. We use absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the physical properties of the constructs. Using fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry, we demonstrate the effectiveness of these nano-structures for targeted NIR imaging of HER2 receptors in vitro. These functionalized nano-materials may provide a platform for NIR imaging of ovarian cancer. PMID:26443474

  11. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    OpenAIRE

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J.A.; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer ...

  12. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMBIDIS, ELIAS T.; Peault, Bruno; Park, Tea Soon; Bunz, Fred; Civin, Curt I.

    2005-01-01

    We elucidate the cellular and molecular kinetics of the stepwise differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to primitive and definitive erythromyelopoiesis from human embryoid bodies (hEBs) in serum-free clonogenic assays. Hematopoiesis initiates from CD45 hEB cells with emergence of semiadherent mesodermal-hematoendothelial (MHE) colonies that can generate endothelium and form organized, yolk sac–like structures that secondarily generate multipotent primitive hematopoietic stem pr...

  13. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  14. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Rodríguez Boto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detectó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad.Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial plexus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve function. Histological findings indicated a schwannoma thus ruling out the presence of metastasis. The postoperative development was uneventful and six years after surgery, the patient is to date tumour-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a brachial plexus schwannoma arising from the ulnar branch. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is essential for a good surgical outcome.

  15. Neurinoma del plexo braquial simulando metastasis de adenocarcinoma de mama / Schwannoma of the brachial plexus resembling a breast adenocarcinoma metastasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gregorio, Rodríguez Boto; Angela, Moreno-Gutiérrez; Raquel, Gutiérrez-González; Ángel, Villar-Martín; Luis A., Arraez-Aybar; Javier, Serrano Hernando.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Los neurinomas del plexo braquial son tumores infrecuentes que pueden confundirse con otras lesiones de índole tumoral. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años, tratada previamente de un adenocarcinoma de mama derecha en el pasado, que en el estudio de extensión realizado 5 años después se detec [...] tó una lesión localizada en el plexo braquial derecho. La paciente se encontraba asintomática. El diagnóstico radiológico de presunción fue metástasis de adenocarcinoma mamario. Se realizó un abordaje axilar derecho descubriendo una lesión bien delimitada en el plexo braquial. Con ayuda de la monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria, se observó que la lesión dependía de la rama cubital y se pudo realizar una resección completa preservando la función de dicho nervio. El estudio anatomopatológico confirmó que se trataba de un neurinoma, descartando así la existencia de metástasis. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. Seis años después de la intervención no existe recidiva tumoral. En nuestro conocimiento este es el primer caso publicado en la literatura de un neurinoma del plexo braquial dependiente de la rama cubital. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria resulta fundamental para abordar este tipo de lesiones con baja morbilidad. Abstract in english Schwa nomas originating from the brachial plexus, although rare, may be mistaken for another type of tumour. A 40 year-old woman, who had been treated years earlier for a breast adenocarcinoma, showed in the 5-year follow-up magnetic resonance examination a localized lesion in the right brachial ple [...] xus. The presumptive radiological diagnosis was a metastasis from the primary adenocarcinoma. Following surgical access via the right axilla, a well-circumscribed mass in the brachial plexus was detected. Under intraoperative electrophysiological guidance, the lesion was observed to depend on the ulnar nerve and its complete resection was possible without compromising nerve function. Histological findings indicated a schwannoma thus ruling out the presence of metastasis. The postoperative development was uneventful and six years after surgery, the patient is to date tumour-free. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a brachial plexus schwannoma arising from the ulnar branch. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring is essential for a good surgical outcome.

  16. Histiocytic Sarcoma with Visceral Spread Resembling Metastasizing Poorly Differentiated Mast Cell Tumor in a 13 Year Old Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Curtseit1*, Leonardo Leonardi2, Luca Mechelli2, Elvira Condrut1 and Manuella Militaru1

    2013-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of disseminated histiocytic sarcoma (DHS) in a 13-year-old spayed female mixed breed Cocker. It started as a periocular multifocal nodular dermatopathy, without any other clinical and hematological abnormalities. In the process of clarifying the diagnosis, first test performed was cytologic examination of the fine needle aspirate, which was highly suggestive of a cutaneous poorly differentiated multifocal mast cell tumor (MCT). Deteriorating health status led to th...

  17. No signature of Y chromosomal resemblance between possible descendants of the Cimbri in Denmark and Northern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Vernesi, Cristiano; Jensen, Peter K A; Madsen, Bo; Haagerup, Annette; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Two European populations are believed to be related to the ancient Germanic tribe Cimbri: one living in Northern Italy, the other living in Jutland, Denmark. The people called Cimbri are documented in the ancient Roman historical record. Arriving from the far north their movements can be tracked from successive battles with the Romans. The Cimbri finally entered Italy from the northeast and were defeated at Vercellae (present day Vercelli) in 101 BC by Gaius Marius and his professional legions. ...

  18. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of {sup 3}H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs.

  19. Virus-resembling nano-structures for near infrared fluorescence imaging of ovarian cancer HER2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Yadir A.; Bahmani, Baharak; Singh, Sheela P.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Kundra, Vikas; Anvari, Bahman

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the dominant cause of death due to malignancies of the female reproductive system. The capability to identify and remove all tumors during intraoperative procedures may ultimately reduce cancer recurrence, and lead to increased patient survival. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an optical nano-structured system for targeted near infrared (NIR) imaging of ovarian cancer cells that over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), an important biomarker associated with ovarian cancer. The nano-structured system is comprised of genome-depleted plant-infecting brome mosaic virus doped with NIR chromophore, indocyanine green, and functionalized at the surface by covalent attachment of monoclonal antibodies against the HER2 receptor. We use absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the physical properties of the constructs. Using fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry, we demonstrate the effectiveness of these nano-structures for targeted NIR imaging of HER2 receptors in vitro. These functionalized nano-materials may provide a platform for NIR imaging of ovarian cancer.

  20. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of 3H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs